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   Chapter 21 GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex By Charles Darwin Characters: 251758

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:03


Main conclusion that man is descended from some lower form-Manner of development-Genealogy of man-Intellectual and moral faculties-Sexual Selection-Concluding remarks.

A brief summary will be sufficient to recall to the reader's mind the more salient points in this work. Many of the views which have been advanced are highly speculative, and some no doubt will prove erroneous; but I have in every case given the reasons which have led me to one view rather than to another. It seemed worth while to try how far the principle of evolution would throw light on some of the more complex problems in the natural history of man. False facts are highly injurious to the progress of science, for they often endure long; but false views, if supported by some evidence, do little harm, for every one takes a salutary pleasure in proving their falseness: and when this is done, one path towards error is closed and the road to truth is often at the same time opened.

The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment, is that man is descended from some less highly organised form. The grounds upon which this conclusion rests will never be shaken, for the close similarity between man and the lower animals in embryonic development, as well as in innumerable points of structure and constitution, both of high and of the most trifling importance,-the rudiments which he retains, and the abnormal reversions to which he is occasionally liable,-are facts which cannot be disputed. They have long been known, but until recently they told us nothing with respect to the origin of man. Now when viewed by the light of our knowledge of the whole organic world, their meaning is unmistakable. The great principle of evolution stands up clear and firm, when these groups or facts are considered in connection with others, such as the mutual affinities of the members of the same group, their geographical distribution in past and present times, and their geological succession. It is incredible that all these facts should speak falsely. He who is not content to look, like a savage, at the phenomena of nature as disconnected, cannot any longer believe that man is the work of a separate act of creation. He will be forced to admit that the close resemblance of the embryo of man to that, for instance, of a dog-the construction of his skull, limbs and whole frame on the same plan with that of other mammals, independently of the uses to which the parts may be put-the occasional re-appearance of various structures, for instance of several muscles, which man does not normally possess, but which are common to the Quadrumana-and a crowd of analogous facts-all point in the plainest manner to the conclusion that man is the co-descendant with other mammals of a common progenitor.

We have seen that man incessantly presents individual differences in all parts of his body and in his mental faculties. These differences or variations seem to be induced by the same general causes, and to obey the same laws as with the lower animals. In both cases similar laws of inheritance prevail. Man tends to increase at a greater rate than his means of subsistence; consequently he is occasionally subjected to a severe struggle for existence, and natural selection will have effected whatever lies within its scope. A succession of strongly-marked variations of a similar nature is by no means requisite; slight fluctuating differences in the individual suffice for the work of natural selection; not that we have any reason to suppose that in the same species, all parts of the organisation tend to vary to the same degree. We may feel assured that the inherited effects of the long-continued use or disuse of parts will have done much in the same direction with natural selection. Modifications formerly of importance, though no longer of any special use, are long-inherited. When one part is modified, other parts change through the principle of correlation, of which we have instances in many curious cases of correlated monstrosities. Something may be attributed to the direct and definite action of the surrounding conditions of life, such as abundant food, heat or moisture; and lastly, many characters of slight physiological importance, some indeed of considerable importance, have been gained through sexual selection.

No doubt man, as well as every other animal, presents structures, which seem to our limited knowledge, not to be now of any service to him, nor to have been so formerly, either for the general conditions of life, or in the relations of one sex to the other. Such structures cannot be accounted for by any form of selection, or by the inherited effects of the use and disuse of parts. We know, however, that many strange and strongly-marked peculiarities of structure occasionally appear in our domesticated productions, and if their unknown causes were to act more uniformly, they would probably become common to all the individuals of the species. We may hope hereafter to understand something about the causes of such occasional modifications, especially through the study of monstrosities: hence the labours of experimentalists, such as those of M. Camille Dareste, are full of promise for the future. In general we can only say that the cause of each slight variation and of each monstrosity lies much more in the constitution of the organism, than in the nature of the surrounding conditions; though new and changed conditions certainly play an important part in exciting organic changes of many kinds.

Through the means just specified, aided perhaps by others as yet undiscovered, man has been raised to his present state. But since he attained to the rank of manhood, he has diverged into distinct races, or as they may be more fitly called, sub-species. Some of these, such as the Negro and European, are so distinct that, if specimens had been brought to a naturalist without any further information, they would undoubtedly have been considered by him as good and true species. Nevertheless all the races agree in so many unimportant details of structure and in so many mental peculiarities that these can be accounted for only by inheritance from a common progenitor; and a progenitor thus characterised would probably deserve to rank as man.

It must not be supposed that the divergence of each race from the other races, and of all from a common stock, can be traced back to any one pair of progenitors. On the contrary, at every stage in the process of modification, all the individuals which were in any way better fitted for their conditions of life, though in different degrees, would have survived in greater numbers than the less well-fitted. The process would have been like that followed by man, when he does not intentionally select particular individuals, but breeds from all the superior individuals, and neglects the inferior. He thus slowly but surely modifies his stock, and unconsciously forms a new strain. So with respect to modifications acquired independently of selection, and due to variations arising from the nature of the organism and the action of the surrounding conditions, or from changed habits of life, no single pair will have been modified much more than the other pairs inhabiting the same country, for all will have been continually blended through free intercrossing.

By considering the embryological structure of man,-the homologies which he presents with the lower animals,-the rudiments which he retains,-and the reversions to which he is liable, we can partly recall in imagination the former condition of our early progenitors; and can approximately place them in their proper place in the zoological series. We thus learn that man is descended from a hairy, tailed quadruped, probably arboreal in its habits, and an inhabitant of the Old World. This creature, if its whole structure had been examined by a naturalist, would have been classed amongst the Quadrumana, as surely as the still more ancient progenitor of the Old and New World monkeys. The Quadrumana and all the higher mammals are probably derived from an ancient marsupial animal, and this through a long line of diversified forms, from some amphibian-like creature, and this again from some fish-like animal. In the dim obscurity of the past we can see that the early progenitor of all the Vertebrata must have been an aquatic animal, provided with branchiae, with the two sexes united in the same individual, and with the most important organs of the body (such as the brain and heart) imperfectly or not at all developed. This animal seems to have been more like the larvae of the existing marine Ascidians than any other known form.

The high standard of our intellectual powers and moral disposition is the greatest difficulty which presents itself, after we have been driven to this conclusion on the origin of man. But every one who admits the principle of evolution, must see that the mental powers of the higher animals, which are the same in kind with those of man, though so different in degree, are capable of advancement. Thus the interval between the mental powers of one of the higher apes and of a fish, or between those of an ant and scale-insect, is immense; yet their development does not offer any special difficulty; for with our domesticated animals, the mental faculties are certainly variable, and the variations are inherited. No one doubts that they are of the utmost importance to animals in a state of nature. Therefore the conditions are favourable for their development through natural selection. The same conclusion may be extended to man; the intellect must have been all-important to him, even at a very remote period, as enabling him to invent and use language, to make weapons, tools, traps, etc., whereby with the aid of his social habits, he long ago became the most dominant of all living creatures.

A great stride in the development of the intellect will have followed, as soon as the half-art and half-instinct of language came into use; for the continued use of language will have reacted on the brain and produced an inherited effect; and this again will have reacted on the improvement of language. As Mr. Chauncey Wright (1. 'On the Limits of Natural Selection,' in the 'North American Review,' Oct. 1870, p. 295.) has well remarked, the largeness of the brain in man relatively to his body, compared with the lower animals, may be attributed in chief part to the early use of some simple form of language,-that wonderful engine which affixes signs to all sorts of objects and qualities, and excites trains of thought which would never arise from the mere impression of the senses, or if they did arise could not be followed out. The higher intellectual powers of man, such as those of ratiocination, abstraction, self-consciousness, etc., probably follow from the continued improvement and exercise of the other mental faculties.

The development of the moral qualities is a more interesting problem. The foundation lies in the social instincts, including under this term the family ties. These instincts are highly complex, and in the case of the lower animals give special tendencies towards certain definite actions; but the more important elements are love, and the distinct emotion of sympathy. Animals endowed with the social instincts take pleasure in one another's company, warn one another of danger, defend and aid one another in many ways. These instincts do not extend to all the individuals of the species, but only to those of the same community. As they are highly beneficial to the species, they have in all probability been acquired through natural selection.

A moral being is one who is capable of reflecting on his past actions and their motives-of approving of some and disapproving of others; and the fact that man is the one being who certainly deserves this designation, is the greatest of all distinctions between him and the lower animals. But in the fourth chapter I have endeavoured to shew that the moral sense follows, firstly, from the enduring and ever-present nature of the social instincts; secondly, from man's appreciation of the approbation and disapprobation of his fellows; and thirdly, from the high activity of his mental faculties, with past impressions extremely vivid; and in these latter respects he differs from the lower animals. Owing to this condition of mind, man cannot avoid looking both backwards and forwards, and comparing past impressions. Hence after some temporary desire or passion has mastered his social instincts, he reflects and compares the now weakened impression of such past impulses with the ever-present social instincts; and he then feels that sense of dissatisfaction which all unsatisfied instincts leave behind them, he therefore resolves to act differently for the future,-and this is conscience. Any instinct, permanently stronger or more enduring than another, gives rise to a feeling which we express by saying that it ought to be obeyed. A pointer dog, if able to reflect on his past conduct, would say to himself, I ought (as indeed we say of him) to have pointed at that hare and not have yielded to the passing temptation of hunting it.

Social animals are impelled partly by a wish to aid the members of their community in a general manner, but more commonly to perform certain definite actions. Man is impelled by the same general wish to aid his fellows; but has few or no special instincts. He differs also from the lower animals in the power of expressing his desires by words, which thus become a guide to the aid required and bestowed. The motive to give aid is likewise much modified in man: it no longer consists solely of a blind instinctive impulse, but is much influenced by the praise or blame of his fellows. The appreciation and the bestowal of praise and blame both rest on sympathy; and this emotion, as we have seen, is one of the most important elements of the social instincts. Sympathy, though gained as an instinct, is also much strengthened by exercise or habit. As all men desire their own happiness, praise or blame is bestowed on actions and motives, according as they lead to this end; and as happiness is an essential part of the general good, the greatest-happiness principle indirectly serves as a nearly safe standard of right and wrong. As the reasoning powers advance and experience is gained, the remoter effects of certain lines of conduct on the character of the individual, and on the general good, are perceived; and then the self-regarding virtues come within the scope of public opinion, and receive praise, and their opposites blame. But with the less civilised nations reason often errs, and many bad customs and base superstitions come within the same scope, and are then esteemed as high virtues, and their breach as heavy crimes.

The moral faculties are generally and justly esteemed as of higher value than the intellectual powers. But we should bear in mind that the activity of the mind in vividly recalling past impressions is one of the fundamental though secondary bases of conscience. This affords the strongest argument for educating and stimulating in all possible ways the intellectual faculties of every human being. No doubt a man with a torpid mind, if his social affections and sympathies are well developed, will be led to good actions, and may have a fairly sensitive conscience. But whatever renders the imagination more vivid and strengthens the habit of recalling and comparing past impressions, will make the conscience more sensitive, and may even somewhat compensate for weak social affections and sympathies.

The moral nature of man has reached its present standard, partly through the advancement of his reasoning powers and consequently of a just public opinion, but especially from his sympathies having been rendered more tender and widely diffused through the effects of habit, example, instruction, and reflection. It is not improbable that after long practice virtuous tendencies may be inherited. With the more civilised races, the conviction of the existence of an all-seeing Deity has had a potent influence on the advance of morality. Ultimately man does not accept the praise or blame of his fellows as his sole guide, though few escape this influence, but his habitual convictions, controlled by reason, afford him the safest rule. His conscience then becomes the supreme judge and monitor. Nevertheless the first foundation or origin of the moral sense lies in the social instincts, including sympathy; and these instincts no doubt were primarily gained, as in the case of the lower animals, through natural selection.

The belief in God has often been advanced as not only the greatest, but the most complete of all the distinctions between man and the lower animals. It is however impossible, as we have seen, to maintain that this belief is innate or instinctive in man. On the other hand a belief in all-pervading spiritual agencies seems to be universal; and apparently follows from a considerable advance in man's reason, and from a still greater advance in his faculties of imagination, curiosity and wonder. I am aware that the assumed instinctive belief in God has been used by many persons as an argument for His existence. But this is a rash argument, as we should thus be compelled to believe in the existence of many cruel and malignant spirits, only a little more powerful than man; for the belief in them is far more general than in a beneficent Deity. The idea of a universal and beneficent Creator does not seem to arise in the mind of man, until he has been elevated by long-continued culture.

He who believes in the advancement of man from some low organised form, will naturally ask how does this bear on the belief in the immortality of the soul. The barbarous races of man, as Sir J. Lubbock has shewn, possess no clear belief of this kind; but arguments derived from the primeval beliefs of savages are, as we have just seen, of little or no avail. Few persons feel any anxiety from the impossibility of determining at what precise period in the development of the individual, from the first trace of a minute germinal vesicle, man becomes an immortal being; and there is no greater cause for anxiety because the period cannot possibly be determined in the gradually ascending organic scale. (2. The Rev. J.A. Picton gives a discussion to this effect in his 'New Theories and the Old Faith,' 1870.)

I am aware that the conclusions arrived at in this work will be denounced by some as highly irreligious; but he who denounces them is bound to shew why it is more irreligious to explain the origin of man as a distinct species by descent from some lower form, through the laws of variation and natural selection, than to explain the birth of the individual through the laws of ordinary reproduction. The birth both of the species and of the individual are equally parts of that grand sequence of events, which our minds refuse to accept as the result of blind chance. The understanding revolts at such a conclusion, whether or not we are able to believe that every slight variation of structure,-the union of each pair in marriage, the dissemination of each seed,-and other such events, have all been ordained for some special purpose.

Sexual selection has been treated at great length in this work; for, as I have attempted to shew, it has played an important part in the history of the organic world. I am aware that much remains doubtful, but I have endeavoured to give a fair view of the whole case. In the lower divisions of the animal kingdom, sexual selection seems to have done nothing: such animals are often affixed for life to the same spot, or have the sexes combined in the same individual, or what is still more important, their perceptive and intellectual faculties are not sufficiently advanced to allow of the feelings of love and jealousy, or of the exertion of choice. When, however, we come to the Arthropoda and Vertebrata, even to the lowest classes in these two great Sub-Kingdoms, sexual selection has effected much.

In the several great classes of the animal kingdom,-in mammals, birds, reptiles, fishes, insects, and even crustaceans,-the differences between the sexes follow nearly the same rules. The males are almost always the wooers; and they alone are armed with special weapons for fighting with their rivals. They are generally stronger and larger than the females, and are endowed with the requisite qualities of courage and pugnacity. They are provided, either exclusively or in a much higher degree than the females, with organs for vocal or instrumental music, and with odoriferous glands. They are ornamented with infinitely diversified appendages, and with the most brilliant or conspicuous colours, often arranged in elegant patterns, whilst the females are unadorned. When the sexes differ in more important structures, it is the male which is provided with special sense-organs for discovering the female, with locomotive organs for reaching her, and often with prehensile organs for holding her. These various structures for charming or securing the female are often developed in the male during only part of the year, namely the breeding-season. They have in many cases been more or less transferred to the females; and in the latter case they often appear in her as mere rudiments. They are lost or never gained by the males after emasculation. Generally they are not developed in the male during early youth, but appear a short time before the age for reproduction. Hence in most cases the young of both sexes resemble each other; and the female somewhat resembles her young offspring throughout life. In almost every great class a few anomalous cases occur, where there has been an almost complete transposition of the characters proper to the two sexes; the females assuming characters which properly belong to the males. This surprising uniformity in the laws regulating the differences between the sexes in so many and such widely separated classes, is intelligible if we admit the action of one common cause, namely sexual selection.

Sexual selection depends on the success of certain individuals over others of the same sex, in relation to the propagation of the species; whilst natural selection depends on the success of both sexes, at all ages, in relation to the general conditions of life. The sexual struggle is of two kinds; in the one it is between individuals of the same sex, generally the males, in order to drive away or kill their rivals, the females remaining passive; whilst in the other, the struggle is likewise between the individuals of the same sex, in order to excite or charm those of the opposite sex, generally the females, which no longer remain passive, but select the more agreeable partners. This latter kind of selection is closely analogous to that which man unintentionally, yet effectually, brings to bear on his domesticated productions, when he preserves during a long period the most pleasing or useful individuals, without any wish to modify the breed.

The laws of inheritance determine whether characters gained through sexual selection by either sex shall be transmitted to the same sex, or to both; as well as the age at which they shall be developed. It appears that variations arising late in life are commonly transmitted to one and the same sex. Variability is the necessary basis for the action of selection, and is wholly independent of it. It follows from this, that variations of the same general nature have often been taken advantage of and accumulated through sexual selection in relation to the propagation of the species, as well as through natural selection in relation to the general purposes of life. Hence secondary sexual characters, when equally transmitted to both sexes can be distinguished from ordinary specific characters only by the light of analogy. The modifications acquired through sexual selection are often so strongly pronounced that the two sexes have frequently been ranked as distinct species, or even as distinct genera. Such strongly-marked differences must be in some manner highly important; and we know that they have been acquired in some instances at the cost not only of inconvenience, but of exposure to actual danger.

The belief in the power of sexual selection rests chiefly on the following considerations. Certain characters are confined to one sex; and this alone renders it probable that in most cases they are connected with the act of reproduction. In innumerable instances these characters are fully developed only at maturity, and often during only a part of the year, which is always the breeding-season. The males (passing over a few exceptional cases) are the more active in courtship; they are the better armed, and are rendered the more attractive in various ways. It is to be especially observed that the males display their attractions with elaborate care in the presence of the females; and that they rarely or never display them excepting during the season of love. It is incredible that all this should be purposeless. Lastly we have distinct evidence with some quadrupeds and birds, that the individuals of one sex are capable of feeling a strong antipathy or preference for certain individuals of the other sex.

Bearing in mind these facts, and the marked results of man's unconscious selection, when applied to domesticated animals and cultivated plants, it seems to me almost certain that if the individuals of one sex were during a long series of generations to prefer pairing with certain individuals of the other sex, characterised in some peculiar manner, the offspring would slowly but surely become modified in this same manner. I have not attempted to conceal that, excepting when the males are more numerous than the females, or when polygamy prevails, it is doubtful how the more attractive males succeed in leaving a large number of offspring to inherit their superiority in ornaments or other charms than the less attractive males; but I have shewn that this would probably follow from the females,-especially the more vigorous ones, which would be the first to breed,-preferring not only the more attractive but at the same time the more vigorous and victorious males.

Although we have some positive evidence that birds appreciate bright and beautiful objects, as with the bower-birds of Australia, and although they certainly appreciate the power of song, yet I fully admit that it is astonishing that the females of many birds and some mammals should be endowed with sufficient taste to appreciate ornaments, which we have reason to attribute to sexual selection; and this is even more astonishing in the case of reptiles, fish, and insects. But we really know little about the minds of the lower animals. It cannot be supposed, for instance, that male birds of paradise or peacocks should take such pains in erecting, spreading, and vibrating their beautiful plumes before the females for no purpose. We should remember the fact given on excellent authority in a former chapter, that several peahens, when debarred from an admired male, remained widows during a whole season rather than pair with another bird.

Nevertheless I know of no fact in natural history more wonderful than that the female Argus pheasant should appreciate the exquisite shading of the ball-and-socket ornaments and the elegant patterns on the wing-feather of the male. He who thinks that the male was created as he now exists must admit that the great plumes, which prevent the wings from being used for flight, and which are displayed during courtship and at no other time in a manner quite peculiar to this one species, were given to him as an ornament. If so, he must likewise admit that the female was created and endowed with the capacity of appreciating such ornaments. I differ only in the conviction that the male Argus pheasant acquired his beauty gradually, through the preference of the females during many generations for the more highly ornamented males; the aesthetic capacity of the females having been advanced through exercise or habit, just as our own taste is gradually improved. In the male through the fortunate chance of a few feathers being left unchanged, we can distinctly trace how simple spots with a little fulvous shading on one side may have been developed by small steps into the wonderful ball-and-socket ornaments; and it is probable that they were actually thus developed.

Everyone who admits the principle of evolution, and yet feels great difficulty in admitting that female mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, could have acquired the high taste implied by the beauty of the males, and which generally coincides with our own standard, should reflect that the nerve-cells of the brain in the highest as well as in the lowest members of the Vertebrate series, are derived from those of the common progenitor of this great Kingdom. For we can thus see how it has come to pass that certain mental faculties, in various and widely distinct groups of animals, have been developed in nearly the same manner and to nearly the same degree.

The reader who has taken the trouble to go through the several chapters devoted to sexual selection, will be able to judge how far the conclusions at which I have arrived are supported by sufficient evidence. If he accepts these conclusions he may, I think, safely extend them to mankind; but it would be superfluous here to repeat what I have so lately said on the manner in which sexual selection apparently has acted on man, both on the male and female side, causing the two sexes to differ in body and mind, and the several races to differ from each other in various characters, as well as from their ancient and lowly-organised progenitors.

He who admits the principle of sexual selection will be led to the remarkable conclusion that the nervous system not only regulates most of the existing functions of the body, but has indirectly influenced the progressive development of various bodily structures and of certain mental qualities. Courage, pugnacity, perseverance, strength and size of body, weapons of all kinds, musical organs, both vocal and instrumental, bright colours and ornamental appendages, have all been indirectly gained by the one sex or the other, through the exertion of choice, the influence of love and jealousy, and the appreciation of the beautiful in sound, colour or form; and these powers of the mind manifestly depend on the development of the brain.

Man scans with scrupulous care the character and pedigree of his horses, cattle, and dogs before he matches them; but when he comes to his own marriage he rarely, or never, takes any such care. He is impelled by nearly the same motives as the lower animals, when they are left to their own free choice, though he is in so far superior to them that he highly values mental charms and virtues. On the other hand he is strongly attracted by mere wealth or rank. Yet he might by selection do something not only for the bodily constitution and frame of his offspring, but for their intellectual and moral qualities. Both sexes ought to refrain from marriage if they are in any marked degree inferior in body or mind; but such hopes are Utopian and will never be even partially realised until the laws of inheritance are thoroughly known. Everyone does good service, who aids towards this end. When the principles of breeding and inheritance are better understood, we shall not hear ignorant members of our legislature rejecting with scorn a plan for ascertaining whether or not consanguineous marriages are injurious to man.

The advancement of the welfare of mankind is a most intricate problem: all ought to refrain from marriage who cannot avoid abject poverty for their children; for poverty is not only a great evil, but tends to its own increase by leading to recklessness in marriage. On the other hand, as Mr. Galton has remarked, if the prudent avoid marriage, whilst the reckless marry, the inferior members tend to supplant the better members of society. Man, like every other animal, has no doubt advanced to his present high condition through a struggle for existence consequent on his rapid multiplication; and if he is to advance still higher, it is to be feared that he must remain subject to a severe struggle. Otherwise he would sink into indolence, and the more gifted men would not be more successful in the battle of life than the less gifted. Hence our natural rate of increase, though leading to many and obvious evils, must not be greatly diminished by any means. There should be open competition for all men; and the most able should not be prevented by laws or customs from succeeding best and rearing the largest number of offspring. Important as the struggle for existence has been and even still is, yet as far as the highest part of man's nature is concerned there are other agencies more important. For the moral qualities are advanced, either directly or indirectly, much more through the effects of habit, the reasoning powers, instruction, religion, etc., than through natural selection; though to this latter agency may be safely attributed the social instincts, which afforded the basis for the development of the moral sense.

The main conclusion arrived at in this work, namely, that man is descended from some lowly organised form, will, I regret to think, be highly distasteful to many. But there can hardly be a doubt that we are descended from barbarians. The astonishment which I felt on first seeing a party of Fuegians on a wild and broken shore will never be forgotten by me, for the reflection at once rushed into my mind-such were our ancestors. These men were absolutely naked and bedaubed with paint, their long hair was tangled, their mouths frothed with excitement, and their expression was wild, startled, and distrustful. They possessed hardly any arts, and like wild animals lived on what they could catch; they had no government, and were merciless to every one not of their own small tribe. He who has seen a savage in his native land will not feel much shame, if forced to acknowledge that the blood of some more humble creature flows in his veins. For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper, or from that old baboon, who descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogs-as from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practices infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.

Man may be excused for feeling some pride at having risen, though not through his own exertions, to the very summit of the organic scale; and the fact of his having thus risen, instead of having been aboriginally placed there, may give him hope for a still higher destiny in the distant future. But we are not here concerned with hopes or fears, only with the truth as far as our reason permits us to discover it; and I have given the evidence to the best of my ability. We must, however, acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities, with sympathy which feels for the most debased, with benevolence which extends not only to other men but to the humblest living creature, with his god-like intellect which has penetrated into the movements and constitution of the solar system-with all these exalted powers-Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.

SUPPLEMENTAL NOTE.

ON SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MONKEYS.

Reprinted from NATURE, November 2, 1876, p. 18.

In the discussion on Sexual Selection in my 'Descent of Man,' no case interested and perplexed me so much as the brightly-coloured hinder ends and adjoining parts of certain monkeys. As these parts are more brightly coloured in one sex than the other, and as they become more brilliant during the season of love, I concluded that the colours had been gained as a sexual attraction. I was well aware that I thus laid myself open to ridicule; though in fact it is not more surprising that a monkey should display his bright-red hinder end than that a peacock should display his magnificent tail. I had, however, at that time no evidence of monkeys exhibiting this part of their bodies during their courtship; and such display in the case of birds affords the best evidence that the ornaments of the males are of service to them by attracting or exciting the females. I have lately read an article by Joh. von Fischer, of Gotha, published in 'Der Zoologische Garten,' April 1876, on the expression of monkeys under various emotions, which is well worthy of study by any one interested in the subject, and which shews that the author is a careful and acute observer. In this article there is an account of the behaviour of a young male mandrill when he first beheld himself in a looking-glass, and it is added, that after a time he turned round and presented his red hinder end to the glass. Accordingly I wrote to Herr J. von Fischer to ask what he supposed was the meaning of this strange action, and he has sent me two long letters full of new and curious details, which will, I hope, be hereafter published. He says that he was himself at first perplexed by the above action, and was thus led carefully to observe several individuals of various other species of monkeys, which he has long kept in his house. He finds that not only the mandrill (Cynocephalus mormon) but the drill (C. leucophaeus) and three other kinds of baboons (C. hamadryas, sphinx, and babouin), also Cynopithecus niger, and Macacus rhesus and nemestrinus, turn this part of their bodies, which in all these species is more or less brightly coloured, to him when they are pleased, and to other persons as a sort of greeting. He took pains to cure a Macacus rhesus, which he had kept for five years, of this indecorous habit, and at last succeeded. These monkeys are particularly apt to act in this manner, grinning at the same time, when first introduced to a new monkey, but often also to their old monkey friends; and after this mutual display they begin to play together. The young mandrill ceased spontaneously after a time to act in this manner towards his master, von Fischer, but continued to do so towards persons who were strangers and to new monkeys. A young Cynopithecus niger never acted, excepting on one occasion, in this way towards his master, but frequently towards strangers, and continues to do so up to the present time. From these facts Von Fischer concludes that the monkeys which behaved in this manner before a looking-glass (viz., the mandrill, drill, Cynopithecus niger, Macacus rhesus and nemestrinus) acted as if their reflection were a new acquaintance. The mandrill and drill, which have their hinder ends especially ornamented, display it even whilst quite young, more frequently and more ostentatiously than do the other kinds. Next in order comes Cynocephalus hamadryas, whilst the other species act in this manner seldomer. The individuals, however, of the same species vary in this respect, and some which were very shy never displayed their hinder ends. It deserves especial attention that Von Fischer has never seen any species purposely exhibit the hinder part of its body, if not at all coloured. This remark applies to many individuals of Macacus cynomolgus and Cercocebus radiatus (which is closely allied to M. rhesus), to three species of Cercopithecus and several American monkeys. The habit of turning the hinder ends as a greeting to an old friend or new acquaintance, which seems to us so odd, is not really more so than the habits of many savages, for instance that of rubbing their bellies with their hands, or rubbing noses together. The habit with the mandrill and drill seems to be instinctive or inherited, as it was followed by very young animals; but it is modified or guided, like so many other instincts, by observation, for Von Fischer says that they take pains to make their display fully; and if made before two observers, they turn to him who seems to pay the most attention.

