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Unwritten Literature of Hawaii / The Sacred Songs of the Hula By Nathaniel Bright Emerson Characters: 119307

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:03


Forth and return, forth and return, forth and return!

Now waft the woodland perfumes, the woodland perfumes.

15 The house ere we entered was tenant-free, quite free.

Heart-heavy we turn to the greenwood, the greenwood;

This the place, Heart's desire, you should tarry,

And feel the soft breath of the Unulau, Unulau--

Retirement for you, retirement for me, and for him.

20 We'll give then our heart to this task, this great task,

And build in the wildwood a shrine, ay a shrine.

You go; forget not the toils we have shared, have shared,

Lest your bones lie unblest in the road, in the road.

How wearisome, long, the road 'bout Hawaii, great Hawaii!

25 Love carries me off with a rush, and I cry, I cry,

Alas, I'm devoured by the shark, great shark!

This is not the first time that a Hawaiian poet has figured love by the monster shark.

XXXV.--THE HULA KILU

The hula kilu was so called from being used in a sport bearing that name which was much patronized by the alii class of the ancient regime. It was a betting game, or, more strictly, forfeits were pledged, the payment of which was met by the performance of a dance, or by the exaction of kisses and embraces. The satisfaction of these forfeits not infrequently called for liberties and concessions that could not be permitted on the spot or in public, but must wait the opportunity of seclusion. There were, no doubt, times when the conduct of the game was carried to such a pitch of license as to offend decency; but as a rule the outward proprieties were seemingly as well regarded as at an old-fashioned husking bee, when the finding of the "red ear" conferred or imposed the privilege or penalty of exacting or granting the blushing tribute of a kiss. Actual improprieties were not witnessed.

The game of kilu was played in an open matted space that lay between the two divisions of the audience--the women being on one side and the men on the other. Any chief of recognized rank in the papa alii was permitted to join in the game; and kings and queens were not above participating in the pleasures of this sport. Once admitted to the hall or inclosure, all were peers and stood on an equal footing as to the rules and privileges of the game. King nor queen could plead exemption from the forfeits incurred nor deny to another the full exercise of privileges acquired under the rules.

The players, five or more of each sex, having been selected by the president, La anoano ("quiet day"), sat facing each other in the space between the spectators. In front of each player stood a conical block of heavy wood, broad at the base to keep it upright. The kilu, with which the game was played, was an oval, one-sided dish, made by cutting in two an egg-shaped coconut shell. The object of the player was to throw his kilu so that it should travel with a sliding and at the same time a rotary motion across the matted floor and hit the wooden block which stood before the one of his choice on the side opposite. The men and the women took turns in playing. A successful hit entitled the player to claim a kiss from his opponent, a toll which was exacted at once. Success in winning ten points made one the victor in the game, and, according to some, entitled him to claim the larger forfeit, such as was customary in the democratic game of ume. The payment of these extreme forfeits was delayed till a convenient season, or might be commuted---on grounds of policy, or at the request of the loser, if a king or queen--by an equivalent of land or other valuable possession. Still no fault could be found if the winner insisted on the strict payment of the forfeit.

The game of kilu was often got up as a compliment, a supreme expression of hospitality, to distinguished visitors of rank, thus more than making good the polite phrase of the Spanish don, "all that I have is yours."

The fact that the hula kilu was performed by the alii class, who took great pains and by assiduous practice made themselves proficient that they might be ready to exhibit their accomplishment before the public, was a guarantee that this hula, when performed by them, would be of more than usual grace and vivacity. When performed in the halau as a tabu dance, according to some, the olapa alone took part, and the number of dancers, never very large, was at times limited to one performer. Authorities differ as to whether any musical instrument was used as an accompaniment. From an allusion to this dance met with in an old story it is quite certain that the drum was sometimes used as an accompaniment.

Let us picture to ourselves the scene: A shadowy, flower-scented hall; the elite of some Hawaiian court and their guests, gathered, in accord with old-time practice, to contend in a tournament of wit and grace and skill, vying with one another for the prize of beauty. The president has established order in the assembly; the opposing players have taken their stations, each one seated behind his target-block. The tallykeeper of one side now makes the challenge. "This kilu," says he, "is a love token; the forfeit a kiss." An Apollo of the opposite side joyfully takes up the gauge. His tallykeeper introduces him by name. He plumes himself like a wild bird of gay feather, standing forth in the decorous finery of his rank, girded and flowerbedecked after the manner of the halau, eager to win applause for his party not less than to secure for himself the loving reward of victory. In his hand is the instrument of the play, the kilu; the artillery of love, however, with which he is to assail the heart and warm the imagination of the fair woman opposed to him is the song he shoots from his lips.

The story of the two songs next to be presented is one, and will show us a side of Hawaiian life on which we can not afford entirely to close our eyes. During the stay at Lahaina of Kamehameha, called the Great--whom an informant in this matter always calls "the murderer," in protest against the treacherous assassination of Keoua, which took place at Kawaihae in Kamehameha's very presence--a high chiefess of his court named Kalola engaged in a love affair with a young man of rank named Ka'i-áma. He was much her junior, but this did not prevent his infatuation. Early one morning she rose, leaving him sound asleep, and took canoe for Molokai to serve as one of the escort to the body of her relative, Keola, on the way to its place of sepulture.

Some woman, appreciating the situation, posted to the house and waked the sleeper with the information. Ka'iáma hastened to the shore, and as he strained his vision to gain sight of the woman of his infatuation the men at the paddles and the bristling throng on the central platform--the pola--of the craft, vanishing in the twilight, made on his imagination the impression of a hazy mountain thicket floating on the waves, but hiding from view some rare flower. He gave vent to his feelings in song:

Mele

Pua ehu kamaléna 452 ka uka o Kapa'a;

Luhi-ehu iho la 453 ka pua i Maile-húna;

Hele a ha ka iwi 454 a ke Koolau,

Ke puá mai i ka maka o ka nahelehele,

5 I hali hoo-muú, 455 hoohalana i Wailua.

Pa kahea a Koolau-wahine,

O Pua-ke'i, e-e-e-e!

He pua laukona 456 ka moe e aloh' aí;

O ia moe la, e kaulele hou 457

10 No ka po i hala aku aku nei.

Hoiho kaua a eloelo, e ka hoa, e,

A hookahi!

[Translation]

Song

Misty and dim, a bush in the wilds of Kapa'a,

The paddlers bend to their work, as the flower-laden

Shrub inclines to the earth in Maile-húna;

They sway like reeds in the breeze to crack their bones

5 Such the sight as I look at this tossing grove,

The rhythmic dip and swing on to Wailua.

My call to the witch shall fly with the breeze,

Shall be heard at Pua-ke'i, e-he, e-he!

The flower-stalk Laukóna beguiles man to love,

10 Can bring back the taste of joys once our own,

Make real again the hours that are flown.

Turn hither, mine own, let's drench us with love--

Just for one night!

Footnote 452:(return) Pua ehu Kamaléna (yellow child). This exclamation is descriptive of the man's visual impression on seeing the canoe with its crowd of passengers and paddlers, in the misty light of morning, receding in the distance. The kamaléna is a mountain shrub having a yellow flower.

Footnote 453:(return) Luhi ehu iho la. Refers to the drooping of a shrub under the weight of its leaves and flowers, a figure applied to the bending of the paddlemen to their work.

Footnote 454:(return) Hele a ha ka iwi. An exaggerated figure of speech, referring to the exertions of the men at their paddles (ha, to strain).

Footnote 455:(return) I hali hoomú. This refers in a fine spirit of exaggeration to the regular motions of the paddlers.

Footnote 456:(return) Pua laukona. A kind of sugar-cane which was prescribed and used by the kahunas as an aphrodisiac.

Footnote 457:(return) Kaulele hou. To experience, or to enjoy, again.

The unchivalrous indiscretion of the youth in publishing the secret of his amour elicited from Kamehameha only the sarcastic remark, "Couldn't he eat his food and keep his mouth shut?" The lady herself took the same view of his action. There was no evasion in her reply; her only reproach was for his childishness in blabbing.

Mele

Kálakálaíhi, kaha 458 ka La ma ke kua o Lehua;

Lulana iho la ka pihe a ke Akua; 459

Ea mai ka Unulau 460 o Halali'i;

Lawe ke Koolau-wahine 461 i ka hoa la, lilo;

5 Hao ka Mikioi 462 i ke kai o Lehua:

Puwa-i'a na hoa-makani 463 mai lalo, e-e-e, a.

I hoonalonalo i ke aloha, pe'e ma-loko;

Ha'i ka wai-maka hanini;

I ike aku no i ka uwe ana iho;

10 Pelá wale no ka hoa kamalii, e-e, a!

[Translation]

Song

The sun-furrow gleams at the back of Lehua;

The King's had his fill of scandal and chaff;

The wind-god empties his lungs with a laugh;

And the Mikioi tosses the sea at Lehua,

5 As the trade-wind wafts his friend on her way--

A congress of airs that ruffles the bay.

Hide love 'neath a mask--that's all I would ask.

To spill but a tear makes our love-tale appear;

He pours out his woe; I've seen it, I know;

10 That's the way with a boy-friend, heigh-ho!

The art of translating from the Hawaiian into the English tongue consists largely in a fitting substitution of generic for specific terms. The Hawaiian, for instance, had at command scores of specific names for the same wind, or for the local modifications that were inflicted upon it by the features of the landscape. One might almost say that every cape and headland imposed a new nomenclature upon the breeze whose direction it influenced. He rarely contented himself with using a broad and comprehensive term when he could match the situation with a special form.

Footnote 458:(return) The picture of the sun declining, kaha, to the west, its reflected light-track, kala kalaihi, farrowing the ocean with glory, may be taken to be figurative of the loved and beautiful woman, Kalola, speeding on her westward canoe-flight.

Footnote 459:(return) Akua. Literally a god, must stand for the king.

Footnote 460:(return) Unulau. A special name for the trade-wind.

Footnote 461:(return) Koolau-wahine. Likewise another name for the trade-wind, here represented as carrying off the (man's) companion.

Footnote 462:(return) Mikioi. An impetuous, gusty wind is represented as lashing the ocean at Lehua, thus picturing the emotional stir attending Kalola's departure.

Footnote 463:(return) The words Puwa-i'a na hoa makani, which literally mean that the congress of winds, na hoa makani, have stirred up a commotion, even as a school of fish agitate the surface, of the ocean, puwa-i'a, refer to the scandal caused by Ka'i-ama's conduct.

The singer restricts her blame to charging her youthful lover with an indiscreet exhibition of childish emotion. The mere display of emotion evinced by the shedding of tears was in itself a laudable action and in good form.

This first reply of the woman to her youthful lover did not by any means exhaust her armament of retaliation. When she next treats of the affair it is with an added touch of sarcasm and yet with a sang-froid that proved it had not unsettled her nerves.

Mele

Ula Kala'e-loa 464 i ka lepo a ka makani;

Hoonu'anu'a na pua i Kalama-ula,

He hoa i ka la'i a ka manu-- 465

Manu ai ia i ka hoa laukona.

5 I keke lau-au'a ia e ka moe;

E kuhi ana ia he kanaka e.

Oau no keia mai luna a lalo;

Huná, ke aloha, pe'e maloko.

Ike 'a i ka uwe ana iho.

10 Pelá ka hoa kamalii--

He uwe wale ke kamalii.

[Translation]

Song

Red glows Kala'e through the wind-blown dust

That defiles the flowers of Lama-ula,

Outraged by the croak of this bird,

That eats of the aphrodisiac cane,

5 And then boasts the privileged bed.

He makes me a creature of outlaw:

True to myself from crown to foot-sole,

My love I've kept sacred, pent up within.

He flouts it as common, weeping it forth--

10 That is the way with a child-friend;

A child just blubbers at nothing.

Footnote 464:(return) Kala'e-loa. The full name of the place on Molokai now known as Kala'e.

Footnote 465:(return) La'i a ka manu. Some claim this to be a proper name, La'i-a-ka-manu, that of a place near Kala'e. However that may be the poet evidently uses the phrase here in its etymological sense.

To return to the description of the game, the player, having uttered his vaunt in true knightly fashion, with a dexterous whirl now sends his kilu spinning on its course. If his play is successful and the kilu strikes the target on the other side at which he aims, the audience, who have kept silence till now, break forth in applause, and his tally-keeper proclaims his success in boastful fashion:

Oli

A úweuwé ke kó'e a ke kae;

Puehuehu ka la, komo inoino;

Kakía, kahe ka ua ilalo.

[Translation]

Now wriggles the worm to its goal;

A tousling; a hasty encounter;

A grapple; down falls the rain.

It is now the winner's right to cross over and claim his forfeit. The audience deals out applause or derision in unstinted measure; the enthusiasm reaches fever-point when some one makes himself the champion of the game by bringing his score up to ten, the limit. The play is often kept up till morning, to be resumed the following night. 466

Footnote 466:(return) The account above given is largely based on David Malo's description of the game kilu. In his confessedly imperfect list of the hulas he does not mention the hula kilu. This hula was, however, included in the list of hulas announced for performance in the programme of King Kalakaua's coronation ceremonies.

Here also is a mele, which tradition reports to have been cantillated by Hiiaka, the sister of Pele, during her famous kilu contest with the Princess Pele-ula, which took place at Kou--the ancient name for Honolulu--on Hiiaka's voyage of return from Kauai to her sister's court at Kilauea. In this affair Lohiau and Wahineoma'o contended on the side of Hiiaka, while Pele-ula was assisted by her husband, Kou, and by other experts. But on this occasion the dice were cogged; the victory was won not by human skill but by the magical power of Hiiaka, who turned Pele-ula's kilu away from the target each time she threw it, but used her gift to compel it to the mark when the kilu was cast by herself.

Mele

Ku'u noa mai ka makani kuehu-kapa o Kalalau, 467

Mai na pali ku'i 468 o Makua-iki,

Ke lawe la i ka haka, 469 a lilo!

A lilo o-e, la!

5 Ku'u kane i ka uhu ka'i o Maka-pu'u,

Huki iluna ka Lae-o-ka-laau; 470

Oia pali makua-ole 471 olaila.

Ohiohi ku ka pali o Ulamao, e-e!

A lilo oe, la!

Footnote 467:(return) Ka-lalau (in the translation by the omission of the article ka, shortened to Lalau). A deep cliff-bound valley on the windward side of Kauai, accessible only at certain times of the year by boats and by a steep mountain trail at its head.

Footnote 468:(return) Pali ku'i. Ku'i means literally to join together, to splice or piece out. The cliffs tower one above another like the steps of a stairway.

Footnote 469:(return) Haka. A ladder or frame such as was laid across a chasm or set up at an impassable place in a precipitous road. The windward side of Kauai about Kalalau abounded in such places.

Footnote 470:(return) Lae-o-ka-laau. The southwest point of Molokai, on which is a light-house.

Footnote 471:(return) Makua-ole. Literally fatherless, perhaps meaning remarkable, without peer.

[Translation]

Song

Comrade mine in the robe-stripping gusts of Lalau,

On the up-piled beetling cliffs of Makua,

The ladder... is taken away... it is gone!

Your way is cut off, my man!

5 With you I've backed the uhu of Maka-pu'u,

Tugging them up the steeps of Point-o'-woods,

A cliff that stands fatherless, even as

Sheer stands the pali of Ula-mao--

And thus... you are lost!

