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   Chapter 10 THE END.

Raleigh By Edmund Gosse Characters: 96297

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:03


Gondomar had not been idle during Raleigh's absence, but so long as Winwood was alive he had not been able to attack the absent Admiral with much success. As soon as Bailey brought him the news of the supposed attack on Lanzarote, he communicated with his Government, and urged that an embargo should be laid on the goods of the English merchant colony at Seville. This angry despatch, the result of a vain attempt to reach James, is dated October 22; and on October 27 the sudden death of Winwood removed Gondomar's principal obstacle to the ruin of Raleigh. At first, however, Bailey's story received no credence, and if, as Howel somewhat apocryphally relates, Gondomar had been forbidden to say two words about Raleigh in the King's presence, and therefore entered with uplifted hands shouting 'Pirates!' till James was weary, he did not seem to gain much ground. Moreover, while Bailey's story was being discussed, the little English merchant vessel which had been lying in Lanzarote during Raleigh's visit returned to London, and gave evidence which brought Bailey to gaol in the Gate House.

On January 11, 1618, before any news had been received from Guiana, a large gathering was held in the Council Chamber at Westminster, to try Bailey for false accusation. The Council contained many men favourable to Raleigh, but the Spanish ambassador brought influence to bear on the King; and late in February, Bailey was released with a reprimand, although he had accused Raleigh not of piracy only, but of high treason. The news of the ill-starred attack on San Thomé reached Madrid on May 3, and London on the 8th. This must have given exquisite pleasure to the baffled Gondomar, and he lost no time in pressing James for revenge. He gave the King the alternative of punishing Raleigh in England or sending him as a prisoner to Spain. The King wavered for a month. Meanwhile vessel after vessel brought more conclusive news of the piratical expedition in which Keymis had failed, and Gondomar became daily more importunate. It began to be thought that Raleigh had taken flight for Paris.

At, last, on June 11, James I. issued a proclamation inviting all who had a claim against Raleigh to present it to the Council. Lord Nottingham at the same time outlawed the 'Destiny' in whatever English port she might appear. It does not seem that the King was unduly hasty in condemning Raleigh. He had given Spain every solemn pledge that Raleigh should not injure Spain, and yet the Admiral's only act had been to fall on an unsuspecting Spanish settlement; notwithstanding this, James argued as long as he could that San Thomé lay outside the agreement. The arrival of the 'Destiny,' however, seems to have clinched Gondomar's arguments. Three days after Raleigh arrived in Plymouth, the King assured Spain that 'not all those who have given security for Raleigh can save him from the gallows.' For the particulars of the curious intrigues of these summer months the reader must be referred, once more, to Mr. Gardiner's dispassionate pages.

On June 21, Raleigh moored the 'Destiny' in Plymouth harbour, and sent her sails ashore. Lady Raleigh hastened down to meet him, and they stayed in Plymouth a fortnight. His wife and he, with Samuel King, one of his captains, then set out for London, but were met just outside Ashburton by Sir Lewis Stukely, a cousin of Raleigh's, now Vice-Admiral of Devonshire. This man announced that he had the King's orders to arrest Sir Walter Raleigh; but these were only verbal orders, and he took his prisoner back to Plymouth to await the Council warrant. Raleigh was lodged for nine or ten days in the house of Sir Christopher Harris, Stukely being mainly occupied in securing the 'Destiny' and her contents. Raleigh pretended to be ill, or was really indisposed with anxiety and weariness. While Stukely was thinking of other things, Raleigh commissioned Captain King to hire a barque to slip over to La Rochelle, and one night Raleigh and King made their escape towards this vessel in a little boat. But Raleigh probably reflected that without money or influence he would be no safer in France than in England, and before the boat reached the vessel, he turned back and went home. He ordered the barque to be in readiness the next night, but although no one watched him, he made no second effort to escape.

On July 23 the Privy Council ordered Stukely, 'all delays set apart,' to bring the body of Sir Walter Raleigh speedily to London. Two days later, Stukely and his prisoner started from Plymouth. A French quack, called Mannourie, in whose chemical pretensions Raleigh had shown some interest, was encouraged by Stukely to attend him, and to worm himself into his confidence. As Walter and Elizabeth Raleigh passed the beautiful Sherborne which had once been theirs, the former could not refrain from saying, 'All this was mine, and it was taken from me unjustly.' They travelled quickly, sleeping at Sherborne on the 26th, and next night at Salisbury. Raleigh lost all confidence as he found himself so hastily being taken up to London. As they went from Wilton into Salisbury, Raleigh asked Mannourie to give him a vomit; 'by its means I shall gain time to work my friends, and order my affairs; perhaps even to pacify his Majesty. Otherwise, as soon as ever I come to London, they will have me to the Tower, and cut off my head.'

That same evening, while being conducted to his rooms, Raleigh struck his head against a post. It was supposed to show that he was dizzy; and next morning he sent Lady Raleigh and her retinue on to London, saying that he himself was not well enough to move. At the same time, King went on to prepare a ship to be ready in the Thames in case of another emergency. When they had started, Raleigh was discovered in his bedroom, on all fours, in his shirt, gnawing the rushes on the floor. Stukely was completely taken in; the French quack had given Raleigh, not an emetic only, but some ointment which caused his skin to break out in dark purple pustules. Stukely rushed off to the Bishop of Ely, who happened to be in Salisbury, and acted on his advice to wait for Raleigh's recovery. Unless Stukely also was mountebanking, the spy Mannourie for the present kept Raleigh's counsel. Raleigh was treated as an invalid, and during the four days' retirement contrived to write his Apology for the Voyage to Guiana. On August 1, James I. and all his Court entered Salisbury, and on the morning of the same day Stukely hurried his prisoner away lest he should meet the King. Some pity, however, was shown to Raleigh's supposed dying state, and permission was granted him to go straight to his own London house. His hopes revived, and he very rashly bribed both Mannourie and Stukely to let him escape. So confident was he, that he refused the offers of a French envoy, who met him at Brentford with proposals of a secret passage over to France, and a welcome in Paris. He was broken altogether; he had no dignity, no judgment left.

Raleigh arrived at his house in Broad Street on August 7. On the 9th the French repeated their invitation. Again it was refused, for King had seen Raleigh and had told him that a vessel was lying at Tilbury ready to carry him over to France. Her captain, Hart, was an old boatswain of King's; before Raleigh received the information, this man had already reported the whole scheme to the Government. The poor adventurer was surrounded by spies, from Stukely downwards, and the toils were gathering round him on every side. On the evening of the same August 9, Raleigh, accompanied by Captain King, Stukely, Hart, and a page, embarked from the river-side in two wherries, and was rowed down towards Tilbury. Raleigh presently noticed that a larger boat was following them; at Greenwich, Stukely threw off the mask of friendship and arrested King, who was thrown then and there into the Tower. What became of Raleigh that night does not appear; he was put into the Tower next day. When he was arrested his pockets were found full of jewels and golden ornaments, the diamond ring Queen Elizabeth had given him, a loadstone in a scarlet purse, an ounce of ambergriece, and fifty pounds in gold; these fell into the hands of the traitor 'Sir Judas' Stukely.

Outside the Tower the process of Raleigh's legal condemnation now pursued its course. A commission was appointed to consider the charges brought against the prisoner, and evidence was collected on all sides. Raleigh was obliged to sit with folded hands. He could only hope that the eloquence and patriotism of his Apology might possibly appeal to the sympathy of James. As so often before, he merely showed that he was ignorant of the King's character, for James read the Apology without any other feeling than one of triumph that it amounted to a confession of guilt. The only friend that Raleigh could now appeal to was Anne of Denmark, and to her he forwarded, about August 15, a long petition in verse:

Cold walls, to you I speak, but you are senseless!

Celestial Powers, you hear, but have determined,

And shall determine, to my greatest happiness.

Then unto whom shall I unfold my wrong,

Cast down my tears, or hold up folded hands?-

To Her to whom remorse doth most belong;

To Her, who is the first, and may alone

Be justly called, the Empress of the Britons.

Who should have mercy if a Queen have none?

Queen Anne responded as she had always done to Raleigh's appeals. If his life had lain in her hands, it would have been a long and a happy one. She immediately wrote to Buckingham, knowing that his influence was far greater than her own with the King, and her letter exists for the wonder of posterity. She writes to her husband's favourite: 'My kind Dog,' for so the poor lady stoops to address him, 'if I have any power or credit with you, I pray you let me have a trial of it, at this time, in dealing sincerely and earnestly with the King that Sir Walter Raleigh's life may not be called in question.' Buckingham, however, was already pledged to aid the Spanish alliance, and the Queen's letter was unavailing.

On August 17 and on two subsequent occasions Raleigh was examined before the Commissioners, the charge being formally drawn up by Yelverton, the Attorney-General. He was accused of having abused the King's confidence by setting out to find gold in a mine which never existed, with instituting a piratical attack on a peaceful Spanish settlement, with attempting to capture the Mexican plate fleet, although he had been specially warned that he would take his life in his hands if he committed any one of these three faults. It is hard to understand how Mr. Edwards persuaded himself to brand each of these charges as 'a distinct falsehood.' The sympathy we must feel for Raleigh's misfortunes, and the enthusiasm with which we read the Apology, should not, surely, blind us to the fact that in neither of these three matters was his action true or honest. We have no particular account of his examinations, but it is almost certain that they wrung from him admissions of a most damaging character. He had tried to make James a catspaw in revenging himself on Spain, and he had to take the consequences.

It was of great importance to the Government to understand why France had meddled in the matter. The Council, therefore, summoned La Chesnée, the envoy who had made propositions to Raleigh at Brentford and at Broad Street; but he denied the whole story, and said he never suggested flight to Raleigh. So little information had been gained by the middle of September, that it was determined to employ a professional spy. The person selected for this engaging office was Sir Thomas Wilson, one of the band of English pensioners in the pay of Spain. The most favourable thing that has ever been said of Stukely is that he was not quite such a scoundrel as Wilson. On September 9 this person, who had known Raleigh from Elizabeth's days, and was now Keeper of the State Papers, was supplied with 'convenient lodging within or near unto the chambers of Sir Walter Raleigh.' At the same time Sir Allen Apsley, the Lieutenant, who had guarded the prisoner hitherto, was relieved.

Wilson's first act was not one of conciliation. He demanded that Raleigh should be turned out of his comfortable quarters in the Wardrobe Tower to make room for Wilson, who desired that the prisoner should have the smaller rooms above. To this, and other demands, Apsley would not accede. Wilson then began to do his best to insinuate himself into Raleigh's confidence, and after about a fortnight seems to have succeeded. We have a very full report of his conversations with Raleigh, but they add little to our knowledge, even if Wilson's evidence could be taken as gospel. Raleigh admitted La Chesnée's offer of a French passage, and his own proposal to seize the Mexican fleet; but both these points were already known to the Council.

Towards the end of September two events occurred which brought matters more to a crisis. On the 24th Raleigh wrote a confession to the King, in which he said that the French Government had given him a commission, that La Chesnée had three times offered him escape, and that he himself was in possession of important State secrets, of which he would make a clean breast if the King would pardon him. This important document was found at Simancas, and first published in 1868 by Mr. St. John. On the same day Philip III. sent a despatch to James I. desiring him in peremptory terms to save him the trouble of hanging Raleigh at Madrid by executing him promptly in London. As soon as this ultimatum arrived, James applied to the Commissioners to know how it would be best to deal with the prisoner judicially. Several lawyers assured him that Raleigh was under sentence of death, and that therefore no trial was necessary; but James shrank from the scandal of apparent murder. The Commissioners were so fully satisfied of Raleigh's guilt that they advised the King to give him a public trial, under somewhat unusual forms. He was to be tried before the Council and the judges, a few persons of rank being admitted as spectators; the conduct of the trial to be the same as though it were proceeding in Westminster Hall. On receipt of the despatch from Madrid, that is to say on October 3, Lady Raleigh, whose presence was no longer required, was released from the Tower.