With respect to the origin of the habit, Von Fischer remarks that his monkeys like to have their naked hinder ends patted or stroked, and that they then grunt with pleasure. They often also turn this part of their bodies to other monkeys to have bits of dirt picked off, and so no doubt it would be with respect to thorns. But the habit with adult animals is connected to a certain extent with sexual feelings, for Von Fischer watched through a glass door a female Cynopithecus niger, and she during several days, "umdrehte und dem M?nnchen mit gurgelnden T?nen die stark ger?thete Sitzflache zeigte, was ich früher nie an diesem Thier bemerkt hatte. Beim Anblick dieses Gegenstandes erregte sich das M?nnchen sichtlich, denn es polterte heftig an den St?ben, ebenfalls gurgelnde Laute ausstossend." As all the monkeys which have the hinder parts of their bodies more or less brightly coloured live, according to Von Fischer, in open rocky places, he thinks that these colours serve to render one sex conspicuous at a distance to the other; but, as monkeys are such gregarious animals, I should have thought that there was no need for the sexes to recognise each other at a distance. It seems to me more probable that the bright colours, whether on the face or hinder end, or, as in the mandrill, on both, serve as a sexual ornament and attraction. Anyhow, as we now know that monkeys have the habit of turning their hinder ends towards other monkeys, it ceases to be at all surprising that it should have been this part of their bodies which has been more or less decorated. The fact that it is only the monkeys thus characterised which, as far as at present known, act in this manner as a greeting towards other monkeys renders it doubtful whether the habit was first acquired from some independent cause, and that afterwards the parts in question were coloured as a sexual ornament; or whether the colouring and the habit of turning round were first acquired through variation and sexual selection, and that afterwards the habit was retained as a sign of pleasure or as a greeting, through the principle of inherited association. This principle apparently comes into play on many occasions: thus it is generally admitted that the songs of birds serve mainly as an attraction during the season of love, and that the leks, or great congregations of the black-grouse, are connected with their courtship; but the habit of singing has been retained by some birds when they feel happy, for instance by the common robin, and the habit of congregating has been retained by the black-grouse during other seasons of the year.

I beg leave to refer to one other point in relation to sexual selection. It has been objected that this form of selection, as far as the ornaments of the males are concerned, implies that all females within the same district must possess and exercise exactly the same taste. It should, however, be observed, in the first place, that although the range of variation of a species may be very large, it is by no means indefinite. I have elsewhere given a good instance of this fact in the pigeon, of which there are at least a hundred varieties differing widely in their colours, and at least a score of varieties of the fowl differing in the same kind of way; but the range of colour in these two species is extremely distinct. Therefore the females of natural species cannot have an unlimited scope for their taste. In the second place, I presume that no supporter of the principle of sexual selection believes that the females select particular points of beauty in the males; they are merely excited or attracted in a greater degree by one male than by another, and this seems often to depend, especially with birds, on brilliant colouring. Even man, excepting perhaps an artist, does not analyse the slight differences in the features of the woman whom he may admire, on which her beauty depends. The male mandrill has not only the hinder end of his body, but his face gorgeously coloured and marked with oblique ridges, a yellow beard, and other ornaments. We may infer from what we see of the variation of animals under domestication, that the above several ornaments of the mandrill were gradually acquired by one individual varying a little in one way, and another individual in another way. The males which were the handsomest or the most attractive in any manner to the females would pair oftenest, and would leave rather more offspring than other males. The offspring of the former, although variously intercrossed, would either inherit the peculiarities of their fathers or transmit an increased tendency to vary in the same manner. Consequently the whole body of males inhabiting the same country would tend from the effects of constant intercrossing to become modified almost uniformly, but sometimes a little more in one character and sometimes in another, though at an extremely slow rate; all ultimately being thus rendered more attractive to the females. The process is like that which I have called unconscious selection by man, and of which I have given several instances. In one country the inhabitants value a fleet or light dog or horse, and in another country a heavier and more powerful one; in neither country is there any selection of individual animals with lighter or stronger bodies and limbs; nevertheless after a considerable lapse of time the individuals are found to have been modified in the desired manner almost uniformly, though differently in each country. In two absolutely distinct countries inhabited by the same species, the individuals of which can never during long ages have intermigrated and intercrossed, and where, moreover, the variations will probably not have been identically the same, sexual selection might cause the males to differ. Nor does the belief appear to me altogether fanciful that two sets of females, surrounded by a very different environment, would be apt to acquire somewhat different tastes with respect to form, sound, or colour. However this may be, I have given in my 'Descent of Man' instances of closely-allied birds inhabiting distinct countries, of which the young and the females cannot be distinguished, whilst the adult males differ considerably, and this may be attributed with much probability to the action of sexual selection.

INDEX.

Abbot, C., on the battles of seals.

Abductor of the fifth metatarsal, presence of, in man.

Abercrombie, Dr., on disease of the brain affecting speech.

Abipones, marriage customs of the.

Abortion, prevalence of the practice of.

Abou-Simbel, caves of.

Abramis brama.

Abstraction, power of, in animals.

Acalles, stridulation of.

Acanthodactylus capensis, sexual differences of colour in.

Accentor Modularis.

Acclimatisation, difference of, in different races of men.

Achetidae, stridulation of the; rudimentary stridulating organs in female.

Acilius sulcatus, elytra of the female.

Acomus, development of spurs in the female of.

Acridiidae, stridulation of the; rudimentary stridulating organs in female.

Acromio-basilar muscle, and quadrupedal gait.

Acting.

Actiniae, bright colours of.

Adams, Mr., migration of birds; intelligence of nut-hatch; on the

Bombycilla carolinensis.

Admiral butterfly.

Adoption of the young of other animals by female monkeys.

Advancement in the organic scale, Von Baer's definition of.

Aeby, on the difference between the skulls of man and the quadrumana.

Aesthetic faculty, not highly developed in savages.

Affection, maternal; manifestation of, by animals; parental and filial, partly the result of natural selection; mutual, of birds; shewn by birds in confinement, for certain persons.

Africa, probably the birthplace of man; South, crossed population of; South, retention of colour by the Dutch in; South, proportion of the sexes in the butterflies of; tattooing practised in; Northern, coiffure of natives of.

Agassiz, L., on conscience in dogs; on the coincidence of the races of man with zoological provinces; on the number of species of man; on the courtship of the land-snails; on the brightness of the colours of male fishes during the breeding season; on the frontal protuberance of the males of Geophagus and Cichla; male fishes hatching ova in their mouths; sexual differences in colour of chromids; on the slight sexual differences of the South Americans; on the tattooing of the Amazonian Indians.

Age, in relation to the transmission of characters in birds; variation in accordance with, in birds.

Agelaeus phoeniceus.

Ageronia feronia, noise produced by.

Agrion, dimorphism in.

Agrion Ramburii, sexes of.

Agrionidae, difference in the sexes of.

Agrotis exclamationis.

Ague, tertian, dog suffering from.

Ainos, hairiness of the.

Aitchison, Mr., on sheep.

Aithurus polytmus, young of.

Albino birds.

Alca torda, young of.

Alces palmata.

Alder and Hancock, MM., on the nudi-branch mollusca.

Allen, J.A., vigour of birds earliest hatched; effect of difference of temperature, light, etc., on birds; colours of birds; on the relative size of the sexes of Callorhinus ursinus; on the name of Otaria jubata; on the pairing of seals; on sexual differences in the colour of bats.

Allen, S., on the habits of Hoplopterus; on the plumes of herons; on the vernal moult of Herodius bubulcus.

Alligator, courtship of the male; roaring of the male.

Amadavat, pugnacity of male.

Amadina Lathami, display of plumage by the male.

Amadina castanotis, display of plumage by the male.

Amazons, butterflies of the; fishes of the.

America, variation in the skulls of aborigines of; wide range of aborigines of; lice of the natives of; general beardlessness of the natives of.

America, North, butterflies of; Indians of, women a cause of strife among the; Indians of, their notions of female beauty.

America, South, character of the natives of; population of parts of; piles of stones in; extinction of the fossil horse of; desert-birds of; slight sexual difference of the aborigines of; prevalence of infanticide in.

American languages, often highly artificial.

Americans, wide geographical range of; native, variability of; and negroes, difference of; aversion of, to hair on the face.

Ammophila, on the jaws of.

Ammotragus tragelaphus, hairy forelegs of.

Amphibia, affinity of, to the ganoid fishes; vocal organs of the.

Amphibians, breeding whilst immature.

Amphioxus.

Amphipoda, males sexually mature while young.

Amunoph III., negro character of, features of.

Anal appendages of insects.

Analogous variation in the plumage of birds.

Anas.

Anas acuta, male plumage of.

Anas boschas, male plumage of.

Anas histrionica.

Anas punctata.

Anastomus oscitans, sexes and young of; white nuptial plumage of.

Anatidae, voices of.

Anax junius, differences in the sexes of.

Andaman islanders, susceptible to change of climate.

Anderson, Dr., on the tail of Macacus brunneus; the Bufo sikimmensis; sounds of Echis carinata.

Andreana fulva.

Anglo-Saxons, estimation of the beard among the.

Animals, domesticated, more fertile than wild; cruelty of savages to; characters common to man and; domestic, change of breeds of.

Annelida, colours of.

Anobium tessellatum, sounds produced by.

Anolis cristatellus, male, crest of; pugnacity of the male; throat-pouch of.

Anser canadensis.

Anset cygnoides; knob at the base of the beak of.

Anser hyperboreus, whiteness of.

Antelope, prong-horned, horns of.

Antelopes, generally polygamous; horns of; canine teeth of some male; use of horns of; dorsal crests in; dewlaps of; winter change of two species of; peculiar markings of.

Antennae, furnished with cushions in the male of Penthe.

Anthidium manicatum, large male of.

Anthocharis cardamines; sexual difference of colour in.

Anthocharis genutia.

Anthocharis sara.

Anthophora acervorum, large male of.

Anthophora retusa, difference of the sexes in.

Anthropidae.

Anthus, moulting of.

Antics of birds.

Antigua, Dr. Nicholson's observations on yellow fever in.

Antilocapra americana, horns of.

Antilope bezoartica, horned females of; sexual difference in the colour of.

Antilope Dorcas and euchore.

Antilope euchore, horns of.

Antilope montana, rudimentary canines in the young male of.

Antilope niger, sing-sing, caama, and gorgon, sexual differences in the colours of.

Antilope oreas, horns of.

Antilope saiga, polygamous habits of.

Antilope strepsiceros, horns of.

Antilope subgutturosa, absence of suborbital pits in.

Antipathy, shewn by birds in confinement, to certain persons.

Ants, large size of the cerebral ganglia in; soldier, large jaws of; playing together; memory in; intercommunication of, by means of the antennae; habits of; difference of the sexes in; recognition of each other by, after separation.

Ants White, habits of.

Anura.

Apatania muliebris, male unknown.

Apathus, difference of the sexes in.

Apatura Iris.

Apes, difference of the young, from the adult; semi-erect attitude of some; mastoid processes of; influences of the jaw-muscles on the physiognomy of; female, destitute of large canines; building platforms; imitative faculties of; anthropomorphous; probable speedy extermination of the; Gratiolet on the evolution of; canine teeth of male; females of some, less hairy beneath than the males.

Apes, long-armed, their mode of progression.

Aphasia, Dr. Bateman on.

Apis mellifica, large male of.

Apollo, Greek statues of.

Apoplexy in Cebus Azarae.

Appendages, anal, of insects.

Approbation, influence of the love of.

Aprosmictus scapulatus.

Apus, proportion of sexes.

Aquatic birds, frequency of white plumage in.

Aquila chrysaetos.

Arab women, elaborate and peculiar coiffure of.

Arabs, fertility of crosses with other races; gashing of cheeks and temples among the.

Arachnida.

Arakhan, artificial widening of the forehead by the natives of.

Arboricola, young of.

Archeopteryx.

Arctiidae, coloration of the.

Ardea asha, rufescens, and coerulea, change of colour in.

Ardea coerulea, breeding in immature plumage.

Ardea gularis, change of plumage in.

Ardea herodias, love-gestures of the male.

Ardea ludoviciana, age of mature plumage in; continued growth of crest and plumes in the male of.

Ardea nycticorax, cries of.

Ardeola, young of.

Ardetta, changes of plumage in.

Argenteuil.

Argus pheasant, display of plumage by the male; ocellated spots of the; gradation of characters in the.

Argyll, Duke of, on the physical weakness of man; the fashioning of implements peculiar to man; on the contest in man between right and wrong; on the primitive civilisation of man; on the plumage of the male Argus pheasant; on Urosticte Benjamini; on the nests of birds.

Argynnis, colouring of the lower surface of.

Aricoris epitus, sexual differences in the wings of.

Aristocracy, increased beauty of the.

Arms, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors; direction of the hair on the.

Arms and hands, free use of, indirectly correlated with diminution of canines.

Arrest of development.

Arrow-heads, stone, general resemblance of.

Arrows, use of.

Arteries, variations in the course of the.

Artery, effect of tying, upon the lateral channels.

Arthropoda.

Arts practised by savages.

Ascension, coloured incrustation on the rocks of.

Ascidia, affinity of the lancelet to; tad-pole like larvae of.

Ascidians, bright colours of some.

Asinus, Asiatic and African species of.

Asinus taeniopus.

Ass, colour-variations of the.

Ateles, effects of brandy on an; absence of the thumb in.

Ateles beelzebuth, ears of.

Ateles marginatus, colour of the ruff of; hair on the head of.

Ateuchus cicatricosus, habits of.

Ateuchus, stridulation of.

Athalia, proportions of the sexes in.

Atropus pulsatorius.

Attention, manifestations of, in animals.

Audouin, V., on a hymenopterous parasite with a sedentary male.

Audubon, J.J., on the pinioned goose; on the speculum of Mergus cucullatus; on the pugnacity of male birds; on courtship of Caprimulgus; on Tetrao cupido; on Ardea nycticorax; on Sturnella ludoviciana; on the vocal organs of Tetra cupido; on the drumming of the male Tetrao umbellus; on sounds produced by the nightjar; on Ardea herodias and Cathartes jota; on Mimus polyglottus; on display in male birds; on the spring change of colour in some finches; on migration of mocking thrushes; recognition of a dog by a turkey; selection of mate by female birds; on the turkey; on variation in the male scarlet tanager; on the musk-rat; on the habits of Pyranga aestiva; on local differences in the nests of the same species of birds; on the habits of woodpeckers; on Bombycilla carolinensis; on young females of Pyranga aestiva acquiring male characters; on the immature plumage of thrushes; on the immature plumage of birds; on birds breeding in immature plumage; on the growth of the crest and plume in the male Ardea ludoviciana; on the change of colour in some species of Ardea.

Audobon and Bachman, MM., on squirrels fighting; on the Canadian lynx.

Aughey, Prof., on rattlesnakes.

Austen, N.L., on Anolis cristatellus.

Australia, not the birthplace of man; half-castes killed by the natives of; lice of the natives of.

Australia, South, variation in the skulls of aborigines of.

Australians, colour of new-born children of; relative height of the sexes of; women a cause of war among the.

Axis deer, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Aymaras, measurements of the; no grey hair among the; hairlessness of the face in the; long hair of the.

Azara, on the proportion of men and women among the Guaranys; on Palamedea cornuta; on the beards of the Guaranys; on strife for women among the Guanas; on infanticide; on the eradication of the eyebrows and eyelashes by the Indians of Paraguay; on polyandry among the Guanas; celibacy unknown among the savages of South America; on the freedom of divorce among the Charruas.

Babbage C., on the greater proportion of illegitimate female births.

Babirusa, tusks of the.

Baboon, revenge in a; rage excited in, by reading; manifestation of memory by a; employing a mat for shelter against the sun; protected from punishment by its companions.

Baboon, Cape, mane of the male; Hamadryas, mane of the male.

Baboon, effects of intoxicating liquors on; ears of; diversity of the mental faculties in; hands of; habits of; variability of the tail in; manifestation of maternal affection by; using stones and sticks as weapons; co-operation of; silence of, on plundering expeditions; apparent polygamy of; polygamous and social habits of.

Baboons, courtship of.

Bachman, Dr., on the fertility of mulattoes.

Baer, K.E. von, on embryonic development; definition of advancement in the organic scale.

Bagehot, W., on the social virtues among primitive men; slavery formerly beneficial; on the value of obedience; on human progress; on the persistence of savage tribes in classical times.

Bailly, E.M., on the mode of fighting of the Italian buffalo; on the fighting of stags.

Bain, A., on the sense of duty; aid springing from sympathy; on the basis of sympathy; on the love of approbation etc.; on the idea of beauty.

Baird, W., on a difference in colour between the males and females of some Entozoa.

Baker, Mr., observation on the proportion of the sexes in pheasant-chicks.

Baker, Sir S., on the fondness of the Arabs for discordant music; on sexual difference in the colours of an antelope; on the elephant and rhinoceros attacking white or grey horses; on the disfigurements practised by the negroes; on the gashing of the cheeks and temples practised in Arab countries; on the coiffure of the North Africans; on the perforation of the lower lip by the women of Latooka; on the distinctive characters of the coiffure of central African tribes; on the coiffure of Arab women.

"Balz" of the Black-cock.

Bantam, Sebright.

Banteng, horns of; sexual differences in the colours of the.

Banyai, colour of the.

Barbarism, primitive, of civilised nations.

Barbs, filamentous, of the feathers, in certain birds.

Barr, Mr., on sexual preference in dogs.

Barrago, F., on the Simian resemblances of man.

Barrington, Daines, on the language of birds; on the clucking of the hen; on the object of the song of birds; on the singing of female birds; on birds acquiring the songs of other birds; on the muscles of the larynx in song-birds; on the want of the power of song by female birds.

Barrow, on the widow-bird.

Bartels, Dr., supernumerary mammae in men.

Bartlett, A.D., period of hatching of bird's eggs; on the tragopan; on the development of the spurs in Crossoptilon auritum; on the fighting of the males of Plectopterus gambensis; on the Knot; on display in male birds; on the display of plumage by the male Polyplectron; on Crossoptilon auritum and Phasianus Wallichii; on the habits of Lophophorus; on the colour of the mouth in Buceros bicornis; on the incubation of the cassowary; on the Cape Buffalo; on the use of the horns of antelopes; on the fighting of male wart-hogs; on Ammotragus tragelaphus; on the colours of Cercopithecus cephus; on the colours of the faces of monkeys; on the naked surfaces of monkeys.

Bartlett, on courting of Argus pheasant.

Bartram, on the courtship of the male alligator.

Basque language, highly artificial.

Bate, C.S., on the superior activity of male crustacea; on the proportions of the sexes in crabs; on the chelae of crustacea; on the relative size of the sexes in crustacea; on the colours of crustacea.

Bateman, Dr., tendency to imitation in certain diseased states; on

Aphasia.

Bates, H.W., on variation in the form of the head of Amazonian Indians; on the proportion of the sexes among Amazonian butterflies; on sexual differences in the wings of butterflies; on the field-cricket; on Pyrodes pulcherrimus; on the horns of Lamellicorn beetles; on the colours of Epicaliae, etc.; on the coloration of tropical butterflies; on the variability of Papilio Sesostris and Childrenae; on male and female butterflies inhabiting different stations; on mimicry; on the caterpillar of a Sphinx; on the vocal organs of the umbrella-bird; on the toucans; on Brackyurus calvus.

Batokas, knocking out two upper incisors.

Batrachia, eagerness of male.

Bats, scent-glands; sexual differences in the colour of; fur of male frugivorous.

Battle, law of; among beetles; among birds; among mammals; in man.

Beak, sexual difference in the forms of the; in the colour of the.

Beaks, of birds, bright colours of.

Beard, development of, in man; analogy of the, in man and the quadrumana; variation of the development of the, in different races of men; estimation of, among bearded nations; probable origin of the.

Beard, in monkeys; of mammals.

Beautiful, taste for the, in birds; in the quadrumana.

Beauty, sense of, in animals; appreciation of, by birds; influence of; variability of the standard of.

Beauty, sense of, sufficiently permanent for action of sexual selection.

Beaven, Lieut., on the development of the horns in Cervus Eldi.

Beaver, instinct and intelligence of the; voice of the; castoreum of the.

Beavers, battles of male.

Bechstein, on female birds choosing the best singers among the males; on rivalry in song-birds; on the singing of female birds; on birds acquiring the songs of other birds; on pairing the canary and siskin; on a sub-variety of the monk pigeon; on spurred hens.

Beddoe, Dr., on causes of difference in stature.

Bee-eater.

Bees, pollen-baskets and stings of; destruction of drones and queens by; female, secondary sexual characters of; proportion of sexes; difference of the sexes in colour and sexual selection.

Beetle, luminous larva of a.

Beetles, size of the cerebral ganglia in; dilatation of the foretarsi in male; blind; stridulation of.

Belgium, ancient inhabitants of.

Bell, Sir C., on emotional muscles in man; "snarling muscles;" on the hand.

Bell, T., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in moles; on the newts; on the croaking of the frog; on the difference in the coloration of the sexes in Zootoca vivipara; on moles fighting.

Bell-bird, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Bell-birds, colours of.

Belt, Mr., on the nakedness of tropical mankind; on a spider-monkey and eagle; habits of ants; Lampridae distasteful to mammals; mimicry of Leptalides; colours of Nicaraguan frogs; display of humming-birds; on the toucans; protective colouring of skunk.

Benevolence, manifested by birds.

Bennett, A.W., attachment of mated birds; on the habits of Dromaeus irroratus.

Bennett, Dr., on birds of paradise.

Berbers, fertility of crosses with other races.

Bernicla antarctica, colours of.

Bernicle gander pairing with a Canada goose.

Bert, M., crustaceans distinguish colours.

Bettoni, E., on local differences in the nests of Italian birds.

Beyle, M., see Bombet.

Bhoteas, colour of the beard in.

Bhringa, disc-formed tail-feathers of.

Bianconi, Prof., on structures as explained through mechanical principles.

Bibio, sexual differences in the genus.

Bichat, on beauty.

Bickes, proportion of sexes in man.

Bile, coloured, in many animals.

Bimana.

Birds, imitations of the songs of other birds by; dreaming; killed by telegraph wires; language of; sense of beauty in; pleasure of, in incubation; male, incubation by; and reptiles, alliance of; sexual differences in the beak of some; migratory, arrival of the male before the female; apparent relation between polygamy and marked sexual differences in; monogamous, becoming polygamous under domestication; eagerness of male in pursuit of the female; wild, numerical proportion of the sexes in; secondary sexual characters of; difference of size in the sexes of; fights of male, witnessed by females; display of male, to captivate the females; close attention of, to the songs of others; acquiring the song of their foster-parents; brilliant, rarely good songsters; love-antics and dances of; coloration of; moulting of; unpaired; male, singing out of season; mutual affection of; in confinement, distinguish persons; hybrid, production of; Albino; European, number of species of; variability of; geographical distribution of colouring; gradation of secondary sexual characters in; obscurely coloured, building concealed nests; young female, acquiring male characters; breeding in immature plumage; moulting of; aquatic, frequency of white plumage in; vocal courtship of; naked skin of the head and neck in.

Birgus latro, habits of.

Birkbeck, Mr., on the finding of new mates by golden eagles.

Birthplace of man.

Births, numerical proportions of the sexes in, in animals and man; male and female, numerical proportion of, in England.

Bischoff, Prof., on the agreement between the brains of man and of the orang; figure of the embryo of the dog; on the convolutions of the brain in the human foetus; on the difference between the skulls of man and the quadrumana; resemblance between the ape's and man's.

Bishop, J., on the vocal organs of frogs; on the vocal organs of cervine birds; on the trachea of the Merganser.

Bison, American, co-operation of; mane of the male.

Bitterns, dwarf, coloration of the sexes of.

Biziura lobata, musky odour of the male; large size of male.

Blackbird, sexual differences in the; proportion of the sexes in the; acquisition of a song by; colour of the beak in the sexes of the; pairing with a thrush; colours and nidification of the; young of the; sexual difference in coloration of the.

Black-buck, Indian, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Blackcap, arrival of the male, before the female; young of the.

Black-cock, polygamous; proportion of the sexes in the; pugnacity and love-dance of the; call of the; moulting of the; duration of the courtship of the; and pheasant, hybrids of; sexual difference in coloration of the; crimson eye-cere of the.

Black-grouse, characters of young.

Blacklock, Dr., on music.

Blackwall, J., on the speaking of the magpie; on the desertion of their young by swallows; on the superior activity of male spiders; on the proportion of the sexes in spiders; on sexual variation of colour in spiders; on male spiders.

Bladder-nose Seal, hood of the.

Blaine, on the affections of dogs.

Blair, Dr., on the relative liability of Europeans to yellow fever.

Blake, C.C., on the jaw from La Naulette.

Blakiston, Captain, on the American snipe; on the dances of Tetrao phasianellus.

Blasius, Dr., on the species of European birds.

Bledius taurus, hornlike processes of male.

Bleeding, tendency to profuse.

Blenkiron, Mr., on sexual preference in horses.

Blennies, crest developed on the head of male, during the breeding season.

Blethisa multipunctata, stridulation of.

Bloch, on the proportions of the sexes in fishes.

Blood, arterial, red colour of.

Blood pheasant, number of spurs in.

Blow-fly, sounds made by.

Bluebreast, red-throated, sexual differences of the.

Blumenbach, on Man; on the large size of the nasal cavities in American aborigines; on the position of man; on the number of species of man.