This is but a fragment of the song which Hiiaka pours out in her efforts to calm the fateful storm which she saw piling up along the horizon. The situation was tragic. Hiiaka, daring fate, defying the dragons and monsters of the primeval world, had made the journey to Kauai, had snatched away from death the life of Lohiau and with incredible self-denial was escorting the rare youth to the arms of her sister, whose jealousy she knew to be quick as the lightning, her vengeance hot as the breath of the volcano, and now she saw this featherhead, with monstrous ingratitude, dallying with fate, calling down upon the whole party the doom she alone could appreciate, all for the smile of a siren whose charms attracted him for the moment; but, worst of all, her heart condemned her as a traitress--she loved him.

Hiiaka held the trick-card and she won; by her miraculous power she kept the game in her own hands and foiled the hopes of the lovers.

Mele

Ula ka lani ia Kanaloa, 472

Ula ma'ema'e ke ahi a ke A'e-loa. 473

Pohina iluna i ke ao makani,

Naue pu no i ka ilikai o Makahana-loa, 474

5 Makemake i ka ua lihau. 475

Aohe hana i koe a Ka-wai-loa; 476

Noho a ka li'u-lá i ke kula.

I kula oe no ka makemake, a hiki iho,

I hoa hula no ka la le'ale'a,

10 I noho pu me ka uahi pohina. 477

Hina oe i ka Naulu, 478 noho pu me ka Inuwai. 479

Akahi no a pumehana ka hale, ua hiki oe:

Ma'ema'e ka luna i Haupu. 480

Upu ka makemake e ike ia Ka-ala.

15 He ala ka makemake e ike ia Lihu'e; 481

Ku'u uka ia noho ia Halemano. 482

Maanei oe, pale oe, pale au,

Hana ne'e ke kikala i ka ha'i keiki.

Hai'na ka manao--noho i Waimea,

20 Hoonu'u pu i ka i'a ku o ka aina. 483

E kala oe a kala au a kala ia Ku, Ahuena. 484

Footnote 472:(return) Kanaloa. One of the four great gods of the Hawaiians, here represented as playing the part of Phoebus Apollo.

Footnote 473:(return) A'e-loa. The name of a wind whose blowing was said to be favorable to the fisherman in this region.

Footnote 474:(return) Makahana-loa, A favorite fishing ground. The word ilikai ("skin of the sea") graphically depicts the calm of the region. In the translation the name aforementioned has been shortened to Kahana.

Footnote 475:(return) Lihau. A gentle rain that was considered favorable to the work of the fisherman.

Footnote 476:(return) Ka-wai-loa. A division of Waialua, here seemingly used to mean the farm.

Footnote 477:(return) Uahi pohina. Literally gray-headed smoke. It is said that when studying together the words of the mele the pupils and the kumu would often gather about a fire, while the teacher recited and expounded the text. There is a possible allusion to this in the mention of the smoke.

Footnote 478:(return) Naulu. A wind.

Footnote 479:(return) Inu-wai. A wind that dried up vegetation, here indicating thirst.

Footnote 480:(return) Haupu. A mountain on Kauai, sometimes visible on Oahu in clear weather. (See note c, p. 229, on Haupu.)

Footnote 481:(return) Lihu'e. A beautiful and romantic region nestled, as the Hawaiians say, "between the thighs of the mountain," Mount Kaala.

Footnote 482:(return) Hale-mano. Literally the multitude of houses; a sylvan region bound to the southwestern flank of the Konahuanui range of mountains, a region of legend and romance, since the coming of the white man given over to the ravage and desolation that follow the free-ranging of cattle and horses, the vaquero, and the abusive use of fire and ax by the woodman.

Footnote 483:(return) I'a ku o ka aina. Fish common to a region; in this place it was probably the kala, which word is found in the next line, though in a different sense. Here the expression is doubtless a euphemism for dalliance.

Footnote 484:(return) Ku, Ahuena. At Waimea, Oahu, stood two rocks on the opposite bluffs that sentineled the bay. These rocks were said to represent respectively the gods Ku and Ahuena, patrons of the local fishermen.

[Translation]

Song

Kanaloa tints heaven with a blush,

'Tis the flame of the A'e, pure red,

And gray the wind-clouds overhead.

We trudge to the waters calm of Kahana--

5 Heaven grant us a favoring shower!

The work is all done on the farm.

We stay till twilight steals o'er the plain,

Then, love-spurred, tramp o'er it again,

Have you as partner in holiday dance--

10 We've moiled as one in the gray smoke;

Cast down by the Naulu, you thirst.

For once the house warms at your coming.

How clear glow the heights of yon Haupu!

I long for the sight of Ka-ala,

15 And sweet is the thought of Lihu'e,

And our mountain retreat, Hale-mano.

Here, fenced from each other by tabu,

Your graces make sport for the crowd.

What then the solution? Let us dwell

20 At Waimea and feast on the fish

That swarm in the neighboring sea,

With freedom to you and freedom to me,

Licensed by Ku and by Ahu-éna.

The scene of this idyl is laid in the district of Waialua, Oahu, but the poet gives his imagination free range regardless of the unities. The chief subjects of interest that serve as a trellis about which the human sentiments entwine concern the duties of the fisherman, who is also a farmer; the school for the hula, in which the hero and the heroine are pupils; and lastly an ideal condition of happiness which the lovers look forward to tinder the benevolent dispensation of the gods Ku and Ahuena.

Among the numerous relatives of Pele was one said to be a sister, who was stationed on a bleak sun-burnt promontory in Koolau, Oahu, where she supported a half-starved existence, striving to hold soul and body together by gathering the herbs of the fields, eked out by unsolicited gifts of food contributed by passing travelers. The pathetic plaint given below is ascribed to this goddess.

Mele

Mao wale i ka lani

Ka leo o ke Akua pololi.

A pololi a moe au

O ku'u la pololi,

5 A ola i kou aloha;

I na'i pu no i ka waimaka e uwe nei.

E uwe kaua, e!

[Translation]

Song

Engulfed ill heaven's abyss

Is the cry of the famished god.

I sank to the ground from faintness,

My day of utter starvation;

5 Was rescued, revived, by your love:

Ours a contest of tears sympathetic--

Let us pour out together our tears.

The Hawaiian thought it not undignified to express sympathy (aloha-ino) with tears.

XXXVI.--THE HULA HOO-NA-Ná

The hula hoo-na-ná--to quiet, amuse--was an informal dance, such as was performed without the usual restrictions of tabu that hedged about the set dances of the halau. The occasion of an outdoor festival, an ahaaina or luau, was made the opportunity for the exhibition of this dance. It seems to have been an expression of pure sportiveness and mirth-making, and was therefore performed without sacrifice or religious ceremony. While the king, chiefs, and aialo--courtiers who ate in the king's presence--are sitting with the guests about the festal board, two or three dancers of graceful carriage make a circuit of the place, ambling, capering, gesturing as they go in time to the words of a gay song.

A performance of this sort was witnessed by the author's informant in Honolulu many years ago; the occasion was the giving of a royal luau. There was no musical instrument, the performers were men, and the mele they cantillated went as follows:

A pili, a pili,

A pili ka'u manu

Ke kepau 485 o ka ulu-laau.

Poai a puni,

5 Noho ana i muli-wa'a; 486

Hoonu'u ka momona a ke alii.

Eli-eli 487 ke kapu; ua noa.

Noa ia wai?

Noa ia ka lani.

10 Kau lilua, 488 kaohi ka maku'u

E ai ana ka ai a ke alii!

Hoonu'u, hoonu'u hoonu'u

I ka i'a a ke alii!

Footnote 485:(return) Kepáu. Gum, the bird-lime of the fowler, which was obtained from forest trees, but especially from the ulu, the breadfruit.

Footnote 486:(return) Muli-wa'a (muli, a term applied to a younger brother). The idea involved is that of separation by an interval, as a younger brother is separated from his older brother by an interval. Muliwai is an interval of water, a stream. Wa'a, the last part of the above compound word, literally a canoe, is here used tropically to mean the tables, or the dishes, on which the food was spread, they being long and narrow, in the shape of a canoe. The whole term, consequently, refers to the people and the table about which they are seated.

Footnote 487:(return) Eli-eli. A word that is found in ancient prayers to emphasize the word kapu or the word noa.

Footnote 488:(return) Lilua. To stand erect and act without the restraint usually prescribed in the presence of royalty.

[Translation]

She is limed, she is limed,

My bird is limed,

With the gum of the forest.

We make a great circuit,

5 Outskirting the feast.

You shall feast on king's bounty:

No fear of the tabu, all's free.

Free! and By whom?

Free by the word of the king.

10 Then a free rein to mirth!

Banish the kill-joy

Who eats the king's dainties!

Feast then till replete

With the good king's meat!

XXXVII.--THE HULA ULILI

The hula ulili, also called by the descriptive name kolili--to wave or flutter, as a pennant--was a hula that was not at all times confined to the tabu restrictions of the halau. Like a truant schoolboy, it delighted to break loose from restraint and join the informal pleasurings of the people. Imagine an assembly of men and women in the picturesque illumination given by flaring kukui torches, the men on one side, the women on the other. Husbands and wives, smothering the jealousy instinctive to the human heart, are there by mutual consent--their daughters they leave at home--each one ready to play his part to the finish, with no thought of future recrimination. It was a game of love-forfeits, on the same lines as kilu and ume.

Two men, armed with wands furnished with tufts of gay feathers, pass up and down the files of men and women, waving their decorated staffs, ever and anon indicating with a touch of the wand persons of the opposite sex, who under the rules must pay the forfeit demanded of them. The kissing, of course, goes by favor. The wand-bearers, as they move along, troll an amorous ditty:

Oli

Kii na ka ipo ...

Mahele-liele i ka la o Kona! 489

O Kona, kai a ke Akua. 490

Elua la, huli ka Wai-opua, 491

5 Nete i ke kula,

Leha iluna o Wai-aloha 492

Kani ka aka a ka ua i ka laau,

Hoolaau ana i ke aloha ilaila.

Pili la, a pili i ka'u manu--

10 O pili o ka La-hiki-ola.

Ola ke kini o-lalo.

Hana i ka mea he ipo.

A hui e hui la!

Hui Koolau-wahine 493 o Pua-ke-i! 494

Footnote 489:(return) La o Kona. A day of Kona, i.e., of fine weather.

Footnote 490:(return) Kai a ke Akua. Sea of the gods, because calm.

Footnote 491:(return) Wai-opua. A wind which changed its direction after blowing for a few days from one quarter.

Footnote 492:(return) Wai-aloha. The name of a hill. In the translation the author has followed its meaning ("water of love").

Footnote 493:(return) Koolau-wahine. The name of a refreshing wind, often mentioned in Hawaiian poetry; here used as a symbol of female affection.

Footnote 494:(return) Pua-ke-i. The name of a sharp, bracing wind felt on the windward side of Molokai; used here apparently as a symbol of strong masculine passion.

[Translation]

Song

A search for a sweetheart...

Sport for a Kona day!

Kona, calm sea of the gods.

Two days the wind surges;

5 Then, magic of cloud!

It veers to the plain,

Drinks up the water of love.

How gleesome the sound

Of rain on the trees,

10 A balm to love's wound!

The wand touches, heart-ease!

It touches my bird--

Touch of life from the sun!

Brings health to the million.

15 Ho, now comes the fun!

A meeting, a union--

The nymph, Koo-lau,

And the hero, Ke-í.

XXXVIII.--THE HULA O-NIU

The so-called hula o-niu is not to be classed with the regular dances of the halau. It was rather a popular sport, in which men and women capered about in an informal dance while the players engaged in a competitive game of top-spinning: The instrument of sport was made from the lower pointed half of an oval coconut shell, or from the corresponding part of a small gourd. The sport was conducted in the presence of a mixed gathering of people amid the enthusiasm and boisterous effervescence which betting always greatly stimulated in Hawaii.

The players were divided into two sides of equal number, and each player had before him a plank, slightly hollowed in the center--like the board on which the Hawaiians pounded their poi--to be used as the bed for spinning his top. The naked hand, unaided by whip or string, was used to impart to the rude top a spinning motion and at the same time the necessary projectile force--a balancing of forces that called for nice adjustment, lest the whirling thing reel too far to one side or run wild and fly its smooth bed. Victory was declared and the wager given to the player whose top spun the longest.

The feature that most interests us is the singing, or cantillation, of the oli. In a dance and game of this sort, which the author's informant witnessed at Kahuku, Oahu, in 1844, one contestant on each side, in turn, cantillated an oli during the performance of the game and the dance.

Oli

Ke pohá, nei; u'ína la!

Kani óle-oléi, hau-walaau!

Ke wawa Pu'u-hina-hina; 495

Kani ka aka, he-hene na pali,

5 Na pali o Ka-iwi-ku'i. 496

Hanohano, makana i ka Wai-opua. 497

Malihini ka hale, ua hiki mai;

Kani ka pahu a Lohiau,

A Lohiau-ipo 498 i Haena la.

10 Enaena ke aloha, ke hiki mai;

Auau i ka wai a Kanaloa. 499

Nana kaua ia Lima-hull, 500 e.

E huli oe a loaa pono

Ka ia nei o-niu.

Footnote 495:(return) Pu'u-hina-hina. A precipitous place on the coast near Haena.

Footnote 496:(return) Ka-iwi-ku'i. A high cliff against which the waves dash.

Footnote 497:(return) Wai-opua. The name of a pleasant breeze.

Footnote 498:(return) Lohiau-ipo. The epithet ipo, sweetheart, dear one, was often affixed to the name of Lohiau, in token, no doubt, of his being distinguished as the object of Pele's passionate regard.

Footnote 499:(return) Kanaloa. There is a deep basin, of clear water, almost fluorescent in its sparkle, in one of the arched caves of Haena, which is called the water of Kanaloa--the name of the great God. This is a favorite bathing place.

Footnote 500:(return) Lima-huli. The name of a beautiful valley that lies back of Haena.

[Translation]

Song

The rustle and hum of spinning top,

Wild laughter and babel of sound--

Hear the roar of the waves at Pu'u-hina!

Bursts of derision echoed from cliffs,

5 The cliffs of Ka-iwi-ku'i;

And the day is stirred by a breeze.

The house swarms with women and men.

List! the drum-beat of Lohiau,

Lohiau, the lover, prince of Haena--

10 Love glows like an oven at his coming;

Then to bathe in the lake of the God.

Let us look at the vale Lima-huli, look!

Now turn we and study the spinning--

That trick we must catch to be winning.

This fragment from antiquity, as the local coloring indicates, finds its setting at Haena, the home of the famous mythological Prince Lohiau, of whom Pele became enamored in her spirit journey. Study of the mele suggests the occasion to have been the feast that was given in celebration of Lohiau's restoration to life and health through the persevering incantations of Hiiaka, Pele's beloved sister. The feast was also Lohiau's farewell to his friends at Haena. At its conclusion Hiiaka started with her charge on the journey which ended with the tragic death of Lohiau at the brink of the volcano. Pele in her jealousy poured out her fire and consumed the man whom she had loved.