The trial before the Commissioners began on October 22. Mr. Gardiner has printed in the Camden Miscellany such notes of cross-examination as were preserved by Sir Julius C?sar, but they are very slight. Raleigh seems to have denied any intention to stir up war between England and Spain, and declared that he had confidently believed in the existence of the mine. But he made no attempt to deny that in case the mine failed he had proposed the taking of the Mexican fleet. At the close of the examination, Bacon,[13] in the name of the Commissioners, told Raleigh that he was guilty of abusing the confidence of King James and of injuring the subjects of Spain, and that he must prepare to die, being 'already civilly dead.' Raleigh was then taken back to the Tower, where he was left in suspense for ten days. Meanwhile the Justices of the King's Bench were desired to award execution upon the old Winchester sentence of 1603. It is thought that James hoped to keep Raleigh from appearing again in public, but the judges said that he must be brought face to face with them. On October 28, therefore, Raleigh was roused from his bed, where he was suffering from a severe attack of the ague, and was brought out of the Tower, which he never entered again. He was taken so hastily that he had no time for his toilet, and his barber called out that his master had not combed his head. 'Let them kem that are to have it,' was Raleigh's answer; and he continued, 'Dost thou know, Peter, any plaister that will set a man's head on again, when it is off?'

When he came before Yelverton, he attempted to argue that the Guiana commission had wiped out all the past, including the sentence of 1603. He began to discuss anew his late voyage; but the Chief Justice, interrupting him, told him that he was to be executed for the old treason, not for this new one. Raleigh then threw himself on the King's mercy, being every way trapped and fettered; without referring to this appeal, the Chief Justice proceeded to award execution. Raleigh was to be beheaded early next morning in Old Palace Yard. He entreated for a few days' respite, that he might finish some writings, but the King had purposely left town that no petitions for delay might reach him. Bacon produced the warrant, which he had drawn up, and which bore the King's signature and the Great Seal.

Raleigh was taken from Westminster Hall to the Gate House. He was in high spirits, and meeting his old friend Sir Hugh Beeston, he urged him to secure a good place at the show next morning. He himself, he said, was sure of one. He was so gay and chatty, that his cousin Francis Thynne begged him to be more grave lest his enemies should report his levity. Raleigh answered, 'It is my last mirth in this world; do not grudge it to me.' Dr. Tounson, Dean of Westminster, to whom Raleigh was a stranger, then attended him; and was somewhat scandalised at this flow of mercurial spirits. 'When I began,' says the Dean, 'to encourage him against the fear of death, he seemed to make so light of it that I wondered at him. When I told him that the dear servants of God, in better causes than his, had shrunk back and trembled a little, he denied it not. But yet he gave God thanks that he had never feared death.' The good Dean was puzzled; but his final reflection was all to Raleigh's honour. After the execution he reported that 'he was the most fearless of death that ever was known, and the most resolute and confident; yet with reverence and conscience.'

It was late on Thursday evening, the 28th, that Lady Raleigh learned the position of affairs. She had not dreamed that the case was so hopeless. She hastened to the Gate House, and until midnight husband and wife were closeted together in conversation, she being consoled and strengthened by his calm. Her last word was that she had obtained permission to dispose of his body. 'It is well, Bess,' he said, 'that thou mayst dispose of that dead, which thou hadst not always the disposing of when alive.' And so, with a smile, they parted. When his wife had left him, Raleigh sat down to write his last verses:

Even such is time, that takes in trust

Our youth, our joys, our all we have,

And pays us but with earth and dust;

Who in the dark and silent grave,

When we have wandered all our ways,

Shuts up the story of our days;

But from this earth, this grave, this dust,

My God shall raise me up, I trust.

At the same hour Lady Raleigh was preparing for the horrors of the morrow. She sent off this note to her brother, Sir Nicholas Carew:

I desire, good brother, that you will be pleased to let me bury the worthy body of my noble husband, Sir Walter Raleigh, in your church at Beddington, where I desire to be buried. The Lords have given me his dead body, though they denied me his life. This night he shall be brought you with two or three of my men. Let me hear presently. God hold me in my wits.

There was probably some difficulty in the way, for Raleigh's body was not brought that night to Beddington.

In the morning the Dean of Westminster entered the Gate House again. Raleigh, who had perhaps not gone to bed all night, had just finished a testamentary paper of defence. Dr. Tounson found him still very cheerful and merry, and administered the Communion to him. After the Eucharist, Raleigh talked very freely to the Dean, defending himself, and going back in his reminiscences to the reign of Elizabeth. He declared that the world would yet be persuaded of his innocence, and he once more scandalised the Dean by his truculent cheerfulness. He ate a hearty breakfast, and smoked a pipe of tobacco. It was now time to leave the Gate House; but before he did so, a cup of sack was brought to him. The servant asked if the wine was to his liking, and Raleigh replied, 'I will answer you as did the fellow who drank of St. Giles' bowl as he went to Tyburn, "It is good drink, if a man might stay by it."'

This excitement lasted without reaction until he reached the scaffold, whither he was led by the sheriffs, still attended by Dr. Tounson. As they passed through the vast throng of persons who had come to see the spectacle, Raleigh observed a very old man bareheaded in the crowd, and snatching off the rich night-cap of cut lace which he himself was wearing, he threw it to him, saying, 'Friend, you need this more than I do.' Raleigh was dressed in a black embroidered velvet night-gown over a hare-coloured satin doublet and a black embroidered waistcoat. He wore a ruff-band, a pair of black cut taffetas breeches, and ash-coloured silk stockings, thus combining his taste for magnificence with a decent regard for the occasion. The multitude so pressed upon him, and he had walked with such an animated step, that when he ascended the scaffold, erect and smiling, he was observed to be quite out of breath.

There are many contemporary reports of Sir Walter Raleigh's deportment at this final moment of his life. In the place of these hackneyed narratives, we may perhaps quote the less-known words of another bystander, the republican Sir John Elyot, who was at that time a young man of twenty-eight. In his Monarchy of Man, which remained in manuscript until 1879, Elyot says:

Take an example in that else unmatched fortitude of our Raleigh, the magnanimity of his sufferings, that large chronicle of fortitude. All the preparations that are terrible presented to his eye, guards and officers about him, fetters and chains upon him, the scaffold and executioner before him, and then the axe, and more cruel expectation of his enemies, and what did all that work on the resolution of that worthy? Made it an impression of weak fear, or a distraction of his reason? Nothing so little did that great soul suffer, but gathered more strength and advantage upon either. His mind became the clearer, as if already it had been freed from the cloud and oppression of the body, and that trial gave an illustration to his courage, so that it changed the affection of his enemies, and turned their joy into sorrow, and all men else it filled with admiration, leaving no doubt but this, whether death was more acceptable to him, or he more welcome unto death.

At the windows of Sir Randolph Carew, which were opposite to the scaffold, Raleigh observed a cluster of gentlemen and noblemen, and in particular several of those who had been adventurers with him for the mine on the Orinoco. He perceived, amongst others, the Earls of Arundel, Oxford, and Northampton. That these old friends should hear distinctly what he had to say was his main object, and he therefore addressed them with an apology for the weakness of his voice, and asked them to come down to him. Arundel at once assented, and all the company at Carew's left the balcony, and came on to the scaffold, where those who had been intimate with Raleigh solemnly embraced him. He then began his celebrated speech, of which he had left a brief draft signed in the Gate House. There are extant several versions of this address, besides the one he signed. In the excitement of the scene, he seems to have said more, and to have put it more ingeniously, than in the solitude of the previous night. His old love of publicity, of the open air, appeared in the first sentence:

I thank God that He has sent me to die in the light, and not in darkness. I likewise thank God that He has suffered me to die before such an assembly of honourable witnesses, and not obscurely in the Tower, where for the space of thirteen years together I have been oppressed with many miseries. And I return Him thanks, that my fever [the ague] hath not taken me at this time, as I prayed to Him that it might not, that I might clear myself of such accusations unjustly laid to my charge, and leave behind me the testimony of a true heart both to my king and country.

He was justly elated. He knew that his resources were exhausted, his energies abated, and that pardon would now merely mean a relegation to oblivion. He took his public execution with delight, as if it were a martyrdom, and had the greatness of soul to perceive that nothing could possibly commend his career and character to posterity so much as to leave this mortal stage with a telling soliloquy. His powers were drawn together to their height; his intellect, which had lately seemed to be growing dim, had never flashed more brilliantly, and the biographer can recall but one occasion in Raleigh's life, and that the morning of St. Barnaby at Cadiz, when his bearing was of quite so gallant a magnificence. As he stood on the scaffold in the cold morning air, he foiled James and Philip at one thrust, and conquered the esteem of all posterity. It is only now, after two centuries and a half, that history is beginning to hint that there was not a little special pleading and some excusable equivocation in this great apology which rang through monarchical England like the blast of a clarion, and which echoed in secret places till the oppressed rose up and claimed their liberty.

He spoke for about five-and-twenty minutes. His speech was excessively ingenious, as well as eloquent, and directed to move the sympathy of his hearers as much as possible, without any deviation from literal truth. He said that it was true that he had tried to escape to France, but that his motive was not treasonable; he knew the King to be justly incensed, and thought that from La Rochelle he might negotiate his pardon. What he said about the commission from France is so ingeniously worded, as to leave us absolutely without evidence from this quarter. After speaking about La Chesnée's visits, he proceeded to denounce the base Mannourie and his miserable master Sir Lewis Stukely, yet without a word of unseemly invective. He then defended his actions in the Guiana voyage, and turning brusquely to the Earl of Arundel, appealed to him for evidence that the last words spoken between them as the 'Destiny' left the Thames were of Raleigh's return to England. This was to rebut the accusation that Raleigh had been overpowered by his mutinous crew, and brought to Kinsale against his will. Arundel answered, 'And so you did!' The Sheriff presently showing some impatience, Raleigh asked pardon, and begged to say but a few words more. He had been vexed to find that the Dean of Westminster believed a story which was in general circulation to the effect that Raleigh behaved insolently at the execution of Essex, 'puffing out tobacco in disdain of him;' this he solemnly denied. He then closed as follows:

And now I entreat that you will all join me in prayer to the Great God of Heaven, whom I have grievously offended, being a man full of all vanity, who has lived a sinful life in such callings as have been most inducing to it; for I have been a soldier, a sailor, and a courtier, which are courses of wickedness and vice; that His almighty goodness will forgive me; that He will cast away my sins from me; and that He will receive me into everlasting life.-So I take my leave of you all, making my peace with God.

Proclamation was then made that all visitors should quit the scaffold. In parting with his friends, Raleigh besought them, and Arundel in particular, to beg the King to guard his memory against scurrilous pamphleteers. The noblemen lingered so long, that it was Raleigh himself who gently dismissed them. 'I have a long journey to go,' he said, and smiled, 'therefore I must take my leave of you.' When the friends had retired he addressed himself to prayer, having first announced that he died in the faith of the Church of England. When his prayer was done, he took off his night-gown and doublet, and called to the headsman to show him the axe. The man hesitated, and Raleigh cried, 'I prithee, let me see it. Dost thou think that I am afraid of it?' Having passed his finger along the edge, he gave it back, and turning to the Sheriff, smiled, and said, ''Tis a sharp medicine, but one that will cure me of all my diseases.' The executioner, overcome with emotion, kneeled before him for pardon. Raleigh put his two hands upon his shoulders, and said he forgave him with all his heart. He added, 'When I stretch forth my hands, despatch me.' He then rose erect, and bowed ceremoniously to the spectators to the right and then to the left, and said aloud, 'Give me heartily your prayers.' The Sheriff then asked him which way he would lay himself on the block. Raleigh answered, 'So the heart be right, it matters not which way the head lies,' but he chose to lie facing the east. The headsman hastened to place his own cloak beneath him, so displaying the axe. Raleigh then lay down, and the company was hushed while he remained awhile in silent prayer. He was then seen to stretch out his hands, but the headsman was absolutely unnerved and could not stir. Raleigh repeated the action, but again without result. The rich Devonshire voice was then heard again, and for the last time. 'What dost thou fear? Strike, man, strike!' His body neither twitched nor trembled; only his lips were seen still moving in prayer. At last the headsman summoned his resolution, and though he struck twice, the first blow was fatal.