Blyth, E., on the structure of the hand in the species of Hylobates; observations on Indian crows; on the development of the horns in the Koodoo and Eland antelopes; on the pugnacity of the males of Gallicrex cristatus; on the presence of spurs in the female Euplocamus erythrophthalmus; on the pugnacity of the amadavat; on the spoonbill; on the moulting of Anthus; on the moulting of bustards, plovers, and Gallus bankiva; on the Indian honey-buzzard; on sexual differences in the colour of the eyes of hornbills; on Oriolus melanocephalus; on Palaeornis javanicus; on the genus Ardetta; on the peregrine falcon; on young female birds acquiring male characters; on the immature plumage of birds; on representative species of birds; on the young of Turnix; on anomalous young of Lanius rufus and Colymbus glacialis; on the sexes and young of the sparrows; on dimorphism in some herons; on the ascertainment of the sex of nestling bullfinches by pulling out breast-feathers; on orioles breeding in immature plumage; on the sexes and young of Buphus and Anastomus; on the young of the blackcap and blackbird; on the young of the stonechat; on the white plumage of Anastomus; on the horns of Bovine animals; on the horns of Antilope bezoartica; on the mode of fighting of Ovis cycloceros; on the voice of the Gibbons; on the crest of the male wild goat; on the colours of Portax picta; on the colours of Antilope bezoartica; on the colour of the Axis deer; on sexual difference of colour in Hylobates hoolock; on the hog-deer; on the beard and whiskers in a monkey, becoming white with age.

Boar, wild, polygamous in India; use of the tusks by the; fighting of.

Boardman, Mr., Albino birds in U.S.

Boitard and Corbie, MM., on the transmission of sexual peculiarities in pigeons; on the antipathy shewn by some female pigeons to certain males.

Bold, Mr., on the singing of a sterile hybrid canary.

Bombet, on the variability of the standard of beauty in Europe.

Bombus, difference of the sexes in.

Bombycidae, coloration of; pairing of the; colours of.

Bombycilla carolinensis, red appendages of.

Bombyx cynthia, proportion of the sexes in; pairing of.

Bombyx mori, difference of size of the male and female cocoons of; pairing of.

Bombyx Pernyi, proportion of sexes of.

Bombyx Yamamai, M. Personnat on; proportion of sexes of.

Bonaparte, C.L., on the call-notes of the wild turkey.

Bond, F., on the finding of new mates by crows.

Bone, implements of, skill displayed in making.

Boner, C., on the transfer of male characters to an old female chamois; on the habits of stags; on the pairing of red deer.

Bones, increase of, in length and thickness, when carrying a greater weight.

Bonizzi, P., difference of colour in sexes of pigeons.

Bonnet monkey.

Bonwick, J., extinction of Tasmanians.

Boomerang.

Boreus hyemalis, scarcity of the male.

Bory St. Vincent, on the number of species of man; on the colours of

Labrus pavo.

Bos etruscus.

Bos gaurus, horns of.

Bos moschatus.

Bos primigenius.

Bos sondaicus, horns of, colours of.

Botocudos, mode of life of; disfigurement of the ears and lower lip of the.

Boucher de Perthes, J.C. de, on the antiquity of man.

Bourbon, proportion of the sexes in a species of Papilio from.

Bourien on the marriage-customs of the savages of the Malay Archipelago.

Bovidae, dewlaps of.

Bower-birds, habits of the; ornamented playing-places of.

Bows, use of.

Brachycephalic structure, possible explanation of.

Brachyura.

Brachyurus calvus, scarlet face of.

Bradley, Mr., abductor ossis metatarsi quinti in man.

Brain, of man, agreement of the, with that of lower animals; convolutions of, in the human foetus; influence of development of mental faculties upon the size of the; influence of the development of on the spinal column and skull; larger in some existing mammals than in their tertiary prototypes; relation of the development of the, to the progress of language; disease of the, affecting speech; difference in the convolutions of, in different races of men; supplement on, by Prof. Huxley; development of the gyri and sulci.

Brakenridge, Dr., on the influence of climate.

Brandt, A., on hairy men.

Braubach, Prof., on the quasi-religious feeling of a dog towards his master; on the self-restraint of dogs.

Brauer, F., on dimorphism in Neurothemis.

Brazil, skulls found in caves of; population of; compression of the nose by the natives of.

Break between man and the apes.

Bream, proportion of the sexes in the.

Breeding, age of, in birds.

Breeding season, sexual characters making their appearance in the, in birds.

Brehm, on the effects of intoxicating liquors on monkeys; on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali; on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys; on the habits of baboons; on revenge taken by monkeys; on manifestations of maternal affection by monkeys and baboons; on the instinctive dread of monkeys for serpents; on the use of stones as missiles by baboons; on a baboon using a mat for shelter from the sun; on the signal-cries of monkeys; on sentinels posted by monkeys; on co-operation of animals; on an eagle attacking a young Cercopithecus; on baboons in confinement protecting one of their number from punishment; on the habits of baboons when plundering; on polygamy in Cynocephalus and Cebus; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds; on the love-dance of the blackcock; Palamedea cornuta; on the habits of the Black-grouse; on sounds produced by birds of paradise; on assemblages of grouse; on the finding of new mates by birds; on the fighting of wild boars; on sexual differences in Mycetes; on the habits of Cynocephalus hamadryas.

Brent, Mr., on the courtship of fowls.

Breslau, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Bridgeman, Laura.

Brimstone butterfly, sexual difference of colour in the.

British, ancient, tattooing practised by.

Broca, Prof., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human humerus; anthropomorphous apes more bipedal than quadrupedal; on the capacity of Parisian skulls at different periods; comparison of modern and mediaeval skulls; on tails of quadrupeds; on the influence of natural selection; on hybridity in man; on human remains from Les Eyzies; on the cause of the difference between Europeans and Hindoos.

Brodie, Sir B., on the origin of the moral sense in man.

Bronn, H.G., on the copulation of insects of distinct species.

Bronze period, men of, in Europe.

Brown, R., sentinels of seals generally females; on the battles of seals; on the narwhal; on the occasional absence of the tusks in the female walrus; on the bladder-nose seal; on the colours of the sexes in Phoca Groenlandica; on the appreciation of music by seals; on plants used as love-philters, by North American women.

Browne, Dr. Crichton, injury to infants during parturition.

Brown-Sequard, Dr., on the inheritance of the effects of operations by guinea-pig.

Bruce, on the use of the elephant's tusks.

Brulerie, P. de la, on the habits of Ateuchus cicatricosus; on the stridulation of Ateuchus.

Brunnich, on the pied ravens of the Feroe islands.

Bryant, Dr., preference of tame pigeon for wild mate.

Bryant, Captain, on the courtship of Callorhinus ursinus.

Bubas bison, thoracic projection of.

Bubalus caffer, use of horns.

Bucephalus capensis, difference of the sexes of, in colour.

Buceros, nidification and incubation of.

Buceros bicornis, sexual differences in the colouring of the casque, beak, and mouth in.

Buceros corrugatus, sexual differences in the beak of.

Buchner, L., on the origin of man; on the use of the human foot as a prehensile organ; on the mode of progression of the apes; on want of self-consciousness, etc., in savages.

Bucholz, Dr., quarrels of chamaeleons.

Buckinghamshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Buckland, F., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in rats; on the proportion of the sexes in the trout; on Chimaera monstrosa.

Buckland, W., on the complexity of crinoids.

Buckler, W., proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by.

Bucorax abyssinicus, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during courtship.

Budytes Raii.

Buffalo, Cape.

Buffalo, Indian, horns of the.

Buffalo, Italian, mode of fighting of the.

Buffon, on the number of species of man.

Bufo sikimmensis.

Bugs.

Buist, R., on the proportion of the sexes in salmon; on the pugnacity of the male salmon.

Bulbul, pugnacity of the male; display of under tail-coverts by the male.

Bull, mode of fighting of the; curled frontal hair of the.

Buller, Dr., on the Huia; the attachment of birds.

Bullfinch, sexual differences in the; piping; female, singing of the; courtship of the; widowed, finding a new mate; attacking a reed-bunting; nestling, sex ascertained by pulling out breast feathers.

Bullfinches, distinguishing persons; rivalry of female.

Bulls, two young, attacking an old one; wild, battles of.

Bull-trout, male, colouring of, during the breeding season.

Bunting, reed, head feathers of the male; attacked by a bullfinch.

Buntings, characters of young.

Buphus coromandus, sexes and young of; change of colour in.

Burchell, Dr., on the zebra; on the extravagance of a Bushwoman in adorning herself; celibacy unknown among the savages of South Africa; on the marriage-customs of the Bushwomen.

Burke, on the number of species of man.

Burmese, colour of the beard in.

Burton, Captain, on negro ideas of female beauty; on a universal ideal of beauty.

Bushmen, marriage among.

Bushwoman, extravagant ornamentation of a.

Bushwomen, hair of; marriage-customs of.

Bustard, throat-pouch of the male; humming noise produced by a male; Indian, ear-tufts of.

Bustards, occurrence of sexual differences and of polygamy among the; love-gestures of the male; double moult in.

Butler, A.G., on sexual differences in the wings of Aricoris epitus; courtship of butterflies; on the colouring of the sexes in species of Thecla; on the resemblance of Iphias glaucippe to a leaf; on the rejection of certain moths and caterpillars by lizards and frogs.

Butterfly, noise produced by a; Emperor; meadow brown, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Butterflies, proportion of the sexes in; forelegs atrophied in some males; sexual difference in the neuration of the wings of; pugnacity of male; protective resemblances of the lower surface of; display of the wings by; white, alighting upon bits of paper; attracted by a dead specimen of the same species; courtship of; male and female, inhabiting different stations.

Buxton, C., observations on macaws; on an instance of benevolence in a parrot.

Buzzard, Indian honey-; variation in the crest of.

Cabbage butterflies.

Cachalot, large head of the male.

Cadences, musical, perception of, by animals.

Caecum, large, in the early progenitors of man.

Cairina moschata, pugnacity of the male.

Californian Indians, decrease of.

Callianassa, chelae of, figured.

Callidryas, colours of sexes.

Callionymus lyra, characters of the male.

Callorhinus ursinus, relative size of the sexes of; courtship of.

Calotes maria.

Calotes nigrilabris, sexual difference in the colour of.

Cambridge, O. Pickard, on the sexes of spiders; on the size of male

Nephila.

Camel, canine teeth of male.

Campbell, J., on the Indian elephant; on the proportion of male and female births in the harems of Siam.

Campylopterus hemileucurus.

Canaries distinguishing persons.

Canary, polygamy of the; change of plumage in, after moulting; female, selecting the best singing male; sterile hybrid, singing of a; female, singing of the; selecting a greenfinch; and siskin, pairing of.

Cancer pagurus.

Canestrini, G., on rudimentary characters and the origin of man; on rudimentary characters; on the movement of the ear in man; of the variability of the vermiform appendage in man; on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus; on the persistence of the frontal suture in man; on the proportion of the sexes in silk-moths; secondary sexual characters of spiders.

Canfield, Dr., on the horns of the Antilocapra.

Canine teeth in man, diminution of, in man; diminution of, in horses; disappearance of, in male ruminants; large in the early progenitors of man.

Canines, and horns, inverse development of.

Canoes, use of.

Cantharis, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Cantharus lineatus.

Capercailzie, polygamous; proportion of the sexes in the; pugnacity of the male; pairing of the; autumn meetings of the; call of the; duration of the courtship of; behaviour of the female; inconvenience of black colour to the female; sexual difference in the coloration of the; crimson eye-cere of the male.

Capitonidae, colours and nidification of the.

Capra aegagrus, crest of the male; sexual difference in the colour of.

Capreolus Sibiricus subecaudatus.

Caprice, common to man and animals.

Caprimulgus, noise made by the males of some species of, with their wings.

Caprimulgus virginianus, pairing of.

Carabidae.

Carbonnier, on the natural history of the pike; on the relative size of the sexes in fishes; courtship of Chinese Macropus.

Carcineutes, sexual difference of colour in.

Carcinus moenas.

Cardinalis virginianus.

Carduelis elegans, sexual differences of the beak in.

Carnivora, marine, polygamous habits of; sexual differences in the colours of.

Carp, numerical proportion of the sexes in the.

Carr, R., on the peewit.

Carrier pigeon, late development of the wattle in the.

Carrion beetles, stridulation of.

Carrion-hawk, bright coloured female of.

Carus, Prof. V., on the development of the horns in merino sheep; on antlers of red deer.

Cassowary, sexes and incubation of the.

Castnia, mode of holding wings.

Castoreum.

Castration, effects of.

Casuarius galeatus.

Cat, convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of a; sick, sympathy of a dog with a.

Cataract in Cebus Azarae.

Catarrh, liability of Cebus Azarae to.

Catarrhine monkeys.

Caterpillars, bright colours of.

Cathartes aura.

Cathartes jota, love-gestures of the male.

Catlin, G., correlation of colour and texture of hair in the Mandans; on the development of the beard among the North American Indians; on the great length of the hair in some North American tribes.

Caton, J.D., on the development of the horns in Cervus virginianus and strongyloceros; on the wild turkey; on the presence of traces of horns in the female wapiti; on the fighting of deer; on the crest of the male wapiti; on the colours of the Virginian deer; on sexual differences of colour in the wapiti; on the spots of the Virginian deer.

Cats, dreaming; tortoise-shell; enticed by valerian; colours of.

Cattle, rapid increase of, in South America; domestic, lighter in winter in Siberia; horns of; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed; numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Caudal vertebrae, number of, in macaques and baboons; basal, of monkeys, imbedded in the body.

Cavolini, observations on Serranus.

Cebus, maternal affection in a; gradation of species of.

Cebus Apella.

Cebus Azarae, liability of, to the same diseases as man; distinct sounds produced by; early maturity of the female.

Cebus capucinus, polygamous; sexual differences of colour in; hair on the head of.

Cebus vellerosus, hair on the head of.

Cecidomyiidae, proportions of the sexes in.

Celibacy, unknown among the savages of South Africa and South America.

Centipedes.

Cephalopoda, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Cephalopterus ornatus.

Cephalopterus penduliger.

Cerambyx heros, stridulant organ of.

Ceratodus, paddle of.

Ceratophora aspera, nasal appendages of.

Ceratophora Stoddartii, nasal horn of.

Cerceris, habits of.

Cercocebus aethiops, whiskers, etc., of.

Cercopithecus, young, seized by an eagle and rescued by the troop; definition of species of.

Cercopithecus cephus, sexual difference of colour in.

Cercopithecus cynosurus and griseo-viridis, colour of the scrotum in.

Cercopithecus Diana, sexual differences of colour in.

Cercopithecus griseo-viridis.

Cercopithecus petaurista, whiskers, etc., of.

Ceres, of birds, bright colours of.

Ceriornis Temminckii, swelling of the wattles of the male during courtship.

Cervulus, weapons of.

Cervulus moschatus, rudimentary horns of the female.

Cervus alces.

Cervus campestris, odour of.

Cervus canadensis, traces of horns in the female; attacking a man; sexual difference in the colour of.

Cervus elaphus, battles of male; horns of, with numerous points; long hairs on the throat of.

Cervus Eldi.

Cervus mantchuricus.

Cervus paludosus, colours of.

Cervus strongyloceros.

Cervus virginianus, horns of, in course of modification.

Ceryle, male black-belted in some species of.

Cetacea, nakedness of.

Ceylon, frequent absence of beard in the natives of.

Chaffinch, proportion of the sexes in the; courtship of the.

Chaffinches, new mates found by.

Chalcophaps indicus, characters of young.

Chalcosoma atlas, sexual differences of.

Chamaeleo, sexual differences in the genus; combats of.

Chamaeleo bifurcus.

Chamaeleo Owenii.

Chamaeleo pumilus.

Chamaepetes unicolor, modified wing-feather in the male.

Chameleons.

Chamois, danger-signals of; transfer of male characters to an old female.

Champneys, Mr., acromio-basilar muscle and quadrupedal gait.

Chapman, Dr., on stridulation in Scolytus.

Chapuis, Dr., on the transmission of sexual peculiarities in pigeons; on streaked Belgian pigeons.

Char, male, colouring of, during the breeding season.

Characters, male, developed in females; secondary sexual, transmitted through both sexes; natural, artificial, exaggeration of, by man.

Charadrus hiaticula and pluvialis, sexes and young of.

Chardin on the Persians.

Charms, worn by women.

Charruas, freedom of divorce among the.

Chasmorhynchus, difference of colour in the sexes of; colours of.

Chasmorhynchus niveus.

Chasmorhynchus nudicollis.

Chasmorhynchus tricarunculatus.

Chastity, early estimation of.

Chatterers, sexual differences in.

Cheever, Rev. H.T., census of the Sandwich Islands.

Cheiroptera, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Chelae of crustacea.

Chelonia, sexual differences in.

Chenalopex aegyptiacus, wing-knobs of.

Chera progne.

Chest, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors; large, of the Quechua and Aymara Indians.

Chevrotains, canine teeth of.

Chiasognathus, stridulation of.

Chiasognathus Grantii, mandibles of.

Children, legitimate and illegitimate, proportion of the sexes in.

Chiloe, lice of the natives of; population of.

Chimaera monstrosa, bony process on the head of the male.

Chimaeroid fishes, prehensile organs of male.

Chimpanzee, ears of the; representatives of the eyebrows in the; hands of the; absence of mastoid processes in the; platforms built by the; cracking nuts with a stone; direction of the hair on the arms of the; supposed evolution of the; polygamous and social habits of the.

China, North, idea of female beauty in.

China, Southern, inhabitants of.

Chinese, use of flint tools by the; difficulty of distinguishing the races of the; colour of the beard in; general beardlessness of the; opinions of the, on the appearance of Europeans and Cingalese; compression of the feet of.

Chinsurdi, his opinion of beards.

Chlamydera maculata.

Chloeon, pedunculated eyes of the male of.

Chloephaga, coloration of the sexes in.

Chlorocoelus Tanana.

Chorda dorsalis.

Chough, red beak of the.

Chromidae, frontal protuberance in male; sexual differences in colour of.

Chrysemys picta, long claws of the male.

Chrysococcyx, characters of young of.

Chrysomelidae, stridulation of.

Cicada pruinosa.

Cicada septendecim.

Cicadae, songs of the; rudimentary sound-organs in females of.

Cicatrix of a burn, causing modification of the facial bones.

Cichla, frontal protuberance of male.

Cimetiere du Sud, Paris.

Cincloramphus cruralis, large size of male.

Cinclus aquaticus.

Cingalese, Chinese opinion of the appearance of the.

Cirripedes, complemental males of.

Civilisation, effects of, upon natural selection; influence of, in the competition of nations.

Clanging of geese, etc.

Claparede, E., on natural selection applied to man.

Clarke, on the marriage-customs of Kalmucks.

Classification.

Claus, C., on the sexes of Saphirina.

Cleft-palate, inherited.

Climacteris erythrops, sexes of.

Climate, cool, favourable to human progress; power of supporting extremes of, by man; want of connexion of, with colour; direct action of, on colours of birds.

Cloaca, existence of a, in the early progenitors of man.

Cloacal passage existing in the human embryo.

Clubs, used as weapons before dispersion of mankind.

Clucking of fowls.

Clythra 4-punctata, stridulation of.

Coan, Mr., Sandwich-islanders.

Cobbe, Miss, on morality in hypothetical bee-community.

Cobra, ingenuity of a.

Coccus.

Coccyx, in the human embryo; convoluted body at the extremity of the; imbedded in the body.

Cochin-China, notions of beauty of the inhabitants of.

Cock, blind, fed by its companion; game, killing a kite; comb and wattles of the; preference shewn by the, for young hens; game, transparent zone in the hackles of a.

Cock of the rock.

Cockatoos, nestling; black, immature plumage of.

Coelenterata, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Coffee, fondness of monkeys for.

Cold, supposed effects of; power of supporting, by man.

Coleoptera, stridulation of; stridulant organs of, discussed.

Colias edusa and hyale.

Collingwood, C., on the pugnacity of the butterflies of Borneo; on butterflies being attracted by a dead specimen of the same species.

Colobus, absence of the thumb.

Colombia, flattened heads of savages of.

Colonists, success of the English as.

Coloration, protective, in birds.

Colour, supposed to be dependent on light and heat; correlation of, with immunity from certain poisons and parasites; purpose of, in lepidoptera; relation of, to sexual functions, in fishes; difference of, in the sexes of snakes; sexual differences of, in lizards; influence of, in the pairing of birds of different species; relation of, to nidification; sexual differences of, in mammals; recognition of, by quadrupeds; of children, in different races of man; of the skin in man.

Colours, admired alike by man and animals; bright, due to sexual selection; bright, among the lower animals; bright, protective to butterflies and moths; bright, in male fishes; transmission of, in birds.

Colquhoun, example of reasoning in a retriever.

Columba passerina, young of.

Colymbus glacialis, anomalous young of.

Comb, development of, in fowls.

Combs and wattles in male birds.

Community, preservation of variations useful to the, by natural selection.

Complexion, different in men and women, in an African tribe.

Compositae, gradation of species among the.

Comte, C., on the expression of the ideal of beauty by sculpture.

Conditions of life, action of changed, upon man; influence of, on plumage of birds.

Condor, eyes and comb of the.

Conjugations, origin of.

Conscience, absence of, in some criminals.

Constitution, difference of, in different races of men.

Consumption, liability of Cebus Azarae to; connection between complexion and.

Convergence of characters.

Cooing of pigeons and doves.

Cook, Captain, on the nobles of the Sandwich Islands.

Cope, E.D., on the Dinosauria.

Cophotis ceylanica, sexual differences of.

Copris.

Copris Isidis, sexual differences of.

Copris lunaris, stridulation of.

Corals, bright colours of.

Coral-snakes.

Cordylus, sexual difference of colour in a species of.

Corfu, habits of the Chaffinch in.

Cornelius, on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus Cervus.

Corpora Wolffiana, agreement of, with the kidneys of fishes.

Correlated variation.

Correlation, influence of, in the production of races.

Corse, on the mode of fighting of the elephant.

Corvus corone.

Corvus graculus, red beak of.

Corvus pica, nuptial assembly of.

Corydalis cornutus, large jaws of the male.

Cosmetornis.

Cosmetornis vexillarius, elongation of wing-feathers in.

Cotingidae, sexual differences in; coloration of the sexes of; resemblance of the females of distinct species of.

Cottus scorpius, sexual differences in.

Coulter, Dr., on the Californian Indians.

Counting, origin of; limited power of, in primeval man.

Courage, variability of, in the same species; universal high appreciation of; importance of; characteristic of men.

Courtship, greater eagerness of males in; of fishes; of birds.

Cow, winter change of colour.

Crab, devil.

Crab, shore, habits of.

Crabro cribrarius, dilated tibiae of the male.

Crabs, proportions of the sexes in.

Cranz, on the inheritance of dexterity in seal-catching.

Crawfurd, on the number of species of man.

Crenilabrus massa and C. melops, nests, built by.

Crest, origin of, in Polish fowls.

Crests, of birds, difference of, in the sexes; dorsal hairy, of mammals.

Cricket, field-, stridulation of the; pugnacity of male.

Cricket, house-, stridulation of the.

Crickets, sexual differences in.

Crinoids, complexity of.

Crioceridae, stridulation of the.

Croaking of frogs.

Crocodiles, musky odour of, during the breeding season.

Crocodilia.

Crossbills, characters of young.

Crosses in man.

Crossing of races, effects of the.

Crossoptilon auritum, adornment of both sexes of; sexes alike in.

Crotch, G.R., on the stridulation of beetles; on the stridulation of Heliopathes; on the stridulation of Acalles; habit of female deer at breeding time.

Crow, Indians, long hair of the.

Crow, young of the.

Crows, vocal organs of the; living in triplets.

Crows, carrion, new mates found by.

Crows, Indian, feeding their blind companions.

Cruelty of savages to animals.

Crustacea, parasitic, loss of limbs by female; prehensile feet and antennae of; male, more active than female; parthenogenesis in; secondary sexual characters of; amphipod, males sexually mature while young; auditory hairs of.

Crystal worn in the lower lip by some Central African women.

Cuckoo fowls.

Culicidae, attracted by each other's humming.

Cullen, Dr., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard.

Cultivation of plants, probable origin of.

Cupples, Mr., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in dogs, sheep, and cattle; on the Scotch deerhound; on sexual preference in dogs.

Curculionidae, sexual difference in length of snout in some; hornlike processes in male; musical.

Curiosity, manifestations of, by animals.

Curlews, double moult in.

Cursores, comparative absence of sexual differences among the.

Curtis, J., on the proportion of the sexes in Athalia.

Cuvier, F., on the recognition of women by male quadrumana.

Cuvier, G., on the number of caudal vertebrae in the mandrill; on instinct and intelligence; views of, as to the position of man; on the position of the seals; on Hectocotyle.

Cyanalcyon, sexual difference in colours of; immature plumage of.

Cyanecula suecica, sexual differences of.

Cychrus, sounds produced by.

Cycnia mendica, sexual difference of, in colour.

Cygnus ferus, trachea of.

Cygnus immutabilis.

Cygnus olor, white young of.

Cyllo Leda, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Cynanthus, variation in the genus.

Cynipidae, proportion of the sexes in.

Cynocephalus, difference of the young from the adult; male, recognition of women by; polygamous habits of species of.

Cynocephalus babouin.

Cynocephalus chacma.

Cynocephalus gelada.

Cynocephalus hamadryas, sexual difference of colour in.

Cynocephalus leucophaeus, colours of the sexes of.

Cynocephalus mormon, colours of the male.

Cynocephalus porcarius, mane of the male.

Cynocephalus sphinx.

Cynopithecus niger, ear of.

Cypridina, proportions of the sexes in.

Cyprinidae, proportion of the sexes in the.

Cyprinidae, Indian.

Cyprinodontidae, sexual differences in the.

Cyprinus auratus.

Cypris, relation of the sexes in.

Cyrtodactylus rubidus.

Cystophora cristata, hood of.

Dacelo, sexual difference of colour in.

Dacelo Gaudichaudi, young male of.

Dal-ripa, a kind of ptarmigan.

Damalis albifrons, peculiar markings of.

Damalis pygarga, peculiar markings of.

Dampness of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin.

Danaidae.

Dances of birds.

Dancing, universality of.

Danger-signals of animals.

Daniell, Dr., his experience of residence in West Africa.

Darfur, protuberances artificially produced by natives of.

Darwin, F., on the stridulation of Dermestes murinus.

Dasychira pudibunda, sexual difference of colour in.

Davis, A.H., on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle.

Davis, J.B., on the capacity of the skull in various races of men; on the beards of the Polynesians.

Death's Head Sphinx.

Death-rate higher in towns than in rural districts.

Death-tick.

De Candolle, Alph., on a case of inherited power of moving the scalp.

Declensions, origin of.

Decoration in birds.

Decticus.

Deer, development of the horns in; spots of young; horns of; use of horns of; horns of a, in course of modification; size of the horns of; female, pairing with one male whilst others are fighting for her; male, attracted by the voice of the female; male, odour emitted by.

Deer, Axis, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Deer, fallow, different coloured herds of.

Deer, Mantchurian.

Deer, Virginian, colour of the, not affected by castration; colours of.

Deerhound, Scotch, greater size of the male.

Defensive orders of mammals.