XXXIX.--THE HULA KU'I

The account of the Hawaiian hulas would be incomplete if without mention of the hula ku'i. This was an invention, or introduction, of the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Its formal, public, appearance dates from the coronation ceremonies of the late King Kalakaua, 1883, when it filled an important place in the programme. Of the 262 hula performances listed for exhibition, some 30 were of the hula ku'i. This is perhaps the most democratic of the hulas, and from the date' of its introduction it sprang at once into public favor. Not many years ago one could witness its extemporaneous performance by nonprofessionals at many an entertainment and festive gathering. Even the school-children took it up and might frequently be seen innocently footing its measures on the streets. (Pl. XXIV.)

The steps and motions of the hula ku'i to the eyes of the author resemble those of some Spanish dances. The rhythm is in common, or double, time. One observes the following motions:

Figure A.--1. A step obliquely forward with the left foot, arms pointing the same way, body inclining to the right. 2. The ball of the left foot (still advanced) gently pressed on the floor; the heel swings back and forth, describing an arc of some 30 or 40 degrees. 8. The left foot is set firmly in the last position, the body inclining to it as the base of support; the right foot is advanced obliquely, and 4, performs the heel-swinging motions above described, arms pointing obliquely to the right.

Figure B.--Hands pressed to the waist, fingers directed forward, thumbs backward, elbows well away from the body; left foot advanced as in figure A, 1, body inclining to the right. 2. The left foot performs the heel-waving motions, as above. 3. Hands in same position, right foot advanced as previously described. 4. The right foot performs the swinging motions previously described--the body inclined to the left.

Figure C.--In this figure, while the hands are pressed as before against the waist, with the elbows thrown well away from the body, the performer sways the pelvis and central axis of the trunk in a circular or elliptical orbit, a movement, which, carried to the extreme, is termed ami.

There are other figures and modifications, which the ingenuity and fancy of performers have introduced into this dance; but this account must suffice.

Given a demand for a pas seul, some pleasing dance combining grace with dexterity, a shake of the foot, a twist of the body, and a wave of the hands, the hula ku'i filled the bill to perfection. The very fact that it belonged by name to the genus hula, giving it, as it were, the smack of forbidden fruit, only added to its attractiveness. It became all the rage among dancing folk, attaining such a vogue as almost to cause a panic among the tribunes and censors of society. Even to one who cares nothing for the hula per se, save as it might be a spectacle out of old Hawaii, or a setting for an old-time song, the innocent grace and Delsartian flexibility of this solo dance, which one can not find in its Keltic or African congeners, associate it in mind with the joy and light-heartedness of man's Arcadian period.

The instruments generally used in the musical accompaniment of the hula ku'i are the guitar, the uku-lele, 501 the taro-patch fiddle,[501] or the mandolin; the piano also lends itself effectively for this purpose; or a combination of these may be used.

The songs that are sung to this dance as a rule belong naturally to later productions of the Hawaiian muse, or to modifications of old poetical compositions. The following mele was originally a namesong (mele-inoa). It was appropriated by the late Princess Kino-iki; and by her it was passed on to Kalani-ana-ole, a fact which should not prejudice our appreciation of its beauty.

Mele

I aloha i ke ko a ka wai,

I ka i mai, e, anu kaua.

Ua anu na pua o ka laina, 502

Ka wanine noho anu o ke kula.

5 A luna au a o Poli-ahu; 503

Ahu wale kai a o Wai-lua.

Lua-ole ka hana a ka makani,

A ke Kiu-ke'e 504 a o na pall,

Pa iho i ke kai a o Puna--

10 Ko Puna mea ma'a mau ia.

Pau ai ko'u lihi hoihoi

I ka wai awili me ke kai.

Ke ono hou nei ku'u pu'u

I ka wai hu'ihu'i o ka uka,

15 Wai hone i ke kumu o ka pali,

I malu i ka lau kui-kui. 505

Ke kuhi nei au a he pono

Ka ilima lei a ke aloha,

Au i kau nui aku ai,

20 I ka nani oi a oia pua.

Footnote 501:(return) The uku-lele and the taro-patch fiddle are stringed instruments resembling in general appearance the fiddle. They seem to have been introduced into these islands by the Portuguese immigrants who have come in within the last twenty-five years. As with the guitar, the four strings of the uku-lele or the five strings of the taro-patch fiddle are plucked with the finger or thumb.

Footnote 502:(return) Na pua o ka laina. The intent of this expression, which seems to have an erotic meaning, may perhaps be inferred from its literal rendering in the translation. It requires a tropical imagination to follow a Hawaiian poem.

Footnote 503:(return) Poli-ahu. A place or region on Mauna-kea.

Footnote 504:(return) Kiu-ke'e. The name of a wind felt at Nawiliwili, Kauai. The local names for winds differed on the various islands and were multiplied almost without measure: as given in the mythical story of Kama-pua'a, or in the semihistoric tale of Kú-a-Paka'a, they taxed the memories of raconteurs.

Footnote 505:(return) Kui-kui. The older name-form of the tree (Aleurites triloba), popularly known by some as the candle-nut tree, from the fact that its oily nuts were used in making torches. Kukui, or tutui, is the name now applied to the tree, also to a torch or lamp. The Samoan language still retains the archaic name tuitui. This is one of the few instances in which the original etymology of a word is retained in Hawaiian poetry.

[Translation]

Song

How pleasing, when borne by the tide,

One says, you and I are a-cold.

The buds of the center are chilled

Of the woman who shivers on shore.

5 I stood on the height Poli-ahu;

The ocean enrobed Wai-lua.

Ah, strange are the pranks of the wind,

The Kiu-ké'e wind of the pali!

It smites now the ocean at Puna--

10 That's always the fashion at Puna.

Gone, gone is the last of my love,

At this mixture of brine in my drink!

My mouth is a-thirst for a draught

Of the cold mountain-water,

15 That plays at the foot of the cliff,

In the shade of the kui-kui tree.

I thought our love-flower, ilima--

Oft worn as a garland by you--

Still held its color most true.

20 You'd exchange its beauty for rue!

Mele

Kaulana mai nei Pua Lanakila;

Olali oe o ke aupuni hui,

Nana i koké áku ke kahua,

Na ale o ka Pakipika.

5 Lilo i mea ole na enemi;

Puuwai hao-kila, he manao paa;

Na ka nupepa la i hoike mai.

Ua kau Lanakila i ka hanohano,

O ka u'i mapela la o Aina-hau;

10 O ko'u hoa ia la e pili ai--

I hoa kaaua i ka puuwai,

I na kohi kelekele i ka Pu'ukolu.

Ina ilaila Pua Komela,

Ka u'i kaulana o Aina-pua!

15 O ka pua o ka Lehua me ka Ilima

I lei kahiko no ko'u kino,

Ka Palai lau-lii me ka Maile,

Ke ala e hoene i kou poli.

[Translation]

Song

Fame trumpets your conquests each day,

Brave Lily Victoria!

Your scepter finds new hearts to sway,

Subdues the Pacific's wild waves,

5 Your foes are left stranded ashore,

Firm heart as of steel!

Dame Rumor tells us with glee

Your fortunes wax evermore,

Beauty of Aina-hau,

10 Comrade dear to my heart.

And what of the hyacinth maid,

Nymph of the Flowery Land?

I choose the lehua, ilima,

As my wreath and emblem of love,

15 The small-leafed fern and the maile--

What fragrance exhales from thy breast!

The story that might explain this modern lyric belongs to the gossip of half a century ago. The action hinges about one who is styled Pua Lanakila--literally Flower of Victory. Now there is no flower, indigenous or imported, known by this name to the Hawaiians. It is an allegorical invention of the poet. A study of the name and of its interpretation, Victory, at once suggested to me the probability that it was meant for the Princess Victoria Kamamalu.

As I interpret the story, the lover seems at first to be in a condition of unstable equilibrium, but finally concludes to cleave to the flowers of the soil, the lehua and the ilima (verse 15), the palai and the maile (verse 17), the meaning of which is clear.

XL.--THE OLI

The Hawaiian word mele included all forms of poetical composition. The fact that the mele, in whatever form, was intended for cantillation, or some sort of rhythmical utterance addressed to the ear, has given to this word in modern times a special meaning that covers the idea of song or of singing, thus making it overlap ambiguously into the territory that more properly belongs to the word oli. The oli was in strict sense the lyric utterance of the Hawaiians.

In its most familiar form the Hawaiians--many of whom possessed the gift of improvisation in a remarkable degree--used the oli not only for the songful expression of joy and affection, but as the vehicle of humorous or sarcastic narrative in the entertainment of their comrades. The traveler, as he trudged along under his swaying burden, or as he rested by the wayside, would solace himself and his companions with a pensive improvisation in the form of an oli. Or, sitting about the camp-fire of an evening, without the consolation of the social pipe or bowl, the people of the olden time would keep warm the fire of good-fellowship and cheer by the sing-song chanting of the oli, in which the extemporaneous bard recounted the events of the day and won the laughter and applause of his audience by witty, ofttimes exaggerated, allusions to many a humorous incident that had marked the journey. If a traveler, not knowing the language of the country, noticed his Hawaiian guide and baggage-carriers indulging in mirth while listening to an oli by one of their number, he would probably be right in suspecting himself to be the innocent butt of their merriment.

The lover poured into the ears of his mistress his gentle fancies: the mother stilled her child with some bizarre allegory as she rocked it in her arms; the bard favored by royalty--the poet laureate--amused the idle moments of his chief with some witty improvisation; the alii himself, gifted with the poetic fire, would air his humor or his didactic comments in rhythmic shape--all in the form of the oli.

The dividing line, then, between the oli and those other weightier forms of the mele, the inoa, the kanikau (threnody), the pule, and that unnamed variety of mele in which the poet dealt with historic or mythologic subjects, is to be found almost wholly in the mood of the singer. In truth, the Hawaiians not unfrequently applied the term pule to compositions which we moderns find it hard to bring within our definitions of prayer. For to our understanding the Hawaiian pule often contains neither petition, nor entreaty, nor aspiration, as we measure such things.

The oli from, its very name (oli-oli, joyful) conveys the notion of gladness, and therefore of song. It does not often run to such length as the more formal varieties of the mele; it is more likely to be pitched to the key of lyric and unconventional delight, and, as it seems to the writer, more often than other forms attains a gratifying unity by reason of closer adherence to some central thought or mood; albeit, when not so labeled, one might well be at a loss whether in any given case he should term the composition mele or oli.

It may not be entirely without significance that the first and second examples here given come from Kauai, the island which most vividly has retained a memory of the southern lands that were the homes of the people until they came as emigrants to Hawaii.

The story on which this song is founded relates that the comely Pamaho'a was so fond of her husband during his life that at his death she was unwilling to part with his bones. Having cleaned and wrapped them in a bundle, she carried them with her wherever she went. In the indiscretion begotten of her ill-balanced state of mind she committed the mortal offense of entering the royal residence while thus encumbered, where was Kaahumanu, favorite wife of Kamehameha I. The king detailed two constables (ilamuku) to remove the woman and put her to death. When they had reached a safe distance, moved with pity, the men said: "Our orders were to slay; but what hinders you to escape?" The woman took the hint and fled hot-foot.

Oli

Ka wai opua-makani o Wailua, 506

I hulihia e ke kai;

Awahia ka lau hau,

Ai pála-ka-há, ka ai o Maká'u-kiu.

5 He kin ka pua kukui,

He elele hooholo na ke Koolau; 507

Ke kipaku mai la i ka wa'a-- 508

"E holo oe!"

Holo newa ka lau maia me ka pua hau,

10 I pili aloha me ka mokila ula i ka wai;

Maalo pulelo i ka wai o Malu-aka.

He aka kaua makani kaili-hoa;

Kaili ino ka lau Malua-kele,

Lalau, hopu hewa i ka hoa kanáka; 509

15 Koe a kau me ka manao iloko.

Ke apo wale la no i ke one,

I ka uwe wale iho no i Mo'o-mo'o-iki, 510 e!

He ike moolelo na ke kuhi wale,

Aole ma ka waha mai o kánaka,

20 Hewa, pono ai la hoi au, e ka hoa;

Nou ka ke aloha,

I lua-ai-ele 511 ai i o, i anei;

Ua kuewa i ke ala me ka wai-maka.

Aohe wa, ua uku i kou hale--

25 Hewa au, e!

Footnote 506:(return) The scene is laid in the region about the Wailua, a river on Kauai. This stream, tossed with waves driven up from the sea, represents figuratively the disturbance of the woman's mind at the coming of the officers.

Footnote 507:(return) Koolau. The name of a wind; stands for the messengers of the king, whose instructions were to expel (kipaku, verse 7) and then to slay.

Footnote 508:(return) Wa'a. Literally canoe; stands for the woman herself.

Footnote 509:(return) Hoa kanáka. Human companion; is an allusion to the bundle of her husband's bones which she carries with her, but which are torn away and lost in the flood.

Footnote 510:(return) Mo'o-mo'o-iki. A land at Wailua, Kauai.

Footnote 511:(return) Lua-ai-ele. To carry about with one a sorrow.

[Translation]

Song

The wind-beaten stream of Wailua

Is tossed into waves from the sea;

Salt-drenched are the leaves of the hau,

The stalks of the taro all rotted--

5 'Twas the crop of Maka'u-kiu,

The flowers of kukui are a telltale,

A messenger sped by the gale

To warn the canoe to depart.

Pray you depart!

10 Hot-foot, she's off with her pack--

A bundle red-stained with the mud--

And ghost-swift she breasts Malu-aka.

Quest follows like smoke--lost is her companion;

Fierce the wind plucks at the leaves,

15 Grabs--by mistake--her burden, the man.

Despairing, she falls to the earth,

And, hugging the hillock of sand,

Sobs out her soul on the beach Mo-mo-iki.

A tale this wrung from my heart,

20 Not told by the tongue of man.

Wrong! yet right, was I, my friend;

My love after all was for you,

While I lived a vagabond life there and here,

Sowing my vagrom tears in all roads--

25 Prompt my payment of debt to your house--

Yes, truly, I'm wrong!

XLI.--THE WATER OF KANE

If one were asked what, to the English-speaking mind, constitutes the most representative romantico-mystical aspiration that has been embodied in song and story, doubtless he would be compelled to answer the legend and myth of the Holy Grail. To the Hawaiian mind the aspiration and conception that most nearly approximates to this is that embodied in the words placed at the head of this chapter. The Water of Kane. One finds suggestions and hints of this conception in many passages of Hawaiian song and story, sometimes a phosphorescent flash, answering to the dip of the poet's blade, sometimes crystallized into a set form; but nowhere else than in the following mele have I found this jewel deliberately wrought into shape, faceted, and fixed in a distinct form of speech.

This mele comes from Kauai, the island which more than any other of the Hawaiian group retains a tight hold on the mystical and imaginative features that mark the mythology of Polynesia; the island also which less than any other of the group was dazzled by the glamour of royalty and enslaved by the theory of the divine birth of kings.

He Mele no Kane

He ú-i, he ninau:

He ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

Aia i-héa ka wai a Kane?

Ala i ka hikina a ka La,

5 Puka i Hae-hae; 512

Aia i-laila ka Wai a Kane.

E ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

Aia i-hea ka Wai a Kane?

Aia i Kau-lana-ka-la, 513

10 I ka pae opua i ke kai, 514

Ea mai ana ma Nihoa, 515

Ma ka mole mai o Lehua;

Aia i-laila ka Wai a Kane.

E ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

15 Aia i-hea ka Wai a Kane?

Aia i ke kua-hiwi, i ke kua-lono,

I ke awáwa, i ke kaha-wai;

Aia i-laila ka Wai a Kane.

E ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

20 Aia i-hea ka Wai a Kane?

Aia i-kai, i ka moana,

I ke Kua-lau, i ke anuenue,

I ka punohu, 516 i ka ua-koko, 517

I ka alewa-lewa;

35 Aia i-laila ka Wai a Kane.

E ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

Aia i-hea ka Wai a Kane?

Aia i-luna ka Wai a Kane,

I ke ouli, i ke ao eleele,

40 I ke ao pano-pano,

I ke ao popolo-hua mea a Kane la, e!

Aia i-laila ka Wai a Kane.

E ú-i aku ana au ia oe,

Aia i-hea ka Wai a Kane?

45 Aia i-lalo, i ka honua, i ka Wai hu,

I ka wai kau a Kane me Kanaloa-- 518

He wai-puna, he wai e inu,

He wai e mana, he wai e ola.

E ola no, e-a!

Footnote 512:(return) Hae-hae. Heaven's eastern gate; the portal in the solid walls that supported the heavenly dome, through which the sun entered in the morning.

Footnote 513:(return) Kau-lana-ka-la. When the setting sun, perhaps by an optical illusion drawn out into a boatlike form, appeared to be floating on the surface of the ocean, the Hawaiians named the phenomenon Kau-lana-ka-la--the floating of the sun. Their fondness for personification showed itself in the final conversion of this phrase into something like a proper name, which they applied to the locality of the phenomenon.

Footnote 514:(return) Pae opua i ke kai. Another instance of name-giving, applied to the bright clouds that seem to rest on the horizon, especially to the west.

Footnote 515:(return) Nihoa (Bird island). This small rock to the northwest of Kauai, though far below the horizon, is here spoken of as if it were in sight.

Footnote 516:(return) Punohu A red luminous cloud, or a halo, regarded as an omen portending some sacred and important event.

Footnote 517:(return) Ua-koko. Literally bloody rain, a term applied to a rainbow when lying near the ground, or to a freshet-stream swollen with the red muddy water from the wash of the hillsides. These were important omens, claimed as marking the birth of tabu chiefs.

Footnote 518:(return) Wai kau a Kane me Kanaloa. Once when Kane and Kanaloa were journeying together Kanaloa complained of thirst. Kane thrust his staff into the pali near at hand, and out flowed a stream of pure water that has continued to the present day. The place is at Keanae, Maui.

[Translation]

The Water of Kane

A query, a question,

I put to you:

Where is the water of Kane?

At the Eastern Gate

5 Where the Sun comes in at Hae-hae;

There is the water of Kane.

A question I ask of you:

Where is the water of Kane?

Out there with the floating Sun,

10 Where cloud-forms rest on Ocean's breast,

Uplifting their forms at Nihoa,

This side the base of Lehua;

There is the water of Kane.

One question I put to you:

15 Where is the water of Kane?

Yonder on mountain peak,

On the ridges steep,

In the valleys deep,

Where the rivers sweep;

20 There is the water of Kane.

This question I ask of you:

Where, pray, is the water of Kane?

Yonder, at sea, on the ocean,

In the driving rain,

25 In the heavenly bow,

In the piled-up mist-wraith,

In the blood-red rainfall,

In the ghost-pale cloud-form;

There is the water of Kane.

30 One question I put to you:

Where, where is the water of Kane?

Up on high is the water of Kane,

In the heavenly blue,

In the black piled cloud,

35 In the black-black cloud,

In the black-mottled sacred cloud of the gods;

There is the water of Kane.

One question I ask of you:

Where flows the water of Kane?

40 Deep in the ground, in the gushing spring,

In the ducts of Kane and Loa,

A well-spring of water, to quaff,

A water of magic power--

The water of life!

45 Life! O give us this life!

XLII.--GENERAL REVIEW

In this preliminary excursion into the wilderness of Hawaiian literature we have covered but a small part of the field; we have reached no definite boundaries; followed no stream to its fountain head; gained no high point of vantage, from which to survey the whole. It was indeed outside the purpose of this book to make a delimitation of the whole field of Hawaiian literature and to mark out its relations to the formulated thoughts of the world.

Certain provisional conclusions, however, are clearly indicated: that this unwritten speech-literature is but a peninsula, a semidetached, outlying division of the Polynesian, with which it has much in common, the whole running back through the same lines of ancestry to the people of Asia. There still lurk in the subliminal consciousness of the race, as it were, vague memories of things that long ago passed from sight and knowledge. Such, for instance, was the mo'o; a word that to the Hawaiian meant a nondescript reptile, which his imagination vaguely pictured, sometimes as a dragonlike monster belching fire like a chimera of mythology, or swimming the ocean like a sea-serpent, or multiplied into a manifold pestilential swarm infesting the wilderness, conceived of as gifted with superhuman powers and always as the malignant foe of mankind, Now the only Hawaiian representatives of the reptilian class were two species of harmless lizards, so that it is not conceivable that the Hawaiian notion of a mo'o was derived from objects present in his island home. The word mo'o may have been a coinage of the Hawaiian speechcenter, but the thing it stood for must have been an actual existence, like the python and cobra of India, or the pterodactyl of a past geologic period. May we not think of it as an ancestral memory, an impress, of Asiatic sights and experiences?

In this connection, it will not, perhaps, lead us too far afield, to remark that in the Hawaiian speech we find the chisel-marks of Hindu and of Aryan scoring deep-graven. For instance, the Hawaiian, word pali, cliff or precipice, is the very word that Young-husband--following, no doubt, the native speech of the region, the Pamirs--applies to the mountain-walls that buttress off Tibet and the central plateaus of Asia from northern India. Again the Hawaiian word mele, which we have used so often in these chapters as to make it seem almost like a household word, corresponds in form, in sound, and in meaning to the Greek. [Greek: melos: ta melê], lyric poetry (Liddell and Scott). Again, take the Hawaiian word i'a, fish--Maori, ika; Malay, ikan; Java, iwa; Bouton, ikani (Edward Tregear: The Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary). Do not these words form a chain that links the Hawaiian form to the [Greek: ichthus] of classic Greece? The subject is fascinating, but it would soon lead us astray. These examples must suffice.

If we can not give a full account of the tangled woodland of Hawaiian literature, it is something to be able to report on its fruits and the manner of men and beasts that dwelt therein. Are its fruits good for food, or does the land we have explored bring forth only poisonous reptiles and the deadly upas? Is it a land in which the very principles of art and of human nature are turned upside down? Its language the babble of Bander-log?

This excursion into the jungle of Hawaiian literature should at least impress us with the oneness of humanity; that its roots and springs of action, and ours, draw their sustenance from one and the same primeval mold; that, however far back one may travel, he will never come to a point where he can say this is "common or unclean;" so that he may without defilement "kill and eat" of what the jungle provides. The wonder is that they in Hawaii of the centuries past, shut off by vast spaces of sea and land from our world, yet accomplished so much.

Test the ancient Hawaiians by our own weights and measures. The result will not be to their discredit. In practical science, in domestic arts, in religion, in morals, in the raw material of literature, even in the finished article--though, unwritten--the showing would not be such as to give the superior race cause for self-gratulation.

Another lesson--a corollary to the above--is the debt of recognition we owe to the virtues and essential qualities of untutored human nature itself. Imagine a portion of our own race cut off from the thought-currents of the great world and stranded on the island-specks of the great ocean, as the Polynesians have been for a period of centuries that would count back to the times of William the Conqueror or Charlemagne, with only such outfit of the world's goods as might survive a 3,000-mile voyage in frail canoes, reenforced by such flotsam of the world's metallic stores as the tides of ocean might chance to bring them--and, with such limited capital to start with in life, what, should we judge, would have been the outcome of the experiment in religion, in morals, in art, in mechanics, in civilization, or in the production of materials for literature, as compared with what the white man found in Hawaii at its discovery in the last quarter of the eighteenth century?

It were well to come to the study of primitive and savage people, of nature-folk, with a mind purged of the thanks-to-the-goodness-and-the-grace spirit.

It will not do for us to brush aside contemptuously the notions held by the Hawaiians in religion, cosmogony, and mythology as mere heathen superstitions. If they were heathen, there was nothing else for them to be. But even the heathen can claim the right to be judged by their deeds, not by their creeds. Measured by this standard, the average heathen would not make a bad showing in comparison with the average denizen of Christian lands. As to beliefs, how much more defensible were the superstitions of our own race two or three centuries ago, or of to-day, than those of the Hawaiians? How much less

absurd and illogical were our notions of cosmogony, of natural history; how much less beneficent, humane, lovable the theology of the pagan Hawaiians than of our Christian ancestors a few centuries ago if looked at from an ethical or practical point of view. At the worst, the Hawaiian sacrificed the enemy he took in battle on the altar of his gods; the Christian put to death with exquisite torture those who disagreed with him in points of doctrine. And when it comes to morals, have not the heathen time and again demonstrated their ability to give lessons in self-restraint to their Christian invaders?

It is a matter of no small importance in the rating of a people to take account of their disposition toward nature. If there has been a failure to appreciate truly the mental attitude of the "savage," and especially of the Polynesian savage, the Hawaiian, toward the book of truth that was open to him in nature, it is always in order to correct it. That such a mistake has been made needs no further proof than the perusal of the following passage in a book entitled "History of the Sandwich Islands:"

To the heathen the book of nature is a sealed book. Where the word of God is not, the works of God fail either to excite admiration or to impart instruction. The Sandwich Islands present some of the sublimest scenery on earth, but to an ignorant native--to the great mass of the people in entire heathenism--it has no meaning. As one crested billow after another of the heaving ocean rolls in and dashes upon the unyielding rocks of an iron-bound coast, which seems to say, "Hitherto shalt thou come and no farther," the low-minded heathen is merely thinking of the shellfish on the shore. As he looks up to the everlasting mountains, girt with clouds and capped with snow, he betrays no emotion. As he climbs a towering cliff, looks down a yawning precipice, or abroad upon a forest of deep ravines, immense rocks, and spiral mountains thrown together in the utmost wildness and confusion by the might of God's volcanoes, he is only thinking of some roots in the wilderness that may be good for food.

There is hardly a poem in this volume that does not show the utter falsity of this view. The writer of the words quoted above, now in his grave for more than sixty years, was a man for whose purity and moral character one must entertain the highest esteem. He enjoyed the very best opportunity to study the minds of the "heathen" about him, to discern their thoughts, to learn at first hand their emotions toward the natural world, whether of admiration, awe, reverence, or whether their attitude was that of blank indifference and absorption in selfish things. But he utterly failed to penetrate the mystery, the "truth and poetry," of the Hawaiian mind and heart. Was it because he was tied to a false theology and a false theory of human nature? We are not called upon to answer this question. Let others say what was wrong in his standpoint. The object of this book is not controversial; but when a palpable injustice has been done, and is persisted in by people of the purest motives, as to the thoughts, emotions, and mental operations of the "savage," and as to the finer workings within that constitute the furniture and sanctuary of heart and soul, it is imperative to correct so grave a mistake; and we may be sure that he whose words have just been quoted, were he living today, would acknowledge his error.

Though it is not the purpose of these pages to set forth in order a treatise on the human nature of the "savage," or to make unneeded apology for the primitive and uncultured races of mankind in general, or for the Hawaiian in particular, yet it is no small satisfaction to be able to set in array evidence from the life and thoughts of the savages themselves that shall at least have a modifying influence upon our views on these points.

The poetry of ancient Hawaii evinces a deep and genuine love of nature, and a minute, affectionate, and untiring observation of her moods, which it would be hard to find surpassed in any literature. Her poets never tired of depicting nature; sometimes, indeed, their art seems heaven-born. The mystery, beauty, and magnificence of the island world appealed profoundly to their souls; in them the ancient Hawaiian found the image of man the embodiment of Deity; and their myriad moods and phases were for him an inexhaustible spring of joy, refreshment, and delight.

GLOSSARY

The study of Hawaiian pronunciation is mainly a study of vowel sounds and of accent. Each written vowel represents at least two related sounds.

A (ah) has the Italian sound found in father, as in ha-le or in La-ka; also a short sound like that of a in liable, as in ke-a-ke-a, to contradict, or in a-ha, an assembly.

E (a) has the sound of long a in fate, or of e in prey, without

the i-glide that follows, as in the first syllable of Pé-le, or of mé-a, a thing; also the short sound of e in net, as in é-ha, hurt, or in péa, a sail.

I (ee) has the long sound of i in pique, or in police, as in i-li, skin, or in hí-la-hí-la, shame; also the short sound of i in hill, as in lí-hi, border, and in í-ki, small.

O (oh) has the long sound of o in note or in old, without the u-glide, as in ló-a, long, or as in the first syllable of Ló-no; also a short sound, which approximates to that sometimes erroneously given to the vowel in coat, as in pó-po, rotten, or as in ló-ko, a lake.

U (oo) has the long sound of u in rule, as in hú-la, to dance; and a short sound approximating to that of u in full, as in mú-ku, cut off.

Every Hawaiian syllable ends in a vowel. No attempt has been made to indicate these differences of vowel sound. The only diacritical marks here employed are the acute accent for stressed syllables and the apostrophe between two vowels to indicate the glottic closure or interruption of sound (improperly sometimes called a guttural) that prevents the two from coalescing.

In the seven diphthongs ae, ai, ao, au, ei, ia, and ua a delicate ear will not fail to detect a coalescence of at least two sounds, thus proving them not to be mere digraphs.

In animated description or pathetic narrative, or in the effort to convey the idea of length, or height, or depth, or immensity, the Hawaiian had a way of prolonging the vowel sounds of a word, as if by so doing he could intimate the amplitude of his thought.

The letter w (way) represents two sounds, corresponding to our w and our v. At the beginning of a word it has the sound of w (way), retaining this even when the word has become compounded. This is illustrated in Wái-a-lú-a (geographical name), and wá-ha mouth. In the middle of a word, or after the first syllable, it almost always has the sound of v (vay), as in hé-wa (wrong), and in E-wá (geographical name). In há-wa-wá (awkward), the compound word ha-wái (water-pipe), and several others the w takes the way sound.

The great majority of Hawaiian words are accented on the penult, and in simple words of four or more syllables there is, as a rule, an accent on the fourth and on the sixth syllables, counting back from the final syllable, as in lá-na-kí-la (victorious) and as in hó-o-kó-lo-kó-lo (to try at law).

Aha, (á-ha)--a braided cord of sinet; an assembly; a prayer or religious service (note a, p. 20).

Ahaaina (á-ha-ái-na)--a feast.

Ai (ai, as in aisle)--vegetable food; to eat; an event in a game or contest (p. 93).

Ai-á-lo (to eat in the presence of)--the persons privileged to eat at an alii's table.

Aiha'a (ai-ha'a):--a strained, bombastic, guttural tone of voice in reciting a mele, in contrast to the style termed ko'i-honua (pp. 49, 90).

Ailolo (ai-ló-lo=to eat brains)--a critical, ceremonial sacrifice, the conditions of which must be met before a novitiate can be admitted as a practitioner of the hula as well as of other skilled professions (pp. 15, 31, 34).