Sir Walter Raleigh was probably well advanced in his sixty-seventh year, but grief and travel had made him look much older. He was still vigorous, however, and the effusion from his body was so extraordinary, that many of the spectators shared the wonder of Lady Macbeth, that the old man had so much blood in him. The head was shown to the spectators, on both sides of the scaffold, and was then dropped into a red bag. The body was wrapt in the velvet night-gown, and both were carried to Lady Raleigh. By this time, perhaps, she had heard from her brother that he could not receive the body at Beddington, for she presently had it interred in the chancel of St. Margaret's, Westminster. The head she caused to be embalmed, and kept it with her all her life, permitting favoured friends, like Bishop Goodman, to see and even to kiss it. After her death, Carew Raleigh preserved it with a like piety. It is supposed now to rest in West Horsley church in Surrey. Lady Raleigh lived on until 1647, thus witnessing the ruin of the dynasty which had destroyed her own happiness.

No success befell the wretches who had enriched themselves by Raleigh's ruin. Sir Judas Stukely, for so he was now commonly styled, was shunned by all classes of society. It was discovered very soon after the execution, that Stukely had for years past been a clipper of coin of the realm. He did not get his blood-money until Christmas 1618, and in January 1619 he was caught with his guilty fingers at work on some of the very gold pieces for which he had sold his master. The meaner rascal, Mannourie, fell with him. The populace clamoured for Stukely's death on the gallows, but the King allowed him to escape. Wherever he met human beings, however, they taunted him with the memory of Sir Walter Raleigh, and at last he fled to the desolate island of Lundy, where his brain gave way under the weight of remorse and solitude. He died there, a maniac, in 1620. Another of Raleigh's enemies, though a less malignant one, scarcely survived him. Lord Cobham, who had been released from the Tower while Raleigh was in the Canaries, died of lingering paralysis on January 24, 1619. Of other persons who were closely associated with Raleigh, Queen Anne died in the same year, 1619; Camden in 1623; James I. in 1625; Nottingham, at the age of eighty-nine, in 1624; Bacon in 1629; Ben Jonson in 1637; while the Earl of Arundel lived on until 1646.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Mr. Edwards corrects the date to 1580 n.s., but this is manifestly wrong; on the 7th of February 1580 n.s. Raleigh was on the Atlantic making for Cork Harbour.

[2] Dr. Brushfield has found no mention of the elder Walter Raleigh later than April 11, 1578. As he was born in 1497, he must then have been over eighty years of age.

[3] Mr. J. Cordy Jeaffreson has communicated to me the following interesting discovery, which he has made in examining the Assembly Books of the borough of King's Lynn, in Norfolk. It appears that the Mayor was paid ten pounds 'in respecte he did in the yere of his maioraltie [between Michaelmas 1587 and Michaelmas 1588] entertayn Sir Walter Rawlye knight and his companye in resortinge hether about the Queanes affayrs;' the occasion being, it would seem, the furnishing and setting forth of a ship of war and a pinnace as the contingent from Lynn towards defence against the Armada. This is an important fact, for it is the only definite record that has hitherto reached us of Raleigh's activity in guarding the coast against invasion.

[4] In the first two numbers of the Athen?um for 1886, I gave in full detail the facts and arguments which are here given in summary.

[5] Raleigh says that he appointed this man, 'taking him out of prison, because he had all the ancient records of Sherborne, his father having been the Bishop's officer.'-De la Warr MSS.

[6] Mr. Edwards has evidently dated this important letter a year too late (vol. ii. 397-8).

[7] In a letter Raleigh goes still further, and says that he found Meeres, 'coming suddenly upon him, counterfeiting my hand above a hundred times upon an oiled paper.'

[8] Among Sir A. Malet's MSS., for instance, we find Raleigh spoken of, so early as April 1600, as 'the hellish Atheist and Traitor,' and we look in vain for the cause of such violence.

[9] This date, till lately uncertain, is proved from the journal of Cecil's secretary.

[10] This was really the first edition of the Remains, although that title does not appear until the third edition of 1657.

[11] More exactly, a house at the corner of Wykford Lane, with a small estate at the back of it, an appendage to Lady Raleigh's brother's seat at Beddington.

[12] I gather this date, hitherto entirety unknown, from the fact that in the recently published Lismore Papers Sir Richard Boyle notes on May 27 that he receives letters from Raleigh announcing his arrival at Kinsale.

[13] Among the Bute MSS. is a letter from Raleigh to Bacon beseeching him 'to spend some few words to the putting of false fame to flight;' but Bacon's enmity was unalterable.

INDEX.

Note.-Read Raleigh for R.

Adricomius, 179

Albert, Aremberg, the Envoy of Archduke, 136

Alen?on's contrast to R. at Court, 18;

pageant at Antwerp for, 18

Algarve, Bishop of, library captured by Essex and nucleus of Bodleian, 101

Algerine corsairs, 193;

sack Lanzarote, 194

Allen, Sir Francis, 42

America, its debt, to Sir H. Gilbert, 25;

Gilbert's last expedition to, 27;

R. renews Gilbert's charter, 28;

R.'s costly expeditions to, 29, 37

Amidas, a captain in R.'s American fleet, 28;

discovers Virginia, 29

Amurath, King of Turbay, 185

Anderson, one of R.'s Winchester judges, 146

'Angel Gabriel,' capture of ship, 40

Annales by Camden, 3

Anne of Denmark. See Queen

Annesley, R. takes up his command, 19

Antonio of Portugal, 41

Apology for the Voyage to Guiana by R., 193, 208-10

Apothegms, Bacon's, 113

Apsley, Sir Allen, Lieutenant of Tower, 211;

relieved of R.'s custody, 211

Aremberg, Count, plotter in Durham House, 134;

ambassador of Archduke Albert, 136;

relations with Cobham, 137, 155;

communications with R., 148;

James accepts his protestations, 155

'Ark Raleigh' fitted for Gilbert's expedition by R., 27;

purchased by Elizabeth, 54

'Ark Royal,' Lord Howard's ship, 93

Armada, account of, 37-39;

Lynn contributes to resistance of, 38;

R.'s advice for boarding ships, 39;

R. and Drake receive prisoners from, 39

Armadillo in Guiana, 74, 80

Artson, R. captures sack from one, 41

Arundel, Earl of, Keymis writes to, 201;

at R.'s execution as a friend 218;

R. appeals to him in justification, 220;

death of, 223

Ashley, Mrs. Catherine, R.'s aunt, 19

Ashley, Sir Anthony, notifies Cadiz victory, 100

Assapana Islands, 80

Astrophel, Elegy by R. in, 34

d'Aubigné, Histoire Universelle by, 177

Aubrey at Oxford with R., 3

Awbeg, river in Munster, sung by Spenser, 44

Azores, piratical expedition to, 33;

Peter Strozzi lost at, 39;

R.'s Report of the Fight in the, ib.;

'Revenge' and Armada fight off, 51;

'Madre de Dios' captured off, 60;

second plate-ship expedition off, 107;

capture of its towns arranged, ib.;

R. takes Fayal, 108;

Essex attacks San Miguel, 109

Bacon, Anthony, 42, 56

Bacon, Lord Francis, with R. at Oxford, 3;

praise of Grenville's fight, 51;

issues his Essays, 85;

his Apothegms, 113;

his cousins the Cookes, 90;

asked if R.'s Guiana commission is equivalent to pardon, 191;

if R. fails in Guiana asks what is his alternative? ib.;

R. reveals his desire for Mexican plate fleet to, ib.;

tells R. he must prepare to die, 213;

asked by R. to protect his fame, 213;

death of, 223

Bailey, John, commands 'Husband' in Guiana fleet, 194;

prevented from seizing French ship, 195;

deserts R.'s expedition, 196;

returns and charges R. with piracy, 196, 204;

in pay of Gondomar, 196;

imprisoned and story discredited, 204;

released with reprimand, 205

Balligara, R.'s share in, 194

Barlow, a captain in R.'s American fleet, 28;

discovers Virginia, ib.

Barlow's reference to R., 7

Barry Court, Geraldine stronghold, 13;

source of quarrel between R. and Ormond, 14;

R. offers to rebuild, 16

Barry, David, Irish malcontent, 13

Barry, Lord, defeat at Cleve by R., 15

Basing House, Marquis of Winchester's, 122;

Queen Elizabeth and French envoys at, 123

Bath, R. visits, 63, 115, 122, 127

Bear Gardens, R. takes French envoys to, 122

Beauchamp, Lord, R.'s deputy in Cornwall, 32

Beaumont's story of R. and King James, 133

Beaumont, Countess of, 167

Becanus, Goropius, 178

Beddington, Lady R. sells land at, 189;

burial asked for R. at, 215

Bedford, Earl of, R. succeeds him in Stannaries, 32

Bedingfield Park, seat of Sir F. Carew, 135;

King James and R. entertained at, ib.

Beeston, Sir Hugh, and R.'s execution, 214

Benevolence tax, 184

Berreo, Antonio de, Spanish Governor of Trinidad, describes Guiana, 66;

his cruelty, 68;

captured by R. at St. Joseph, ib.;

attempts to lure R., ib.;

submission to R., 68-69;

founded Guayana Vieja, 73

Berrie, Captain Leonard, makes voyage to Guiana for R., 102

Beville, Sir R., inquires into Sir R. Grenville's death, 51

Bideford, Grenville's Virginian expedition stopped at, 37;

R. sends ships to Virginia from, ib.

Bindon, Lord. See Howard

Biron, Duc de, special French Ambassador, 122-123;

disgrace, 127

Blount, Sir Christopher, R.'s keeper at Dartmouth, 61;

to make joint attack on San Miguel, 107;

excites Essex against R., 109;

tries to kill R., 120;

pardoned by R. before execution, ib.

Bodleian Library, Bishop of Algarve's books captured by Earl of Essex contained in, 101

'Bonaventure,' ship, 105

Boyle, Richard, afterwards Earl of Cork, buys R.'s Irish estates, 129;

lends R. 100l., 194;

R. announces his arrival at Kinsale to, 203

Brett, Sir Alex., trustee of Sherborne, 164

Breviary of the History of England by R., 182-3

Broad-cloths, R.'s licence to export woollen, 29, 30

Broad Street, R. resides in, 188, 208

Brooke, George, conspires for Arabella Stuart, 102, 142;

concerned in Watson's plot, 135;

relationship to Cobham and Cecil, ib.;

arrest, 136;

execution, 158

Brooke, Henry, brother to Lady Cecil. See Cobham, 102

Brushfield, Dr., R.'s bibliography, vi.;

researches, 2, 16

Bryskett, Lodovick, in Munster, 10;

'Thestylis' of Spenser, 45

Burghley, R. corresponds with, 8, 9;

his moderate Irish policy, 22;

joint author of The Opinion of Mr. Rawley, 22;

assails R.'s broad-cloth patent, 30;

references to, 31, 84;

sends R. to Dartmouth to save prizes, 61

Burrow, Sir John, commands Indian Carrack venture, 54;

successful attack of plate-ships, 59-60

Burwick, John, master of 'Destiny,' 194

Byron's Conspiracy by Chapman, 123

Cabinet Council by R., 186;

published by Milton, ib.