De Geer, C., on a female spider destroying a male.

Dekay, Dr., on the bladder-nose seal.

Delorenzi, G., division of malar bone.

Demerara, yellow fever in.

Dendrocygna.

Dendrophila frontalis, young of.

Denison, Sir W., manner of ridding themselves of vermin among the

Australians; extinction of Tasmanians.

Denny, H., on the lice of domestic animals.

Dermestes murinus, stridulation of.

Descent traced through the mother alone.

Deserts, protective colouring of animals inhabiting.

Desmarest, on the absence of suborbital pits in Antilope subgutturosa; on the whiskers of Macacus; on the colour of the opossum; on the colours of the sexes of Mus minutus; on the colouring of the ocelot; on the colours of seals; on Antilope caama; on the colours of goats; on sexual difference of colour in Ateles marginatus; on the mandrill; on Macacus cynomolgus.

Desmoulins, on the number of species of man; on the muskdeer.

Desor, on the imitation of man by monkeys.

Despine, P., on criminals destitute of conscience.

Development, embryonic of man; correlated.

Devil, not believed in by the Fuegians.

Devil-crab.

Devonian, fossil-insect from the.

Dewlaps, of Cattle and antelopes.

Diadema, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Diamond-beetles, bright colours of.

Diastema, occurrence of, in man.

Diastylidae, proportion of the sexes in.

Dicrurus, racket-shaped feathers in; nidification of.

Dicrurus macrocercus, change of plumage in.

Didelphis opossum, sexual difference in the colour of.

Differences, comparative, between different species of birds of the same sex.

Digits, supernumerary, more frequent in men than in women; supernumerary, inheritance of; supernumerary, early development of.

Dimorphism, in females of water-beetles; in Neurothemis and Agrion.

Diodorus, on the absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon.

Dipelicus Cantori, sexual differences of.

Diplopoda, prehensile limbs of the male.

Dipsas cynodon, sexual difference in the colour of.

Diptera.

Disease, generated by the contact of distinct peoples.

Diseases, common to man and the lower animals; difference of liability to, in different races of men; new, effects of, upon savages; sexually limited.

Display, coloration of Lepidoptera for; of plumage by male birds.

Distribution, wide, of man; geographical, as evidence of specific distinctness in man.

Disuse, effects of, in producing rudimentary organs; and use of parts, effects of; of parts, influence of, on the races of men.

Divorce, freedom of, among the Charruas.

Dixon, E.S., on the pairing of different species of geese; on the courtship of peafowl.

Dobrizhoffer, on the marriage-customs of the Abipones.

Dobson, Dr., on the Cheiroptera; scent-glands of bats; frugivorous bats.

Dogs, suffering from tertian ague; memory of; dreaming; diverging when drawing sledges over thin ice; exercise of reasoning faculties by; domestic, progress of, in moral qualities; distinct tones uttered by; parallelism between his affection for his master and religious feeling; sociability of the; sympathy of, with a sick cat; sympathy of, with his master; their possession of conscience; possible use of the hair on the fore-legs of the; races of the; numerical proportion of male and female births in; sexual affection between individuals of; howling at certain notes; rolling in carrion.

Dolichocephalic structure, possible cause of.

Dolphins, nakedness of.

Domestic animals, races of; change of breeds of.

Domestication, influence of, in removing the sterility of hybrids.

D'Orbigny, A., on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of the skin; on the Yuracaras.

Dotterel.

Doubleday, E., on sexual differences in the wings of butterflies.

Doubleday, H., on the proportion of the sexes in the smaller moths; males of Lasiocampa quercus and on the attraction of the Saturnia carpini by the female; on the proportion of the sexes in the Lepidoptera; on the ticking of Anobium tesselatum; on the structure of Ageronia feronia; on white butterflies alighting upon paper.

Douglas, J.W., on the sexual differences of the Hemiptera; colours of

British Homoptera.

Down, of birds.

Draco, gular appendages of.

Dragonet, Gemmeous.

Dragon-flies, caudal appendages of male; relative size of the sexes of; difference in the sexes of; want of pugnacity by the male.

Drake, breeding plumage of the.

Dreams, possible source of the belief in spiritual agencies.

Drill, sexual difference of colour in the.

Dromaeus irroratus.

Dromolaea, Saharan species of.

Drongo shrike.

Drongos, racket-shaped feathers in the tails of.

Dryness of climate, supposed influence of, on the colour of the skin.

Dryopithecus.

Duck, harlequin, age of mature plumage in the; breeding in immature plumage.

Duck, long-tailed, preference of male, for certain females.

Duck, pintail, pairing with a widgeon.

Duck, voice of the; pairing with a shield-drake; immature plumage of the.

Duck, wild, sexual differences in the; speculum and male characters of; pairing with a pin-tail drake.

Ducks, wild, becoming polygamous under partial domestication; dogs and cats recognised by.

Dufosse, Dr., sounds produced by fish.

Dugong, nakedness of; tusks of.

Dujardin, on the relative size of the cerebral ganglia, in insects.

Duncan, Dr., on the fertility of early marriages; comparative health of married and single.

Dupont, M., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man.

Durand, J.P., on causes of variation.

Dureau de la Malle, on the songs of birds; on the acquisition of an air by blackbirds.

Dutch, retention of their colour by the, in South Africa.

Duty, sense of.

Duvaucel, female Hylobates washing her young.

Dyaks, pride of, in mere homicide.

Dynastes, large size of males of.

Dynastini, stridulation of.

Dytiscus, dimorphism of females of; grooved elytra of the female.

Eagle, young Cercopithecus rescued from, by the troop.

Eagle, white-headed, breeding in immature plumage.

Eagles, golden, new mates found by.

Ear, motion of the; external shell of the, useless in man; rudimentary point of the, in man.

Ears, more variable in men than women; piercing and ornamentation of the.

Earwigs, parental feeling in.

Echidna.

Echini, bright colours of some.

Echinodermata, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Echis carinata.

Ecker, figure of the human embryo; on the development of the gyri and sulci of the brain; on the sexual differences in the pelvis in man; on the presence of a sagittal crest in Australians.

Edentata, former wide range of, in America; absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Edolius, racket-shaped feathers in.

Edwards, Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in North American species of Papilio.

Eels, hermaphroditism of.

Egerton, Sir P., on the use of the antlers of deer; on the pairing of red deer; on the bellowing of stags.

Eggs, hatched by male fishes.

Egret, Indian, sexes and young of.

Egrets, breeding plumage of; white.

Ehrenberg, on the mane of the male Hamadryas baboon.

Ekstrom, M., on Harelda glacialis.

Elachista rufocinerea, habits of male.

Eland, development of the horns of the.

Elands, sexual differences of colour in.

Elaphomyia, sexual differences in.

Elaphrus uliginosus, stridulation of.

Elaps.

Elateridae, proportion of the sexes in.

Elaters, luminous.

Elephant, rate of increase of the; nakedness of the; using a fan; Indian, forbearance to his keeper; polygamous habits of the; pugnacity of the male; tusks of; Indian, mode of fighting of the; male, odour emitted by the; attacking white or grey horses.

Elevation of abode, modifying influence of.

Elimination of inferior individuals.

Elk, winter change of the.

Elk, Irish, horns of the.

Ellice Islands, beards of the natives.

Elliot, D.G., on Pelecanus erythrorhynchus.

Elliot, R., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in young rats; on the proportion of the sexes in sheep.

Elliot, Sir W., on the polygamous habits of the Indian wild boar.

Ellis, on the prevalence of infanticide in Polynesia.

Elphinstone, Mr., on local difference of stature among the Hindoos; on the difficulty of distinguishing the native races of India.

Elytra, of the females of Dytiscus Acilius, Hydroporus.

Emberiza, characters of young.

Emberiza miliaria.

Emberiza schoeniclus, head-feathers of the male.

Embryo of man; of the dog.

Embryos of mammals, resemblance of the.

Emigration.

Emotions experienced by the lower animals in common with man; manifested by animals.

Emperor butterfly.

Emperor moth.

Emu, sexes and incubation of.

Emulation of singing birds.

Endurance, estimation of.

Energy, a characteristic of men.

England, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Engleheart, Mr., on the finding of new mates by starlings.

English, success of, as colonists.

Engravers, short-sighted.

Entomostraca.

Entozoa, difference of colour between the males and females of some.

Environment, direct action of the, in causing differences between the sexes.

Envy, persistence of.

Eocene period, possible divergence of men during the.

Eolidae, colours of, produced by the biliary glands.

Epeira nigra, small size of the male of.

Ephemerae.

Ephemeridae.

Ephippiger vitium, stridulating organs of.

Epicalia, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Equus hemionus, winter change of.

Erateina, coloration of.

Ercolani, Prof., hermaphroditism in eels.

Erect attitude of man.

Eristalis, courting of.

Eschricht, on the development of hair in man; on a languinous moustache in a female foetus; on the want of definition between the scalp and the forehead in some children; on the arrangement of the hair in the human foetus; on the hairiness of the face in the human foetus of both sexes.

Esmeralda, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Esox lucius.

Esox reticulatus.

Esquimaux, their belief in the inheritance of dexterity in seal-catching; mode of life of.

Estrelda amandava, pugnacity of the male.

Eubagis, sexual differences of colouring in the species of.

Euchirus longimanus, sound produced by.

Eudromias morinellus.

Eulampis jugularis, colours of the female.

Euler, on the rate of increase in the United States.

Eunomota superciliaris, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of.

Eupetomena macroura, colours of the female.

Euphema splendida.

Euplocamus erythrophthalmus, possession of spurs by the female.

Europe, ancient inhabitants of.

Europeans, difference of, from Hindoos; hairiness of, probably due to reversion.

Eurostopodus, sexes of.

Eurygnathus, different proportions of the head in the sexes of.

Eustephanus, sexual differences of species of; young of.

Exaggeration of natural characters by man.

Exogamy.

Experience, acquisition of, by animals.

Expression, resemblances in, between man and the apes.

Extinction of races, causes of.

Eye, destruction of the; change of position in; obliquity of, regarded as a beauty by the Chinese and Japanese.

Eyebrows, elevation of; development of long hairs in; in monkeys; eradicated in parts of South America and Africa; eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay.

Eyelashes, eradication of, by the Indians of Paraguay.

Eyelids, coloured black, in part of Africa.

Eyes, pillared, of the male of Chloeon; difference in the colour of, in the sexes of birds.

Eyton, T.C., observations on the development of the horns in the fallow deer.

Eyzies, Les, human remains from.

Fabre, M., on the habits of Cerceris.

Facial bones, causes of modification of the.

Faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men; inheritance of; diversity of, in animals of the same species; mental variation of, in the same species; of birds.

Fakirs, Indian, tortures undergone by.

Falco leucocephalus.

Falco peregrinus.

Falco tinnunclus.

Falcon, peregrine, new mate found by.

Falconer, H., on the mode of fighting of the Indian elephant; on canines in a female deer; on Hyomoschus aquaticus.

Falkland Islands, horses of.

Fallow-deer, different coloured herds of.

Famines, frequency of, among savages.

Farr, Dr., on the effects of profligacy; on the influence of marriage on mortality.

Farrar, F.W., on the origin of language; on the crossing or blending of languages; on the absence of the idea of God in certain races of men; on early marriages of the poor; on the middle ages.

Farre, Dr., on the structure of the uterus.

Fashions, long prevalence of, among savages.

Faye, Prof., on the numerical proportion of male and female births in Norway and Russia; on the greater mortality of male children at and before birth.

Feathers, modified, producing sounds; elongated, in male birds; racket-shaped; barbless and with filamentous barbs in certain birds; shedding of margins of.

Feeding, high, probable influence of, in the pairing of birds of different species.

Feet, thickening of the skin on the soles of the; modification of, in man.

Felis canadensis, throat-ruff of.

Felis pardalis and F. mitis, sexual difference in the colouring of.

Female, behaviour of the, during courtship.

Female birds, differences of.

Females, presence of rudimentary male organs in; preference of, for certain males; pursuit of, by males; occurrence of secondary sexual characters in; development of male character by.

Females and males, comparative numbers of; comparative mortality of, while young.

Femur and tibia, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians.

Fenton, Mr., decrease of Maories; infanticide amongst the Maories.

Ferguson, Mr., on the courtship of fowls.

Fertilisation, phenomena of, in plants; in the lower animals.

Fertility lessened under changed conditions.

Fevers, immunity of Negroes and Mulattoes from.

Fiber zibethicus, protective colouring of it.

Fick, H., effect of conscription for military service.

Fidelity, in the elephant; of savages to one another; importance of.

Field-slaves, difference of, from house-slaves.

Fiji Archipelago, population of the.

Fiji Islands, beards of the natives; marriage-customs of the.

Fijians, burying their old and sick parents alive; estimation of the beard among the; admiration of, for a broad occiput.

Filial affection, partly the result of natural selection.

Filum terminale.

Finch, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Finches, spring change of colour in; British, females of the.

Fingers, partially coherent, in species of Hylobates.

Finlayson, on the Cochin Chinese.

Fire, use of.

Fischer, on the pugnacity of the male of Lethrus cephalotes.

Fischer, F. Von, on display of brightly coloured parts by monkeys in courtship.

Fish, eagerness of male; proportion of the sexes in; sounds produced by.

Fishes, kidneys of, represented by Corpora Wolffiana in the human embryo; male, hatching ova in their mouths; receptacles for ova possessed by; relative size of the sexes in; fresh-water, of the tropics; protective resemblances in; change of colour in; nest-building; spawning of; sounds produced by; continued growth of.

Flamingo, age of mature plumage.

Flexor pollicis longus, similar variation of, in man.

Flies, humming of.

Flint tools.

Flints, difficulty of chipping into form.

Florida, Quiscalus major in.

Florisuga mellivora.

Flounder, coloration of the.

Flower, W.H., on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes; on the position of the Seals; on the Pithecia monachu; on the throat-pouch of the male bustard.

Fly-catchers, colours and nidification of.

Foetus, human, woolly covering of the; arrangement of the hair on.

Food, influence of, upon stature.

Foot, prehensile power of the, retained in some savages; prehensile, in the early progenitors of man.

Foramen, supra-condyloid, exceptional occurrence of in the humerus of man; in the early progenitors of man.

Forbes, D., on the Aymara Indians; on local variation of colour in the Quichuas; on the hairlessness of the Aymaras and Quichuas; on the long hair of the Aymaras and Quichaus.

Forel, F., on white young swans.

Forester, Hon. O.W., on an orphan hawk.

Formica rufa, size of the cerebral ganglia in.

Fossils, absence of, connecting man with the apes.

Fowl, occurrence of spurs in the female; game, early pugnacity of; Polish, early development of cranial peculiarities of; variations in plumage of; examples of correlated development in the; domestic, breeds and sub-breeds of.

Fowls, spangled Hamburg; inheritance of changes of plumage by; sexual peculiarities in, transmitted only to the same sex; loss of secondary sexual characters by male; Polish, origin of the crest in; period of inheritance of characters by; cuckoo-; development of the comb in; numerical proportion of the sexes in; courtship of; mongrel, between a black Spanish cock and different hens; pencilled Hamburg, difference of the sexes in; Spanish, sexual differences of the comb in; spurred, in both sexes.

Fox, W.D., on some half-tamed wild ducks becoming polygamous, and on polygamy in the guinea-fowl and canary-bird; on the proportion of the sexes in cattle; on the pugnacity of the peacock; on a nuptial assembly of magpies; on the finding of new mates by crows; on partridges living in triplets; on the pairing of a goose with a Chinese gander.

Foxes, wariness of young, in hunting districts; black.

Fraser, C., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of

Squilla.

Fraser, G., colours of Thecla.

Frere, Hookham, quoting Theognis on selection in mankind.

Fringilla cannabina.

Fringilla ciris, age of mature plumage in.

Fringilla cyanea, age of mature plumage in.

Fringilla leucophrys, young of.

Fringilla spinus.

Fringilla tristis, change of colour in, in spring; young of.

Fringillidae, resemblance of the females of distinct species of.

Frog, bright coloured and distasteful to birds.

Frogs, male; temporary receptacles for ova possessed by; ready to breed before the females; fighting of; vocal organs of.

Frontal bone, persistence of the suture in.

Fruits, poisonous, avoided by animals.

Fuegians, difference of stature among the; power of sight in the; skill of, in stone-throwing; resistance of the, to their severe climate; mental capacity of the; quasi-religious sentiments of the; resemblance of, in mental characters, to Europeans; mode of life of the; aversion of, to hair on the face; said to admire European women.

Fulgoridae, songs of the.

Fur, whiteness of, in Arctic animals in winter.

Fur-bearing animals, acquired sagacity of.

Gallicrex, sexual difference in the colour of the irides in.

Gallicrex cristatus, pugnacity of male; red carbuncle occurring in the male during the breeding-season.

Gallinaceae, frequency of polygamous habits and of sexual differences in the; love-gestures of; decomposed feathers in; stripes of young; comparative sexual differences between the species of; plumage of.

Gallinaceous birds, weapons of the male; racket-shaped feathers on the heads of.

Gallinula chloropus, pugnacity of the male.

Galloperdix, spurs of; development of spurs in the female.

Gallophasis, young of.

Galls.

Gallus bankiva, neck-hackles of.

Gallus Stanleyi, pugnacity of the male.

Galton, Mr., on hereditary genius; gregariousness and independence in animals; on the struggle between the social and personal impulses; on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations; on the sterility of sole daughters; on the degree of fertility of people of genius; on the early marriages of the poor; on the ancient Greeks; on the Middle Ages; on the progress of the United States; on South African notions of beauty.

Gammarus, use of the chelae of.

Gammarus marinus.

Gannets, white only when mature.

Ganoid fishes.

Gaour, horns of the.

Gap between man and the apes.

Gaper, sexes and young of.

Gardner, on an example of rationality in a Gelasimus.

Garrulus glandarius.

Gartner, on sterility of hybrid plants.

Gasteropoda, pulmoniferous, courtship of.

Gasterosteus, nidification of.

Gasterosteus leiurus.

Gasterosteus trachurus.

Gastrophora, wings of, brightly coloured beneath.

Gauchos, want of humanity among the.

Gaudry, M., on a fossil monkey.

Gavia, seasonal change of plumage in.

Geese, clanging noise made by; pairing of different species of; Canada, selection of mates by.

Gegenbaur, C., on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia; on the hermaphroditism of the remote progenitors of the vertebrata; two types of nipple in mammals.

Gelasimus, proportions of the sexes in a species of; use of the enlarged chelae of the male; pugnacity of males of; rational actions of a; difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Gemmules, dormant in one sex.

Genius, hereditary.

Genius, fertility of men and women of.

Geoffroy St.-Hilaire, Isid., on the recognition of women by male quadrumana; on monstrosities; coincidences of arrested development with polydactylism; on animal-like anomalies in the human structure; on the correlation of monstrosities; on the distribution of hair in man and monkeys; on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys; on correlated variability; on the classification of man; on the long hair on the heads of species of Semnopithecus; on the hair in monkeys; on the development of horns in female deer; and F. Cuvier, on the mandrill; on Hylobates.

Geographical distribution, as evidence of specific distinctions in man.

Geometrae, brightly coloured beneath.

Geophagus, frontal protuberance of, male; eggs hatched by the male, in the mouth or branchial cavity.

Georgia, change of colour in Germans settled in.

Geotrupes, stridulation of.

Gerbe, M., on the nest-building of Crenilabus massa and C. Melops.

Gerland, Dr., on the prevalence of infanticide; on the extinction of races.

Gervais, P., on the hairiness of the gorilla; on the mandrill.

Gesture-language.

Ghost-moth, sexual difference of colour in the.

Giard, M., disputes descent of vertebrates from Ascidians; colour of sponges and Ascidians; musky odour of Sphinx.

Gibbon, voice of.

Gibbon, Hoolock, nose of.

Gibbs, Sir D., on differences of the voice in different races of men.

Gill, Dr., male seals larger than females; sexual differences in seals.

Giraffe, its mode of using the horns; mute, except in the rutting season.

Giraud-Teulon, on the cause of short sight.

Glanders, communicable to man from the lower animals.

Glands, odoriferous, in mammals.

Glareola, double moult in.

Glomeris limbata, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Glow-worm, female, apterous; luminosity of the.

Gnats, dances of; auditory powers of.

Gnu, skeletons of, found locked together; sexual differences in colour of the.

Goat, male, wild, falling on his horns; male, odour emitted by; male, wild, crest of the; Berbura, mane, dewlap, etc., of the male; Kemas, sexual difference in the colour of the.

Goats, sexual differences in the horns of; horns of; mode of fighting of; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed; beards of.

Goatsucker, Virginian, pairing of the.

Gobies, nidification of.

God, want of the idea of, in some races of men.

Godron, M., on variability; on difference of stature; on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin; on the colour of the skin; on the colour of infants.

Goldfinch, proportion of the sexes in the; sexual differences of the beak in the; courtship of the.

Goldfinch, North American, young of.

Goldfish.

Gomphus, proportions of the sexes in; difference in the sexes of.

Gonepteryx Rhamni, sexual difference of colour in.

Goodsir, Prof., on the affinity of the lancelet to the ascidians.

Goosander, young of.

Goose, Antarctic, colours of the.

Goose, Canada, pairing with a Bernicle gander.

Goose, Chinese, knob on the beak of the.

Goose, Egyptian.

Goose, Sebastopol, plumage of.

Goose, Snow-, whiteness of the.

Goose, Spur-winged.

Gorilla, semi-erect attitude of the; mastoid processes of the; protecting himself from rain with his hands; manner of sitting; supposed to be a kind of mandrill; polygamy of the; voice of the; cranium of; fighting of male.

Gosse, P.H., on the pugnacity of the male Humming-bird.

Gosse, M., on the inheritance of artificial modifications of the skull.

Gould, B.A., on variation in the length of the legs in man; measurements of American soldiers; on the proportions of the body and capacity of the lungs in different races of men; on the inferior vitality of mulattoes.

Gould, J., on migration of swifts; on the arrival of male snipes before the females; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in birds; on Neomorpha Grypus; on the species of Eustephanus; on the Australian musk-duck; on the relative size of the sexes in Briziura lobata and Cincloramphus cruralis; on Lobivanellus lobatus; on habits of Menura Alberti; on the rarity of song in brilliant birds; on Selasphorus platycerus; on the Bower-birds; on the ornamental plumage of the Humming-birds; on the moulting of the ptarmig

an; on the display of plumage by the male Humming-birds; on the shyness of adorned male birds; on the decoration of the bowers of Bower-birds; on the decoration of their nest by Humming-birds; on variation in the genus Cynanthus; on the colour of the thighs in a male parrakeet; on Urosticte Benjamini; on the nidification of the Orioles; on obscurely-coloured birds building concealed nests; on trogons and king-fishers; on Australian parrots; on Australian pigeons; on the moulting of the ptarmigan; on the immature plumage of birds; on the Australian species of Turnix; on the young of Aithurus polytmus; on the colours of the bills of toucans; on the relative size of the sexes in the marsupials of Australia; on the colours of the Marsupials.

Goureaux, on the stridulation of Mutilla europaea.

Gout, sexually transmitted.

Graba, on the Pied Ravens of the Feroe Islands; variety of the

Guillemot.

Gradation of secondary sexual characters in birds.

Grallatores, absence of secondary sexual characters in; double moult in some.

Grallina, nidification of.

Grasshoppers, stridulation of the.

Gratiolet, Prof., on the anthropomorphous apes; on the evolution of the anthropomorphous apes; on the difference in the development of the brains of apes and of man.

Gray, Asa, on the gradation of species among the Compositae.

Gray, J.E., on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys; on the presence of rudiments of horns in the female of Cervulus moschatus; on the horns of goats and sheep; on crests of male antelopes; on the beard of the ibex; on the Berbura goat; on sexual differences in the coloration of Rodents; ornaments of male sloth; on the colours of the Elands; on the Sing-sing antelope; on the colours of goats; on Lemur Macaco; on the hog-deer.

"Greatest happiness principle."

Greeks, ancient.

Green, A.H., on beavers fighting; on the voice of the beaver.

Greenfinch, selected by a female canary.

Greg, W.R., on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations; on the early marriages of the poor; on the Ancient Greeks.

Grenadiers, Prussian.

Greyhounds, numerical proportion of the sexes in; numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Grouse, red, monogamous; pugnacity of young male; producing a sound by beating their wings together; duration of courtship of; colours and nidification of.

Gruber, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man; on division of malar bone; stridulation of locust; on ephippiger.

Grus americanus, age of mature plumage in; breeding in immature plumage.

Grus virgo, trachea of.

Gryllus campestris, pugnacity of male.

Gryllus domesticus.

Grypus, sexual differences in the beak in.

Guanacoes, battles of; canine teeth of.

Guanas, strife for women among the; polyandry among the.

Guanche skeletons, occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of.

Guaranys, proportion of men and women among; colour of new-born children of the; beards of the.

Guenee, A., on the sexes of Hyperythra.

Guilding, L., on the stridulation of the Locustidae.

Guillemot, variety of the.

Guinea, sheep of, with males only horned.

Guinea-fowl, monogamous; occasional polygamy of the; markings of the.

Guinea-pigs, inheritance of the effects of operations by.

Gulls, seasonal change of plumage in; white.

Gunther, Dr., on paddle of Ceradotus; on hermaphroditism in Serranus; on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths; on mistaking infertile female fishes for males; on the prehensile organs of male Plagiostomous fishes; spines and brushes on fishes; on the pugnacity of the male salmon and trout; on the relative size of the sexes in fishes; on sexual differences in fishes; on the genus Callionymus; on a protective resemblance of a pipe-fish; on the genus Solenostoma; on the coloration of frogs and toads; combat of Testudo elegans; on the sexual differences in the Ophidia; on differences of the sexes of lizards.

Gynanisa Isis, ocellated spots of.

Gypsies, uniformity of, in various parts of the world.

Habits, bad, facilitated by familiarity; variability of the force of.

Haeckel, E., on the origin of man; on rudimentary characters; on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage; on the canine teeth in man; on the steps by which man became a biped; on man as a member of the Catarrhine group; on the position of the Lemuridae; on the genealogy of the Mammalia; on the lancelet; on the transparency of pelagic animals; on the musical powers of women.

Hagen, H., and Walsh, B.D., on American Neuroptera.

Hair, development of, in man; character of, supposed to be determined by light and heat; distribution of, in man; possibly removed for ornamental purposes; arrangement and direction of; of the early progenitors of man; different texture of, in distinct races; and skin, correlation of colour of; development of, in mammals; management of, among different peoples; great length of, in some North American tribes; elongation of the, on the human head; possible inherited effect of plucking out.

Hairiness, difference of, in the sexes in man; variation of, in races of men.

Hairs and excretory pores, numerical relation of, in sheep.

Hairy family, Siamese.

Halbertsma, Prof., hermaphroditism in Serranus.

Hamadryas baboon, turning over stones; mane of the male.

Hamilton, C., on the cruelty of the Kaffirs to animals; on the engrossment of the women by the Kaffir chiefs.