Aina (aí-na)--the land; a meal (of food).

Alii (a-li'i)--a chief; a person of rank; a king.

Aloha (a-ló-ha)--goodwill; affection; love; a word of salutation.

Ami (á-mi)--to bend; a bodily motion used in the hula (note, p. 202).

Anuenue (a-nú-e-nú-e)--a rainbow; a waterfall in Hilo (p. 61, verse 13).

Ao (á-o)--dawn; daytime; the world; a cloud (p. 196, verse 7).

Aumakua (aú-ma-kú-a)--an ancestral god (p. 23).

Awa (á-va)--bitter; sour; the soporific root of the Piper methysticum (p. 130).

Ekaha (e-káha)--the nidus fern, by the Hawaiians sometimes called ka hoe a Mawi, Mawi's paddle, from the shape of its leaves (p. 19).

Haena (Ha-é-na)--a village on the windward coast of Kauai, the home of Lohiau, for whom Pele conceived a passion in her dreams (p. 186).

Hala (há-la)--a sin; a variety of the "screw-pine" (Pandanus odoratissimus, Hillebrand). Its drupe was used in decoration, its leaves were braided into mats, hats, bags, etc.

Halapepe (há-la-pé-pe)--a tree used in decorating the kuahu (Drac?na aurea, Hillebrand) (p. 24).

Halau (ha-láu--made of leaves)--a canoe-shed; a hall consecrated to the hula; a sort of school of manual arts or the art of combat (p. 14).

Hale (há-le)--a house.

Hanai-kuahu (ha-nái-ku-á-hu--altarfeeder)--the daily renewal of the offerings laid on the kuahu; the officer who performed this work (p. 29).

Hanohano (há-no-há-no)--having dignity and wealth.

Hau (how)--a tree whose light, tough wood, strong fibrous bark, and mucilaginous flowers have many uses (Hibiscus tiliaceus).

Haumea (Hau-mé-a)--a mythological character, the same as Papa (note c, p. 126).

Heiau (hei-aú)--a temple.

Hiiaka, (Hi'i-á-ka)--the youngest sister of Pele (p. 186).

Hilo (Hí-lo)--to twist as in making string; the first day in the month when the new moon appears; a town and district in Hawaii (pp. 60, 61).

Holoku (hó-lo-kú)--a loose gown resembling a "Mother Hubbard," much worn by the women of Hawaii.

Hoonoa (ho'o-nó-a)--to remove a tabu; to make ceremonially free (p. 126).

Hooulu (ho'o-ú-lu)--to cause to grow; to inspire. (Verse 3, Pule Kuahu, p. 20, and verse 1, Pule Kuahu, p. 21.)

Hoopaa (ho'o-pá'a)--the members of a hula company who, as instrumentalists, remained stationary, not moving in the dance (p. 28).

Huikala (hú-i-ká-la)--to cleanse ceremonially; to pardon (p. 15).

Hula, (hú-la), or int. húlahúla--to dance, to make sport, to the accompaniment of music and song.

I'a (i'a)--fish; a general term for animal food or whatever relish serves for the time in its place.

Ieie (í-e-í-e)--a tall woody climber found in the wild woods, much used in decoration (Freycinetia arnotti, p. 19).

Ilamuka (í-la-mú-ku)--a constable.

Ilima (i-lí-ma)--a woody shrub (Sida fallax, Hillebrand) whose chrome-yellow flowers were much used in making wreaths (p. 56).

Ilio (i-lí-o)--a dog; a variety of hula (p. 223).

Imu (í-mu), sometimes umu (ú-mu)--a native oven, made by lining a hole in the ground and arching it over with stones (verse 3, Oli Paú, p. 51).

Inoa (i-nó-a)--a name. (See Mele inoa.)

Ipo (í-po)--a lover; a sweetheart.

Ipoipo (í-po-í-po), hoipo (ho-í-po)', or hoipoipo (ho-í-po-í-po)--to make love; to play the lover; sexual dalliance.

Ipu (í-pu)--a general name for the Cucurbitace?, and the dishes made from them, as well as dishes of coconut shell, wood, and stone; the drumlike musical instrument made from joining two calabashes (p. 73).

Iwa (í-wa, pr. í-va)--the number nine; a large black sea-bird, probably a gull (p. 76).

Kahiki (Ka-hí-ki)--Tahiti; any foreign country (p. 17).

Kahiko (ka-hí-ko)--ancient; to array; to adorn.

Kahuna (ka-hú-na)--a priest; a skilled craftsman. Every sort of kahuna was at bottom and in some regard a priest, his special department being indicated by a qualifying word, as kahuna anaana, sorcerer, kahuna kalai wa'a, canoe-maker.

Kai (pr. kye)--the ocean; salty. I-kai, to the ocean; ma-kai, at the ocean.

Kakaolelo (ka-ká-o-lé-lo)--one skilled in language; a rhetorician; a councilor (p. 98).

Kamapua'a (Ká-ma-pu-a'a)--literally the hog-child; the mythological swine-god, whose story is connected with that of Pele (p. 231).

Kanaka, (ka-ná-ka)--a man; a commoner as opposed to the alii. Kanaka (ká-na-ka), men in general; the human race. (Notice the different accents.)

Kanaenae (ká-nae-naé)--a propitiatory sacrifice; an intercession; a part of a prayer (pp. 16, 20).

Kanaloa (Ká-na-ló-a)--one of the four major gods, represented as of a dark complexion, and of a malignant disposition (p. 24).

Kane (Ká-ne)--male; a husband; one of the four major gods, represented as being a tall blond and of a benevolent disposition (p. 24).

Kapa (ká-pa)--the paper-cloth of the Polynesians, made from the fibrous bark of many plants by pounding with wooden beaters while kept moist.

Kapo (Ká-po)--a goddess and patron of the hula, sister of the poison-god, Kalai-pahoa, and said to be mother of Laka (pp. 25, 45).

Kapu (ká-pu).---a tabu; a religious prohibition (pp. 30, 57).

Kau (Ka-u)--"the milk;" a district on the island of Hawaii.

Kawele (ka-wé-le)--a manner of cantillating in a distinct and natural tone of voice; about the same as ko'i-honua (p. 58).

Kihei (ki-héi)--a robe of kapa worn after the fashion of the Roman toga.

Kii (ki'i)--to fetch, to go after a thing; an image, a picture, a marionette; a Tariety of the hula (p. 91).

Kilauea (Ki-lau-é-a)--the great active volcano of Hawaii.

Kini (kí-ni)--the number 40,000; a countless number. Kini Akua, a host of active, often mischievous, "little" folk in human form that peopled the deep woods. They resembled our elves and brownies, and were esteemed as having godlike powers (p. 21, note; p. 24).

Kilu (kí-lu)--a dish made by cutting off obliquely the top of a coconut or small gourd, which was used as a sort of top in the game and dance called kilu. (Hula kilu, p. 235.)

Ko--sugar-cane; performed, accomplished. With the causative prefix ho'o, as in ho'oko (ho'o-kó), to accomplish, to carry to success (p. 30 ).

Ko'i (kó'i)--an ax, an adz; originally a stone implement. (See mele beginning Ko'i maka nui, p. 228.)

Ko'i honua (ko'i ho-nú-a)--a compound of the causative ko, i, to utter, and honua, the earth; to recite or cantillate in a quiet distinct tone, in distinction from the stilted bombastic manner termed ai-ha'a (p. 58).

Kokua-kumu, (ko-kú-a-kú-mu)--the assistant or deputy who took charge of the halau in the absence of the kumu-hula, (p. 29).

Kolea (ko-lé-a)--the plover; the name of a hula (p. 219).

Kolohe (ko-ló-he)--mischievous; restless; lawless (note d, p. 194).

Kona, (Kóna)--a southerly wind or storm; a district on the leeward side of many of the islands.

Koolau (Ko'o-láu)--leaf-compeller; the windward side of an island; the name of a wind. (A Koolau wau, ike i ka ua, verse 1, p. 59.)

Ku--to stand; to rise up; to fit; a division of land; one of the four major gods who had many functions, such as Ku-pulupulu, Ku-mokuhalii, Ku-kaili-moku, etc. (Mele, Ku e, nana e! p. 223.)

Kuahu (ku-á-hu)--an altar; a rustic stand constructed in the halau in honor of the hula gods (p. 15).

Kuhai-moana (Ku-hái-mo-á-na)--a shark-god (pp. 76, 77).

Ku'i (ku'i)--to smite; to beat; the name of a hula (p. 250).

Kukui (ku-kú-i)--a tree (Aleurites moluccana) from the nuts of which were made torches; a torch. (Mahana lua na kukui a Lanikaula, p. 130, note c.)

Kumu-hula (kú-mu húla)--a teacher and leader of the hula.

Kupee (ku-pe'e)--a bracelet; an anklet (Mele Kupe'e, p. 49.)

Kupua (ku-pú-a)--a superhuman being; a wonder-worker; a wizard.

Ku-pulupulu (Kú-pú-lu-pú-lú)--Ku the hairy; one of the forms of god Ku, propitiated by canoe-makers and hula folk (p. 24).

Laa (Lá'a)--consecrated; holy; devoted.

Laa-mai-Kahiki--A prince who flourished some six or seven centuries ago and voyaged to Kahiki and back. He was an ardent patron of the hula (p. 103).

Lama (lá-ma)--a torch; a beautiful tree (Maba sandwicensis, Hillebrand) having fine-grained whitish wood that was much used for sacred purposes (p. 23).

Lanai (la-nái)--a shed or veranda; an open part of a house covered only by a roof.

Lanai (La-na'i)--the small island lying southwest of Maui.

Lani (lá-ni)--the sky; the heaven or the heavens; a prince or king; heaven-born (pp. 81, 82).

Lehua, (le-hú-a)--a forest tree (Metrosideros polymorpha) whose beautiful scarlet or salmon-colored flowers were much used in decoration (Pule Hoo-noa, p. 126).

Lei (lei: both vowels are sounded, the i slightly)--a wreath of flowers, of leaves, feathers, beads, or shells (p. 56).

Liloa (Li-ló-a)--an ancient king of Hawaii, the father of Umi (p. 131).

Lohiau (Ló-hi-áu)--the prince of Haena, with whom Pele became enamored in her dreams (p. 186).

Lolo (ló-lo)--the brain (p. 34).

Lono (Ló-no)--one of the four major gods of Hawaii (p. 24).

Luau (lu-aú)--greens made by cooking young taro leaves; in modern times a term applied to a Hawaiian feast.

Mahele (ma-hé-le)--to divide; a division of a mele; a canto; a part of a song-service (p. 58).

Mahiole (má-hi-ó-le)--a helmet or war-cap, a style of hair-cutting in imitation of the same (p. 91).

Mahuna (ma-hú-na)--a small particle; a fine scale; a variety of delicate kapa; the desquamation of the skin resulting from habitual awa-drinking.

Makalii (Má-ka-li'i)--small eyes; small, fine; the Pleiades (p. 216 and note on p. 218).

Malo (má-lo)--a loin-cloth worn especially by men. (Verses 3, 4, 5, 6 of mele on p. 36).

Mano (ma-nó)--a shark; a variety of hula (p. 221).

Mauna (máu-na)--a mountain. A word possibly of Spanish origin.

Mele (mé-le)--a poem; a song; to chant; to sing.

Mele inoa--a name-song; a eulogy (pp. 27, 37).

Mele kahea (ka-héa = to call)--a password by which one gained admission to the halau (pp. 38, 41).

Moo (mó'o)--a reptile; a dragon; a mythologic monster (p. 260).

Muumuu (mu'u-mu'u)--an under garment worn by women; a shift; a chemise; a person maimed of hand or foot; the name of a hula (p. 212).

Naulu (náu-lu)--name of the seabreeze at Waimea, Kauai. Ua naulu = a heavy local rain (pp. 110, 112).

Noa (nó-a)--ceremonially free; unrestrained by tabu (p. 126).

Noni (no-ni)--a dye-plant (Morinda citrifolia) whose fruit was sometimes eaten.

Nuuanu (Nu'u-á-nu) a valley back of Honolulu that leads to the "Pali."

Ohe (ó-he)--bamboo; a flute; a variety of the hula (pp. 135, 145).

Ohelo (o-hé-lo)--an edible berry that grows at high altitudes; to reach out; to stretch; a variety of the hula (p. 233).

Ohia (o-hi'a)--a name in some places applied to the lehua (q. v.), more generally the name of a fruit tree, the "mountain apple" (Eugenia malaccensis).

Olapa (o-lá-pa)--those members of a hula company who moved in the dance, as distinguished from the hoopaa, q. v., who sat and cantillated or played on some instrument (p. 28).

Oli (ó-li)--a song; a lyric; to sing or chant (p. 254).

Olioli--Joyful.

Olohe (o-ló-he)--an expert in the hula; one who has passed the ailolo test and has also had much experience (p. 32).

Oo (o-ó)--a spade; an agricultural implement, patterned after the whale spade (p. 85); a blackbird, one of those that furnished the golden-yellow feathers for the ahuula, or feather cloak.

Paepae (pae-páe)--a prop; a support; the assistant to the po'o-pua'a (p. 29).

Pahu (pá-hu)--a box; a drum; a landmark; to thrust, said of a spear (pp. 103, 138).

Pale (pá-le)--a division; a canto of a mele; a division of the song service in a hula performance (pp. 58, 89).

Pali (pá-li)--a precipice; a mountain wall cut up with steep ravines. (Mele on pp. 51-53, verses 4, 5, 8, 16, 17, 27, 49.)

Papa (pá-pa)--a board; the plane of the earth's surface; a mythological character, the wife of Wakea.

Pa-u (pa-ú)--a skirt; a garment worn by women reaching from the waist to about the knees (p. 50). The dress of the hula performer (p. 49), Oli Pa-ú (p. 51).

Pele (Pé-le)--the goddess of the volcano and of volcanoes generally, who held court at the crater of Kilauea, on Hawaii; a variety of the hula (p. 186).

Pikai (pi-kái)--to asperse with seawater mixed, perhaps, with turmeric, etc., as in ceremonial cleansing (p. 31).

Poo-puaa (po'o-pu-a'a)--Boar's head; the one selected by the pupils in a school of the hula to be their agent and mouthpiece (p. 29).

Pua'a (pu-a'a)--a pig; the name of a hula (p. 228).

Puka (pú-ka)--a hole, a doorway, to pass through.

Pule (pú-le)--a prayer; an incantation; to pray.

Pulou (pu-lo'u)--to muffle; to cover the head and face (p. 31).

Puniu (pu-ní-u)--a coconut shell; a small drum made from the coconut shell (p. 141); a derisive epithet for the human headpiece.

Ti, or ki--a plant (Drac?na terminalis) that has large smooth green leaves used for wrapping food and in decoration. Its fleshy root becomes syrupy when cooked (p. 44).

Uka (ú-ka)--landward or mountainward.

Uku-lele (ú-ku-lé-le)--a flea; a sort of guitar introduced by the Portuguese.

Uniki (u-ní-ki)--the début or the first public performance of a hula actor. (Verse 21 of mele on p. 17.)

Waa (wá'a)--a canoe.

Wahine (wa-hí-ne)--a female; a woman; a wife.

Wai--water.

Waialeale (Wai-á-le-á-le)--billowy water; the central mountain on the island of Kauai (p. 106).