Cadiz expedition, 87, 88-102;

forced on by Lord Howard, 88;

Queen Elizabeth reluctantly permits, ib.;

Essex, Howard, and R. to consider, 89;

Dutch to co-operate, ib.;

R. to raise levies for, ib.;

recruiting for, 90;

strength of English and Dutch fleets, 91;

R.'s Relation of the Action, 92;

details of destruction of Spanish fleet, 92-98;

the town sacked, 99-100;

R. wounded in the leg, 98;

fleet of carracks escape but burnt by Spaniards, 99;

Queen Elizabeth claims the prize money, 101;

the victory popular in England, 102

C?sar, Sir Julius, notes of R.'s second trial, 213

Caiama Island, 74

Camden with R. at Oxford, 3;

his Annales, 3;

recommends Jonson to R., 175;

friend of Samuel Daniel, 183;

his death, 223

Camden Miscellany, account of R.'s second trial in, 213

Canary Islands, R.'s Guiana fleet off, 195;

exposed to Algerine corsairs, 195;

Lanzarote sacked, 196;

R. visits Gomera, 197

Cape Verde Islands, R.'s Guiana fleet off, 198;

R. lands at Brava, 199

Capuri river, 80

Caracas plundered and burnt, 81

Carews, connections of R., 1

Carew, Sir Francis, R.'s uncle, 135;

entertains King James and R., ib.

Carew, Sir George, at Lismore, 44;

keeper of R. at Tower, 58;

at Cadiz in 'Mary Rose,' 95;

and Cormac MacDermod, 129

Carew, Sir Nicholas, and R.'s burial, 215

Carew, Sir Randolph, and friends witness R.'s execution, 218

Carleton, Dudley, at R.'s trial, 153

Caroni, river, 74

Carr, Earl of Somerset, and Sherborne, 171, 172, 187

Cashel, Magrath Archbishop of, 34

Castle Bally-in-Harsh, its capture, 15

Cayenne, R. off river, 199, 200

Cecil, Sir Robert, and R.'s marriage, 54, 63;

R.'s letter of devotion for Queen sent to, 57;

fails to control Devon sailors, 61;

inquires into pillage of 'Madre de Dios,' 62;

barters with R., 64;

promises ship for Guiana expedition, 67;

R. asks how result of Guiana voyage is viewed, 82;

R. sends MS. account and presents from Guiana, 83;

Discovery of Guiana dedicated to, 84;

supports proposed attack on Cadiz, 88;

informed by R. of victory at Cadiz, 100;

death of his wife and R.'s sympathy, 102;

R.'s intimacy with his family, ib.;

obtains R.'s return to Court, 103;

told of R.'s goodwill to Essex, 106;

thwarts R. in being sworn of P. Council, 112;

doubtful support of Guiana voyage, 113-4;

son and young Walter R. playmates, 114;

at Sherborne, 116;

accused by Essex, 118;

advised by R. to show Essex no mercy, 118-9;

decline of friendship with R., 125;

invited to Bath by R., 127;

R. complains of Lord Bindon to, ib.;

craftiness towards R., 129;

created a peer by King James, 133;

estranged from the Brookes, 135;

describes R.'s attempted suicide, 138;

aids R. with Sherborne estate, 144;

sits on R.'s trial, 146, 157;

influence sought to save R., 158;

created Lord Cranborne, 164;

and Earl of Salisbury, 166;

R. writes of his condition to, ib.;

references to, 167, 170, 173, 186;

his death and epigram on, 173

Cecil, William. See Salisbury

Champernowne, Captain Arthur, in Azores, 108

Champernowne, Gawen, his career, 4

Champernowne, Henry, R.'s cousin, 4;

his Huguenot contingent, 4

Champernowne, Sir Philip, 1

Champernownes, connections of R., 1

Chapman, George, his epic poem on Guiana, 86;

his Byron's Conspiracy, 123

Chatham, R. raising sailors at, 54

Chaunis Temotam, its fabulous ores, 30

Cherbourg, R. takes barks from, 42

Christian IV. of Denmark and R., 169

Church, Dean, compares R.'s exploits with passages in Faery Queen, 43

Clarke executed for Watson's plot, 158

Cleve, Lord Barry defeated by R. at, 15

Clifford, Sir Conyers, at Cadiz, 95

Cobham, Lord, Henry Brooke succeeds as, 102;

first mention by R. of, 106;

R.'s increased intimacy, 113;

invited to Sherborne and Bath, 115;

goes to Ostend with R. ib.;

called an enemy of England by Essex, 118;

attends at Basing to entertain French, 123;

plotting at Durham House, 134;

R. only intimate friend, 136;

Lord Warden of Cinque Ports, ib.;

and Watson's plot, ib.;

shown R.'s explanation, 137;

accuses R., but retracts, ib.;

communicates with R. by Mellersh, 142;

tried at Staines for Arabella Stuart plot, 142;

communications with R., 144;

vacillation, 145;

retracts to R, ib.;

R. asks that Cobham should die first, 157;

convicted of treason, 158;

led out for execution, but reprieved, 160;

death by paralysis, 223

Coke, Sir Edward, Attorney-General at R.'s Winchester trial, 146-7

Colin Clout, Spenser refers to R. in, 43, 48;

Queen Elizabeth commands its publication, 49

Collectiones Peregrinationum, by De Bry, 114

Collier, J. P., 56

Commentaries, by Sir F. Vere, 97

Commerce, R.'s Observations on Trade and, 186

Condé, Prince of, his death, 4

Cookes, the, R. takes to Cadiz, 90

Copley and Watson's plot, 135;

his arrest, 136

Corabby, R.'s courage at ford of, 14

Cordials made by R., 168

Cork, R. reinforces Sentleger at, 9;

Geraldine executed at, ib.;

R. governor of, 15;

land granted to R. in, 34;

cedars planted by R. still at, 47;

R.'s second Guiana fleet takes refuge at, 194

Cornwall, R. Lieutenant and Vice-Admiral of, 32;

R.'s deputy in, 32;

R. collects miners to resist Armada, 38;

its defences considered, 89;

R.'s efforts for tin-workers in, 117;

R. tries to retain office, but superseded by Earl of Pembroke, 163

Coro, burned, 81

Cotterell, messenger between R. and Cobham, 145, 169;

examined against R., 170

Cotton, Sir Robert, lends books to R., 171

Court, early record of R.'s admission to, 5, 6;

R. not a penniless adventurer at, 16;

recognised courtier, 17, 19;

R. inferior to Leicester, Walsingham, and Hatton at, 50;

reference to R. at, 103, 115;

R. excluded by James I., 188

Cranborne, Lord. See Cecil

'Crane,' the, R.'s ship, 42

Creighton's, Mrs., Period of R., vi.

Cross, Captain, and plate ship prize, 62

Crosse, Sir Robert, with R. meets King James, 132

Cucuina, river, R. ascends, 71

Cumana, Venezuela, spared by ransom and subsequently burnt by R.'s ships, 81

Cynthia, R.'s supposed lost poem, 45-46;

fragments printed from Hatfield MS., 46;

style and importance, 46-47;

called The Ocean to, 46;

and The Ocean's Love to, ib.;

treated of in Athen?um, 1886, ib.;

publication urged by Spenser, 49

Dangers of a Spanish Faction in Scotland, by R., 124

Daniel, Samuel, and R, 182-3

Dartmouth, 'Madre de Dios' towed to, 60;

R. stops spoliation of, 61

Davies, Sir John, Nosce teipsum and R.'s Cynthia, 46

Davis, John, R.'s partner for discovery of N.-W. passage, 28;

refers to whereabouts of R., July 1595, 82

De Beaumont, French ambassador, refers to R., 133, 141

De Bry prints R.'s Discovery in his Collectiones, 114

'Destiny,' ship built by R. for Guiana expedition, 190;

Des Marêts visits the, 193;

commanded by young Walter R., ib.;

John Burwick the master, 194;

outlawed, 205;

arrives at Plymouth, 205, 206

Des Marêts, French ambassador, 190;

suspicious of R.'s Guiana voyage, ib.;

visits R.'s 'Destiny,' 193;

his correspondence, ib.

Desmond, Earl of, murder of his brother's guest, 8;

R. shares escheate

d lands of, 34

Devonshire Association, Transactions of, and R., 2;

accent strong in R., 21;

R.'s popularity in, 31;

Stannaries, R.'s report on, ib.;

R. Vice-Admiral of, 32;

Sir John Gilbert, R.'s deputy in, ib.;

R. member of Parliament for, ib.;

miners serve in Netherlands, ib.;

farmers settle in south of Ireland, 34;

miners raised by R. to repel Armada, 38;

R. considers its defences, 89

Devonshire, Earl of, on R.'s trial at Winchester, 146

Dingle, expedition from Ferrol lands at, 8

Discovery of Guiana, published by R., 83-84;

literary value, 85;

translations in Latin, German, and French, 114;

reprinted by Hakluyt, ib.

Doddridge, Sir John, 144

Domestic Correspondence refers to R.'s ships, 42

Donne, John, earliest known poem, 105

Dover, R. at, 90, 193

Drake, Sir Francis, receives prisoners from Armada, 39;

expedition to Portugal, 41-42;

and spoil of 'Madre de Dios,' 62;

his fate, 6, 87

'Dreadnought,' Sir C. Clifford's Cadiz ship, 95

Dudley, Robert, D. of Northumberland, at Cadiz, ib.

Duke, Richard, contemporary owner of R.'s birthplace, 1

Durham, Bishop of, demands Durham House, 133

Durham House leased by R., 31;

its site and history, ib.;

Queen Elizabeth there in 1592, 56;

references to, 87, 114, 120;

fire at, 117;

Lady R. advises a proper lease for, ib.;

Bishop of Durham demands and King James directs R. to surrender, 133-4;

R. forced to remove from,134;

alleged plotting at, ib.

Dutch to assist in attack on Cadiz, 89, 99;

take part in capture of Azores, 107

Dyer's evidence at R.'s trial, 155

Edwards, Edward, life and letters of R., v.;

collected evidence of battle of Cadiz, 91;

references to, 82, 190, 210

Effingham, Lady, converse with R., 167

Effingham. See Howard

El Dorado, legendary prince of Guiana, 65;

supposed lake in heart of Guiana, ib.;

efforts of Spaniards and Germans to reach, ib.

Elizabeth, Queen, Duc d'Alen?on her suitor, 17-18;

confers an Irish captaincy on R., 19;

R. first favourite with, 19-25;

gifts to R., 24, 25;

grants charter to R. for discovery of N.-W. passage, 28;

Virginia named in honour of, ib.;

leases Durham House to R., 31;

feelings towards Leicester, 32;

keeps R. from politics, 35;

R. supplanted by Essex, 35;

appropriates pirated fine raiment, 42;

R. restored to favour by, 43, 49;

praised in Cynthia, 45;

Spenser introduced to, 48;

commands publication of Colin Clout, 49;

happy retort of R. to, 53;

instals a pliable Bishop of Salisbury and receives fine from R., 53;

supports R. in Spanish plate-ship venture, 54, 59;

buys the 'Ark Raleigh,' 54;

vanity and resentment, 55;

recalls R. from Frobisher's fleet, 56;

discovers R.'s Throckmorton intrigue, ib.;

confines R. in Tower, 57;

R.'s letter of devotion to, ib.;

acknowledges R.'s marriage, 63;

works of travel published in her reign, 85;

irresolution to attack Spain after Armada, 88;

R. seeks reconciliation with, 100;

claims Cadiz prize-money, 101;

R.'s position with, 101, 103, 111, 115;

reconfers captaincy of the Guard on R., 103;

her custom to retire early to rest, 111;

festivities on her sixty-fifth birthday, 113;

sends R. to Ostend, 115;

confers Governorship of Jersey and Manor of St. Germain on R., 116;

Essex accuses R., Cecil, and Cobham to, 118;

refuses communication with Essex, ib.;

said to have shown skull of Essex, ib.;

R. sends her a supposed diamond, 128;

interviews R. on Irish policy, ib.;

R. advises as to MacDermod, ib.;

her death, 129;

reference to, 186

Elizabethan poets engaged in Ireland, 10

El Nuevo Dorado, or Guiana, 66

Elphinstone, Sir James, eager for R.'s estate, 143

Elyot, Sir John, his Monarchy of Man, 217;

describes R.'s end, ib.

England, Breviary of the History of, 182;

Archbishop Sancroft and MS. of, ib.;

Samuel Daniel's share in, 183;

attributed to R., ib.