Hammering, difficulty of.

Hancock, A., on the colours of the nudibranch Mollusca.

Hands, larger at birth, in the children of labourers; structure of, in the quadrumana; and arms, freedom of, indirectly correlated with diminution of canines.

Handwriting, inherited.

Handyside, Dr., supernumerary mammae in men.

Harcourt, E. Vernon, on Fringilla cannabina.

Hare, protective colouring of the.

Harelda glacialis.

Hares, battles of male.

Harlan, Dr., on the difference between field-and house-slaves.

Harris, J.M., on the relation of complexion to climate.

Harris, T.W., on the Katy-did locust; on the stridulation of the grasshoppers; on Oecanthus nivalis; on the colouring of Lepidoptera; on the colouring of Saturnia Io.

Harting, spur of the Ornithorhynchus.

Hartman, Dr., on the singing of Cicada septendecim.

Hatred, persistence of.

Haughton, S., on a variation of the flexor pollicis longus in man.

Hawks, feeding orphan nestling.

Hayes, Dr., on the diverging of sledge-dogs on thin ice.

Haymond, R., on the drumming of the male Tetrao umbellus; on the drumming of birds.

Head, altered position of, to suit the erect attitude of man; hairiness of, in man; processes of, in male beetles; artificial alterations of the form of the.

Hearne, on strife for women among the North American Indians; on the North American Indians' notion of female beauty; repeated elopements of a North American woman.

Heart, in the human embryo.

Heat, supposed effects of.

Hectocotyle.

Hedge-warbler, young of the.

Heel, small projection of, in the Aymara Indians.

Hegt, M., on the development of the spurs in peacocks.

Heliconidae, mimicry of, by other butterflies.

Heliopathes, stridulation peculiar to the male.

Heliothrix auriculata, young of.

Helix pomatia, example of individual attachment in.

Hellins, J., proportions of sexes of Lepidoptera reared by.

Helmholtz, on pleasure derived from harmonies; on the human eye; on the vibration of the auditory hairs of crustacea; the physiology of harmony.

Hemiptera.

Hemitragus, beardless in both sexes.

Hemsbach, M. von, on medial mamma in man.

Hen, clucking of.

Hepburn, Mr., on the autumn song of the water-ouzel.

Hepialus humuli, sexual difference of colour in the.

Herbs, poisonous, avoided by animals.

Hermaphroditism, of embryos; in fishes.

Herodias bubulcus, vernal moult of.

Heron, Sir R., on the habits of peafowl.

Herons, love-gestures of; decomposed feathers in; breeding plumage of; young of the; sometimes dimorphic; continued growth of crest and plumes in the males of some; change of colour in some.

Hesperomys cognatus.

Hetaerina, proportion of the sexes in; difference in the sexes of.

Heterocerus, stridulation of.

Hewitt, Mr., on a game-cock killing a kite; on the recognition of dogs and cats by ducks; on the pairing of a wild duck with a pintail drake; on the courtship of fowls; on the coupling of pheasants with common hens.

Hilgendorf, sounds produced by crustaceans.

Hindoo, his horror of breaking his caste.

Hindoos, local difference of stature among; difference of, from

Europeans; colour of the beard in.

Hipparchia Janira, instability of the ocellated spots of.

Hippocampus, development of; marsupial receptacles of the male.

Hippocampus minor.

Hippopotamus, nakedness of.

Hips, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors.

Hodgson, S., on the sense of duty.

Hoffberg, on the horns of the reindeer; on sexual preferences shewn by reindeer.

Hoffman, Prof., protective colours; fighting of frogs.

Hog, wart-; river-.

Hog-deer.

Holland, Sir H., on the effects of new diseases.

Homologous structures, correlated variation of.

Homoptera, stridulation of the, and Orthoptera, discussed.

Honduras, Quiscalus major in.

Honey-buzzard of India, variation in the crest of.

Honey-sucker, females and young of.

Honey-suckers, moulting of the; Australian, nidification of.

Honour, law of.

Hooker, Dr., forbearance of elephant to his keeper; on the colour of the beard in man.

Hookham, Mr., on mental concepts in animals.

Hoolock Gibbon, nose of.

Hoopoe, sounds produced by male.

Hoplopterus armatus, wing-spurs of.

Hornbill, African, inflation of the neck-wattle of the male during courtship.

Hornbills, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in; nidification and incubation of.

Horne, C., on the rejection of a brightly-coloured locust by lizards and birds.

Horns, sexual differences of, in sheep and goats; loss of, in female merino sheep; development of, in deer; development in antelopes; from the head and thorax, in male beetles; of deer; originally a masculine character in sheep; and canine teeth, inverse development of.

Horse, fossil, extinction of the, in South America; polygamous; canine teeth of male; winter change of colour.

Horses, rapid increase of, in South America; diminution of canine teeth in; dreaming; of the Falkland Islands and Pampas; numerical proportion of the sexes, in; lighter in winter in Siberia; sexual preferences in; pairing preferently with those of the same colour; numerical proportion of male and female births in; formerly striped.

Hottentot women, peculiarities of.

Hottentots, lice of; readily become musicians; notions of female beauty of the; compression of nose by.

Hough, Dr. S., men's temperature more variable than women's; proportion of sexes in man.

House-slaves, difference of, from field-slaves.

Houzeau, on the baying of the dog; on reason in dogs; birds killed by telegraph wires; on the cries of domestic fowls and parrots; animals feel no pity; suicide in the Aleutian Islands.

Howorth, H.H., extinction of savages.

Huber, P., on ants playing together; on memory in ants; on the intercommunication of ants; on the recognition of each other by ants after separation.

Huc, on Chinese opinions of the appearance of Europeans.

Huia, the, of New Zealand.

Human, man, classed alone in a kingdom.

Human sacrifices.

Humanity, unknown among some savages; deficiency of, among savages.

Humboldt, A. von, on the rationality of mules; on a parrot preserving the language of a lost tribe; on the cosmetic arts of savages; on the exaggeration of natural characters by man; on the red painting of American Indians.

Hume, D., on sympathetic feelings.

Humming-bird, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a; display of plumage by the male.

Humming-birds, ornament their nests; polygamous; proportion of the sexes in; sexual differences in; pugnacity of male; modified primaries of male; coloration of the sexes of; display by; nidification of the; colours of female; young of.

Humour, sense of, in dogs.

Humphreys, H.N., on the habits of the stickleback.

Hunger, instinct of.

Huns, ancient, flattening of the nose by the.

Hunter, J., on the number of species of man; on secondary sexual characters; on the general behaviour of female animals during courtship; on the muscles of the larynx in song-birds; on strength of males; on the curled frontal hair of the bull; on the rejection of an ass by a female zebra.

Hunter, W.W., on the recent rapid increase of the Santali; on the

Santali.

Huss, Dr. Max, on mammary glands.

Hussey, Mr., on a partridge distinguishing persons.

Hutchinson, Col., example of reasoning in a retriever.

Hutton, Captain, on the male wild goat falling on his horns.

Huxley, T.H., on the structural agreement of man with the apes; on the agreement of the brain in man with that of lower animals; on the adult age of the orang; on the embryonic development of man; on the origin of man; on variation in the skulls of the natives of Australia; on the abductor of the fifth metatarsal in apes; on the nature of the reasoning power; on the position of man; on the suborders of primates; on the Lemuridae; on the Dinosauria; on the amphibian affinities of the Ichthyosaurians; on variability of the skull in certain races of man; on the races of man; Supplement on the brain.

Hybrid birds, production of.

Hydrophobia, communicable between man and the lower animals.

Hydroporus, dimorphism of females of.

Hyelaphus porcinus.

Hygrogonus.

Hyla, singing species of.

Hylobates, absence of the thumb in; upright progression of some species of; maternal affection in a; direction of the hair on the arms of species of; females of, less hairy below than males.

Hylobates agilis, hair on the arms of; musical voice of the; superciliary ridge of; voice of.

Hylobates hoolock, sexual difference of colour in.

Hylobates lar, hair on the arms of; female less hairy.

Hylobates leuciscus, song of.

Hylobates syndactylus, laryngeal sac of.

Hylophila prasinana.

Hymenoptera, large size of the cerebral ganglia in; classification of; sexual differences in the wings of; aculeate, relative size of the sexes of.

Hymenopteron, parasitic, with a sedentary male.

Hyomoschus aquaticus.

Hyperythra, proportion of the sexes in.

Hypogymna dispar, sexual difference of colour in.

Hypopyra, coloration of.

Ibex, male, falling on his horns; beard of the.

Ibis, white, change of colour of naked skin in, during the breeding season; scarlet, young of the.

Ibis tantalus, age of mature plumage in; breeding in immature plumage.

Ibises, decomposed feathers in; white; and black.

Ichneumonidae, difference of the sexes in.

Ichthyopterygia.

Ichthyosaurians.

Idiots, microcephalous, their characters and habits; hairiness and animal nature of their actions; microcephalous, imitative faculties of.

Iguana tuberculata.

Iguanas.

Illegitimate and legitimate children, proportion of the sexes in.

Imagination, existence of, in animals.

Imitation, of man by monkeys; tendency to, in monkeys, microcephalous idiots and savages; influence of.

Immature plumage of birds.

Implacentata.

Implements, employed by monkeys; fashioning of, peculiar to man.

Impregnation, period of, influence of, upon sex.

Improvement, progressive, man alone supposed to be capable of.

Incisor teeth, knocked out or filed by some savages.

Increase, rate of; necessity of checks in.

Indecency, hatred of, a modern virtue.

India, difficulty of distinguishing the native races of; Cyprinidae of; colour of the beard in races of men of.

Indian, North American, honoured for scalping a man of another tribe.

Individuality, in animals.

Indolence of man, when free from a struggle for existence.

Indopicus carlotta, colours of the sexes of.

Infanticide, prevalence of; supposed cause of; prevalence and causes of.

Inferiority, supposed physical, of man.

Inflammation of the bowels, occurrence of, in Cebus Azarae.

Inheritance, of long and short sight; of effects of use of vocal and mental organs; of moral tendencies; laws of; sexual; sexually limited.

Inquisition, influence of the.

Insanity, hereditary.

insect, fossil, from the Devonian.

Insectivora, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Insects, relative size of the cerebral ganglia in; male, appearance of, before the females; pursuit of female, by the males; period of development of sexual characters in; secondary sexual characters of; kept in cages; stridulation.

Insessores, vocal organs of.

Instep, depth of, in soldiers and sailors.

Instinct and intelligence.

Instinct, migratory, vanquishing the maternal.

Instinctive actions, the result of inheritance.

Instinctive impulses, difference of the force; and moral impulses, alliance of.

Instincts, complex origin of, through natural selection; possible origin of some; acquired, of domestic animals; variability of the force of; difference of force between the social and other; utilised for new purposes.

Instrumental music of birds.

Intellect, influence of, in natural selection in civilised society.

Intellectual faculties, their influence on natural selection in man; probably perfected through natural selection.

Intelligence, Mr. H. Spencer on the dawn of.

Intemperance, no reproach among savages; its destructiveness.

Intoxication in monkeys.

Iphias glaucippe.

Iris, sexual difference in the colour of the, in birds.

Ischio-pubic muscle.

Ithaginis cruentus, number of spurs in.

Iulus, tarsal suckers of the males of.

Jackals learning from dogs to bark.

Jack-snipe, coloration of the.

Jacquinot, on the number of species of man.

Jaeger, Dr., length of bones increased from carrying weights; on the difficulty of approaching herds of wild animals; male Silver-pheasant, rejected when his plumage was spoilt.

Jaguars, black.

Janson, E.W., on the proportions of the sexes in Tomicus villosus; on stridulant beetles.

Japan, encouragement of licentiousness in.

Japanese, general beardlessness of the; aversion of the, to whiskers.

Jardine, Sir W., on the Argus pheasant.

Jarrold, Dr., on modifications of the skull induced by unnatural position.

Jarves, Mr., on infanticide in the Sandwich Islands.

Javans, relative height of the sexes of; notions of female beauty.

Jaw, influence of the muscles of the, upon the physiognomy of the apes.

Jaws, smaller proportionately to the extremities; influence of food upon the size of; diminution of, in man; in man, reduced by correlation.

Jay, young of the; Canada, young of the.

Jays, new mates found by; distinguishing persons.

Jeffreys, J. Gwyn, on the form of the shell in the sexes of the

Gasteropoda; on the influence of light upon the colours of shells.

Jelly-fish, bright colours of some.

Jenner, Dr., on the voice of the rook; on the finding of new mates by magpies; on retardation of the generative functions in birds.

Jenyns, L., on the desertion of their young by swallows; on male birds singing after the proper season.

Jerdon, Dr., on birds dreaming; on the pugnacity of the male bulbul; on the pugnacity of the male Ortygornis gularis; on the spurs of Galloperdix; on the habits of Lobivanellus; on the spoonbill; on the drumming of the Kalij-pheasant; on Indian bustards; on Otis bengalensis; on the ear-tufts of Sypheotides auritus; on the double moults of certain birds; on the moulting of the honeysuckers; on the moulting of bustards, plovers, and drongos; on the spring change of colour in some finches; on display in male birds; on the display of the under-tail coverts by the male bulbul; on the Indian honey-buzzard; on sexual differences in the colour of the eyes of hornbills; on the markings of the Tragopan pheasant; on the nidification of the Orioles; on the nidification of the hornbills; on the Sultan yellow-tit; on Palaeornis javanicus; on the immature plumage of birds; on representative species of birds; on the habits of Turnix; on the continued increase of beauty of the peacock; on coloration in the genus Palaeornis.

Jevons, W.S., on the migrations of man.

Jews, ancient use of flint tools by the; uniformity of, in various parts of the world; numerical proportion of male and female births among the; ancient, tattooing practised by.

Johnstone, Lieut., on the Indian elephant.

Jollofs, fine appearance of the.

Jones, Albert, proportion of sexes of Lepidoptera, reared by.

Juan Fernandez, humming-birds of.

Junonia, sexual differences of colouring in species of.

Jupiter, comparison with Assyrian effigies.

Kaffir skull, occurrence of the diastema in a.

Kaffirs, their cruelty to animals; lice of the; colour of the; engrossment of the handsomest women by the chiefs of the; marriage-customs of the.

Kalij-pheasant, drumming of the male; young of.

Kallima, resemblance of, to a withered leaf.

Kulmucks, general beardlessness of; aversion of, to hairs on the face; marriage-customs of the.

Kangaroo, great red, sexual difference in the colour of.

Kant, Imm., on duty; on self-restraint; on the number of species of man.

Katy-did, stridulation of the.

Keen, Dr., on the mental powers of snakes.

Keller, Dr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements.

Kent, W.S., elongation of dorsal fin of Callionymus lyra; courtship of

Labrus mixtus; colours and courtship of Cantharus lineatus.

Kestrels, new mates found by.

Kidney, one, doing double work in disease.

King, W.R., on the vocal organs of Tetrao cupido; on the drumming of grouse; on the reindeer; on the attraction of male deer by the voice of the female.

King and Fitzroy, on the marriage-customs of the Fuegians.

King-crows, nidification of.

Kingfisher, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Kingfishers, colours and nidification of the; immature plumage of the; young of the.

King Lory, immature plumage of the.

Kingsley, C., on the sounds produced by the Umbrina.

Kirby and Spence, on sexual differences in the length of the snout in Curculionidae; on the courtship of insects; on the elytra of Dytiscus; on peculiarities in the legs of male insects; on the relative size of the sexes in insects; on the Fulgoridae; on the habits of the Termites; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles; on the horns of the male lamellicorn beetles; on hornlike processes in male Curculionidae; on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle.

Kite, killed by a game-cock.

Knot, retention of winter plumage by the.

Knox, R., on the semilunar fold; on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man; on the features of the young Memmon.

Koala, length of the caecum in.

Kobus ellipsiprymnus, proportion of the sexes in.

Kolreuter, on the sterility of hybrid plants.

Koodoo, development of the horns of the; markings of the.

Koppen, F.T., on the migratory locust.

Koraks, marriage customs of.

Kordofan, protuberances artificially produced by natives of.

Korte, on the proportion of sexes in locusts; Russian locusts.

Kovalevsky, A., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata.

Kovalevsky, W., on the pugnacity of the male capercailzie; on the pairing of the capercailzie.

Krause, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and a cat.

Kupffer, Prof., on the affinity of the Ascidia to the Vertebrata.

Labidocera Darwinii, prehensile organs of the male.

Labrus, splendid colours of the species of.

Labrus mixtus, sexual differences in.

Labrus pavo.

Lacertilia, sexual differences of.

Lafresnaye, M. de, on birds of paradise.

Lamarck, on the origin of man.

Lamellibranchiata.

Lamellicorn beetles, horn-like processes from the head and thorax of; influence of sexual selection on.

Lamellicornia, stridulation of.

Lamont, Mr., on the tusks of the walrus; on the use of its tusks by the walrus; on the bladder-nose seal.

Lampornis porphyrurus, colours of the female.

Lampyridae, distasteful to mammals.

Lancelet.

Landois, H., gnats attracted by sound; on the production of sound by the Cicadae; on the stridulating organ of the crickets; on Decticus; on the stridulating organs of the Acridiidae; stridulating apparatus, in Orthoptera; on the stridulation of Necrophorus; on the stridulant organ of Cerambyx heros; on the stridulant organ of Geotrupes; on the stridulating organs in the Coleoptera; on the ticking of Anobium.

Landor, Dr., on remorse for not obeying tribal custom.

Language, an art; articulate, origin of; relation of the progress of, to the development of the brain; effects of inheritance in production of; complex structure of, among barbarous nations; natural selection in; gesture; primeval; of a lost tribe preserved by a parrot.

Languages, presence of rudiments in; classification of; variability of; crossing or blending of; complexity of, no test of perfection or proof of special creation; resemblance of, evidence of community of origin.

Languages and species, identity of evidence of their gradual development.

Lanius, characters of young.

Lanius rufus, anomalous young of.

Lankester, E.R., on comparative longevity; on the destructive effects of intemperance.

Lanugo of the human foetus.

Lapponian language, highly artificial.

Lark, proportion of the sexes in the; female, singing of the.

Larks, attracted by a mirror.

Lartet, E., comparison of cranial capacities of skulls of recent and tertiary mammals; on the size of the brain in mammals; on Dryopithecus; on pre-historic flutes.

Larus, seasonal change of plumage in.

Larva, luminous, of a Brazilian beetle.

Larynx, muscles of the, in songbirds.

Lasiocampa quercus, attraction of males by the female; sexual difference of colour in.

Latham, R.G., on the migrations of man.

Latooka, perforation of the lower lip by the women of.

Laurillard, on the abnormal division of the malar bone in man.

Lawrence, W., on the superiority of savages to Europeans in power of sight; on the colour of negro infants; on the fondness of savages for ornaments; on beardless races; on the beauty of the English aristocracy.

Layard, E.L., on the instance of rationality in a cobra; on the pugnacity of Gallus Stanleyi.

Laycock, Dr., on vital periodicity; theroid nature of idiots.

Leaves, autumn, tints useless.

Lecky, Mr., on the sense of duty; on suicide; on the practice of celibacy; his view of the crimes of savages; on the gradual rise of morality.

Leconte, J.L., on the stridulant organ in the Coprini and Dynastini.

Lee, H., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the trout.

Leg, calf of the, artificially modified.

Legitimate and illegitimate children, proportion of the sexes in.

Legs, variation of the length of the, in man; proportions of, in soldiers and sailors; front, atrophied in some male butterflies; peculiarities of, in male insects.

Leguay, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man.

Lek of the black-cock and capercailzie.

Lemoine, Albert, on the origin of language.

Lemur macaco, sexual difference of colour in.

Lemuridae, ears of the; variability of the muscles in the; position and derivation of the; their origin.

Lemurs, uterus in the.

Lenguas, disfigurement of the ears of the.

Leopards, black.

Lepidoptera, numerical proportions of the sexes in the; colouring of; ocellated spots of.

Lepidosiren.

Leptalides, mimicry of.

Leptorhynchus angustatus, pugnacity of male.

Leptura testacea, difference of colour in the sexes.

Leroy, on the wariness of young foxes in hunting-districts; on the desertion of their young by swallows.

Leslie, D., marriage customs of Kaffirs.

Lesse, valley of the.

Lesson, on the birds of paradise; on the sea-elephant.

Lessona, M., observations on Serranus.

Lethrus cephalotes, pugnacity of the males of.

Leuciscus phoxinus.

Leuckart, R., on the vesicula prostatica; on the influence of the age of parents on the sex of offspring.

Levator claviculae muscle.

Libellula depressa, colour of the male.

Libellulidae, relative size of the sexes of; difference in the sexes of.

Lice of domestic animals and man.

Licentiousness a check upon population; prevalence of, among savages.

Lichtenstein, on Chera progne.

Life, inheritance at corresponding periods of.

Light, effects on complexion; influence of, upon the colours of shells.

Lilford, Lord, the ruff attracted by bright objects.

Limosa lapponica.

Linaria.

Linaria montana.

Lindsay, Dr. W.L., diseases communicated from animals to man; madness in animals; the dog considers his master his God.

Linnaeus, views of, as to the position of man.

Linnet, numerical proportion of the sexes in the; crimson forehead and breast of the; courtship of the.

Lion, polygamous; mane of the, defensive; roaring of the.

Lions, stripes of young.

Lips, piercing of the, by savages.

Lithobius, prehensile appendages of the female.

Lithosia, coloration in.

Littorina littorea.

Livingstone, Dr., manner of sitting of gorilla; on the influence of dampness and dryness on the colour of the skin; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate; on the spur-winged goose; on weaverbirds; on an African night-jar; on the battle-scars of South African male mammals; on the removal of the upper incisors by the Batokas; on the perforation of the upper lip by the Makalolo; on the Banyai.

Livonia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Lizards, relative size of the sexes of; gular pouches of.

Lloyd, L., on the polygamy of the capercailzie and bustard; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the capercailzie and blackcock; on the salmon; on the colours of the sea-scorpion; on the pugnacity of male grouse; on the capercailzie and blackcock; on the call of the capercailzie; on assemblages of grouse and snipes; on the pairing of a shield-drake with a common duck; on the battles of seals; on the elk.

Lobivanellus, wing-spurs in.

Local influences, effect of, upon stature.

Lockwood, Mr., on the development of Hippocampus.

Lockwood, Rev. S., musical mouse.

Locust, bright-coloured, rejected by lizards and birds.

Locust, migratory; selection by female.

Locustidae, stridulation of the; descent of the.

Locusts, proportion of sexes in; stridulation of.

Longicorn beetles, difference of the sexes of, in colour; stridulation of.

Lonsdale, Mr., on an example of personal attachment in Helix pomatia.

Lophobranchii, marsupial receptacles of the male.

Lophophorus, habits of.

Lophorina atra, sexual difference in coloration of.

Lophornis ornatus.

Lord, J.K., on Salmo lycaodon.

Lory, King; immature plumage of the.

Lory, King, constancy of.

Love-antics and dances of birds.

Lowne, B.T., on Musca vomitoria.

Loxia, characters of young of.

Lubbock, Sir J., on the antiquity of man; on the origin of man; on the mental capacity of savages; on the origin of implements; on the simplification of languages; on the absence of the idea of God among certain races of men; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies; on superstitions; on the sense of duty; on the practice of burying the old and sick among the Fijians; on the immorality of savages; on Mr. Wallace's claim to the origination of the idea of natural selection; on the former barbarism of civilised nations; on improvements in the arts among savages; on resemblances of the mental characters in different races of men; on the arts practised by savages; on the power of counting in primeval man; on the prehensile organs of the male Labidocera Darwinii; on Chloeon; on Smynthurus luteus; finding of new mates by jays; on strife for women among the North American Indians; on music; on the ornamental practices of savages; on the estimation of the beard among the Anglo-Saxons; on artificial deformation of the skull; on "communal marriages;" on exogamy; on the Veddahs; on polyandry.

Lucanidae, variability of the mandibles in the male.

Lucanus, large size of males of.

Lucanus cervus, numerical proportion of sexes of; weapons of the male.

Lucanus elaphus, use of mandibles of; large jaws of male.

Lucas, Prosper, on pigeons; on sexual preference in horses and bulls.

Luminosity in insects.

Lunar periods.

Lund, Dr., on skulls found in Brazilian caves.

Lungs, enlargement of, in the Quichua and Aymara Indians; a modified swim-bladder; different capacity of, in races of man.

Luschka, Prof., on the termination of the coccyx.

Luxury, expectation of life uninfluenced by.

Lycaena, sexual differences of colour in species of.

Lycaenae, colours of.

Lyell, Sir C., on the antiquity of man; on the origin of man; on the parallelism of the development of species and languages; on the extinction of languages; on the Inquisition; on the fossil remains of vertebrata; on the fertility of mulattoes.

Lynx, Canadian throat-ruff of the.

Lyre-bird, assemblies of.

Macacus, ears of; convoluted body in the extremity of the tail of; variability of the tail in species of; whiskers of species of.

Macacus brunneus.

Macacus cynomolgus, superciliary ridge of; beard and whiskers of; becoming white with age.

Macacus ecaudatus.

Macacus lasiotus, facial spots of.

Macacus nemestrinus.

Macacus radiatus.

Macacus rhesus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Macalister, Prof., on variations of the palmaris accessorius muscle; on muscular abnormalities in man; on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women.

Macaws, Mr. Buxton's observations on.

McCann, J., on mental individuality.

McClelland, J., on the Indian Cyprinidae.

Macculloch, Col., on an Indian village without any female children.

Macculloch, Dr., on tertian ague in a dog.

Macgillivray, W., on the vocal organs of birds; on the Egyptian goose; on the habits of woodpeckers; on the habits of the snipe; on the whitethroat; on the moulting of the snipes; on the moulting of the Anatidae; on the finding of new mates by magpies; on the pairing of a blackbird and thrush; on pied ravens; on the guillemots; on the colours of the tits; on the immature plumage of birds.

Machetes, sexes and young of.

Machetes pugnax, supposed to be polygamous; numerical proportion of the sexes in; pugnacity of the male; double moult in.

McIntosh, Dr., colours of the Nemertians.

McKennan, marriage customs of Koraks.

Mackintosh, on the moral sense.

MacLachlan, R., on Apatania muliebris and Boreus hyemalis; on the anal appendages of male insects; on the pairing of dragon-flies; on dragon-flies; on dimorphism in Agrion; on the want of pugnacity in male dragon-flies; colour of ghost-moth in the Shetland Islands.

M'Lennan, Mr., on infanticide; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies; on the prevalence of licentiousness among savages; on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations; on traces of the custom of the forcible capture of wives; on polyandry.

Macnamara, Mr., susceptibility of Andaman islanders and Nepalese to change.

M'Neill, Mr., on the use of the antlers of deer; on the Scotch deerhound; on the long hairs on the throat of the stag; on the bellowing of stags.

Macropus, courtship of.

Macrorhinus proboscideus, structure of the nose of.

Magpie, power of speech of; vocal organs of the; nuptial assemblies of; new mates found by; stealing bright objects; young of the; coloration of the.