INDEX

[NOTE.--All Hawaiian words, as such (except catch words), are italicized.]

AALA KUPUKUPU: mele kupe'e 49

A EULOGY for the princess: song for the hula ku'i Molokai 209

A HAMAKUA AU: mele for the hula kaekeeke 122

A HILO au, e: mele for the hula pa'i-umauma 203

AIA I Wai-pi'o Paka'alana: old mele set to music VIII 162

AI-HA'A, a style of recitation 58

AILOLO OFFERING, at graduation from the school of the halau 32

eating of 34

inspection of 33

A KAUAI, a ke olewa iluna: mele for the hula Pele 189

A KE KUAHIWI: a kanaenae to Laka 16

A KOA'E-KEA: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 67

A KOOLAU WAU: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 59

A LALO maua o Waipi'o: mele for the hula íliíli 120

ALAS, alas, maimed are my hands! lament of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea 212

ALAS, I am seized by the shark: song for the hula manó 222

ALAS, there's no stay to the smoke! song for the hula Pele 195

ALOHA na hale o makou: mele komo, welcome to the halau 39

ALOHA wale oe: song with music IX 164

ALTAR-PRAYER--

at ailolo inspection: Laka sits in her shady grove 34

at ailolo service: O goddess Laka! 34

in prose speech: E ola ia'u, i ka malihini 46

Invoke we now the four thousand 22

Thou art Laka 42

to Kane and Kapo: Now Kane, approach 45

to Laka: Here am I, O Laka from the mountains 20

to Laka: This my wish 43

to Laka: This spoil and rape of the wildwood 19

ALTAR, visible abode of the deity 15

A MACKEREL SKY, time for foul weather: song for the hula ala'a-papa 70

AMI, not a motion of lewd intent 210

AMUSEMENTS in Hawaii communal 13

ANKLET SONG: Fragrant the grasses 49

AOLE AU E HELE ka li'u-la o Maná: mele for the hula pa-ipu 79

AOLE E MAO ka ohu: mele for the hula Pele 195

AOLE I MANAO IA: mele for the hula úli-ulí 108

A PILI, a pili: mele for the hula hoonaná 244

A PIT LIES (far) to the East: song for the hula pa-ipu 86

A PLOVER at the full of the sea: song for the hula kolea 220

A PUA ka wiliwili: a bit of folk-lore (note) 221

A PUNA AU: mele for the hula pahu 104

A SEARCH for a sweetheart: song for the hula ulili 247

ASPERSION in ceremonial purification 15

ASSONANCE by word-repetition 227

A STORM from the sea: song for the hula pa-ipu 78

AT HILO I rendezvoused with the lehua: song for the hula pa'i-umauma 203

ATTITUDE of the Hawaiian toward--

nature 262

song 159

the gods 225

AT WAILUA stands the main house-post: song for the hula Pele 192

AUHEA wale oe, e ka Makani Inu-wai? mele for the hula úli-ulí 110

AUWE, auwe, mo' ku'u lima! lament of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea 212

AUWE, pau au i ka manó nui, e! mele for the hula manó 221

A úWEUWé ke ko'e a ke kae: mele oli in the game of kilu 240

AWA DEBAUCH of Kane 131

AWILIWILI i ka hale o ka lauwili, e: a proverbial saying (note) 53

AX OF BROADEST EDGE I'm hight: song for the hula pua'a 230

BAMBOO RATTLE, the puili 144

BEDECK now the board for the feast: song-prayer for the hula Pele 200

BEGOTTEN were the gods of graded rank: song of cosmology (note) 196

BEHOLD KAUNá, that sprite of windy Ka-ú: song for the hula Pele 193

BIG WITH CHILD is the princess Ku: song for the hula pa-ipu 81

BIT OF FOLK-LORE: A pua ka wiliwili (note) 221

When flowers the wiliwili (note) 221

BLACK CRABS are climbing: song for the hula mu'umu'u 214

BLOOM OF LEHUA on altar piled: prayer to remove tabu at intermission 127

BLOW, BLOW, thou wind of Hilo! old sea song (note) 65

BURST OF SMOKE from the pit: song for the hula pa-ipu 89

CADENCE IN MUSIC 140

CALABASH HULAS 102

CALL TO THE MAN to come in: song of welcome to the halau 41

CASTANETS 147

CEREMONIAL CLEANSING in the halau 30

CIPHER SPEECH 97

CLOTHING OR COVERING, illustrated by gesture 178

COCONUT DRUM, puniu 141

COME NOW, MANONO: song for the hula pa'i-umauma 204

COME UP to the wildwood, come: song for the hula ohe 136

COMRADE MINE in the robe-stripping gusts of Lalau: song for the hula kilu 241

CONVENTIONAL GESTURES 180, 182

COSTUME of the hula dancer 49

COURT OF THE ALII the recruiting ground for hula performers 27

CULTS of the hula folk--were there two? 47

DANCE, a premeditated affair in Hawaii 13

DAVID MALO, hulas mentioned by 107

DEATH, represented by gesture 178

DéBUT of a hula performer 35

DéBUT-SONG of a hula performer: Ka nalu nui, a ku ka nalu mai Kona 35

DECORATIONS of the kuahu--the choice limited 19

DISMISSING PRAYER at intermission: Doomed sacrifice I 129

DISPENSATION granted to pupils before graduation from the halau 33

DIVISIONS of mele recitation in the hula 58

DOOMED SACRIFICE I: dismissing prayer at intermission 129

DRESSING SONG of hula girls: Ku ka punohu ula 55

DRUM--

description of 140

introduced by La'a-mai-Kahiki 141

DRUM HULA, the 103

E ALA, e Kahiki-ku: mele for the hula Pele 196

E HEA i ke kanáka e komo maloko (mele komo): welcome to the halau 41

E HOOPONO ka hele: mele apropos of Nihi-aumoe 94

E HOOULU ana i Kini o ke Akua: altar-prayer 21

EIA KE KUKO, ka li'a: altar-prayer, to Laka 43

EI'AU, e Laka mai uka: altar-prayer 20

E IHO ana oluna: oracular utterance of Kapihe 99

E KAUKAU i hale manu, e: mele for the hula ki'i 99

E LAKA, E! mele kuahu at aiolo service 34

E LE'E KAUKAU: mele for the hula ki'i 98

ELEELE KAUKAU: mele for the hula ki'i 97

ELLIS, REV. WILLIAM--

his description of the "hura ka-raau" 116

his remarks about the "hura araapapa" 71

ELOCUTION and rhythmic accent in Hawaiian song 158

E MANONO la, ea: mele for the hula pa'i-umauma 204

ENGULFED in heaven's abyss: song for the hula kilu 243

E OE MAUNA i ka ohu: mele for the hula Pele 194

E OLA IA'U, i ka malihini: altar-prayer, in prose speech 46

E PI' I ka nahele: mele for the hula ohe 135

E P'I ka-wai ka nahele: mele for the hula niau-kani 133

EPITHALAMIUM, mele for the hula ki'i: O Wanahili ka po loa ia Manu'a 100

E ULU, e ulu: altar-prayer to the Kini Akua 46

EWA'S LAGOON is red with dirt: song for the hula pa-ipu 84

E WEWEHI, ke, ke! mele for the hula ki'i 94

FABLE, Hawaiian love of 111

FACIAL EXPRESSION 179

FAME TRUMPETS your conquests each day: song for the hula ku'i 253

FEET AND LEGS in gesture 181

FISH-TREE, Maka-léi (note) 17

FLOWERS acceptable for decoration 19

FLUCTUATING UTTERANCE in song, i'i 158

FOLK-LORE, application of the term 114

FOREIGN INFLUENCE on Hawaiian music 138, 163

FRAGRANT THE GRASSES of high Kane-hoa: anklet song 49

FROM KAHIKI came the woman, Pele: song for the hula Pele 188

FROM MOUNTAIN RETREAT---

song for the hula ala'a-papa 64

with music VII 157

GAME OF KILU 235

GAME OF NA-ú (note) 118

GENERAL REVIEW 260

GESTURE--

illustrating an obstacle 177

illustrating movement 178

influenced by convention 180

inviting to come in 179

mimetic 178

representing a plain 178

representing clothing or covering 178

representing death 178

representing union or similarity 078

taught by the kumu-hula 176

with feet and legs 181

GIRD ON THE PA-ú: tiring song 54

GLOSSARY 266

GLOWING is Kahiki, oh! song for the hula pa-ipu 75

GOD--

of health, Mauli-ola (note) 198

of mirage, Lima-loa (note) 79

GODS, attitude of the Hawaiian toward the 225

GODS of the hula 23

GOURD DRUM, ipu-hula 142

GOURD-RATTLE, úli-ulí 144

GRADUATION from the halau--

aiolo sacrament 32, 34

ceremonies of 31

tabu-lifting prayer: Oh wildwood bouquet, oh Laka 32

HAKI pu o ka nahelehele: altar-prayer to Laka 18

HAKU'I ka uahi o ka lua: mele for the hula pa-ipu 88

HALAU--

a school for the hula 30

ceremonies of graduation from 31

decorum required in 30

description of 14

its worship contrasted with that of the heiau 15

passwords to 38

purification of its site 14

rules of conduct while it is abuilding 15

worship in 42

HALAU HANALEI i ka nini a ka ua: an oli 155

HALE-MA'UMA'U (note) 229

HALL for the hula. See Halau.

HANALEI is a hall for the dance in the pouring rain: a song 155

HANAU ke apapa nu'u: song of cosmology (note) 186

HAUNT of white tropic bird: song for the hula ala'a-papa 67

HAWAIIAN HARP, the ukeké 147

HAWAIIAN love of fable 111

HAWAIIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 138

HAWAIIAN MUSIC displaced by foreign 138

HAWAIIAN SLANG 68

HAWAIIAN SONG--

elocution and rhythmic accent 158

characteristics 170

melody; rhythm 171

tone-intervals 158

HAWAIIAN SPEECH, music affected by peculiarities of 139

HAWAII PONOI (national hymn) with music XIV 172

HAWAII'S VERY OWN: translation of national hymn 175

HE ALA kai olohia: mele for the hula ku'i Molokai 207

HEAVEN MAGIC fetch a Hilo pour: song for the hula ala'a-papa 66

HE INOA no ka Lani: mele for the hula ku'i Molokai 208

HE INOA no Kamehameha: song set to music VIII 162

HE LUA i ka hikina: mele for the hula pa-ipu 85

HERE AM I, O Laka from the mountains: altar-prayer to Laka 20

HE UA LA, he ua: mele for the hula kolani 216

HE ú-I, he ninau: mele for Kane 257

HIIAKA--

her bathing place 190

in a kilu contest with Pele-ula 240

See Gods of the hula.

HIKI MAI, hiki mai ka La, e! mele for the hula puili 114

HI'U-O-LANI, kii ka ua o Hilo: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 65

HOAEàE EXPLAINED 163

HOE PUNA i ka wa'a pololo a ka ino: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 70

HOINAINAU mea ipo: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 71

HOLE WAIMEA i ka ihe a ka makani: mele for the hula ala'a-papa 68

HO! MOUNTAIN of vapor puffs: song for the hula Pele 194

HOOLEHELEHE-KI'I 91

HOOPA'A, a division of the hula performers 28, 57

HOOPONO OE, he aina kai Waialua i ka hau: mele for hula ala'a-papa 60

HOW PLEASED is the girl maimed of hand and foot: song of Hiiaka 212

HOW PLEASING, when borne by the tide: song for the hula ku'i 252

HUAHUA'I: song with music X: He aloha wau ia oe 166

HULA--

degeneration of 14

intermission of 126

support and organization 26

HULA ALA'A-PAPA, THE--

a religious service 11, 57

company--organization of 29

dancer's costume 49

democratic side of 26

remarks on, by Rev. W. Ellis 71

HULA HOONANá, THE 244

HULA íLI-íLI, THE 120

HULA ILIO, THE 223

HULA KAEKEEKE, THE 122

HULA KA-LAAU 116

its novel performance on Kauai 118

responsive chanting in 116

HULA KIELEI, THE 210

HULA KI'I, THE 91

HULA KILU, THE 235

HULA KOLANI, THE 216

HULA KOLEA, THE 219

HULA KOLILI, THE 246

HULA KU'I MOLOKAI, THE 207

HULA KU'I, THE 250

HULA KUóLO, THE 73

HULA MANó, THE 221

HULA MU'UMU'U, THE 212

HULA NIAU-KANI, THE 132

HULA OHELO, THE 233

HULA OHE, THE 135

HULA O-NIU, THE 248

HULA PA-HUA, THE 183

HULA PAHU, THE 103

HULA PA-IPU, THE 73

HULA PA'I-UMAUMA, THE 202

HULA PALáNI, THE (note) 202

HULA PELE, THE 186

HULA PERFORMANCE, influenced by instrument of accompaniment 113

HULA PERFORMERS--

classes 28, 57

début 35

physique 57

HULA PUA'A, THE 228

HULA PUILI, THE 113

HULAS--

calabash hulas 102

David Malo's list of 107

first hula 8

gods of 23

of varying dignity and rank 57

See also Hula and names of various hulas.

HULA SONGS--their source 58

HULA ULILI, THE 246

HULA úLI-ULí, THE 107

"HURA KA RAAU," description of, by Rev. William Ellis 116

I ALOHA i ke ko a ka wai: mele for the hula ku'i 251

I AM SMITTEN with spear of Kane: song for the hula pa-hua 184

IDYL, typical Hawaiian 217217

I'I--

a fluctuating utterance in song 158

its vowel repetition 159

I KAMA'AMA'A la i ka pualei: mele pule for the hula Pele 199

IKE IA KAUKINI: mele to Kaukini (note) 51

IKE IA KAUNá-WAHINE, Makani Ka-u: mele for the hula Pele 193

ILIíLI, castanets 147

ILL OMEN, words of, in mele inoa 37

IN PUNA WAS I: song for the hula pahu 105

INTERMISSION OF HULA 126

IN THE UPLANDS, the darting flame-bird of La'a: password to the halau 41

INVITATION to come in, by gesture 179

INVOKE WE NOW the Four Thousand: altar-prayer 22

IN WAIPI'O stands Paka'alana: name-song of Kamehameha 163

IPU HULA, gourd drum 58, 142

treatment of, in hula pa-ipu and in hula ala'a-papa 73

I SPURN THE THOUGHT with disdain: song for the hula úli-ulí 109

IT HAS COME, it has come: song for the hula puili 114

IT WAS IN HAMAKUA: song for the hula kaekeeke 123

I WILL NOT CHASE the mirage of Maná: song for the hula pa-ipu, 80

KAEKEEKE, musical bamboo pipe, 143

KAHEA i ka mele, 58

KAHIKI-NUI, auwahi ka makani: mele for the hula kaekeeke, 124

KAHIKI-NUI, land of wind-driven smoke: song for the hula kaekeeke, 125

KAHIPA, na waiu olewa: mele for the hula pa'i-umauma, 205

KAHULI AKU, kahuli mai: mele apropos of the tree-shell, 121

KAKUA PA-ú, ahu na kiképa: tiring song, 51

KALAKALAIHI, kaha ka La ma ke kua o Lehua: mele for the hula kilu, 238

KALAKAUA, a great name: song for the hula ka-laau, 117

KALALAU, pali eku i ka makani: mele for the hula ki'i, 101

KA-LIU-WA'A (note), 230

KAMA-PUA'A, his relations with--

Kapo, 25

Pele, 231

KA MAWAE: song and music XI, 167

KAMEHAMEHA II, song composed by, 69

KA-MOHO-ALII (note), 229

KANAENAE TO LAKA: A ke kuahiwi, i ke kualono, 16

KANALOA. See Gods of the hula.