Epuremi tribe in Guiana, 78

Erskine, Sir Thomas, supplants R. in the Guard, 133;

his position with King James, 133

Essays, Bacon issues his, 85

Essex, Earl of, competes with R. for royal favour, 35;

demands R.'s sacrifice, 35, 36;

Court attacks on R., 40;

challenges R., ib.;

drives R. from Court, 42;

more friendly with R., 50;

perceives value of the Puritans, ib.;

his Protestantism, ib.;

to consider attack on Cadiz, 89;

his share in Cadiz expedition, 92-100;

captures library of Bishop of Algarve, 101;

presents it to Sir T. Bodley, ib.;

and Cadiz prize money, ib.;

at Chatham, 103;

planning fresh attack on Spain, ib.;

charged with disloyalty, 104;

R.'s guest at Plymouth, 106;

expedition to Azores and result, 107-109;

Royal influence on the wane, 111;

offended past forgiveness by Queen, 112;

uncompromising speech to Elizabeth, ib.;

surliness of temper, ib.;

adopts for his men tilting colours of R., 113;

increasing enmity with R., ib.;

complaints to Queen, 118;

Queen refuses communication with, ib.;

conspiracy, 119-120;

R. and the execution of, 120;

Elizabeth shows his skull to Duc de Biron, 123

Eugubinus, Steuchius, 178

Euphuistic prose, example in R.'s letter to Cecil, 57

Evesham, Chronicle of, 171

Ewaipanoma tribe, 77

Execution of R., 217, 218-219;

his speech, 218;

his gallant bearing, 29

Exeter, R.'s parents buried at, 3

Faery Queen, R.'s adventures compared with those in, 43;

its progress, 45;

registered, Spenser obtains pension by, 49;

R.'s sonnet appended to, ib.

Fajardo Isle, 74

Falmouth, expedition to Spain puts back into, 106

'Farm of Wines' granted by Q. Elizabeth to R., 24;

granted by King James to E. of Nottingham, 141

Fayal, Essex and R. arrange to capture, 107;

R. to meet Essex at, 108;

R. arrives before Essex, its attack and capture, ib.;

arrival of Essex, ib.;

dispute relative to capture, 109

Featley, Dr. Daniel, tutor to young Walter R., 171

Fenton, Geoffrey, in Munster, 10

Ferrol, Spanish expedition to Ireland from, 8

Finland, Duke of, offers assistance to R. in Guiana, 113

Fish tithes, in Sidmouth, leased to R.'s family, 2

Fisher, Jasper, 6

Fitzjames rents R.'s Sherborne farms, 64

Fitzwilliam, Sir William, Irish Deputy, dispute with R., 48;

reference to, 49

Fleet Prison, R. committed to, 7;

R. removed from Tower to, 165

Flemish ships captured off Fuerteventura, 67

Flores in Azores, R. joins fleet of Essex off, 107

Flores, Gutierrez, Spanish President, opinion of the enemies' fleet off Cadiz, 92

Fort del Ore, Ireland, built by invaders, 6;

siege, capture and massacre at, 12

Fowler, R.'s gold refiner, death of, 199

France, R. aids Huguenot princes, 4;

Hakluyt in, ib.;

R.'s return from, 6;

Henry IV.'s compliment to Queen Elizabeth, 122;

invited to support Huguenots, 193;

Ambassador visits R., 190, 192;

R. offered escape by, 208

Free trade, R. an advocate of, 186-7

French Ambassadors: Duc de Biron, 122;

De Beaumont, 133, 141;

Des Marêts, 190, 192

French envoy, La Chesnée, offers R. means of escape, 208, 211, 212

French vessels detained by R., 195

Frobisher, Sir Martin, 26;

fleet for capturing Indian carracks, 54;

reputed severity, ib.;

R. with his fleet, 56;

off Spanish coast seeking plate ships, 59

Fuerteventura, R. captures ships off, 67

Fuller records R. at Oxford, 3;

story of R. making his cloak a mat for Queen, 21;

anecdotes, 22

Gamage, Barbara, marries Robert Sidney, 33;

grandmother of Waller's Sacharissa, ib.

Gardiner, S. R., estimate of R.'s genius, 130;

credits Beaumont's story of, 133;

account of R.'s trial, 157, 213;

account of the Benevolence, 184;

details of intrigues in K. James's Court, 190, 206

'Garland,' the, R.'s ship, 42

Gascoigne, protégé of R.'s half-brother, 5;

his Steel Glass, ib.;

death of, 5;

Lord Grey patron of, 10

Gate House, R. confined in, 214

Gawdy, one of R.'s Winchester judges, 146

Genoa, its seizure proposed, 192;

discussed before K. James and rejected, ib.

Geraldine Friary, Youghal, destroyed, 34

Geraldine, Sir James, trial and execution, 9

Geraldines rebel, 8

Gibb, John, page to James I., 159

Gifford, Captain, reference to, 79, 80

Gilbert, Adrian, R.'s half-brother, 1;

partner in N.-W. expeditions, 28;

holds office at Sherborne, 53;

obnoxious to R.'s bailiff Meeres, 121;

commended to Lady R., 140;

and R.'s Sherborne estates, 143

Gilbert, Bartholomew, his voyage to America, 125;

sails from Virginia with rich woods, 126;

carries supposed diamond from R. to Queen, 127-8

Gilbert, Katherine. See Raleigh, Mrs

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, R.'s half-brother, 1;

R. companion of his voyages, 6, 7;

gained renown in Ireland, 8;

granted Charter to make settlements in America, 26;

lends ships to serve on Irish coast, 26;

misfortunes and vicissitudes of expedition, 26-27;

his death at sea, 27

Gilbert, Sir John, half-brother to R., 62;

preparing to sail for Guiana, 113

Gilbert, Otto, 1

Gillingham Forest, R. in, 64

Glenmalure, R. meets Spenser at battle of, 10

Globe Theatre, Shakespeare's Richard the Second at, 104

Godolphin, Sir Francis, warden of Stannaries, 141

Gomera Islands, R. lands at, 197;

courtesy of governor and his lady to R., 197-198

Gondomar (Sarmiento), Spanish ambassador, 190;

suspicious of R., 190, 191;

pledged R.'s life against Spanish attack, 192;

protests against Guiana expedition, 193;

Captain Bailey in his pay, 196;

Bailey traduces R. to, 199;

activity for R.'s ruin, 204;

urges embargo on English at Seville, 204;

claims punishment of R., 205

Goodwin, Hugh, hostage with Topiawari, 79;

learns Indian language, ib.;

serves under Gifford, ib.;

meets R. after twenty-two years, 200

Googe, Barnabee, in Munster, 10

Gorges, Sir A., assaulted by R., 58;

believes R. mad, ib.;

historian of Azores expedition, 107;

and Duc de Biron, 122

Gorges, Sir F., and Essex conspiracy, 119

Gosnoll, Captain, American discoveries, 125;

sails from Virginia without R.'s leave, 126

Gray's Elegy and R.'s Cynthia, 46

Grenville, Sir Richard, and R.'s Virginian expeditions, 29, 37;

captures Spanish prize of 50,000l., 29;

and Armada, 37;

R.'s account of the fight in the 'Revenge' and his heroic death, 51, 96;

Sir R. Beville inquires into his death, 51;

praised by Tennyson and Bacon, 51;

R.'s cousin, 95;

R. revenges his death, 96, 98

Greville, Fulke, in Munster, 10

Grey, Lord de Wilton, in Dublin, 9;

dislikes R., 9;

patron of Gascoigne, 10;

hatred of Popery, 11;

treatment of Irish rebels, 13;

denounced by R. to Leicester, 14;

leniency in Ireland, 22;

and Armada, 37;

dines with R. at Flores, 107;

in Low Countries, 115

Grey, young Lord de Wilton, and Watson's plot, 135, 158, 160

Grosart's Lismore Papers, vi.

Guard, R. Captain of the, 35, 103;

Sir T. Erskine supplants R., 133

Guayana Vieja founded by Berreo, 73

Guiana, R.'s desire to conquer, 64;

its description, 65, 66;

capture of Spanish letters relative to, 66;

annexed by Berreo, governor of Trinidad, ib.;

Captain Whiddon visits for R., 66;

R. explores part of, 67;

supposed mineral wealth, 72, 75;

Humboldt on its gold yield, 75;

leaves two sailors at Morequito, 79;

health of R.'s expedition, 81;

R. asks effect of expedition on Court, 83;

R.'s Discovery of Guiana published, 83-84;

Chapman's poem on, 85-86;

Captain Keymis's voyage, 86;

R.'s Of the Voyage for Guiana, 87;

Government interest not excited by R., ib.;

Captain L. Berrie's voyage, 102;

D. of Finland urges R. to colonise, 113;

Sir J. Gilbert preparing for, 113;

increased fame of Discovery, 114;

R. asks leave to revisit, 170;

R.'s funds for voyage, 172, 189-190;

R. released from Tower to go to, 189;

advantages promised King James, ib.;

preparations for, excite Spaniards, 190;

R.'s Royal commission, 190-191;

composition of R.'s fleet, 193-194;

its delays, 194;

fleet detains French traders, 195;

fleet off Canaries, ib.;

Captain Bailey deserts, 196;

courtesies with Governor of Gomera, 198;

R.'s log of Second Voyage, 199;

R. ill of fever in, 199-200;

R. meets Hugh Goodwin after twenty-two years, 200;

fleet at Trinidad, 200;

Keymis explores for gold, attacks San Thomé, 200-1;

R.'s son Walter killed, 201;

Keymis's failure and embarrassed meeting with R., 201;

Keymis commits suicide in, 202;

R.'s failure to find gold mines in, 202;

mutiny of fleet, 202;

R. sails to Newfoundland from, 203;

R.'s ignominious return from, ib.;

Apology for the Voyage to, 208

Gunpowder Plot and R., 168

Hakluyt, R.'s contemporary at Oxford, 3;

his Voyages and sojourn in France, 4;

reprints R.'s report of Grenville's fight, 51;

Discovery of Guiana, 114

Hale, the sergeant at R.'s Winchester trial, 146-7

Hamburg ship, R. takes sugar, &c., from a, 41

Hampden, John, collector of R.'s MSS., 185

Hannah, Archdeacon, printed R.'s Cynthia, 46

Harington, Sir John, 34

Hariot, Thomas, R.'s scientific agent in Virginia, 31

Harris, Sir C., R. lodged in his house, 206

Hart, Captain, betrays R., 208

Harvey, Sir G., Lieutenant of Tower, 141, 142;

suspects R.'s communications, 144;

indulges R., succeeded by Sir W. Waad, 167

Hatfield MSS. and R.'s Cynthia, 46

Hatton, Sir C., R. reconciles him to Queen Elizabeth, 23;

references to, and death, 32, 35, 50

Hawkins, his third voyage, 6;

character of his voyages, 7

Hayes relates R.'s expense in Gilbert's expedition, 27

Hayes Barton, R.'s birthplace, in Devon, 1, 3

Hennessy, Sir J. Pope, account of R. in Ireland, 47

Henri IV. of France, 122

Henry VIII. censured in R.'s History, 180

Henry, Prince, visits R. in Tower, 169;

seeks advice of R., 173, 174;

death agonies eased by R.'s cordial, 175;

efforts and sympathy for R., 175, 180;

opinion of his father's conduct, 175;

and R.'s Cabinet Council, 185

Histoire Universelle, by d'Aubigné, 177

Historical MSS. Commission Reports, vi.