Maillard, M., on the proportion of the sexes in a species of Papilio from Bourbon.

Maine, Sir Henry, on the absorption of one tribe by another; a desire for improvement not general.

Major, Dr. C. Forsyth, on fossil Italian apes; skull of Bos etruscus; tusks of miocene pigs.

Makalolo, perforation of the upper lip by the.

Malar bone, abnormal division of, in man.

Malay Archipelago, marriage-customs of the savages of the.

Malays, line of separation between the Papuans and the; general beardlessness of the; staining of the teeth among; aversion of some, to hairs on the face.

Malays and Papuans, contrasted characters of.

Male animals, struggles of, for the possession of the females; eagerness of, in courtship; generally more modified than female; differ in the same way from females and young.

Male characters, developed in females; transfer of, to female birds.

Male, sedentary, of a hymenopterous parasite.

Malefactors.

Males, presence of rudimentary female organs in.

Males and females, comparative numbers of; comparative mortality of, while young.

Malherbe, on the woodpeckers.

Mallotus Peronii.

Mallotus villosus.

Malthus, T., on the rate of increase of population.

Maluridae, nidification of the.

Malurus, young of.

Mammae, rudimentary, in male mammals; supernumerary, in women; of male human subject.

Mammalia, Prof. Owen's classification of; genealogy of the.

Mammals, recent and tertiary, comparison of cranial capacity of; nipples of; pursuit of female, by the males; secondary sexual characters of; weapons of; relative size of the sexes of; parallelism of, with birds in secondary sexual characters; voices of, used especially during the breeding season.

Man, variability of; erroneously regarded as more domesticated than other animals; migrations of; wide distribution of; causes of the nakedness of; supposed physical inferiority of; a member of the Catarrhine group; early progenitors of; transition from ape indefinite; numerical proportions of the sexes in; difference between the sexes; proportion of sexes amongst the illegitimate; different complexion of male and female negroes; secondary sexual characters of; primeval condition of.

Mandans, correlation of colour and texture of hair in the.

Mandible, left, enlarged in the male of Taphroderes distortus.

Mandibles, use of the, in Ammophila; large, of Corydalis cornutus; large, of male Lucanus elaphus.

Mandrill, number of caudal vertebrae in the; colours of the male.

Mantegazza, Prof., on last molar teeth of man; bright colours in male animals; on the ornaments of savages; on the beardlessness of the New Zealanders; on the exaggeration of natural characters by man.

Mantell, W., on the engrossment of pretty girls by the New Zealand chiefs.

Mantis, pugnacity of species of.

Maories, mortality of; infanticide and proportion of sexes; distaste for hairiness amongst men.

Marcus Aurelius, on the origin of the moral sense; on the influence of habitual thoughts.

Mareca penelope.

Marks, retained throughout groups of birds.

Marriage, restraints upon, among savages; influence of, upon morals; influence of, on mortality; development of.

Marriages, early; communal.

Marshall, Dr. W., protuberances on birds' heads; on the moulting of birds; advantage to older birds of paradise.

Marshall, Col., interbreeding amongst Todas; infanticide and proportion of sexes with Todas; choice of husband amongst Todas.

Marshall, Mr., on the brain of a Bushwoman.

Marsupials, development of the nictitating membrane in; uterus of; possession of nipples by; their origin from Monotremata; abdominal sacs of; relative size of the sexes of; colours of.

Marsupium, rudimentary in male marsupials.

Martin, W.C.L., on alarm manifested by an orang at the sight of a turtle; on the hair in Hylobates; on a female American deer; on the voice of Hylobates agilis; on Semnopithecus nemaeus.

Martin, on the beards of the inhabitants of St. Kilda.

Martins deserting their young.

Martins, C., on death caused by inflammation of the vermiform appendage.

Mastoid processes in man and apes.

Maudsley, Dr., on the influence of the sense of smell in man; on idiots smelling their food; on Laura Bridgman; on the development of the vocal organs; moral sense failing in incipient madness; change of mental faculties at puberty in man.

Mayers, W.F., on the domestication of the goldfish in China.

Mayhew, E., on the affection between individuals of different sexes in the dog.

Maynard, C.J., on the sexes of Chrysemys picta.

Meckel, on correlated variation of the muscles of the arm and leg.

Medicines, effect produced by, the same in man and in monkeys.

Medusae, bright colours of some.

Megalithic structures, prevalence of.

Megapicus validus, sexual difference of colour in.

Megasoma, large size of males of.

Meigs, Dr. A., on variation in the skulls of the natives of America.

Meinecke, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in butterflies.

Melanesians, decrease of.

Meldola, Mr., colours and marriage flight of Colias and Pieris.

Meliphagidae, Australian, nidification of.

Melita, secondary sexual characters of.

Meloe, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Memnon, young.

Memory, manifestations of, in animals.

Mental characters, difference of, in different races of men.

Mental faculties, diversity of, in the same race of men; inheritance of; variation of, in the same species; similarity of the, in different races of man; of birds.

Mental powers, difference of, in the two sexes in man.

Menura Alberti, song of.

Menura superba, long tails of both sexes of.

Merganser, trachea of the male.

Merganser serrator, male plumage of.

Mergus cucullatus, speculum of.

Mergus merganser, young of.

Metallura, splendid tail-feathers of.

Methoca ichneumonides, large male of.

Meves, M., on the drumming of the snipe.

Mexicans, civilisation of the, not foreign.

Meyer, on a convoluted body at the extremity of the tail in a Macacus and a cat.

Meyer, Dr. A., on the copulation of Phryganidae of distinct species.

Meyer, Prof. L., on development of helix of ear; men's ears more variable than women's; antennae serving as ears.

Migrations of man, effects of.

Migratory instinct of birds; vanquishing the maternal.

Mill, J.S., on the origin of the moral sense; on the "greatest happiness principle;" on the difference of the mental powers in the sexes of man.

Millipedes.

Milne-Edwards, H., on the use of enlarged chelae of the male Gelasimus.

Milvago leucurus, sexes and young of.

Mimicry.

Mimus polyglottus.

Mind, difference of, in man and the highest animals; similarity of the, in different races.

Minnow, proportion of the sexes in the.

Mirror, behaviour of monkeys before.

Mirrors, larks attracted by.

Mitchell, Dr., interbreeding in the Hebrides.

Mitford, selection of children in Sparta.

Mivart, St. George, on the reduction of organs; on the ears of the lemuroidea; on variability of the muscles in lemuroidea; on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys; on the classification of the primates; on the orang and on man; on differences in the lemuroidea; on the crest of the male newt.

Mobius, Prof., on reasoning powers in a pike.

Mocking-thrush, partial migration of; young of the.

Modifications, unserviceable.

Moggridge, J.T., on habits of spiders; on habits of ants.

Moles, numerical proportion of the sexes in; battles of male.

Mollienesia petenensis, sexual difference in.

Mollusca, beautiful colours and shapes of; absence of secondary sexual characters in the.

Molluscoida.

Monacanthus scopas and M. Peronii.

Monboddo, Lord, on music.

Mongolians, perfection of the senses in.

Monkey, protecting his keeper from a baboon; bonnet-; rhesus-, sexual difference in colour of the; moustache-, colours of the.

Monkeys, liability of, to the same diseases as man; male, recognition of women by; diversity of the mental faculties in; breaking hard fruits with stones; hands of the; basal caudal vertebrae of, imbedded in the body; revenge taken by; maternal affection in; variability of the faculty of attention in; American, manifestation of reason in; using stones and sticks; imitative faculties of; signal-cries of; mutual kindnesses of; sentinels posted by; human characters of; American, direction of the hair on the arms of some; gradation of species of; beards of; ornamental characters of; analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man; different degrees of difference in the sexes of; expression of emotions by; generally monogamous habits of; polygamous habits of some; naked surfaces of; courtship of.

Monogamy, not primitive.

Monogenists.

Mononychus pseudacori, stridulation of.

Monotremata, development of the nictitating membrane in; lactiferous glands of; connecting mammals with reptiles.

Monstrosities, analogous, in man and lower animals; caused by arrest of development; correlation of; transmission of.

Montagu, G., on the habits of the black and red grouse; on the pugnacity of the ruff; on the singing of birds; on the double moult of the male pintail.

Monteiro, Mr., on Bucorax abyssinicus.

Montes de Oca, M., on the pugnacity of male Humming-birds.

Monticola cyanea.

Monuments, as traces of extinct tribes.

Moose, battles of; horns of the, an incumbrance.

Moral and instinctive impulses, alliance of.

Moral faculties, their influence on natural selection in man.

Moral rules, distinction between the higher and lower.

Moral sense, so-called, derived from the social instincts; origin of the.

Moral tendencies, inheritance of.

Morality, supposed to be founded in selfishness; test of, the general welfare of the community; gradual rise of; influence of a high standard of.

Morgan, L.H., on the beaver; on the reasoning powers of the beaver; on the forcible capture of wives; on the castoreum of the beaver; marriage unknown in primeval times; on polyandry.

Morley, J., on the appreciation of praise and fear of blame.

Morris, F.O., on hawks feeding an orphan nestling.

Morse, Dr., colours of mollusca.

Morselli, E., division of the malar bone.

Mortality, comparative, of female and male.

Morton on the number of species of man.

Moschkau, Dr. A., on a speaking starling.

Moschus moschiferus, odoriferous organs of.

Motacillae, Indian, young of.

Moth, odoriferous.

Moths, absence of mouth in some males; apterous female; male, prehensile use of the tarsi by; male, attracted by females; sound produced by; coloration of; sexual differences of colour in.

Motmot, inheritance of mutilation of tail feathers; racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a.

Moult, double; double annual, in birds.

Moulting of birds.

Moults, partial.

Mouse, song of.

Moustache-monkey, colours of the.

Moustaches, in monkeys.

Mud-turtle, long claws of the male.

Mulattoes, persistent fertility of; immunity of, from yellow fever.

Mule, sterility and strong vitality of the.

Mules, rational.

Muller, Ferd., on the Mexicans and Peruvians.

Muller, Fritz, on astomatous males of Tanais; on the disappearance of spots and stripes in adult mammals; on the proportions of the sexes in some Crustacea; on secondary sexual characters in various Crustaceans; musical contest between male Cicadae; mode of holding wings in Castina; on birds shewing a preference for certain colours; on the sexual maturity of young amphipod Crustacea.

Muller, Hermann, emergence of bees, from pupa; pollen-gathering of bees; proportion of sexes in bees; courting of Eristalis; colour and sexual selection with bees.

Muller, J., on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold.

Muller, Max, on the origin of language; language implies power of general conception; struggle for life among the words, etc., of languages.

Muller, S., on the banteng; on the colours of Semnopithecus chrysomelas.

Muntjac-deer, weapons of the.

Murie, J., on the reduction of organs; on the ears of the Lemuroidea; on variability of the muscles in the Lemuroidea; basal caudal vertebrae of Macacus brunneus imbedded in the body; on the manner of sitting in short-tailed apes; on differences in the Lemuroidea; on the throat-pouch of the male bustard; on the mane of Otaria jubata; on the sub-orbital pits of Ruminants; on the colours of the sexes in Otaria nigrescens.

Murray, A., on the Pediculi of different races of men.

Murray, T.A., on the fertility of Australian women with white men.

Mus coninga.

Mus minutus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Musca vomitoria.

Muscicapa grisola.

Muscicapa luctuosa.

Muscicapa ruticilla, breeding in immature plumage.

Muscle, ischio-pubic.

Muscles, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man; variability of the; effects of use and disuse upon; animal-like abnormalities of, in man; correlated variation of, in the arm and leg; variability of, in the hands and feet; of the jaws, influence of, on the physiognomy of the Apes; habitual spasms of, causing modifications of the facial bones, of the early progenitors of man; greater variability of the, in men than in women.

Musculus sternalis, Prof. Turner on the.

Music, of birds; discordant, love of savages for; reason of power of perception of notes in animals; power of distinguishing notes; its connection with primeval speech; different appreciation of, by different peoples; origin of; effects of.

Musical cadences, perception of, by animals; powers of man.

Musk-deer, canine teeth of male; male, odoriferous organs of the; winter change of the.

Musk-duck, Australian; large size of male; of Guiana, pugnacity of the male.

Musk-ox, horns of.

Musk-rat, protective resemblance of the, to a clod of earth.

Musophagae, colours and nidification of the; both sexes of, equally brilliant.

Mussels opened by monkeys.

Mustela, winter change of two species of.

Musters, Captain, on Rhea Darwinii; marriages amongst Patagonians.

Mutilations, healing of; inheritance of.

Mutilla europaea, stridulation of.

Mutillidae, absence of ocelli in female.

Mycetes caraya, polygamous; vocal organs of; beard of; sexual differences of colour in; voice of.

Mycetes seniculus, sexual differences of colour in.

Myriapoda.

Nageli, on the influence of natural selection on plants; on the gradation of species of plants.

Nails, coloured yellow or purple in part of Africa.

Narwhal, tusks of the.

Nasal cavities, large size of, in American aborigines.

Nascent organs.

Nathusius, H. von, on the improved breeds of pigs; male domesticated animals more variable than females; horns of castrated sheep; on the breeding of domestic animals.

Natural selection, its effects on the early progenitors of man; influence of, on man; limitation of the principle; influence of, on social animals; Mr. Wallace on the limitation of, by the influence of the mental faculties in man; influence of, in the progress of the United States; in relation to sex.

Natural and sexual selection contrasted.

Naulette, jaw from, large size of the canines in.

Neanderthal skull, capacity of the.

Neck, proportion of, in soldiers and sailors.

Necrophorus, stridulation of.

Nectarinia, young of.

Nectariniae, moulting of the; nidification of.

Negro, resemblance of a, to Europeans in mental characters.

Negro-women, their kindness to Mungo Park.

Negroes, Caucasian features in; character of; lice of; fertility of, when crossed with other races; blackness of; variability of; immunity of, from yellow fever; difference of, from Americans; disfigurements of the; colour of new-born children of; comparative beardlessness of; readily become musicians; appreciation of beauty of their women by; idea of beauty among; compression of the nose by some.

Nemertians, colours of.

Neolithic period.

Neomorpha, sexual difference of the beak in.

Nephila, size of male.

Nests, made by fishes; decoration of, by Humming-birds.

Neumeister, on a change of colour in pigeons after several moultings.

Neuration, difference of, in the two sexes of some butterflies and hymenoptera.

Neuroptera.

Neurothemis, dimorphism in.

New Zealand, expectation by the natives of, of their extinction; practice of tattooing in; aversion of natives of, to hairs on the face; pretty girls engrossed by the chiefs in.

Newton, A., on the throat-pouch of the male bustard; on the differences between the females of two species of Oxynotus; on the habits of the Phalarope, dotterel, and godwit.

Newts.

Nicholson, Dr., on the non-immunity of dark Europeans from yellow fever.

Nictitating membrane.

Nidification of fishes; relation of, to colour; of British birds.

Night-heron, cries of the.

Nightingale, arrival of the male before the female; object of the song of the.

Nightingales, new mates found by.

Nightjar, selection of a mate by the female; Australian, sexes of; coloration of the.

Nightjars, noise made by some male, with their wings; elongated feathers in.

Nilghau, sexual differences of colour in the.

Nilsson, Prof., on the resemblance of stone arrow-heads from various places; on the development of the horns of the reindeer.

Nipples, absence of, in Monotremata.

Nitsche, Dr., ear of foetal orang.

Nitzsch, C.L., on the down of birds.

Noctuae, brightly-coloured beneath.

Noctuidae, coloration of.

Nomadic habits, unfavourable to human progress.

Nordmann, A., on Tetrao urogalloides.

Norfolk Island, half-breeds on.

Norway, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Nose, resemblance of, in man and the apes; piercing and ornamentation of the; very flat, not admired in negroes; flattening of the.

Nott and Gliddon, on the features of Rameses II.; on the features of

Amunoph III.; on skulls from Brazilian caves; on the immunity of negroes

and mulattoes from yellow fever; on the deformation of the skull among

American tribes.

Novara, voyage of the, suicide in New Zealand.

Nudibranch Mollusca, bright colours of.

Numerals, Roman.

Nunemaya, natives of, bearded.

Nuthatch, of Japan, intelligence of; Indian.

Obedience, value of.

Observation, powers of, possessed by birds.

Occupations, sometimes a cause of diminished stature; effect of, upon the proportions of the body.

Ocelli, absence of, in female Mutilidae.

Ocelli of birds, formation and variability of the.

Ocelot, sexual differences in the colouring of the.

Ocyhaps lophotes.

Odonata.

Odonestis potatoria, sexual difference of colour in.

Odour, correlation of, with colour of skin; of moths; emitted by snakes in the breeding season; of mammals.

Oecanthus nivalis, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Oecanthus pellucidus.

Ogle, Dr. W., relation between colour and power of smell.

Oidemia.

Oliver, on sounds produced by Pimelia striata.

Omaloplia brunnea, stridulation of.

Onitis furcifer, processes of anterior femora of the male, and on the head and thorax of the female.

Onthophagus.

Onthophagus rangifer, sexual differences of; variations in the horns of the male.

Ophidia, sexual differences of.

Ophidium.

Opossum, wide range of, in America.

Optic nerve, atrophy of the, caused by destruction of the eye.

Orang-Outan, Bischoff on the agreement of the brain of the, with that of man; adult age of the; ears of the; vermiform appendage of; hands of the; absence of mastoid processes in the; platforms built by the; alarmed at the sight of a turtle; using a stick as a lever; using missiles; using the leaves of the Pandanus as a night covering; direction of the hair on the arms of the; its aberrant characters; supposed evolution of the; voice of the; monogamous habits of the; male, beard of the.

Oranges, treatment of, by monkeys.

Orange-tip butterfly.

Orchestia Darwinii, dimorphism of males of.

Orchestia Tucuratinga, limbs of.

Ordeal, trial by.

Oreas canna, colours of.

Oreas Derbianus, colours of.

Organs, prehensile; utilised for new purposes.

Organic scale, von Baer's definition of progress in.

Orioles, nidification of.

Oriolus, species of, breeding in immature plumage.

Oriolus melanocephalus, coloration of the sexes in.

Ornaments, prevalence of similar; of male birds; fondness of savages for.

Ornamental characters, equal transmission of, to both sexes, in mammals; of monkeys.

Ornithoptera croesus.

Ornithorhynchus, reptilian tendency of; spur of the male.

Orocetes erythrogastra, young of.

Orrony, Grotto of.

Orsodacna atra, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Orsodacna ruficollis.

Orthoptera, metamorphosis of; stridulating apparatus of; colours of; rudimentary stridulating organs in female; stridulation of the, and Homoptera, discussed.

Ortygornis gularis, pugnacity of the male.

Oryctes, stridulation of; sexual differences in the stridulant organs of.

Oryx leucoryx, use of the horns of.

Osphranter rufus, sexual difference in the colour of.

Ostrich, African, sexes and incubation of the.

Ostriches, stripes of young.

Otaria jubata, mane of the male.

Otaria nigrescens, difference in the coloration of the sexes of.

Otis bengalensis, love-antics of the male.

Otis tarda, throat-pouch of the male; polygamous.

Ouzel, ring-, colours and nidification of the.

Ouzel, water-, singing in the autumn; colours and nidification of the.

Ovibos moschatus, horns of.

Ovipositor of insects.

Ovis cycloceros, mode of fighting of.

Ovule of man.

Owen, Prof., on the Corpora Wolffiana; on the great toe in man; on the nictitating membrane and semilunar fold; on the development of the posterior molars in different races of man; on the length of the caecum in the Koala; on the coccygeal vertebrae; on rudimentary structures belonging to the reproductive system; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus; on the number of digits in the Ichthyopterygia; on the canine teeth in man; on the walking of the chimpanzee and orang; on the mastoid processes in the higher apes; on the hairiness of elephants in elevated districts; on the caudal vertebrae of monkeys; classification of mammalia; on the hair in monkeys; on the piscine affinities of the Ichthyosaurians; on polygamy and monogamy among the antelopes; on the horns of Antilocapra Americana; on the musky odour of crocodiles during the breeding season; on the scent-glands of snakes; on the Dugong, Cachalot, and Ornithorhynchus; on the antlers of the red deer; on the dentition of the Camelidae; on the horns of the Irish elk; on the voice of the giraffe, porcupine, and stag; on the laryngeal sac of the gorilla and orang; on the odoriferous glands of mammals; on the effects of emasculation on the vocal organs of men; on the voice of Hylobates agilis; on American monogamous monkeys.

Owls, white, new mates found by.

Oxynotus, difference of the females of two species of.

Pachydermata.

Pachytylus migratorius.

Paget, on the abnormal development of hairs in man; on the thickness of the skin on the soles of the feet of infants.

Pagurus, carrying the female.

Painting, pleasure of savages in.

Palaemon, chelae of a species of.

Palaeornis, sexual differences of colour in.

Palaeornis javanicus, colour of beak of.

Palaeornis rosa, young of.

Palamedea cornuta, spurs on the wings.

Paleolithic period.

Palestine, habits of the chaffinch in.

Pallas, on the perfection of the senses in the Mongolians; on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin; on the polygamous habits of Antilope Saiga; on the lighter colour of horses and cattle in winter in Siberia; on the tusks of the musk-deer; on the odoriferous glands of mammals; on the odoriferous glands of the musk-deer; on winter changes of colour in mammals; on the ideal of female beauty in North China.

Palmaris accessorius, muscle variations of the.

Pampas, horses of the.

Pangenesis, hypothesis of.

Panniculus carnosus.

Pansch, on the brain of a foetal Cebus apella.

Papilio, proportion of the sexes in North American species of; sexual differences of colouring in species of; coloration of the wings in species of.

Papilio ascanius.

Papilio Sesostris and Childrenae, variability of.

Papilio Turnus.

Papilionidae, variability in the.

Papuans, line of separation between the, and the Malays; beards of the; teeth of.

Papuans and Malays, contrast in characters of.

Paradise, Birds of; supposed by Lesson to be polygamous; rattling of their quills by; racket-shaped feathers in; sexual differences in colour of; decomposed feathers in; display of plumage by the male; sexual differences in colour of.

Paradisea apoda, barbless feathers in the tail of; plumage of; and P. papuana; divergence of the females of; increase of beauty with age.

Paradisea papuana, plumage of.

Paraguay, Indians of, eradication of eyebrows and eyelashes by.

Parallelism of development of species and languages.

Parasites, on man and animals; as evidence of specific identity or distinctness; immunity from, correlated with colour.

Parental feeling in earwigs, starfishes, and spiders; affection, partly a result of natural selection.

Parents, age of, influence upon sex of offspring.

Parinae, sexual difference of colour in.

Park, Mungo, negro-women teaching their children to love the truth; his treatment by the negro-women; on negro opinions of the appearance of white men.

Parker, Mr., no bird or reptile in line of mammalian descent.

Parrakeet, young of; Australian, variation in the colour of the thighs of a male.

Parrot, racket-shaped feathers in the tail of a; instance of benevolence in a.

Parrots, change of colour in; imitative faculties of; living in triplets; affection of; colours and nidification of the; immature plumage of the; colours of; sexual differences of colour in; musical powers of.

Parthenogenesis in the Tenthredinae; in Cynipidae; in Crustacea.

Partridge, monogamous; proportion of the sexes in the; Indian; female.

Partridge-"dances."

Partridges, living in triplets; spring coveys of male; distinguishing persons.

Parus coeruleus.

Passer, sexes and young of.

Passer brachydactylus.

Passer domesticus.

Passer montanus.

Patagonians, self-sacrifice by; marriages of.

Patterson, Mr., on the Agrionidae.

Patteson, Bishop, decrease of Melanesians.

Paulistas of Brazil.

Pavo cristatus.

Pavo muticus, possession of spurs by the female.

Pavo nigripennis.

Payaguas Indians, thin legs and thick arms of the.

Payan, Mr., on the proportion of the sexes in sheep.

Peacock, polygamous; sexual characters of; pugnacity of the; Javan, possessing spurs; rattling of the quills by; elongated tail-coverts of the; love of display of the; ocellated spots of the; inconvenience of long tail of the, to the female; continued increase of beauty of the.

Peacock-butterfly.

Peafowl, preference of females for a particular male; first advances made by the female.

Pediculi of domestic animals and man.

Pedigree of man.

Pedionomus torquatus, sexes of.

Peel, J., on horned sheep.

Peewit, wing-tubercles of the male.

Pelagic animals, transparency of.

Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, horny crest on the beak of the male, during the breeding season.

Pelecanus onocrotalus, spring plumage of.

Pelele, an African ornament.

Pelican, blind, fed by his companions; young, guided by old birds; pugnacity of the male.

Pelicans, fishing in concert.

Pelobius Hermanni, stridulation of.

Pelvis, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man; differences of the, in the sexes of man.

Penelope nigra, sound produced by the male.

Pennant, on the battles of seals; on the bladder-nose seal.

Penthe, antennal cushions of the male.

Perch, brightness of male, during breeding season.

Peregrine falcon, new mate found by.

Period of variability, relation of, to sexual selection.

Periodicity, vital, Dr. Laycock on.

Periods, lunar, followed by functions in man and animals.

Periods of life, inheritance at corresponding.

Perisoreus canadensis, young of.

Peritrichia, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Periwinkle.

Pernis cristata.

Perrier, M., on sexual selection; on bees.

Perseverance, a characteristic of man.

Persians, said to be improved by intermixture with Georgians and

Circassians.

Personnat, M., on Bombyx Yamamai.

Peruvians, civilisation of the, not foreign.

Petrels, colours of.

Petrocincla cyanea, young of.

Petrocossyphus.

Petronia.

Pfeiffer, Ida, on Javan ideas of beauty.

Phacochoerus aethiopicus, tusks and pads of.

Phalanger, Vulpine, black varieties of the.

Phalaropus fulicarius.

Phalaropus hyperboreus.

Phanaeus.

Phanaeus carnifex, variation of the horns of the male.

Phanaeus faunus, sexual differences of.

Phanaeus lancifer.

Phaseolarctus cinereus, taste for rum and tobacco.

Phasgonura viridissima, stridulation of.

Phasianus Soemmerringii.

Phasianus versicolor.

Phasianus Wallichii.

Pheasant, polygamous; and black grouse, hybrids of; production of hybrids with the common fowl; immature plumage of the.

Pheasant, Amherst, display of.

Pheasant, Argus, display of plumage by the male; ocellated spots of the; gradation of characters in the.

Pheasant, Blood- Pheasant, Cheer.

Pheasant, Eared, length of the tail in the; sexes alike in the.

Pheasant, Fire-backed, possessing spurs.

Pheasant, Golden, display of plumage by the male; age of mature plumage in the; sex of young, ascertained by pulling out head-feathers.

Pheasant, Kalij, drumming of the male.

Pheasant, Reeve's, length of the tail in.

Pheasant, Silver, triumphant male, deposed on account of spoiled plumage; sexual coloration of the.

Pheasant, Soemmerring's.

Pheasant, Tragopan, display of plumage by the male; marking of the sexes of the.