KANALOA TINTS HEAVEN with a blush: song for the hula kilu, 242

KA NALU NUI, a ku ka nalu mai Kona: name-song to Naihe, 35

KANE, HIKI A'E, he maláma ia luna: altar-prayer to Kane and Kapo, 44

KANE is DRUNKEN with awa: song for interlude, 130

KANE'S AWA DEBAUCH, 131

KANE. See Gods of the hula.

KAPO--

parentage and relations to the hula,47

relations with Kama-pua'a, 25

See Gods of the hula.

KAUAI, characteristics of its hula, 119

KAUHUA KU, ka Lani, iloli ka moku: mele for the hula pa-ipu, 80

KAU KA HA-é-A, kau o ka hana wa ele: mele for the hula ala'a-papa, 69

KA UKA HOLO-KIA ahi-manu o La'a: password to the halau, 41

KAULANA mai nei Pua Lanakila: mele for the hula ku'i, 252

KAULA WEARS the ocean as a wreath: wreath-song, 56

KAULA WREATHES her brow with the ocean: song of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea, 213

KAU LILUA i ke anu Wai-aleale: mele for the hula pahu, 105

KAUó PU KA IWA kala-pahe'e: mele for the hula pa-ipu, 76

KA WAI opua-makani o Wailua: an oli, 255

KAWELO, a sorcerer who turned shark (note), 79

KEAAU is a long strip of wild wood: song for the hula ala'a-papa, 62

KEAAU SHELTERS, Waiakea lies in the calm: song for the hula ala'a-papa, 61

KE AMO la ke ko'i ke Akua la i uka: mele for the hula Pele, 190

KEAWE--

a name of many personalities (note), 74

the red blush of dawn: old song (note), 74

KE LEI MAI la o Kaula i ke kai, e-e!--

mele of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea, 212

wreath-song, 56

KE POHá NEI; u'ína la: mele for the hula o-niu248

KI'I-KI'I 91

KI'I NA KA IPO: mele for the hula ulili 246

KILELEI, THE HULA 210

KILU, a game and a hula 235

KILU-CONTEST of Hiiaka with Pele-ula 240

KING, CAPT. JAMES, on the music and dancing of the Hawaiians 149

KING'S WASH-TUBS 116

KINI AKUA, THE 24, 46

KO'I-HONUA, a style of recitation 58, 89

KO'I MAKA NUI: mele oli for the hula pua'a 228

KOLEA KAI PIHA: mele for the hula kolea 219

KONA KAI OPUA, i kala i ka la'i: mele for the hula ka-laau 117

KUAHU-SERVICE, not a rigid liturgy 21

KUAHU, THE 15, 32

KU AKU LA KEAAú, lele ka makani mawaho: mele for the hula pa-ipu 77

KUA LOLOA Keaáu i ka nahele: mele for the hula ala'a-papa62

KU, A MARIONETTE 91

KU E, NANá E! mele for the hula ilio 223

KU I WAILUA ka pou hale: mele for the hula Pale 191

KU KA MAKAIA a ka huaka'i moe ípo: dismissing prayer at intermission 129

KU KA PUNOHU ula i ka moana: girl's dressing song 55

KUKULU O KAHIKI (note) 17

KUMU-HULA, a position open to all 15

KUMUKAHI, myth (note) 197

KUNIHI KA MAUNA i ka la'i, e: mele kahea, password to the halau 10

KU OE KO'U WAHI ohelo nei la, auwe, auwe! mele for the hula ohelo 233

KU PILIKI'I Hanalei lehua, la: mele for the hula kielei 210

KU-PULUPULU. See Gods of the hula.

KU. See Gods of the hula.

KU'U HOA MAI ka makani kuehu kapa o Kalalau: mele for the hula kilu 240

LA'A MAI-KAHIKI--

his connection with the hula pahu 103

introduces the drum, or pahu hula 151

LAAU, a xylophone 144

LAKA--

a block of wood her special symbol 20, 23

adulatory prayer to 18

a friend of the Pele family 24

aumakua of the hula 23

compared with the gods of classic Greece 24

emanation origin 48

epithets and appellations of 24

invoked as god of wildwood growths 24

special god of the hula 24

versus Kapo 47

wreathing her emblem 34

LAKA SITS in her shady grove: altar-prayer 34

LAMENT OF MANA-MANA-IA-KALUEA--

Alas, alas, maimed are my hands! 212

Auwe, auwe, mo' ku'u lima! 212

LAU LEHUA punoni ula ke kai o Kona: mele for the hula pa-ipu 75

LEAF OF LEHUA and noni-tint, the Kona sea: song for the hula pa-ipu 76

LE'A WALE hoi ka wahine lima-lima ole, wawae ole: mele of Hiiaka 212

LEHUA ILUNA: tabu-lifting prayer at intermission 126

LELE MAHU'I-LANI a luna: a tiring song 56

LET'S WORSHIP NOW the bird-cage: song for the hula ki'i 99

LIFT MAHU'I-LANI on high: tiring song 56

LIKE NO A LIKE: song with music XII 168

LIMA-LOA, god of mirage (note) 79

LITERALISM IN TRANSLATION versus fidelity 88

LITURGY OF KUAHU not rigid 21

LI'ULI'U ALOHA ia'u mele kahea: password to the halau 39

LONG, LONG have I tarried with love: password to the halau 39

LONO, cult of 18

See Gods of the hula.

LOOK FORTH, GOD KU, look forth: song for the hula ilio 225

LOOK NOW, WAIALUA, land clothed with ocean-mist: song for the hula ala'a-papa 60

LOOK TO YOUR WAYS in upland Puna: song apropos of Nihi-aumoe 94

LO, PELE'S THE GOD of my choice: song prayer for the hula Pele 199

LO, THE RAIN, the rain: song for the hula kolani 217

LOVE FAIN COMPELS to greet thee: song, "Cold breast," with music IX 165

LOVE IS AT PLAY in the grove: song for the hula ala'a-papa 74

LOVE TOUSLED WAIMEA with shafts of the wind: song for the hula ala'a-papa 69

LYRIC OR OLI: The wind-beaten stream of Wailua 256

LYRIC UTTERANCE 254-256

MAHELE OR PALE, divisions of a song 58

MAI KAHIKI ka wahine, o Pele: mele for the hula Pele 187

MAILE-LAU-LI'I 91

MAILE-PAKAHA 91

MAKA-KU 91

MAKA-LéI, a mythical fish-tree (note) 177

MAKALI'I, the Pleiades (note) 17

MALUA, fetch water of love: song for the hula puili 115

MALUA, ki'i wai ke aloha: mele for the hula puili 114

MAO WALE i ka lani: mele for the hula kilu 243

MARIONETTE HULA 91

MASKS NOT USED in the halau 179

MAULI-OLA, god of health (note) 198

MELES--

apropos of--

Kahuli, the tree-shell: Kahuli aku, kahuli mai 121

Keawe: O Keawe ula-i-ka-lani (note) 74

Nihi-aumoe: E hoopono ka hele i ka uha o Puna 94

at début of hula performer: Ka nalu nui, a ku ka nalu mai Kona 35

for interlude: Ua ona o Kane i ka awa 130

for Kane: He ú-i, he nináu 257

for the--

hula ala'a-papa--

A Koa'e-kea, i Pueo-hulu-nui 67

A Koolau wau, ike i ka ua 59

Hi'u-o-lani, ki'i ka ua o Hilo 65

Hoe Puna i ka wa'a polólo 70

Ho-ina-inau mea ipo i ka nahele 71

Hole Waimea i ka ihe a ka makani 68

Hoopono oe, he aina kai Waialua i ka hau 60

Kau ka ha-é-a, kau o ka hana wa ele 69

Kua loloa Keaau i ka nahele 62

Noluna ka Hale-kai, no ka ma'a-lewa 63

Pakú Kea-au, lulu Wai-akea60

hula hoonaná: A pili, a pili 244

hula íliíli: A lalo maua o Waipi'o 120

hula ilio: Ku e, naná e! 223

hula kaekeeke--

A Hamakua au 122

Kahiki-nui, auwahi ka makani 124

hula ka-laau--

Kona kai opua i kala i ka la'i 117

O Kalakaua, he inoa 117

hula kielei Ku piliki'i Hanalei-lehua, la 210

hula ki'i--

E kaukau i hale manu, e! 99

E le'e kaukau 98

Eleele kaukau 97

E Wewehi, ke, ke! 94

Kalalau, pali eku i ka makani 101

Pikáka e, ka luna ke, ke! 96

hula kilu--

Kálakálaíhi, kaha ka La ma ke kua o Lehua 238

Ku'u hoa mai ka makani kuehu-kapa o Kalalau 240

Mao wale i ka lani 243

Pua ehu kamaléna ka uka o Kapa'a 237

Ula Kala'e-loa i ka lepo a ka makani 239

Ula ka lani ia Kanaloa 241

hula kolani: He wa la, he ua 216

hula kolea: Kolea kai piha 219

hula ku'i--

I aloha i ke ko a ka wai 251

Kaulana mai nei Pua Lanakila 252

hula ku'i Molokai--

He ala kai olohia 207

He inoa no ka Lani 208

hula manó: Auwe! pau au i ka monó nui, e! 221

hula mu'umu'u: Pi'i ana a-ama 213

hula niau-kani: E pi'i ka wai ka nahele 133

hula ohe: E pi' i ka nahele 135

hula ohelo: Ku oe ko'u wahi ohelo nei la, auwe, auwe! 233

hula o-niu: Ke pohá nei, u'ína la! 248

hula pahu--

A Puna au, i Kuki'i au, i Ha'eha'e 104

Kau lilua i ke anu Wai-aleale 105

O Hilo oe, muliwai a ka ua i ka lani 104

hula pa-hua: Pa au i ka ihe a Kane 183

hula pa-ipu--

Aole au e hele ka li'u-la o Maná 79

Haku'i ka uahi o ka lua 88

He lua i lea hikina 85

Kauhua Ku, ka Lani, iloli ka moku 80

Kauo pu ka iwa kala-pahe'e 76

Ku aku la Kea-aú, lele ka makani mawaho 77

Lau lehua punoni ula ke kai o Kona 75

O Ewa, aina kai ula i ka lepo 84

Ooe no paha ia, e ka lau o ke aloha 82

Wela Kahiki, e! 73

hula pa'i-umauma--

A Hilo au, e, hoolulu ka lehua 203

E Manono la, ea 204

Kahipa, na waiu olewa 205

hula Pele--

A Kauai, a ke olewa iluna 189

Aole e mao ka ohu 195

E ala, e Kahiki-ku 196

E oe mauna i ka ohu 194

I kama'ama'a la i ka pua-lei 199

Ike ia Kauná-wahine, Makani Ka-ú 193

Ke amo la ke Akua la i-uka 190

Ku i Wailua ka pou hale 191

Mai Kahiki ka Wahine, o Pele 187

Nou paha e, ka inoa 200

O Pele la ko'u akua 198

hula puili--

Hiki mai, hiki mai ka La, e! 114

Malua, ki'i wai ke aloha 114

hula ulili: Ki'i na ka ipo 246

hula úli-ulí--

Aole i mana'o ia 108

Auhea wale oe, e ka Makani Inu-wai? 110

inoa--

composition and criticism of 27

must contain no words of ill omen 37

their authors called "the king's wash-tubs" 116

to Naihe: Ka nalu nui, a ku ka nalu mai Kona 35

in the hula, starting of 58

kahea, password to the halau--

Ka uka holo-kia ahi-manu o La'a 41

Kunihi ka mauna i ka la'i, e 40

Li'u-li'u aloha ia'u 39

komo, welcome to the halau--

Aloha na hale o makou i makamaka ole 39

E hea i ke kanaka e komo maloko 41

kuahu, altar-prayer--

E, Laka, e! 34

Noho ana Laka i ka ulu wehiwehi 33

kupe'e, anklet song: Aala kupukupu ka uka o Kanehoa 49

of Hiiaka: Le'a wale hoi ka wahine limalima ole, wawae ole 212

of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea: Ke lei mai la o Kaula i ke kai e-e! 212