History of the World, by R.'s personal reference, 4, 5, 162, 171;

references to Armada, 38;

on boarding galleons, 39;

refers to Trinidad, 67;

R. aided by Ben Jonson, 175;

size and contents, 176;

critically examined, 176-182;

its preface, when written, 180;

suppressed by King James, and cause, 180-181

Hooker's Supply of the Irish Chronicles and references to R., 11, 43;

Ecclesiastical Polity, 85;

Oxford tutor of Walter R., jun., 171

Hornsey, R.'s servants disturb the peace at, 6

Howard of Bindon, Thomas Lord, R. to warn him if any Spaniards in Channel, 50;

and Cadiz expedition, 89, 96, 97, 98;

takes R.'s servant under his protection, 121;

persuades Sir W. Peryam to re-try Meere's suit, 127;

juror on R.'s trial, 143, 146

Howard, Lord Henry, and R., interview with Lennox, 124-125;

R. prays forgiveness for, 139

Howard of Effingham, Lord Charles, R.'s advice on boarding Armada, 38, 39;

high opinion of R., 39;

Discovery of Guiana dedicated to, 84;

forces expedition to Cadiz, 88;

on committee for attack on Cadiz, 89;

details of his action at Cadiz, 92-100;

ship 'Ark Royal,' 93;

obtains R.'s return to Court, 103;

to attempt capture of Graciosa, 107;

created E. of Nottingham, 110, 112;

granted R.'s wine patent, 141;

conducts Arabella Stewart to R.'s trial, 155;

outlaws R.'s ship 'Destiny,' 205;

death of, 223

Huguenots, R. offers to aid, 4;

Henry Champernowne's force aids, ib.;

mode of smoking out Catholics, 5

Hulsius, Levinus, Latin translation of the Discovery of Guiana, 114

Humboldt's examination of Guiana gold, 75;

testified to the genuineness of R.'s account of Guiana, 78

'Husband' ship, 194, 196

Imataca mountains seen by R., 72

Imokelly, R. escapes ambush by Seneschal of, 14

Income of R., references to, 16, 24, 25, 30, 34, 133, 162, 172

Indian carracks (plate-ships) scheme for R. to seize, 53-54;

Sir J. Burrows to attack them, 54;

their capture, 59-60;

fleet of in Cadiz harbour, 99;

burnt by Spaniards to avoid capture, ib.;

two destroyed by R. in Azores, 109

Ireland, History of the Early Ages in, MacCarthy's, 129

Ireland, R. in, 7;

Catholic invasion of, 7;

R.'s voyage to Cork, 8;

Lord Grey succeeds Pelham in, 9;

execution of Sir J. Geraldine, 10;

poets on service in, ib.;

massacre at Fort del Ore, 12;

R.'s severity towards rebels, 13;

rebels pardoned through Ormond, 13;

R.'s seizure of Barry Court, 14;

Castle Bally-in-Harsh taken by R.'s strategy, 15;

R.'s return from, 16;

R. paid for service in, 18;

R. assigned a Captaincy in, 19;

The Opinion of Mr. Rawley on, 22;

Lord Grey deprived of Deputyship, 23;

R.'s residences in, 34;

estates in Cork, Waterford, and Tipperary settled by R., 34;

R.'s experience as a colonist in, 34;

R. leaves to fight Armada, 38;

Essex forces R.'s return to, 42;

R.'s efforts in developing his estates in, 47;

potato and tobacco introduced by R., 48;

Sir William Fitzwilliam, Deputy in, ib.;

R. refused Lord Deputyship, 112;

occupied with affairs of, 115;

invaded by Spain, 124;

R. on situation in, ib.;

MacCarthy's History of the Early Ages in, 129;

Boyle, Earl of Cork, buys R.'s estates in, 129;

R. sells remainder of his leases, 194

Irish Chronicles, Hooker's Supply of the, 11

Islands voyage. See Azores

Islington, R.'s residence in, 6

James I. first cognisant of R., 123;

offers Scotch troops to repel Spanish invasion, 124;

sends Lennox on mission to Elizabeth, ib.;

R. and Cobham reported unfavourable to, 124;

met by London nobility at death of Elizabeth, 132;

R. and Sir R. Crosse meet him at Burghley, ib.;

unfavourably received R., 132;

promises R. continuance of Stannaries, ib.;

displaces R. from the Guard, 133;

increases R.'s salary as Governor of Jersey, ib.;

deprives R. of Durham House on petition of Bishop of Durham, 133, 134;

involved in promises to Catholics, 135;

waiting Spanish overtures, ib.;

guest of Sir F. Carew, ib.;

given R.'s Discourse on Spanish War, &c., ib.;

R.'s projects distasteful to, ib.;

commits R. to Tower, 137;

R. begs his life of and refused hope by, 158;

prepares warrant for stay of R.'s execution, 158;

signs death-warrants for conspirators, 159;

intention to reprieve, ib.;

at bull-baiting on Tower Hill, 165;

and Christian IV. of Denmark, 169;

suppresses R.'s History of the World, 180;

R. hopes to propitiate him, 183;

forbids printing of R.'s Prerogative of Parliament, 184;

and the Benevolence, 184;

a Protectionist, 187;

releases R., 188;

to be enriched by R.'s second voyage to Guiana, 189;

submits R.'s proposed route to Madrid, 191;

ignores statements of Bailey, 199;

Captain North relates R.'s failure to, 203;

R.'s apologetic letter to, ib.;

Spain clamours for R.'s death, 205;

invites claims against R., ib.;

his arguments for R., ib.;

R. doomed by, 205, 206;

Apology for Guiana voyage of no effect on, 209;

R.'s attempted catspaw against Spain, 211;

R.'s confession to, 212;

advised to give R. public trial, 212;

R. throws himself on his mercy, 214;

quits London and signs R.'s death-warrant, ib.;

foiled by R.'s bearing at execution, 219;

R. begs his memory to be saved from scurrilous writers, 220;

death of, 223

Jarnac, battle of, 4

Jeaffreson, J. Cordy, contribution by, vi.;

researches in Middlesex Records, 6, 20;

researches in Assembly Books of K. Lynn, 38

Jersey, R. seeks Governorship of, 114;

R. succeeds Sir A. Paulet as Governor, 116;

account of and effect of R.'s rule in, 116-117;

Norman gentry in, 127;

King James increased R.'s salary for, 133;

R. displaced for Sir J. Peyton, 141;

references to R. in, 126, 127

Jesuit captured by R., 64

Jewels, R.'s love of, 20;

value on his person when arrested, 20, 209

Jonson, Ben, referred by Camden to R., 175;

assists R. in History of the World, 175, 176;

goes with young Walter R. to Paris, 175;

his Works, 175;

jealous of Samuel Daniel, 183;

death of, 223

Keymis, Captain, with R. in Guiana, 80;

his second voyage to Guiana, 86;

commended to Lady R., 140;

gives evidence on R.'s trial under fear of torture, 154;

warden of Sherborne, 164;

and Guiana, 174;

joins R.'s fleet at Plymouth, 194;

commands Orinoco gold expedition without success, 200, 201;

attacks San Thomé, 201;

announces to R. death of his son Walter R., ib.;

dejection at R.'s reproach, asks forgiveness, ib.;

writes to Earl of Arundel, ib.;

commits suicide, 202

Kilcolman, Spenser's Irish seat, 44

King, Captain Samuel, attempts R.'s escape, 206-8;

his arrest, 208

King's Lynn entertains R., 38

Kinsale, Spanish landing at, 124;

R. returns from Guiana to, 203

La Chesnée, French envoy, offers escape to R., 208, 211, 212

Lake, Sir Thomas, to send R. from Court, 133

Lane, Ralph, leader of R.'s Virginian colony, 29;

considers defence against Armada, 37

Languedoc, Catholics smoked out at, 5

La Rienzi, reference to at R.'s trial, 148

Leicester, Earl of, R. writes from Lismore to, 17;

R. his protégé at Court, ib.;

goes to Netherlands with R. and Sir P. Sidney, 18;

Queen Elizabeth quarrels with, ib.;

reconciled to R.'s Royal favour, 23;

in Netherlands and in disgrace, R.'s sympathy, 32;

reference to, 35;

death of, 50

Lennox, Duke of, diplomatic visit to Elizabeth, 124;

believes R. and Cobham opposed King James, ib.

Limerick, victory of Sir N. Malby in woods of, 8

'Lion,' Sir R. Southwell's ship at Cadiz, 95

'Lion Whelp,' Cecil's ship, 67;

R. reinforced at Port of Spain by, 68

Lisbon, Drake and R. with expedition at, 41-42

Lismore, Elizabethan capital of Munster, 15

Lismore Castle, R. rents from Archbishop of Cashel, 34

Lismore Papers and R.'s references, vi., 194, 203

Loftie, Rev. W. J., account of R.'s lodgings in Tower, 162

London citizens aid privateering against Spain, 59;

eagerness to share spoil, 61;

jewellers or goldsmiths and Spanish prize, 62;

plague in, 142

Lostwithiel, Stannaries Court of, 117

Macareo, R. tried to enter river, 69;

channel, 80

MacCarthy, Florence, R. advises his retention in Tower, 129;

asks Cecil to permit R. to judge him, ib.;

his History of the Early Ages in Ireland, 129

Mace, Samuel, commands a Virginian fleet for R., 125

MacDermod, Cormac, Lord of Muskerry, R.'s severity to, 128

Macureguarai, rich city of Guiana, 78

Madeira, R.'s Virginian ships stripped at, 37

'Madre de Dios,' plate-ship, value of its capture, 60;

inquiry as to disposal of treasure, 62

Magrath, Meiler, Archbishop of Cashel, 34

Malby, Sir Nicholas, defeats Irish rebels, 8

Malet, Sir A., MSS., R.'s unpopularity referred to in, 131

Manamo, R. enters the Orinoco by river, 69

Manatee seen by R. in Guiana, 79

Mannourie, French quack attendant and spy on R., 207;

gives R. a detrimental dose, ib.;

bribed by R., 208;

denounced by R., 220;

his disgrace, 223

Manoa, capital of Guiana, 69

Markham led out for execution but reprieved, 159, 160

Marlowe's career, 85

Marriage of R. to Elizabeth Throckmorton, 63

Martinez, Juan, journal of visit to Manoa, 69

'Mary Rose,' Sir G. Carew's Cadiz ship, 95

Maurice of Nassau, letters taken to Prince, 175

Medina Sidonia, Duke of, his report to Philip II. of English attack on Cadiz, 98;

burns fleet of carracks to avoid capture by English, 99

Meeres, John, R.'s bailiff at Sherborne, 53;

his dismissal and revenge, 121;

arrests R.'s new bailiff, 121;

brings civil action against R., 122, 127;

commissioner for despoiling Sherborne, 164

Mellersh, Cobham's secretary, 142

Mexican plate fleet, R.'s designs on, 191, 202, 210, 213

Mexico, Gulf of, R.'s early knowledge of, 7

Mexico, its revenue to Spain, 77

Meyrick, Sir Gilly, his conduct towards R., 108

Middle Temple, R. in, 5

Milton inherits and publishes R.'s The Cabinet Council, 185

Mitcham, Lady R. sells an estate at, 189

Monarchy of Man, by Sir J. Elyot, describes R.'s last moments, 217

Moncontour in France, R. at retreat of, 4

Montgomery, death of Huguenot chief, 4

Mont Orgueil, Jersey, 117

Morequito, port on River Orinoco, 74;

its chief Topiawari, 78

Mulla. See Awbeg, 44

Munster, R. temporary governor of, succeeded by Zouch, 15;

Sentleger provost-marshal in, 9;

Spenser clerk of the council of, 44;

life in, ib.;

R.'s efforts to improve, 47;

severity of President against Cormac MacDermod, 128

Muskerry, Lord of, severity against, 128

Naunton's description of R., 20, 22

Navigation, R. considering international, 56

Netherlands, Earl of Leicester in, 28, 32;

Devon miners serve in, 32;

R.'s Discourse ... the Protecting of, 135

Newfoundland, R. in, 33, 203;

R. establishes trade with Jersey, 117

Ninias, R.'s account of King, 181

'Nonparilla,' R., Dudley's ship at Cadiz, 95

North, Captain, tells the King of R.'s Guiana failure, 203

North-West Passage, R.'s efforts, its discovery, 28;

and northern route to China, 28

Northampton, Lord, interviews R. in Tower, 172;

R.'s enemy removed, 187;

at R.'s execution, 218

Northumberland, Earl of, R. visits at Sion House, 114;

goes to Ostend with R., 115;

invited to Bath, 127

Nottingham, Earl of. See Howard

Old Palace Yard, R. executed at, 214

Oldys, William, Life of R., v.;

reference to, 101

Olonne, R. captures and forfeits to Treasury a bark of, 42

Orange, Prince of, Elizabeth sends R. to, 18;

Leicester accused of conspiracy with, ib.