Pheasants, period of acquisition of male characters in the family of the; proportion of sexes in chicks of; length of the tail in.

Philters, worn by women.

Phoca groenlandica, sexual difference in the coloration of.

Phoenicura ruticilla.

Phosphorescence of insects.

Phryganidae, copulation of distinct species of.

Phryniscus nigricans.

Physical inferiority, supposed, of man.

Pickering, on the number of species of man.

Picton, J.A., on the soul of man.

Picus auratus.

Picus major.

Pieris.

Pigeon, female, deserting a weakened mate; carrier, late development of the wattle in; pouter, late development of crop in; domestic, breeds and sub-breeds of.

Pigeons, nestling, fed by the secretion of the crop of both parents;

changes of plumage in; transmission of sexual peculiarities in; Belgian, with black-streaked males; changing colour after several moultings; numerical proportion of the sexes in; cooing of; variations in plumage of; display of plumage by male; local memory of; antipathy of female, to certain males; pairing of; profligate male and female; wing-bars and tail-feathers of; supposititious breed of; pouter and carrier, peculiarities of, predominant in males; nidification of; Australian; immature plumage of the.

Pigs, origin of the improved breeds of; numerical proportion of the sexes in; stripes of young; tusks of miocene; sexual preference shewn by.

Pike, American, brilliant colours of the male, during the breeding season.

Pike, reasoning powers of; male, devoured by females.

Pike, L.O., on the psychical elements of religion.

Pimelia striata, sounds produced by the female.

Pinel, hairiness in idiots.

Pintail, drake, plumage of; pairing with a wild duck.

Pintail Duck, pairing with a widgeon.

Pipe-fish, filamentous; marsupial receptacles of the male.

Pipits, moulting of the.

Pipra, modified secondary wing-feathers of male.

Pipra deliciosa.

Pirates stridulus, stridulation of.

Pitcairn island, half-breeds on.

Pithecia leucocephala, sexual differences of colour in.

Pithecia Satanas, beard of; resemblance of, to a negro.

Pits, suborbital, of Ruminants.

Pittidae, nidification of.

Placentata.

Plagiostomous fishes.

Plain-wanderer, Australian.

Planariae, bright colours of some.

Plantain-eaters, colours and nidification of the; both sexes of, equally brilliant.

Plants, cultivated, more fertile than wild; Nageli, on natural selection in; male flowers of, mature before the female; phenomena of fertilisation in.

Platalea, change of plumage in.

Platyblemus.

Platycercus, young of.

Platyphyllum concavum.

Platyrrhine monkeys.

Platysma myoides.

Plecostomus, head-tentacles of the males of a species of.

Plecostomus barbatus, peculiar beard of the male.

Plectropterus gambensis, spurred wings of.

Ploceus.

Plovers, wing-spurs of; double moult in.

Plumage, changes of, inheritance of, by fowls; tendency to analogous variation in; display of, by male birds; changes of, in relation to season; immature, of birds; colour of, in relation to protection.

Plumes on the head in birds, difference of, in the sexes.

Pneumora, structure of.

Podica, sexual difference in the colour of the irides.

Poeppig, on the contact of civilised and savage races.

Poison, avoidance of, by animals.

Poisonous fruits and herbs avoided by animals.

Poisons, immunity from, correlated with colour.

Polish fowls, origin of the crest in.

Pollen and van Dam, on the colours of Lemur macaco.

Polyandry, in certain Cyprinidae; among the Elateridae.

Polydactylism in man.

Polygamy, influence of, upon sexual selection; superinduced by domestication; supposed increase of female births by. In the stickleback.

Polygenists.

Polynesia, prevalence of infanticide in.

Polynesians, wide geographical range of; difference of stature among the; crosses of; variability of; heterogeneity of the; aversion of, to hairs on the face.

Polyplectron, number of spurs in; display of plumage by the male; gradation of characters in; female of.

Polyplectron chinquis.

Polyplectron Hardwickii.

Polyplectron malaccense.

Polyplectron Napoleonis.

Polyzoa.

Pomotis.

Pontoporeia affinis.

Porcupine, mute, except in the rutting season.

Pores, excretory, numerical relation of, to the hairs in sheep.

Porpitae, bright colours of some.

Portax picta, dorsal crest and throat-tuft of; sexual differences of colour in.

Portunus puber, pugnacity of.

Potamochoerus pencillatus, tusks and facial knobs of the.

Pouchet, G., the relation of instinct to intelligence; on the instincts of ants; on the caves of Abou-Simbel; on the immunity of negroes from yellow fever; change of colour in fishes.

Pouter pigeon, late development of the large crop in.

Powell, Dr., on stridulation.

Power, Dr., on the different colours of the sexes in a species of

Squilla.

Powys, Mr., on the habits of the chaffinch in Corfu.

Pre-eminence of man.

Preference for males by female birds; shewn by mammals, in pairing.

Prehensile organs.

Presbytis entellus, fighting of the male.

Preyer, Dr., on function of shell of ear; on supernumerary mammae in women.

Prichard, on the difference of stature among the Polynesians; on the connection between the breadth of the skull in the Mongolians and the perfection of their senses; on the capacity of British skulls of different ages; on the flattened heads of the Colombian savages; on Siamese notions of beauty; on the beardlessness of the Siamese; on the deformation of the head among American tribes and the natives of Arakhan.

Primary sexual organs.

Primates, sexual differences of colour in.

Primogeniture, evils of.

Prionidae, difference of the sexes in colour.

Proctotretus multimaculatus.

Proctotretus tenuis, sexual difference in the colour of.

Profligacy.

Progenitors, early, of man.

Progress, not the normal rule in human society; elements of.

Prong-horn antelope, horns of.

Proportions, difference of, in distinct races.

Protective colouring in butterflies; in lizards; in birds; in mammals.

Protective nature of the dull colouring of female Lepidoptera.

Protective resemblances in fishes.

Protozoa, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Pruner-Bey, on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man; on the colour of negro infants.

Prussia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Psocus, proportions of the sexes in.

Ptarmigan, monogamous; summer and winter plumage of the; nuptial assemblages of; triple moult of the; protective coloration of.

Puff-birds, colours and nidification of the.

Pugnacity of fine-plumaged male birds.

Pumas, stripes of young.

Puppies learning from cats to clean their faces.

Pycnonotus haemorrhous, pugnacity of the male; display of under-tail coverts by the male.

Pyranga aestiva, male aiding in incubation; male characters in female of.

Pyrodes, difference of the sexes in colour.

Quadrumana, hands of; differences between man and the; sexual differences of colour in; ornamental characters of; analogy of sexual differences of, with those of man; fighting of males for the females; monogamous habits of; beards of the.

Quain, R., on the variation of the muscles in man.

Quatrefages, A. de, on the occurrence of a rudimentary tail in man; on variability; on the moral sense as a distinction between man and animals; civilised men stronger than savages; on the fertility of Australian women with white men; on the Paulistas of Brazil; on the evolution of the breeds of cattle; on the Jews; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate; on the difference between field-and house-slaves; on the influence of climate on colour; colours of annelids; on the Ainos; on the women of San Giuliano.

Quechua, see Quichua.

Querquedula acuta.

Quetelet, proportion of sexes in man; relative size in man and woman.

Quichua Indians; local variation of colour in the; no grey hair among the; hairlessness of the; long hair of the.

Quiscalus major, proportions of the sexes of, in Florida and Honduras.

Rabbit, white tail of the.

Rabbits, domestic, elongation of the skull in; modification of the skull in, by the lopping of the ear; danger-signals of; numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Races, distinctive characters of; or species of man; crossed, fertility or sterility of; of man, variability of the; of man, resemblance of, in mental characters; formation of; of man, extinction of; effects of the crossing of; of man, formation of the; of man, children of the; beardless, aversion of, to hairs on the face.

Raffles, Sir S., on the banteng.

Rafts, use of.

Rage, manifested by animals.

Raia batis, teeth of.

Raia clavata, female spined on the back; sexual difference in the teeth of.

Raia maculata, teeth of.

Rails, spur-winged.

Ram, mode of fighting of the; African, mane of an; fat-tailed.

Rameses II., features of.

Ramsay, Mr., on the Australian musk-duck; on the regent-bird; on the incubation of Menura superba.

Rana esculenta, vocal sacs of.

Rat, common, general dispersion of, a consequence of superior cunning; supplantation of the native in New Zealand, by the European rat; common, said to be polygamous; numerical proportion of the sexes in.

Rats, enticed by essential oils.

Rationality of birds.

Rattlesnakes, difference of the sexes in the; rattles as a call.

Raven, vocal organs of the; stealing bright objects; pied, of the Feroe

Islands.

Rays, prehensile organs of male.

Razor-bill, young of the.

Reade, Winwood, suicide among savages in Africa; mulattoes not prolific; effect of castration of horned sheep; on the Guinea sheep; on the occurrence of a mane in an African ram; on singing of negroes; on the negroes' appreciation of the beauty of their women; on the admiration of negroes for a black skin; on the idea of beauty among negroes; on the Jollofs; on the marriage-customs of the negroes.

Reason in animals.

Redstart, American, breeding in immature plumage.

Redstarts, new mates found by.

Reduvidae, stridulation of.

Reed-bunting, head-feathers of the male; attacked by a bullfinch.

Reefs, fishes frequenting.

Reeks, H., retention of horns by breeding deer; cow rejected by a bull; destruction of piebald rabbits by cats.

Regeneration, partial, of lost parts in man.

Regent bird.

Reindeer, horns of the; battles of; horns of the female; antlers of, with numerous points; winter change of the; sexual preferences shown by.

Relationship, terms of.

Religion, deficiency of among certain races; psychical elements of.

Remorse, deficiency of, among savages.

Rengger, on the diseases of Cebus Azarae; on the diversity of the mental faculties of monkeys; on the Payaguas Indians; on the inferiority of Europeans to savages in their senses; revenge taken by monkeys; on maternal affection in a Cebus; on the reasoning powers of American monkeys; on the use of stones by monkeys for cracking hard nuts; on the sounds uttered by Cebus Azarae; on the signal-cries of monkeys; on the polygamous habits of Mycetes caraya; on the voice of the howling monkeys; on the odour of Cervus campestris; on the beards of Mycetes caraya and Pithecia Satanas; on the colours of Felis mitis; on the colours of Cervus paludosus; on sexual differences of colour in Mycetes; on the colour of the infant Guaranys; on the early maturity of the female of Cebus Azarae; on the beards of the Guaranys; on the emotional notes employed by monkeys; on American polygamous monkeys.

Representative species, of birds.

Reproduction, unity of phenomena of, throughout the mammalia; period of, in birds.

Reproductive system, rudimentary structures in the; accessory parts of.

Reptiles.

Reptiles and birds, alliance of.

Resemblances, small, between man and the apes.

Retrievers, exercise of reasoning faculties by.

Revenge, manifested by animals.

Reversion, perhaps the cause of some bad dispositions.

Rhagium, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Rhamphastos carinatus.

Rhea Darwinii.

Rhinoceros, nakedness of; horns of; horns of, used defensively; attacking white or grey horses.

Rhynchaea, sexes and young of.

Rhynchaea australis.

Rhynchaea bengalensis.

Rhynchaea capensis.

Rhythm, perception of, by animals.

Richard, M., on rudimentary muscles in man.

Richardson, Sir J., on the pairing of Tetrao umbellus; on Tetrao urophasianus; on the drumming of grouse; on the dances of Tetrao phasianellus; on assemblages of grouse; on the battles of male deer; on the reindeer; on the horns of the musk-ox; on antlers of the reindeer with numerous points; on the moose; on the Scotch deerhound.

Richter, Jean Paul, on imagination.

Riedel, on profligate female pigeons.

Riley, Mr., on mimicry in butterflies; bird's disgust at taste of certain caterpillars.

Ring-ouzel, colours and nidification of the.

Ripa, Father, on the difficulty of distinguishing the races of the

Chinese.

Rivalry, in singing, between male birds.

River-hog, African, tusks and knobs of the.

Rivers, analogy of, to islands.

Roach, brightness of the male during breeding-season.

Robbery, of strangers, considered honourable.

Robertson, Mr., remarks on the development of the horns in the roebuck and red deer.

Robin, pugnacity of the male; autumn song of the; female singing of the; attacking other birds with red in their plumage; young of the.

Robinet, on the difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the silk-moth.

Rodents, uterus in the; absence of secondary sexual characters in; sexual differences in the colours of.

Roe, winter changes of the.

Rohfs, Dr., Caucasian features in negro; fertility of mixed races in Sahara; colours of birds in Sahara; ideas of beauty amongst the Bornuans.

Rolle, F., on the origin of man; on a change in German families settled in Georgia.

Roller, harsh cry of.

Romans, ancient, gladiatorial exhibitions of the.

Rook, voice of the.

Rossler, Dr., on the resemblance of the lower surface of butterflies to the bark of trees.

Rostrum, sexual difference in the length of in some weevils.

Royer, Madlle., mammals giving suck.

Rudimentary organs, origin of.

Rudiments, presence of, in languages.

Rudolphi, on the want of connexion between climate and the colour of the skin.

Ruff, supposed to be polygamous; proportion of the sexes in the; pugnacity of the; double moult in; duration of dances of; attraction of the, to bright objects.

Ruminants, male, disappearance of canine teeth in; generally polygamous; suborbital pits of; sexual differences of colour in.

Rupicola crocea, display of plumage by the male.

Ruppell, on canine teeth in deer and antelopes.

Russia, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Ruticilla.

Rutimeyer, Prof., on the physiognomy of the apes; on tusks of miocene boar; on the sexual differences of monkeys.

Rutlandshire, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Sachs, Prof., on the behaviour of the male and female elements in fertilisation.

Sacrifices, human.

Sagittal crest, in male apes and Australians.

Sahara, fertility of mixed races in; birds of the; animal inhabitants of the.

Sailors, growth of, delayed by conditions of life; long-sighted.

Sailors and soldiers, difference in the proportions of.

St. John, Mr., on the attachment of mated birds.

St. Kilda, beards of the inhabitants of.

Salmo eriox, and Salmo umbla, colouring of the male, during the breeding season.

Salmo lycaodon.

Salmo salar.

Salmon, leaping out of fresh water; male, ready to breed before the female; proportion of the sexes in; male, pugnacity of the; male, characters of, during the breeding season; spawning of the; breeding of immature male.

Salvin, O., inheritance of mutilated feathers; on the Humming-birds; on the numerical proportion of the sexes in Humming-birds; on Chamaepetes and Penelope; on Selasphorus platycercus; Pipra deliciosa; on Chasmorhynchus.

Samoa Islands, beardlessness of the natives of.

Sandhoppers, claspers of male.

Sand-skipper.

Sandwich Islands, variation in the skulls of the natives of the; decrease of native population; population of; superiority of the nobles in the.

Sandwich Islanders, lice of.

San-Giuliano, women of.

Santali, recent rapid increase of the; Mr. Hunter on the.

Saphirina, characters of the males of.

Sarkidiornis melanonotus, characters of the young.

Sars, O., on Pontoporeia affinis.

Saturnia carpini, attraction of males by the female.

Saturnia Io, difference of coloration in the sexes of.

Saturniidae, coloration of the.

Savage, Dr., on the fighting of the male gorillas; on the habits of the gorilla.

Savage and Wyman on the polygamous habits of the gorilla.

Savages, uniformity of, exaggerated; long-sighted; rate of increase among, usually small; retention of the prehensile power of the feet by; imitative faculties of; causes of low morality of; tribes of, supplanting one another; improvements in the arts among; arts of; fondness of, for rough music; on long-enduring fashions among; attention paid by, to personal appearance; relation of the sexes among.

Saviotti, Dr., division of malar bone.

Saw-fly, pugnacity of a male.

Saw-flies, proportions of the sexes in.

Saxicola rubicola, young of.

Scalp, motion of the.

Scent-glands in snakes.

Schaaffhausen, Prof., on the development of the posterior molars in different races of man; on the jaw from La Naulette; on the correlation between muscularity and prominent supra-orbital ridges; on the mastoid processes of man; on modifications of the cranial bones; on human sacrifices; on the probable speedy extermination of the anthropomorphous apes; on the ancient inhabitants of Europe; on the effects of use and disuse of parts; on the superciliary ridge in man; on the absence of race-differences in the infant skull in man; on ugliness.

Schaum, H., on the elytra of Dytiscus and Hydroporus.

Scherzer and Schwarz, measurements of savages.

Schelver, on dragon-flies.

Schiodte, on the stridulation of Heterocerus.

Schlegel, F. von, on the complexity of the languages of uncivilised peoples.

Schlegel, Prof., on Tanysiptera.

Schleicher, Prof, on the origin of language.

Schomburgk, Sir R., on the pugnacity of the male musk-duck of Guiana; on the courtship of Rupicola crocea.

Schoolcraft, Mr., on the difficulty of fashioning stone implements.

Schopenhauer, on importance of courtship to mankind.

Schweinfurth, complexion of negroes.

Sciaena aquila.

Sclater, P.L., on modified secondary wing-feathers in the males of Pipra; on elongated feathers in nightjars; on the species of Chasmorhynchus; on the plumage of Pelecanus onocrotalus; on the plantain-eaters; on the sexes and young of Tadorna variegata; on the colours of Lemur macaco; on the stripes in asses.

Scolecida, absence of secondary sexual characters in.

Scolopax frenata, tail feathers of;

Scolopax gallinago, drumming of.

Scolopax javensis, tail-feathers of.

Scolopax major, assemblies of.

Scolopax Wilsonii, sound produced by.

Scolytus, stridulation of.

Scoter-duck, black, sexual difference in coloration of the; bright beak of male.

Scott, Dr., on idiots smelling their food.

Scott, J., on the colour of the beard in man.

Scrope, on the pugnacity of the male salmon; on the battles of stags.

Scudder, S.H., imitation of the stridulation of the Orthoptera; on the stridulation of the Acridiidae; on a Devonian insect; on stridulation.

Sculpture, expression of the ideal of beauty by.

Sea-anemones, bright colours of.

Sea-bear, polygamous.

Sea-elephant, male, structure of the nose of the; polygamous.

Sea-lion, polygamous.

Seal, bladder-nose.

Seals, their sentinels generally females; evidence furnished by, on classification; polygamous habits of; battles of male; canine teeth of male; sexual differences; pairing of; sexual peculiarities of; in the coloration of; appreciation of music by.

Sea-scorpion, sexual differences in.

Season, changes of colour in birds, in accordance with the; changes of plumage of birds in relation to.

Seasons, inheritance at corresponding.

Sebituani, African chief, trying to alter a fashion.

Sebright Bantam.

Secondary sexual characters; relations of polygamy to; transmitted through both sexes; gradation of, in birds.

Sedgwick, W., on hereditary tendency to produce twins.

Seemann, Dr., on the different appreciation of music by different peoples; on the effects of music.

Seidlitz, on horns of reindeer.

Selasphorus platycercus, acuminate first primary of the male.

Selby, P.J., on the habits of the black and red grouse.

Selection as applied to primeval man.

Selection, double.

Selection, injurious forms of, in civilised nations.

Selection of male by female birds.

Selection, methodical, of Prussian grenadiers.

Selection, sexual, explanation of; influence of, on the colouring of

Lepidoptera.

Selection, sexual and natural, contrasted.

Self-command, habit of, inherited; estimation of.

Self-consciousness, in animals.

Self-preservation, instinct of.

Self-sacrifice, by savages; estimation of.

Semilunar fold.

Semnopithecus, long hair on the heads of species of.

Semnopithecus chrysomelas, sexual differences of colour in.

Semnopithecus comatus, ornamental hair on the head of.

Semnopithecus frontatus, beard etc., of.

Semnopithecus nasica, nose of.

Semnopithecus nemaeus, colouring of.

Semnopithecus rubicundus, ornamental hair on the head of.

Senses, inferiority of Europeans to savages in the.

Sentinels, among animals.

Serpents, instinctively dreaded by apes and monkeys.

Serranus, hermaphroditism in.

Setina, noise produced by.

Sex, inheritance limited by.

Sexes, relative proportions of, in man; proportions of, sometimes influenced by selection; probable relation of the, in primeval man.

Sexual and natural selection, contrasted.

Sexual characters, effects of the loss of; limitation of.

Sexual characters, secondary; relations of polygamy to; transmitted through both sexes; gradation of, in birds.

Sexual differences in man.

Sexual selection, explanation of; influence of, on the colouring of

Lepidoptera; objections to; action of, in mankind.

Sexual selection in spiders.

Sexual selection, supplemental note on.

Sexual similarity.

Shaler, Prof., sizes of sexes in whales.

Shame.

Sharks, prehensile organs of male.

Sharpe, Dr., Europeans in the tropics.

Sharpe, R.B., on Tanysiptera sylvia; on Ceryle; on the young male of

Dacelo Gaudi-chaudi.

Shaw, Mr., on the pugnacity of the male salmon.

Shaw, J., on the decorations of birds.

Sheep, danger-signals of; sexual differences in the horns of; horns of; domestic, sexual differences of, late developed; numerical proportion of the sexes in; inheritance of horns by one sex; effect of castration; mode of fighting of; arched foreheads of some.

Sheep, Merino, loss of horns in females of; horns of.

Shells, difference in form of, in male and female Gasteropoda; beautiful colours and shapes of.

Shield-drake, pairing with a common duck; New Zealand, sexes and young of.

Shooter, J., on the Kaffirs; on the marriage-customs of the Kaffirs.

Shrew-mice, odour of.

Shrike, Drongo.

Shrikes, characters of young.

Shuckard, W.E., on sexual differences in the wings of Hymenoptera.

Shyness of adorned male birds;

Siagonium, proportions of the sexes in; dimorphism in males of.

Siam, proportion of male and female births in.

Siamese, general beardlessness of the; notions of beauty of the; hairy family of.

Sidgwick, H., on morality in hypothetical bee community; our actions not entirely directed by pain and pleasure.

Siebold, C.T., von, on the proportion of sexes in the Apus; on the auditory apparatus of the stridulent Orthoptera.

Sight, inheritance of long and short.

Signal-cries of monkeys.

Silk-moth, proportion of the sexes in; Ailanthus, Prof. Canestrini, on the destruction of its larvae by wasps; difference of size of the male and female cocoons of the; pairing of the.

Simiadae, their origin and divisions.

Similarity, sexual.

Singing of the Cicadae and Fulgoridae; of tree-frogs; of birds, object of the.

Sirenia, nakedness of.

Sirex juvencus.

Siricidae, difference of the sexes in.

Siskin, pairing with a canary.

Sitana, throat-pouch of the males of.

Size, relative, of the sexes of insects.

Skin, dark colour of, a protection against heat.

Skin, movement of the; nakedness of, in man; colour of the.

Skin and hair, correlation of colour of.

Skull, variation of, in man; cubic contents of, no absolute test of intellect; Neanderthal, capacity of the; causes of modification of the; difference of, in form and capacity, in different races of men; variability of the shape of the; differences of, in the sexes in man; artificial modification of the shape of.

Skunk, odour emitted by the; white tail of, protective.

Slavery, prevalence of; of women.

Slaves, difference between field-and house-slaves.

Sloth, ornaments of male.

Smell, sense of, in man and animals.

Smith, Adam, on the basis of sympathy.

Smith, Sir A., on the recognition of women by male Cynocephali; on revenge by a baboon; on an instance of memory in a baboon; on the retention of their colour by the Dutch in South Africa; on the polygamy of the South African antelopes; on the polygamy of the lion; on the proportion of the sexes in Kobus ellipsiprymnus; on Bucephalus capensis; on South African lizards; on fighting gnus; on the horns of rhinoceroses; on the fighting of lions; on the colours of the Cape Eland; on the colours of the gnu; on Hottentot notions of beauty; disbelief in communistic marriages.

Smith, F., on the Cynipidae and Tenthredinidae; on the relative size of the sexes of Aculeate Hymenoptera; on the difference between the sexes of ants and bees; on the stridulation of Trox sabulosus; on the stridulation of Mononychus pseudacori.

Smynthurus luteus, courtship of.

Snakes, sexual differences of; mental powers of; male, ardency of.

"Snarling muscles."

Snipe, drumming of the; coloration of the.

Snipe, painted, sexes and young of.

Snipe, solitary, assemblies of.

Snipes, arrival of male before the female; pugnacity of male; double moult in.

Snow-goose, whiteness of the.

Sociability, the sense of duty connected with; impulse to, in animals; manifestations of, in man; instinct of, in animals.

Social animals, affection of, for each other; defence of, by the males.

Sociality, probable, of primeval men; influence of, on the development of the intellectual faculties; origin of, in man.

Soldiers, American, measurements of.

Soldiers and sailors, difference in the proportions of.

Solenostoma, bright colours and marsupial sac of the females of.

Song, of male birds appreciated by their females; want of, in brilliant plumaged birds; of birds.

Sorex, odour of.

Sounds, admired alike by man and animals; produced by fishes; produced by male frogs and toads; instrumentally produced by birds.

Spain, decadence of.

Sparassus smaragdulus, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Sparrow, pugnacity of the male; acquisition of the Linnet's song by a; coloration of the; immature plumage of the.

Sparrow, white-crowned, young of the.

Sparrows, house-and tree-.

Sparrows, new mates found by.

Sparrows, sexes and young of; learning to sing.

Spathura Underwoodi.

Spawning of fishes.

Spear, used before dispersion of man.

Species, causes of the advancement of; distinctive characters of; or races of man; sterility and fertility of, when crossed; supposed, of man; gradation of; difficulty of defining; representative, of birds; of birds, comparative differences between the sexes of distinct.

Spectrum femoratum, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Speech, connection between the brain and the faculty of; connection of intonation with music.

Spel, of the black-cock.

Spencer, Herbert, on the influence of food on the size of the jaws; on the dawn of intelligence; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies; on the origin of the moral sense; on music.

Spengel, disagrees with explanation of man's hairlessness.

Sperm-whales, battles of male.

Sphingidae, coloration of the.

Sphinx, Humming-bird.

Sphinx, Mr. Bates on the caterpillar of a.

Sphinx moth, musky odour of.

Spiders, parental feeling in; male, more active than female; proportion of the sexes in; secondary sexual characters of; courtship of male; attracted by music; male, small size of.

Spilosoma menthastri, rejected by turkeys.

Spine, alteration of, to suit the erect attitude of man.

Spirits, fondness of monkeys for.

Spiritual agencies, belief in, almost universal.

Spiza cyanea and ciris.

Spoonbill, Chinese, change of plumage in.

Spots, retained throughout groups of birds; disappearance of, in adult mammals.

Sprengel, C.K., on the sexuality of plants.

Springboc, horns of the.

Sproat, Mr., on the extinction of savages in Vancouver Island; on the eradication of facial hair by the natives of Vancouver Island; on the eradication of the beard by the Indians of Vancouver Island.

Spurs, occurrence of, in female fowls; development of, in various species of Phasianidae; of Gallinaceous birds; development of, in female Gallinaceae.

Squilla, different colours of the sexes of a species of.

Squirrels, battles of male; African, sexual differences in the colouring of; black.