oli--

for the hula pua'a: Ko'i maka nui 228

in the game of kilu: A uweuwe ke ko'e a ke kae 240

set to music--

XI: A e ho'i ke aloha i ka mawae 167

VIII: Aia i Waipi'o Paka'alana 162

IX: Aloha wale oe 164

VII: Halau Hanalei i ka nini a la úa 156

XIV: Hawaii ponoi 172

X: He aloha wau ia oe 166

XIII: O ka ponaha iho a ke ao 169

XII: Ua líke no a líke 168

to Kaukini: Ike ia Kaukini, he lawaia manu (note) 51

MELODY of Hawaiian song 170

METHINKS IT IS YOU, leaf plucked from Love's tree: song for hula pa-ipu 83

MIMETIC GESTURE 178

MISTAKEN VIEWS about the Hawaiians 262

MISTY AND DIM, a bush in the wilds of Kapa'a: song for hula kilu 237

MOTION, illustrated by gesture 178

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS 140

influence on a hula performance 113

the kaekeeke 122

the pu-la-í 147

the ukeké 149

MUSICAL SELECTIONS--

I: range of the nose-flute 146

II: from the nose-flute 146

III: the ukeké as played by Keaonaloa 149

IV: song from the hula pa'i-umauma 153

V: song from the hula pa-ipu 153

VI: song from the hula Pele 154

VII: oli and mele from the hula ala'a-papa 156

VIII: He inoa no Kamehameha 162

IX: song, Poli anuanu: Aloha wale oo 164

X: song, Hua-hua'i 166

XI: song, Ka Mawae 167

XII: song, Líke no Líke 168

XIII: song, Pili-aoao 169

XIV: Hawaiian National Hymn, Hawaii Ponoi 172

MUSIC AND POETRY, Hawaiian--their relation 161

MUSIC OF THE HAWAIIANS 138-140

cadence 140

phrasing 140

rhythm 160

under foreign influences 163

vocal execution 139

MYTH ABOUT KUMU-KAHI (note) 197

MYTHICAL SHARK, Papi'o (note) 206

NAME-SONG OF KAMEHAMEHA: In Waipio stands Pa ka'alana 163

of Naihe: The huge roller, roller that surges from Kona 36

NATIONAL HYMN of Hawaii--

translation 175

with music XIV 172

NA-ú, a game (note) 118

NIAU-KANI, a musical instrument 132

NIHEU, mythological character (note) 194

NIHI-AUMOE 91

NOHO ANA LAKA i ka ulu wehiwehi: altar-prayer 33

NOLUNA ka hale kai, e ka ma'alewa--

mele for the hula ala'a-papa 63

mele with music VII 155

NOSE-FLUTE 135, 145

music from, II 146

remarks on, by Jennie Elsner 146

NOU PAHA E, ka inoa: mele for the hula Pele 200

Now FOR THE DANCE, dance in accord: song for the hula ki'i 98

NOW, KANE, APPROACH, illumine the altar: altar-prayer to Kane and Kapo 45

NOW WRIGGLES THE WORM to its goal: song in the game of kilu 240

OBSTACLE, AN, illustrated by gesture 177

O EWA, aina kai ula i ka lepo: mele for the hula pa-ipu 84

O GODDESS LAKA! altar-prayer 34

OHE HANO-IHU, the nose-flute 135, 145, 146

O HILO OE, Hilo, muliwai a ka wa i ka lani: mele for the hula pahu 104

OH WEWEHI, la, la! song for the hula ki'i 95

OH WILDWOOD BOUQUET, Oh Laka--

tabu-removing prayer at graduation 32

tabu-removing prayer at intermission 128

O KALAKAUA, he inoa: mele for the hula ka-laau 117

O KA PONAHA iho a ke ao: song with music XIII 169

O KEAWE-ULA-I-KA-LANI: old mele apropos of Keawe (note) 74

O LAKA OE: altar-prayer to Laka 42

OLAPA, a division of hula performers 28, 57

OLD SEA SONG--

Blow, blow, thou wind of Hilo! (note) 65

Pa mai, pa mai (note) 65

OLD SONG: Keawe, the red blush of dawn (note) 74

OLELO HUNá, secret talk 97

OLI AND MELE---

dividing line between 254

from the hula ala'a-papa, music VII 156

OLI LEI: Ke lei mai la o Kaula i ke kai, e! 56

OLI PA-ú: Kakua pa-ú, ahu na kikepa 51

OLI, THE 254-256

illustration of: Ka wai opua-makani o Wailua 255

OLI, with music VII: Halau Hanalei i ka nini a ka ua 155

OLOPANA, a famous king (note) 74

O MY LOVE goes out to thee: song with music X 167

ONE-BREATH PERFORMANCE 139

OOE NO PAHA IA, e ka lau o ke aloha: mele for the hula pa-ipu 82

O PELE la ko'u akua: mele for the hula Pele 168

ORACULAR UTTERANCE of Kapihe: E iho ana oluna 99

ORGANIZATION of a hula company 29

ORTHOGRAPHY of the Hawaiian language--influence of Rev. W. Ellis (note) 72

OUTSPREADS NOW THE DAWN: song with music XIII 170

O WANAHILI ka po loa ia Manu'a: mele for the hula ki'i 100

PA AU I KA ihe a Kane: mele for the hula pa-hua 183

PAHU, the drum 140

PAKú KEAAU, lulu Waiakea: mele for the hula pa-hua 60

PA MAI, pa mai: old sea song (note) 65

PAPI'O, mythical shark (note) 206

PART-SINGING in Hawaii--

at the present time 152

in ancient times 150, 152

PASSWORD TO THE HALAU--

In the uplands, the darting flame-bird of La'a 41

Long, long have I tarried with love 39

Steep stands the mountain in calm 40

PA-U HALAKá, THE (note) 124

PA-ú SONG: Gird on the pa-ú, garment tucked in one side 54

PA-ú, the hula skirt 49

PECULIARITIES of Hawaiian speech, music affected by 139

PELE--

relations of, with Kama-pua'a 231

story of 186

PERILOUS, STEEP, is the climb to Hanalei woods: song for the hula kielei 211

PHRASING in music 140

PHYSIQUE of hula performers 57

PI'I ANA A-áMA: mele for the hula mu'umu'u 213

PIKáKA, E, ka luna, ke, ke: mele foe the hula ki'i 96

PILLARS of heaven's dome, Kukulu o Kahiki (note) 17

PITCHING THE TUNE 158

PLAIN, A, illustrated by gesture 178

PLEIADES, THE, Makali'i (note) 17

POETRY of ancient Hawaii 161, 263

POINT TO A DARK ONE: song for the hula ki'i 97

POLI ANUANU, song with music IX: Aloha wale oe 164

PRAYER OF ADULATION to Laka: In the forests, on the ridges 18

PRAYER OE DISMISSAL at intermission: Ku ka makaia a ka huaka'i moe ipo 129

PRECIOUS THE GIFT of heart's-ease: song for the hula ku'i Molokai 208

PROVERBIAL SAYING: Unstable the house 53

PU-á, a whistle 146

PUA EHU KAMALENA ka uka o Kapa'a: mele for the hula kilu 237

PUAPUA-KEA 91

PUILI, a bamboo rattle 144

PU-LA-í, a musical instrument 147

PULE HOONOA--

at graduation exercises: Pupu we'uwe'u e, Laka e! 31

at intermission: Lehua i-luna 126

to Laka: Pupu we'uwe'u e, Laka e! 128

PULE KUAHU--

E hooulu ana i Kini o ke Akua 21

Ei' au, e Laka mai uka 20

in prose speech: E ola ia'u, i ka malihini 46

to Kane and Kapo: Kane hiki a'e, he maláma ia luna 44

to Laka: Eia ke kuko, ka li'a 43

to Laka: Haki pu a ka nahelehele 18

to Laka: O Laka oe 42

to the Kini Akua: E ulu, e ulu, Kini o ke Akua! 46

PUNA PLIES PADDLE night-long in the storm: song for hula ala'a-papa 70

PUNCH-AND-JUDY SHOW and the hula ki'i 91

PU-NIU, coconut drum 141

PUPILS OF THE HALAU--dispensation before graduation 33

POPU-A-LENALENA, a famous dog 131

PUPU WE'UWE'U E, Laka e! pule hoonoa--

at graduation 31

at intermission 128

PURIFICATION of the hula company 15

of the site for the halau 14

RANGE of the nose-flute 146

RECITATION in the hula, style of 58

RED GLOWS KALA'E through the wind-blown dust: song for the hula kilu 239

REED-INSTRUMENT, the niau-kani 147

RELATION of Hawaiian poetry and music 161

RELIGION in Hawaii somber 13

RESPONSIVE CHANTING in the hula ka-laau 116

RETURN, O LOVE, to the refuge: song with music XI 168

RHYTHM in Hawaiian music 160, 171

RULES AND PENALTIES controlling a hula company 29

RULES OF CONDUCT during the building of a halau 15

SHARK-GOD, Kawelo, a sorcerer (note) 79

SHE IS LIMED, she is limed: song for the hula hoonaná 245

SINGING IN ANCIENT TIMES--testimony of Capt. James King 149

SKIRT for the hula, the pa-ú 49

SLANG among the Hawaiians 98

SONG, Hawaiian attitude toward 159

See also Hawaiian song.

SONGS--

apropos of Nihi-aumoe: Look to your ways in upland Puna 94

at the first hula 8

composed by Kamehameha II 69

divisions of 58

epithalamium, for the hula ki'i:

Wanahili bides the whole night with Manu'a 101

for interlude: Kane is drunken with awa 130

for the--

hula ala'a-papa--

A mackerel sky, time for foul weather 70

From mountain retreat and root-woven ladder 64

Haunt of white tropic-bird 67

Heaven-magic fetch a Hilo pour 66

Keaau is a long strip of wildwood 62

Keaau shelters, Waiakea lies in the calm 61

Look now, Waialua, land clothed with ocean mist 60

Love is at play in the grove 71

Love tousled Waimea with shafts of the wind 69

Puna plies paddle night-long in the storm 70

'Twas in Koolau I met with the rain 59

hula hoonaná: She is limed, she is limed 245

hula íliíli: We twain were lodged in Waipi'o 120

hula ilio: Look forth, god Ku, look forth! 225

hula kaekeeke: It was in Hamakua 123

Kahiki-nui, land of wind-driven smoke 125

hula ka-laau: Kalakaua, a great name 117

The cloud-piles o'er Kona's sea 118

hula kielei: Perilous, steep is the climb to Hanalei woods 211

hula ki'i--

Let's worship now the bird-cage 99

Now for the dance 98

Oh Wewehi, la, la! 95

Point to a dark one 97

The mountain walls of Kalalau 102

The roof is a-dry, la, la! 96

hula kilu--

Comrade mine in the robe-stripping gusts of Lalau 241

Engulfed in heaven's abyss 243

Kanaloa tints heaven with a blush 242

Misty and dim, a bush in the wilds of Kapa'a 237

Red glows Kala'e through the wind-blown dust 239

The sun-furrow gleams at the back of Lehua 238

hula kolani: Lo, the rain, the rain! 217

hula kolea: A plover at the full of the sea 220

hula ku'i--

Fame trumpets your conquests each day 253

How pleasing, when borne by the tide 252

hula ku'i Molokai--

A eulogy for the princess 209

Precious the gift of heart's ease! 208

hula manó: Alas, I am seized by the shark, great shark! 222

hula mu'umu'u: Black crabs are climbing 214

hula niau-kani: Up to the streams in the wildwood 133

hula ohe: Gome up to the wildwood, come 136

hula ohelo: Touched, thou art touched by my gesture 234

hula o-niu: The rustle and hum of spinning top 249

hula pahu--

In Puna was I, in Kiki'i, in Ha'e-ha'e 105

performers 103

Thou art Hilo, Hilo, flood-gate of heaven 104

Wai-aleale stands haughty and cold 106

hula pa-hua: I am smitten with spear of Kane 184

hula pa-ipu--

A burst of smoke from the pit lifts to the skies 89

A pit lies (far) to the east 86

A storm from the sea strikes Ke-au 78

Big with child is the Princess Ku 81

Ewa's lagoon is fed with dirt 84

Glowing is Kahiki, oh! 75

I will not chase the mirage of Maná 80

Leaf of lehua and noni-tint 76

Methinks it is you, leaf plucked from love's tree 83

The iwa flies heavy to nest in the brush 76

hula pa'i-umauma--

At Hilo I rendezvoused with the lehua 203

Come now, Manono 204

'Tis Kahipa, with pendulous breasts 206

hula Pele--

Alas, there's no stay to the smoke 195

At Wailua stands the main house-post 192

Bedeck now the board for the feast 200

Behold Kauná, that sprite of windy Ka-ú 193

From Kahiki came the woman, Pele 188

Ho! mountain of vapor puffs! 194

Lo, Pele's the god of my choice 198

They bear the god's ax up the mountain 191

To Kauai, lifted in ether 189

With music VI 154

Yours, doubtless, this name 201

hula pua'a: Ax of broadest edge I'm hight 230

hula puili--

It has come, it has come 114

Malua, fetch water of love 115

hula ulili: A search for a sweetheart 247

hula úli-ulí--

I spurn the thought with disdain 109

Whence art thou, thirsty Wind? 111

from the hula pa'i-umauma--music IV 153

in the game of kilu: Now wriggles the worm to its goal 240

of cosmology--

Begotten were the gods of graded rank (note) 196

Hanau ke apapa nu'u (note) 196

of Hiiaka: How pleased is the girl maimed of hand and foot 212

of Mana-mana-ia-kaluea: Kaúla wreathes her brow with the ocean 213

of the tree-shell: Trill afar, trill a-near 121

of welcome to the halau: What love to our cottage homes! 40

The Water of Kane: This question, this query 258

with music--

VII: Hanalei is a hall for the dance in the pouring rain 155

XIV: Hawaii's very own 175

VIII: In Waipi'o stands Paka'a-lana 163

IX: Love fain compels to greet thee 165

X: O my love goes out to thee 167

XIII: Outspreads now the dawn 170

XI: Return, O love, to the refuge 168

XII: When the rain drums loud on the leaf 169

SOURCE of hula songs 58

STEEP STANDS THE MOUNTAIN in calm: password to the halau 40

STRESS-ACCENT and rhythmic accent 158

SUPPORT AND ORGANIZATION of the hula 26

TABU, as a power in controlling a hula company 30

TABU-REMOVING PRAYER at intermission: Oh wildwood bouquet, O Laka! 128

TEMPO in Hawaiian song 160

THE CLOUD-PILES o'er Kona's sea whet my joy: song for the hula kalaau 118

THE HUGE ROLLER, roller that surges from Kona: name-song to Naihe 36

THE IWA FLIES HEAVY to nest in the brush: song for the hula pa-ipu 76

THE MOUNTAIN WALLS of Kalalau: song for the hula ki'i 102

THE RAINBOW stands red o'er the ocean: tiring song 55

THE ROOF is a-dry, la, la! song for the hula ki'i 96

THE RUSTLE AND HUM of spinning top: song for the hula o-niu 249

THE SUN-FURROW gleams at the hack of Lehua: song for the hula kilu 238

THE WIND-BEATEN STREAM of Wailua: an oli or lyric 256

THEY BEAR THE GOD'S AX up the mountain: song for the hula Pele 191

THIS MY WISH, my burning desire: altar-prayer to Laka 43

THIS QUESTION, this query: song, The Water of Kane 258

THIS SPOIL AND RAPE of the wildwood: altar-prayer to Laka 19

THOU ART HILO, Hilo, flood-gate of heaven: song for the hula pahu 104

THOU ART LAKA: altar-prayer to Laka 42

THY BLESSING, O LAKA: altar-prayer in prose speech 47

TIRING SONG--

Lele Mahu'ilani a luna 56

Lift, Mahu'ilani, on high 56

The rainbow stands red o'er the ocean 55

'TIS KAHIPA, with pendulous breasts: song for the hula pa'i-umauma 206

TO KAUAI, lifted in ether: song for the hula Pele 189

TONE-INTERVALS in Hawaiian song 158

TOUCHED, thou art touched by my gesture: song for the hula ohelo 234

TRANSLATION, literalism in, versus fidelity 88

TRILL A-FAR, trill a-near: song of the tree-shell 121

'TWAS IN KOOLAU I met with the rain: song for the hula ala'a-papa 59

UA ONA O KANE i ka awa: mele for interlude 130

UKEKé, a Hawaiian harp 147

music of 149

UKU-LELE and taro-patch fiddle, used in the hula ku'i (note) 251

ULA KALA'E-LOA i ka lepo a ka makani: mele for the hula kilu 239

ULA KA LANI ia Kanaloa: mele for the hula kilu 241

úLI-ULí, a musical instrument 107, 144

UNION OR SIMILARITY, illustrated by gesture 178

VOCAL EXECUTION of Hawaiian music 139

VOWEL-REPETITION in the i'i 159

WAI-ALEALE stands haughty and cold: song for the hula pahu 106

WANAHILI bides the whole night with Manu'a: (epithalamium) song for the hula ki'i 101

WATER OF KANE, THE: a song of Kane 257

WELA KAHIKI, E! mele for the hula pa-ipu 73

WELCOME TO THE HALAU: Call, to the man to come in 41

WE TWAIN were lodged in Waipi'o: song for the hula íliíli 120

WHAT LOVE to our cottage homes! song of welcome to the halau 40

WHENCE ART THOU, thirsty Wind? song for the hula úli-ulí 111

WHEN FLOWERS THE WILIWILI: a bit of folk-lore (note) 221

WHEN THE RAIN DRUMS loud on the leaf: song with music XII 169

WORD-REPETITION in poetry 54

for assonance 227

WORSHIP IN THE HALAU 42

contrasted with worship in the heiau 15

WREATHING THE EMBLEM of goddess Laka 34

WREATH-SONG: Kaula wears the ocean as a wreath 56

XYLOPHONE, the laau 144

YOURS, DOUBTLESS, this name: song for the hula Pele 201

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