Orinoco, R.'s expedition to river, 67, 69-81;

second expedition up, 200;

failure to find gold, 201

Ormond, governor of Munster, 10;

desire to treat with Irish, 11;

obtains pardon for the rebels, 13;

quarrels with R., 15;

denounced for leniency, 22

Ostend, R. and Northumberland visit, 115

Oxford, R. educated at, 3, 6

Oxford's, Lord, quarrel with Sir P. Sidney, 7;

at execution of R., 218

Panama pearl fisheries, 25;

R.'s scheme to seize, 54

Parliaments, Prerogative of, 112, 180

Paulet, Sir Anthony, governor of Jersey, death, 116

Paunsford, Richard, servant of R., 6

Pecora Campi. See Hatton

Pelham, Sir William, Irish command, 9, 10

Pembroke, Earl of, succeeds R. in Duchy of Cornwall, 163

Pembroke, Lady, R.'s friend in hour of trial, 157;

her son intercedes for R., ib.

Peryam, Sir William, Chief Baron of Exchequer, 127

Pew, Hugh, steals R.'s pearl hat-band, &c., 20

Peyton, Sir John, succeeds R. in Jersey, 141;

Sir John the younger messenger between Cobham and R., 144

Philip of Spain's Armada, resistance to, 37;

expels Antonio from Portugal, 41;

desire to recover prestige, 105

Philip III. demands R.'s execution, 212;

foiled by R.'s conduct at execution, 219

Ph?nix Nest, 34

Pilgrimage, R. writes The, 159

Piratical expedition by R. stopped, 7

Plymouth, 7, 27, 29, 36, 38, 67, 89, 90, 91, 100, 105, 106, 117, 194, 203

Popham, Lord Chief Justice, tries R. at Winchester, 146;

hissed at conclusion of R.'s trial, 157;

declares R.'s Sherborne conveyance invalid, 164

Popham, Captain George, captures Spanish letters, 66

Portland, R. as governor completes defences of, 38

Portugal, expedition to restore Antonio, 41;

R. serves under Drake at Lisbon, ib.

Potato introduced into Ireland by R., 48;

distributed by ancestor of Lord Southwell, ib.

Prerogative of Parliaments, by R., 112, 180;

its publication and intention, 183;

King James forbids its printing, 184;

issued posthumously, ib.;

MS. in Record Office, ib.

Preston, Captain Amyas, harries Venezuela, 81

Prest, Agnes, her martyrdom, 2;

indirect effect on R.'s religion, 3

'Prudence,' a London ship, 59

Puerto Rico friars, 69

Purchas, his collection of travels, 85

Puritans, Essex and R. their friends, 50

Puttenham's praise of Shepherd's Calender, 44

Queen of James I., R.'s friend, 169, 188;

her father, Christian IV., 169;

Samuel Daniel a servant of, 183;

R.'s rhyming petition to, 209;

exertions to save R., 210;

death of, 223

'Rainbow,' Sir F. Vere's ship at Cadiz, 95

Rakele, R. meets Spenser at, 10;

R.'s treatment of Irish kerns at, 11

Raleigh, Carew, son of Sir Walter, 166;

reference to, 200, 222

Raleigh, George, Sir Walter's nephew, 200

Raleigh née Gilbert, Mrs., Sir Walter's mother, 1;

her religion, 2

Raleigh town, Virginia, 36

Raleigh, Walter, the elder, his third marriage, 1;

diversity of spelling his name, 2;

family lease of fish tithes, 2;

latest mention of, his age, 16

Raleigh, Sir Walter, Lives of, v.;

correspondence of, v.;

bibliography by Dr. Brushfield, vi.;

love of birthplace, 1;

connections and parentage, 1;

earliest record of, 2;

education and career at Oxford, 3;

convicted of assault, 7;

goes to Ireland, 9;

with Spenser, 10, 43, 48, 49;

character whilst in Ireland, 14;

pecuniary position, 16, 30, 34, 42, 116, 126, 129, 133, 141, 162, 189, 190, 194;

his person in 1582, 20;

mother wit and audacious alacrity, 22;

success as a courtier, 23;

Royal gifts to, 24, 25;

continues Sir H. Gilbert's efforts, 28;

and Virginia, 29, 37, 41, 125;

granted licence to export woollen broad-cloths, their nature and value, 29, 30;

resides at Durham House, 31;

receives knighthood, 31;

successful expedition to Azores, 33;

elegy on Sir Philip Sidney, ib.;

experience as an Irish colonist, 34;

zenith of personal success, 35;

part in fighting Armada, 37;

privateering expeditions, their excuse, 40, 41;

forced return to Ireland, 42;

his poem of Cynthia, 45;

developes his Irish estates, 47;

introduces the potato, 48;

and Puritans, his toleration, 50;

Report on Grenville's fight in the 'Revenge,' 51;

obtains Sherborne Castle, 52-53;

clandestine relations with Elizabeth Throckmorton, 55;

embroilment between Queen and Mrs. Throckmorton, 55-57;

confined in the Tower, 57;

failure in health, 59, 63, 110, 114, 168, 187, 199, 200;

released to quell disturbance in Devon, 61;

his popularity in Devon, 61;

marriage with E. Throckmorton, 63;

eagerness for service, 64;

attracted to Guiana, 66;

and Guiana gold, 75-77;

publishes Discovery of Guiana, 84;

merit as a writer of travel, 85;

his Of the Voyage for Guiana, 87;

naval skill first fully recognised, 89;

taking of Cadiz, brilliant triumph for, 91;

his Relation of the Action in Cadiz Harbour, 92;

details of his Cadiz command, 92-99;

wounded in the leg, 98;

preparation for third Guiana expedition, 101;

lauded by literary classes on return from Cadiz, 102;

intimacy with Cecil and Brooke family, 102;

exertions to provoke second attack on Spain, 105;

sails with fleet to attack Azores; success at Fayal, which provokes Essex, 105-109;

only nominally in Queen's favour, 111;

his Prerogative of Parliament, 112, 183-184;

seeks various dignities without success, ib.;

increasing enmity with Essex, and friendship with Cobham, 113;

height of fame as a geographer, 114;

his share in the execution of Essex, 118-121;

comes under notice of James of Scotland, 123;

his Dangers of the Spanish Faction in Scotland, 124;

his view of Irish affairs in 1601, ib.;

not a complete loser by his expeditions, 126;

severe action towards Cormac MacDermod, 128;

advises detention of F. MacCarthy in Tower, 129;

good fortune ceases with Elizabeth's death, ib.;

character, condition, and fame in 1603, 130-131;

ungraciously received by King James, 132;

sent from Court of James, 133;

not judicious towards James, 134;

Spanish schemes distasteful to King, 135;

arrested for complicity in Watson's plot, 136;

compromised by Cobham, 136, 137;

committed to the Tower, 137;

attempts suicide, 137, 138, 141;

supposed farewell letter to his lady, 137-140;

stripped of his appointments, 141;

communications with Cobham, 141, 144, 145;

enmity of populace to, 145;

trial at Winchester, 146-157;

letter to K. James suing for life, 158, 159;

poem The Pilgrimage, 159;

reprieved at hour for execution, 160;

confinement in Tower, 160, 164, 167, 168;

efforts for his release, 169;

friendship with Queen and Prince Henry, 169;

asks permission to go to Guiana, 170, 174;

literary pursuits, 171;

consulted by P. Henry in shipbuilding, 173-4;

writing Marriage Discourses, 174;

History of World and Ben Jonson, 175, 176-182;

demands for his MS., 184;

his Cabinet Council; Discourse of War; and Observations on Trade and Commerce, 185, 186;

his release and conditions, 188, 189;

prepares second voyage to Guiana, 189-191;

intrigues for seizure of Genoa, 192;

leaves for Guiana-fleet vicissitudes, 193-194;

details of outward voyage, 195-200;

meets an old servant in Guiana, 200;

his son slain at San Thomé, 201;

fails to discover gold, 201;

his faithful Keymis commits suicide, 202;

mutiny of his fleet ib.;

ignominious return to England, 203, 205;

arrest and attempted escape, 206, 208;

writes Apology for the Voyage to Guiana, 208;

valuables found on his person, 209;

James uninfluenced by Apology, ib.;

rhyming petition to Queen; her exertions, 209, 210;

examined before Commissioners, 210, 212;

written confession to the King, 212;

if pardoned declares ability to reveal State secrets, ib.;

trial, defence, condemnation, 212, 213, 214;

bearing night before execution, 214-5;

last interview with his Lady, 215;

last verses, ib.;

proposed burial at Beddington, 215;

last moments, conduct on scaffold, 216-220;

reason for attempted escape to France, 219;

execution, 221;

body in St. Margaret's, Westminster, 222;

his head embalmed and preserved, ib.;

death roll of his friends, 223

Raleigh, Walter, the younger, 114, 116;

and Sherborne estates, 143;

at Oxford; his tutors, 171;

wins a fatal duel, 175;

and Ben Jonson, ib.;

Captain of the 'Destiny,' 193;

with Keymis in Orinoco gold expedition, 200;

killed at San Thomé, last words, 201

Raleigh, Lady, and see Throckmorton;

influence over Cecil, 84;

appeals to Cecil, 110, 144, 158;

and Durham House, 117, 133;

her husband's supposed farewell letter, 137-140;

shares rooms in Tower, 162;

and Sherborne Estates, 144, 164, 165, 171, 172;

pleads with James for R.'s pardon, 169;

sells an estate at Mitcham, 189;

letter from R. in Guiana, 200;

meets R. at Plymouth, 206;

precedes R. to London, 207;

released from Tower, 212;

final interview with R., 215;

and burial of her husband, 215, 222;

her death, 222

Rebellion in Ireland, R.'s share in suppression, 9-16

Remains of R.'s writings, 187

'Repulse,' Essex's ship off Cadiz, 93;

off Azores, 107

Revenge, R.'s ship, 42

'Revenge,' A Report of the Truth of the Fight, etc., 51;

its style and anonymous issue, ib.

Richard the Second, Cecil entertains Essex and R. with Shakespeare, 103-104

Richelieu refers to R., 193

Rimenant, R. at battle of, 5

Roanoke, discovery of, 28;

settled by Ralph Lane, 29

Roche, Lord and Lady, captured by R., 15

Rochelle privateers strip R.'s ships, 37

'Roebuck,' R.'s ship captures 'Madre de Dios,' 60

Roraima, 79

Rutland, Countess of, Sir P. Sidney's sister, 175

Sacharissa, grand-daughter of R.'s cousin, 33

Saint Germain, R. receives manor of, 116

Salisbury, R. ill at, 207, 208;

K. James and Court at, 208

Salisbury, See of, and R.'s Sherborne estate, 52, 53, 64

Salisbury, Cecil created Earl of, 166

Salisbury, William, Second Earl of, playmate to young Walter R., 114;

at Sherborne, 116

Salto Caroni, cataract of, 74

San Juan de Ulloa, 6

San Miguel, its capture arranged, 107, 109

San Rafael de Barrancas settlement, 72

San Thomé, R.'s captain attacks, 201;

R.'s eldest son killed at, ib.;

news of attack reaches Spain and England, 205

Sancroft, Archbishop, attributes History of England to R., 182

Sandars, a legate, and Irish rebellion, 8

Sarmiento, Don Pedro, captured by R., 33

Sarmiento. See Gondomar

Savage, Sir Arthur, and Duc de Biron, 122;

reference to, 125

Savoy watched by Venice, 190

Scarnafissi, Savoyard Envoy, 192;

R. suggests to him seizure of Genoa, ib.;

lays R.'s scheme before King James; its rejection, ib.