Stag, long hairs of the throat of; horns of the; battles of; horns of the, with numerous branches; bellowing of the; crest of the.

Stag-beetle, numerical proportion of sexes of; use of jaws; large size of male; weapons of the male.

Stainton, H.T., on the numerical proportion of the sexes in the smaller moths; habits of Elachista rufocinerea; on the coloration of moths; on the rejection of Spilosoma menthastri by turkeys; on the sexes of Agrotis exclamationis.

Staley, Bishop, mortality of infant Maories.

Stallion, mane of the.

Stallions, two, attacking a third; fighting; small canine teeth of.

Stansbury, Captain, observations on pelicans.

Staphylinidae, hornlike processes in male.

Starfishes, parental feeling in; bright colours of some.

Stark, Dr., on the death-rate in towns and rural districts; on the influence of marriage on mortality; on the higher mortality of males in Scotland.

Starling, American field-, pugnacity of male.

Starling, red-winged, selection of a mate by the female.

Starlings, three, frequenting the same nest; new mates found by.

Statues, Greek, Egyptian, Assyrian, etc., contrasted.

Stature, dependence of, upon local influences.

Staudinger, Dr., on breeding Lepidoptera; his list of Lepidoptera.

Staunton, Sir G., hatred of indecency a modern virtue.

Stealing of bright objects by birds.

Stebbing, T.R., on the nakedness of the human body.

Stemmatopus.

Stendhal, see Bombet.

Stenobothrus pratorum, stridulation.

Stephen, Mr. L., on the difference in the minds of men and animals; on general concepts in animals; distinction between material and formal morality.

Sterility, general, of sole daughters; when crossed, a distinctive character of species; under changed conditions.

Sterna, seasonal change of plumage in.

Stickleback, polygamous; male, courtship of the; male, brilliant colouring of, during the breeding season; nidification of the.

Sticks used as implements and weapons by monkeys.

Sting in bees.

Stokes, Captain, on the habits of the great bower-bird.

Stoliczka, Dr., on colours in snakes.

Stoliczka, on the pre-anal pores of lizards.

Stonechat, young of the.

Stone implements, difficulty of making; as traces of extinct tribes.

Stones, used by monkeys for breaking hard fruits and as missiles; piles of.

Stork, black, sexual differences in the bronchi of the; red beak of the.

Storks, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes of.

Strange, Mr., on the satin bowerbird.

Strepsiceros kudu, horns of; markings of.

Stretch, Mr., on the numerical proportion in the sexes of chickens.

Stridulation, by males of Theridion; of Hemiptera; of the Orthoptera and

Homoptera discussed; of beetles.

Stripes, retained throughout groups of birds; disappearance of, in adult mammals.

Strix flammea.

Structure, existence of unserviceable modifications of.

Struggle for existence, in man.

Struthers, Dr., on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man.

Sturnella ludoviciana, pugnacity of the male.

Sturnus vulgaris.

Sub-species.

Suffering, in strangers, indifference of savages to.

Suicide, formerly not regarded as a crime; rarely practised among the lowest savages.

Suidae, stripes of the young.

Sulivan, Sir B.J., on speaking of parrots; on two stallions attacking a third.

Sumatra, compression of the nose by the Malays of.

Sumner, Archb., man alone capable of progressive improvement.

Sun-birds, nidification of.

Superciliary ridge in man.

Supernumerary digits, more frequent in men than in women; inheritance of; early development of.

Superstitions, prevalence of.

Superstitious customs.

Supra-condyloid foramen in the early progenitors of man.

Suspicion, prevalence of, among animals.

Swallow-tail butterfly.

Swallows deserting their young.

Swan, black, wild, trachea of the; white, young of; red beak of the; black-necked.

Swans, young.

Swaysland, Mr., on the arrival of migratory birds.

Swifts, migration of.

Swinhoe, R., on the common rat in Formosa and China; behaviour of lizards when caught; on the sounds produced by the male hoopoe; on Dicrurus macrocercus and the spoonbill; on the young of Ardeola; on the habits of Turnix; on the habits of Rhynchaea bengalensis; on Orioles breeding in immature plumage.

Sylvia atricapilla, young of.

Sylvia cinerea, aerial love-dance of the male.

Sympathy, among animals; its supposed basis.

Sympathies, gradual widening of.

Syngnathous fishes, abdominal pouch in male.

Sypheotides auritus, acuminated primaries of the male; ear-tufts of.

Tabanidae, habits of.

Tadorna variegata, sexes and young of.

Tadorna vulpanser.

Tahitians, compression of the nose by the.

Tail, rudimentary, occurrence of, in man; convoluted body in the extremity of the; absence of, in man and the higher apes; variability of, in species of Macacus and in baboons; presence of, in the early progenitors of man; length of, in pheasants; difference of length of the, in the two sexes of birds.

Tait, Lawson, on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations.

Tanager, scarlet, variation in the male.

Tanagra aestiva, age of mature plumage in.

Tanagra rubra, young of.

Tanais, absence of mouth in the males of some species of; relations of the sexes in; dimorphic males of a species of.

Tankerville, Earl, on the battles of wild bulls.

Tanysiptera, races of, determined from adult males.

Tanysiptera sylvia, long tail-feathers of.

Taphroderes distortus, enlarged left mandible of the male.

Tapirs, longitudinal stripes of young.

Tarsi, dilatation of front, in male beetles.

Tarsius.

Tasmania, half-castes killed by the natives of.

Tasmanians, extinction of.

Taste, in the Quadrumana.

Tattooing, universality of.

Taylor, G., on Quiscalus major.

Taylor, Rev. R., on tattooing in New Zealand.

Tea, fondness of monkeys for.

Teal, constancy of.

Tear-sacs, of Ruminants.

Teebay, Mr., on changes of plumage in spangled Hamburg fowls.

Teeth, rudimentary incisor, in Ruminants; posterior molar, in man; wisdom; diversity of; canine, in the early progenitors of man; canine, of male mammals; in man, reduced by correlation; staining of the; front, knocked out or filed by some savages.

Tegetmeier, Mr., on the transmission of colours in pigeons by one sex alone; numerical proportion of male and female births in dogs; on the abundance of male pigeons; on the wattles of game-cocks; on the courtship of fowls; on the loves of pigeons; on dyed pigeons; blue dragon pigeons.

Tembeta, S. American ornament.

Temper, in dogs and horses, inherited.

Tench, proportions of the sexes in the; brightness of male, during breeding season.

Tenebrionidae, stridulation of.

Tennent, Sir J.E., on the tusks of the Ceylon Elephant; on the frequent absence of beard in the natives of Ceylon; on the Chinese opinion of the aspect of the Cingalese.

Tennyson, A., on the control of thought.

Tenthredinidae, proportions of the sexes in; fighting habits of male; difference of the sexes in.

Tephrodornis, young of.

Terai, in India.

Termites, habits of.

Terns, white; and black.

Terns, seasonal change of plumage in.

Terror, common action of, upon the lower animals and man.

Testudo elegans.

Testudo nigra.

Tetrao cupido, battles of; sexual difference in the vocal organs of.

Tetrao phasianellus, dances of; duration of dances of.

Tetrao scoticus.

Tetrao tetrix, pugnacity of the male.

Tetrao umbellus, pairing of; battles of; drumming of the male.

Tetrao urogalloides, dances of.

Tetrao urogallus, pugnacity of the male.

Tetrao urophasianus, inflation of the oesophagus in the male.

Thamnobia, young of.

Thecla, sexual differences of colouring in species of.

Thecla rubi, protective colouring of.

Thecophora fovea.

Theognis, selection in mankind.

Theridion, stridulation of males of.

Theridion lineatum.

Thomisus citreus, and Thomisus floricolens, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Thompson, J.H., on the battles of sperm-whales.

Thompson, W., on the colouring of the male char during the breeding season; on the pugnacity of the males of Gallinula chloropus; on the finding of new mates by magpies; on the finding of new mates by Peregrine falcons.

Thorax, processes of, in male beetles.

Thorell, T., on the proportion of sexes in spiders.

Thornback, difference in the teeth of the two sexes of the.

Thoughts, control of.

Thrush, pairing with a blackbird; colours and nidification of the.

Thrushes, characters of young.

Thug, remorse of a.

Thumb, absence of, in Ateles and Hylobates.

Thury, M., on the numerical proportion of male and female births among the Jews.

Thylacinus, possession of the marsupial sac by the male.

Thysanura.

Tibia, dilated, of the male Crabro cribrarius.

Tibia and femur, proportions of, in the Aymara Indians.

Tierra del Fuego, marriage-customs of.

Tiger, colours and markings of the.

Tigers, depopulation of districts by, in India.

Tillus elongatus, difference of colour in the sexes of.

Timidity, variability of, in the same species.

Tinca vulgaris.

Tipula, pugnacity of male.

Tits, sexual difference of colour in.

Toads, male, treatment of ova by some; male, ready to breed before the female.

Todas, infanticide and proportion of sexes; practice polyandry; choice of husbands amongst.

Toe, great, condition of, in the human embryo.

Tomicus villosus, proportion of the sexes in.

Tomtit, blue, sexual difference of colour in the.

Tonga Islands, beardlessness of the natives of.

Tooke, Horne, on language.

Tools, flint; used by monkeys; use of.

Topknots in birds.

Tortoise, voice of the male.

Tortures, submitted to by American savages.

Totanus, double moult in.

Toucans, colours and nidification of the; beaks and ceres of the.

Towns, residence in, a cause of diminished stature.

Toynbee, J., on the external shell of the ear in man.

Trachea, convoluted and imbedded in the sternum, in some birds; structure of the, in Rhynchaea.

Trades, affecting the form of the skull.

Tragelaphus, sexual differences of colour in.

Tragelaphus scriptus, dorsal crest of; markings of.

Tragopan, swelling of the wattles of the male, during courtship; display of plumage by the male; marking of the sexes of the.

Tragops dispar, sexual difference in the colour of.

Training, effect of, on the mental difference between the sexes of man.

Transfer of male characters to female birds.

Transmission, equal, of ornamental characters, to both sexes in mammals.

Traps, avoidance of, by animals; use of.

Treachery, to comrades, avoidance of, by savages.

Tremex columbae.

Tribes, extinct; extinction of.

Trichius, difference of colour in the sexes of a species of.

Trigla.

Trigonocephalus, noise made by tail of.

Trimen, R., on the proportion of the sexes in South African butterflies; on the attraction of males by the female Lasiocampa quercus; on Pneumora; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles; on moths brilliantly coloured beneath; on mimicry in butterflies; on Gynanisa Isis, and on the ocellated spots of Lepidoptera; on Cyllo Leda.

Tringa, sexes and young of.

Tringa cornuta.

Triphaena, coloration of the species of.

Tristram, H.B., on unhealthy districts in North Africa; on the habits of the chaffinch in Palestine; on the birds of the Sahara; on the animals inhabiting the Sahara.

Triton cristatus.

Triton palmipes.

Triton punctatus.

Troglodyte skulls, greater than those of modern Frenchmen.

Troglodytes vulgaris.

Trogons, colours and nidification of the.

Tropic-birds, white only when mature.

Tropics, freshwater fishes of the.

Trout, proportion of the sexes in; male, pugnacity of the.

Trox sabulosus, stridulation of.

Truth, not rare between members of the same tribe; more highly appreciated by certain tribes.

Tulloch, Major, on the immunity of the negro from certain fevers.

Tumbler, almond, change of plumage in the.

Turdus merula, young of.

Turdus migratorius.

Turdus musicus.

Turdus polyglottus, young of.

Turdus torquatus.

Turkey, wild, pugnacity of young male; wild, notes of the; swelling of the wattles of the male; variety of, with a top-knot; recognition of a dog by a; male, wild, acceptable to domesticated females; wild, first advances made by older females; wild, breast-tuft of bristles of the.

Turkey-cock, scraping of the wings of, upon the ground; wild, display of plumage by; fighting habits of.

Turner, Prof. W., on muscular fasciculi in man referable to the panniculus carnosus; on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the human humerus; on muscles attached to the coccyx in man; on the filum terminale in man; on the variability of the muscles; on abnormal conditions of the human uterus; on the development of the mammary glands; on male fishes hatching ova in their mouths; on the external perpendicular fissure of the brain; on the bridging convolutions in the brain of a chimpanzee.

Turnix, sexes of some species of.

Turtle-dove, cooing of the.

Tuttle, H., on the number of species of man.

Tylor, E.B., on emotional cries, gestures, etc., of man; on the origin of the belief in spiritual agencies; remorse for violation of tribal usage in marrying; on the primitive barbarism of civilised nations; on the origin of counting; inventions of savages; on resemblances, of the mental characters in different races of man.

Type of structure, prevalence of.

Typhaeus, stridulating organs of; stridulation of.

Twins, tendency to produce, hereditary.

Twite, proportion of the sexes in.

Ugliness, said to consist in an approach to the lower animals.

Umbrella-bird.

Umbrina, sounds produced by.

United States, rate of increase in; influence of natural selection on the progress of; change undergone by Europeans in the.

Upupa epops, sounds produced by the male.

Uraniidae, coloration of the.

Uria troile, variety of (=U. lacrymans).

Urodela.

Urosticte Benjamini, sexual differences in.

Use and disuse of parts, effects of; influence of, on the races of man.

Uterus, reversion in the; more or less divided, in the human subject; double, in the early progenitors of man.

Vaccination, influence of.

Vancouver Island, Mr. Sproat on the savages of; natives of, eradication of facial hair by the.

Vanellus cristatus, wing tubercles of the male.

Vanessae, resemblance of lower surface of, to bark of trees.

Variability, causes of; in man, analogous to that in the lower animals; of the races of man; greater in men than in women; period of, relation of the, to sexual selection; of birds; of secondary sexual characters in man.

Variation, laws of; correlated; in man; analogous; analogous, in plumage of birds.

Variations, spontaneous.

Varieties, absence of, between two species, evidence of their distinctness.

Variety, an object in nature.

Variola, communicable between man and the lower animals.

Vaureal, human bones from.

Veddahs, monogamous habits of.

Veitch, Mr., on the aversion of Japanese ladies to whiskers.

Vengeance, instinct of.

Venus Erycina, priestesses of.

Vermes.

Vermiform appendage.

Verreaux, M., on the attraction of numerous males by the female of an

Australian Bombyx.

Vertebrae, caudal, number of in macaques and baboons; of monkeys, partly imbedded in the body.

Vertebrata, common origin of the; most ancient progenitors of; origin of the voice in air-breathing.

Vesicula prostatica, the homologue of the uterus.

Vibrissae, represented by long hairs in the eyebrows.

Vidua.

Vidua axillaris.

Villerme, M., on the influence of plenty upon stature.

Vinson, Aug., courtship of male spider; on the male of Epeira nigra.

Viper, difference of the sexes in the.

Virey, on the number of species of man.

Virtues, originally social only; gradual appreciation of.

Viscera, variability of, in man.

Vlacovich, Prof., on the ischio-pubic muscle.

Vocal music of birds.

Vocal organs of man; of birds; of frogs; of the Insessores; difference of, in the sexes of birds; primarily used in relation to the propagation of the species.

Vogt, Karl, on the origin of species; on the origin of man; on the semilunar fold in man; on microcephalous idiots; on the imitative faculties of microcephalous idiots; on skulls from Brazilian caves; on the evolution of the races of man; on the formation of the skull in women; on the Ainos and negroes; on the increased cranial difference of the sexes in man with race development; on the obliquity of the eye in the Chinese and Japanese.

Voice in mammals; in monkeys and man; in man; origin of, in air-breathing vertebrates.

Von Baer, see Baer.

Vulpian, Prof., on the resemblance between the brains of man and the higher apes.

Vultures, selection of a mate by the female; colours of.

Waders, young of.

Wagner, R., on the occurrence of the diastema in a Kaffir skull; on the bronchi of the black stork.

Wagtail, Ray's, arrival of the male before the female.

Wagtails, Indian, young of.

Waist, proportions of, in soldiers and sailors.

Waitz, Prof., on the number of species of man; on the liability of negroes to tropical fevers after residence in a cold climate; on the colour of Australian infants; on the beardlessness of negroes; on the fondness of mankind for ornaments; on negro ideas of female beauty; on Javan and Cochin Chinese ideas of beauty.

Waldeyer, M., on the hermaphroditism of the vertebrate embryo.

Wales, North, numerical proportion of male and female births in.

Walkenaer and Gervais, spider attracted by music; on the Myriapoda.

Walker, Alex., on the large size of the hands of labourers' children.

Walker, F., on sexual differences in the diptera.

Wallace, Dr. A., on the prehensile use of the tarsi in male moths; on the rearing of the Ailanthus silkmoth; on breeding Lepidoptera; proportion of sexes of Bombyx cynthia, B. yamamai, and B. Pernyi reared by; on the development of Bombyx cynthia and B. yamamai; on the pairing of Bombyx cynthia.

Wallace, A.R., on the origin of man; on the power of imitation in man; on the use of missiles by the orang; on the varying appreciation of truth among different tribes; on the limits of natural selection in man; on the occurrence of remorse among savages; on the effects of natural selection on civilised nations; on the use of the convergence of the hair at the elbow in the orang; on the contrast in the characters of the Malays and Papuans; on the line of separation between the Papuans and Malays; on the birds of paradise; on the sexes of Ornithoptera Croesus; on protective resemblances; on the relative sizes of the sexes of insects; on Elaphomyia; on the pugnacity of the males of Leptorhynchus angustatus; on sounds produced by Euchirus longimanus; on the colours of Diadema; on Kallima; on the protective colouring of moths; on bright coloration as protective in butterflies; on variability in the Papilionidae; on male and female butterflies, inhabiting different stations; on the protective nature of the dull colouring of female butterflies; on mimicry in butterflies; on the bright colours of caterpillars; on brightly-coloured fishes frequenting reefs; on the coral snakes; on Paradisea apoda; on the display of plumage by male birds of paradise; on assemblies of birds of paradise; on the instability of the ocellated spots in Hipparchia Janira; on sexually limited inheritance; on the sexual coloration of birds; on the relation between the colours and nidification of birds; on the coloration of the Cotingidae; on the females of Paradisea apoda and papuana; on the incubation of the cassowary; on protective coloration in birds; on the Babirusa; on the markings of the tiger; on the beards of the Papuans; on the hair of the Papuans; on the distribution of hair on the human body.

Walrus, development of the nictitating membrane in the; tusks of the; use of the tusks by the.

Walsh, B.D., on the proportion of the sexes in Papilio Turnus; on the Cynipidae and Cecidomyidae; on the jaws of Ammophila; on Corydalis cornutus; on the prehensile organs of male insects; on the antennae of Penthe; on the caudal appendages of dragonflies; on Platyphyllum concavum; on the sexes of the Ephemeridae; on the difference of colour in the sexes of Spectrum femoratum; on sexes of dragon-flies; on the difference of the sexes in the Ichneumonidae; on the sexes of Orsodacna atra; on the variation of the horns of the male Phanaeas carnifex; on the coloration of the species of Anthocharis.

Wapiti, battles of; traces of horns in the female; attacking a man; crest of the male; sexual difference in the colour of the.

Warbler, hedge-; young of the.

Warblers, superb, nidification of.

Wariness, acquired by animals.

Warington, R., on the habits of the stickleback; on the brilliant colours of the male stickleback during the breeding season.

Wart-hog, tusks and pads of the.

Watchmakers, short-sighted.

Waterhen.

Waterhouse, C.O., on blind beetles; on difference of colour in the sexes of beetles.

Waterhouse, G.R., on the voice of Hylobates agilis.

Water-ouzel, autumn song of the.

Waterton, C., on the Bell-bird; on the pairing of a Canada goose with a

Bernicle gander; on hares fighting.

Wattles, disadvantageous to male birds in fighting.

Weale, J., Mansel, on a South African caterpillar.

Wealth, influence of.

Weapons, used by man; employed by monkeys; offensive, of males; of mammals.

Weaver-bird.

Weaver-birds, rattling of the wings of; assemblies of.

Webb, Dr., on the wisdom teeth.

Wedderburn, Mr., assembly of black game.

Wedgwood, Hensleigh, on the origin of language.

Weevils, sexual difference in length of snout in some.

Weir, Harrison, on the numerical proportion of the sexes in pigs and rabbits; on the sexes of young pigeons; on the songs of birds; on pigeons; on the dislike of blue pigeons to other coloured varieties; on the desertion of their mates by female pigeons.

Weir, J. Jenner, on the nightingale and blackcap; on the relative sexual maturity of male birds; on female pigeons deserting a feeble mate; on three starlings frequenting the same nest; on the proportion of the sexes in Machetes pugnax and other birds; on the coloration of the Triphaenae; on the rejection of certain caterpillars by birds; on sexual differences of the beak in the goldfinch; on a piping bullfinch; on the object of the nightingale's song; on song-birds; on the pugnacity of male fine-plumaged birds; on the courtship of birds; on the finding of new mates by Peregrine falcons and Kestrels; on the bullfinch and starling; on the cause of birds remaining unpaired; on starlings and parrots living in triplets; on recognition of colour by birds; on hybrid birds; on the selection of a greenfinch by a female canary; on a case of rivalry of female bullfinches; on the maturity of the golden pheasant.

Weisbach, Dr., measurement of men of different races; on the greater variability of men than of women; on the relative proportions of the body in the sexes of different races of man.

Weismann, Prof., colours of Lycaenae.

Welcker, M., on brachycephaly and dolichocephaly; on sexual differences in the skull in man.

Wells, Dr., on the immunity of coloured races from certain poisons.

Westring, on the stridulation of males of Theridion; on the stridulation of Reduvius personatus; on the stridulation of beetles; on the stridulation of Omaloplia brunnea; on the stridulating organs of the Coleoptera; on sounds produced by Cychrus.

Westropp, H.M., on reason in a bear; on the prevalence of certain forms of ornamentation.

Westwood, J.O., on the classification of the Hymenoptera; on the Culicidae and Tabanidae; on a Hymenopterous parasite with a sedentary male; on the proportions of the sexes in Lucanus cervus and Siagonium; on the absence of ocelli in female Mutillidae; on the jaws of Ammophila; on the copulation of insects of distinct species; on the male of Crabro cribrarius; on the pugnacity of the male Tipulae; on the stridulation of Pirates stridulus; on the Cicadae; on the stridulating organs of the cricket; on Ephippiger vitium; on Pneumora; on the pugnacity of the Mantides; on Platyblemnus; on difference in the sexes of the Agrionidae; on the pugnacity of the males of a species of Tenthredinae; on the pugnacity of the male stag-beetle; on Bledius taurus and Siagonium; on lamellicorn beetles; on the coloration of Lithosia.

Whale, Sperm-, battles of male.

Whales, nakedness of.

Whately, Arch., language not peculiar to man; on the primitive civilisation of man.

Whewell, Prof., on maternal affection.

Whiskers, in monkeys.

White, F.B., noise produced by Hylophila.

White, Gilbert, on the proportion of the sexes in the partridge; on the house-cricket; on the object of the song of birds; on the finding of new mates by white owls; on spring coveys of male partridges.

Whiteness, a sexual ornament in some birds; of mammals inhabiting snowy countries.

White-throat, aerial love-dance of the male.

Whitney, Prof., on the development of language; language not indispensable for thought.

Widgeon, pairing with a pintail duck.

Widow-bird, polygamous; breeding plumage of the male; female, rejecting the unadorned male.

Widows and widowers, mortality of.

Wilckens, Dr., on the modification of domestic animals in mountainous regions; on a numerical relation between the hairs and excretory pores in sheep.

Wilder, Dr. Burt, on the greater frequency of supernumerary digits in men than in women.

Williams, on the marriage-customs of the Fijians.

Wilson, Dr., on the conical heads of the natives of North-Western Africa; on the Fijians; on the persistence of the fashion of compressing the skull.

Wing-spurs.

Wings, differences of, in the two sexes of butterflies and Hymenoptera; play of, in the courtship of birds.

Winter, change of colour of mammals in.

Witchcraft.

Wives, traces of the forcible capture of.

Wolf, winter change of the.

Wolff, on the variability of the viscera in man.

Wollaston, T.V., on Eurygnathus; on musical Curculionidae; on the stridulation of Acalles.

Wolves, learning to bark from dogs; hunting in packs.

Wolves, black.

Wombat, black varieties of the.

Women, distinguished from men by male monkeys; preponderance of, in numbers; selection of, for beauty; effects of selection of, in accordance with different standards of beauty; practice of capturing; early betrothals and slavery of; freedom of selection by, in savage tribes.

Wonder, manifestations of, by animals.

Wonfor, Mr., on sexual peculiarities, in the wings of butterflies.

Wood, J., on muscular variations in man; on the greater variability of the muscles in men than in women.

Wood, T.W., on the colouring of the orange-tip butterfly; on the habits of the Saturniidae; quarrels of chamaeleons; on the habits of Menura Alberti; on Tetrao cupido; on the display of plumage by male pheasants; on the ocellated spots of the Argus pheasant; on fighting of Menura superba; on the habits of the female cassowary.

Woodcock, coloration of the.

Woodpecker, selection of a mate by the female.

Woodpeckers, tapping of; colours and nidification of the; characters of young.

Woolner, Mr., observations on the ear in man.

Wormald, Mr., on the coloration of Hypopyra.

Wounds, healing of.

Wren, young of the.

Wright, C.A., on the young of Orocetes and Petrocincla.

Wright, Chauncey, great brain-power requisite for language; on correlative acquisition; on the enlargement of the brain in man.

Wright, Mr., on the Scotch deer-hound; on sexual preference in dogs; on the rejection of a horse by a mare.

Wright, W. von, on the protective plumage of the Ptarmigan.

Writing.

Wyman, Prof., on the prolongation of the coccyx in the human embryo; on the condition of the great toe in the human embryo; on the occurrence of the supra-condyloid foramen in the humerus of man; on variation in the skulls of the natives of the Sandwich Islands; on the hatching of the eggs in the mouths and branchial cavities of male fishes.

Xenarchus, on the Cicadae.

Xenophon, selection in mankind advocated by.

Xenorhynchus, sexual difference in the colour of the eyes in.

Xiphophorus Hellerii, peculiar anal fin of the male.

Xylocopa, difference of the sexes in.

Yarrel, W., on the habits of the Cyprinidae; on Raia clavata; on the characters of the male salmon during the breeding season; on the characters of the rays; on the gemmeous dragonet; on colours of salmon; on the spawning of the salmon; on the incubation of the Lophobranchii; on rivalry in song-birds; on the trachea of the swan; on the moulting of the Anatidae; on the young of the waders.

Yellow fever, immunity of negroes and mulattoes from.

Youatt, Mr., on the development of the horns in cattle.

Yura-caras, their notions of beauty.

Zebra, rejection of an ass by a female; stripes of the.

Zebus, humps of.

Zigzags, prevalence of, as ornaments.

Zincke, Mr., on European emigration to America.

Zootoca vivipara, sexual difference in the colour of.

Zouteveen, Dr., polydactylism; proportion of sexes at Cape of Good Hope; spiders attracted by music; on sounds produced by fish.

Zygaenidae, coloration of the.

THE END.

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