Schomburgk, Sir Robert, corroborates R. in Guiana, 71, 72

Sentleger, Sir Warham, Irish command, 8;

Provost Marshal of Munster, 9

Sentleger, Sir William, command in Guiana fleet, 194

Shakespeare's advent, 85;

performance of his Richard the Second, 104

Shepherd of the Ocean, R. so named by Spenser, 44, 46-7

Shepherd's Calender by Spenser, 10, 44;

references to R. in, 45

Sherborne, R.'s favourite country abode, 52;

R.'s acquirement of, 52, 53;

R. at, 63, 67, 71, 87, 100, 114, 126, 127, 207;

Dean of Sarum lets farms over R.'s head, 64;

remnant of R.'s fortune: tries to tie it to his son and Adrian Gilbert, 143;

Sir J. Elphinstone applies for, ib.;

R. conveys it to his son with rent charge to Lady R., 144;

supports R. six years in Tower, 162;

King's Commissioners spoiling, 163;

Cecil stays commissioners, ib.;

held on trust for Lady R. by Sir A. Brett, 164;

R.'s conveyance declared invalid, 164, 165;

Keymis warder of, 164;

Lady R. pleads for secure tenure of, 171;

James covets it for and bestows it on Carr, 171, 172;

repurchased for Prince Henry, 172;

Lady R. receives 8,000l. in lieu of, ib.;

R.'s last sojourn at, 207

Shipping, R.'s Invention of, 18

Sidmouth Church, earliest R. deed preserved at, 2

Sidney, Sir Philip, R.'s contemporary at Oxford, 3;

tennis court quarrel, 7;

handsome features, 20;

R.'s elegy on, 33

Sidney, Robert, marries R.'s cousin, 33

Simancas, R.'s map of Guiana found at, 83;

R.'s confession of French intrigues found at, 212

Sion House, R. visits Earl of Northumberland at, 114

Smerwick Bay, Spanish invasion at, 8

Southwell, Sir Robert, with Cadiz expedition, 95

Southwell, Lord, his ancestor distributes R.'s potatoes, 48

Southampton, Earl of, his amusement, 111

Spain and R., 25, 30, 32, 50, 51, 52, 84;

attack and capture of its plate ships, 59-60;

R. tries to stem flow of gold to, 76-77;

effect of Cadiz expedition on, 101;

R. counsels a second attack on, 105;

expedition to, and its accidents, 105, 106;

alters destiny for Azores, 107;

invades Ireland at Kinsale, 124;

King James waiting overtures from, 135;

R.'s Discourse touching War with, ib.;

R.'s offer to raise and lead troops against, ib.;

watching France, 190;

Guiana route submitted to, 191;

offers R. escort to Guiana gold mines, ib.;

promised security at peril of R.'s life, 192, 205;

asks punishment of R. for San Thomé attack, ib.;

Buckingham favourable to, 210;

James, the attempted catspaw of R. against, 211;

English pensioners in pay of, ib.

Spanish Alarum, The, by R., 104

Spanish Ambassador pleads for R.'s life, 158

Spanish Armada, 38-39, 88

Spanish Faction in Scotland, the Dangers of a, 124

Spanish invasion of England, R.'s advice against, 37-38

Sparrey, Francis, volunteers to stay in Guiana, 79;

captured by Spaniards; his account of Guiana, ib.

Spenser, Edmund, secretary to Lord Grey in Ireland, 10;

his Shepherd's Calender; first meets R., ib., 20;

Colin Clout, evidence of R.'s position with Queen, 43;

effect of R.'s friendship on, ib.;

his Faery Queen and R.'s adventures compared, ib.;

Clerk of Council of Munster, 44;

Irish estate, ib.;

returns to England; at Court with R., 48;

secures a pension for Faery Queen, 49

'St. Andrew,' rich Spanish prize taken at Cadiz, 99

St. Bartholomew's, R. and massacre on, 4

St. John, J. A., Life of R., v.;

discovery of R.'s map of Guiana, 83;

prints R.'s confession, 212

St. John, Oliver, trial of, 184

St. John, Sir William, efforts for R.'s release, 188

St. Margaret's, Westminster, R.'s body buried in, 222

'St. Matthew,' valuable prize taken at Cadiz, 98, 99

'St. Philip,' R.'s contest at Cadiz with, 96, 98;

saved from total destruction by Dutch, 99

Stafford, Sir Edward, tells Bacon of R. in Tower, 57;

his kinswoman wife of Governor of Gomera, 197

Stannaries, R. Lord Warden of the, 32, 64, 128, 141

Stead, death of, 198

Steel Glass, Gascoigne's, 5;

verses prefixed by R. to, ib.

Stourton, Lady, R. arrests a Jesuit in house of, 64

Strozzi, Peter, lost at Azores, 39

Stuart, Arabella, conspirators for, 102;

her descent and relationship to James I., 142, 143;

protests her ignorance of plot at R.'s trial, 155;

James wishes to spare, ib.;

her death, R. deprived of her pearls, 187

Stukely, Sir Lewis, R.'s cousin, arrests R., 206;

hires French quack to inveigle R., 207;

bribed by and betrays R., 208;

valuables on R.'s person fall to, 209;

denounced by R., 220;

condemned for clipping coin, 222;

fled to Lundy and died a maniac, 223

Suffolk urges severity against R., 141

'Summer's Nightingale,' R. styled the, 49

Talbot, John, R.'s secretary in Tower, death of, 199

Tarleton, comedian, his remark against R. at Court, 36

Tax on tavern-keepers ascribed to R. but due to Queen, 131

Temple, Middle, R. in, 5

Tennyson, Lord, praise of Sir R. Grenville, 51

Tewkesbury, Annals of, 171

Throckmorton, Arthur, dispute and dismissal from fleet, 90;

restored by R.'s influence, 91;

gains distinction at Cadiz, 91

Throckmorton, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Nicholas, 55;

her love of R., 55;

private marriage with R., ib., 63;

confined in Tower, 57;

see R., Lady

Thynne, Francis, R.'s cousin, 214

'Tiger,' Sir R. Grenville's ship, 29

Tipperary, R. granted estates in, 34

Tonson, navigator, 6

Topiawari, friendly Guiana chief, 78, 79

Tounson, Dean of Westminster, R.'s spiritual adviser, 214;

describes R. in face of death, 214-215;

attends R.'s execution, 216

Tower, R. confined in, 57, 137, 138, 142, 145, 160, 161-188, 209;

R. attempts suicide in, 137;

plague in outlying posts of, 142;

R.'s apartments in Garden or Bloody Tower, 162;

malaria in, 164;

Lady R. and son leaves, 165;

R.'s experiments in garden of, 168;

death of Arabella Stuart in, 187;

release of R., 188

Tower, Lieutenants of, in charge of R., Sir G. Harvey and Sir J. Peyton, 141;

Sir William Waad, 167;

Sir A. Apsley and Sir T. Wilson, 211

Trade and Commerce, R. on, 186;

a plea for free trade, 186-187;

when published, 187

Trinidad, A. de Berreo Governor of, 66;

visited by R.'s expedition, 67, 200;

its liquid pitch and oysters, 67;

R. returns from Guiana to, 80

Udall, John, protected by R. and Essex, 50

Underwoods, verses by R. attributed to Ben Jonson, 175

Vanlore, Pieter, R. borrows of, 190

Venezuela coast plundered by R.'s expedition, 81;

precautions against English, ib.

Venice watching Savoy, 190

Vere, Sir Francis, with Cadiz expedition, 95, 97;

to attempt with Howard capture of Graciosa, 107

Villiers, favourable to R., 187;

animus against Somerset, 188;

urged to intervene for R., 210;

pledged to Spanish alliance, ib.

Virginia, discovery of, 28;

failure of a second expedition to, 29;

its products attract R., 30;

collapse of R.'s colony, 33;

a fourth expedition fails, 36;

expenditure on abortive fifth expedition, 37;

R.'s relief vessels stripped by privateers, ib.;

drain on R.'s fortune; leases patent, 41;

never visited by R., ib.;

R.'s final effort to colonise, 125;

R. not a complete loser by expeditions to, 126;

expected return of an expedition by R., 40

Waad, Sir W., takes R. to Winchester for trial, 145;

special commissioner at R.'s trial, 146;

thinks R. too comfortable in Tower, 162;

succeeds as Lieutenant of Tower, 167;

suspicion of R.'s experiments, 168;

reference to, 170

Walsingham and R. in Paris on St. Bartholomew's eve, 4;

massacre of Fort del Ore reported to, 12;

reference to, 32;

death of, 50

Walton, Izaak, accounts of Ben Jonson and R., 175

War, R.'s A Discourse of, 185-6;

most pleasing of R.'s prose writings, 185

Warburton, judge at R.'s Winchester trial, 146

'War Sprite,' R.'s ship in Cadiz expedition, 94

Waterford, R. granted estates in, 34;

trade in pipe-staves encouraged by R., 47

Watson's plot, 135;

his conviction and execution, 158

Webbe's praise of Shepherd's Calender, 44

West Indies, Sir W. R.'s voyage to the, 7;

R.'s early visits to, ib.

West Horsley Church, R.'s head rests in, 222

Wexford, its trade in pipe-staves encouraged by R., 47

Weymouth, R. at, 100, 104, 116, 127

Whiddon, Captain Jacob, visits Guiana for R., 66;

examines mouths of Orinoco, 69

White, Captain John, fourth Virginian expedition, 36;

lands at Hatorask. His failure, ib.

White, Roland, records R. at Court, 103

Whitlock, Captain, 167

Willoughby, Ambrose, Esquire of the body, 111

Wilson, Sir Thomas, spy on R., 211;

his acquaintance with Raleigh in Tower, ib.

Winchester, Marquis of, entertains Queen and French envoys at Basing House, 123

Winchester, R. tried at Wolvesey Castle, 145;

R. confined in, 157, 159;

R. removed from, 160

Winchester, Bishop of, attendant on, 158

Wines, farm of, R. granted, 24, 25;

King James transfers it to E. of Nottingham, 141

Winwood, Sir Ralph, favourable to R., 187, 204;

hater of Spain, 188;

visits R.'s ship 'Destiny,' 192;

ignores Bailey's charge against R., 199;

R. writes of his Guiana failure to, 202;

his death, 203, 204

Wither, George, prophecy of English supremacy in America, 25

Wokoken, discovery of, 28

Wood, Anthony à, records R. at Oxford, 3

Works by Ben Jonson, and R.'s verses, 175

Yelverton, Attorney-General, prosecutes R., 210, 214

Yetminster Manor given to R., 53

Youghal burned by Geraldines, 8;

destruction of Geraldine Friary, 34;

R.'s residence at, 34, 44;

yew tree contemporary with R. still at, 48;

potato first planted at, 48

Zouch, in trenches at Fort del Ore, 12;

at Lismore, 15

Spottiswoode & Co. Printers, New-street Square, London

TRANSCRIBERS' NOTES

General: corrections to punctuation have not been individually documented

General: references to page iii changed to page v

Page 19: life-time standardised to lifetime

Page 28: "'a delicate sweet smell' far out in ocean" as in original

Pages 148, 238: Discrepancy in the spelling of Renzi/Rienzi as in original

Page 160: Gray's standardised to Grey's in "could not hear, Grey's lips"

Page 226: "Madre de Dio" standardised to "Madre de Dios"

Beddingfield Park standardised to Bedingfield Park

Page 228: Gavan standardised to Gawen

Psge 233: N.W. standardised to N.-W.

Page 238: 206-7-8 standardised to 206-8

Page 239: Meere standardised to Meeres

Montcontour standardised to Moncontour

Page 240: hatband standardised to hat-band

Page 242: broadcloths standardised to broad-cloths

McDermod standardised to MacDermod

Page 246: Page number corrected from 24 to 64 in entry Stourton

Page 247: Page number corrected from 517 to 175 in entry Underwoods

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