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   Chapter 7 THE PATHWAYS OF THE FUTURE

The Way to the West / and the Lives of Three Early Americans: Boone—Crockett—Carson By Emerson Hough Characters: 61606

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:02


The open and abounding West is no more. From California, from all the interior regions of the great dry plains rises the same cry, that the government should take measures to give the people more land; that by means of irrigation it should restore, in some measure at least, the opportunities which allured the men who in the old days followed in the pilgrimage "out West." This changed and restricted region has problems entirely different from those of the West that was.

Once we wished a population to embrace the opportunities that abounded in the West. Now we wish to increase the opportunities for a population clamoring for a better chance than is offered anywhere in America. It is demanded that the government shall bring about reclamation of the arid lands, and their actual settlement in small tracts. "The political party that shall boldly advocate a great national irrigation appropriation will receive the support of millions of people, now homeless and discontented, who desire homes and an opportunity to make a living by honest labor." This is the statement of a master in transportation, who has assisted in the importation of hundreds of thousands of these homeless and discontented people into an America too suddenly gone small. He would scarcely care to see our railroads under government control, but he can suggest a method by which the government could be immensely helpful to the Western people, and perhaps to the Western railroads!

In yet another prominent railroad office, the conversation lately turned upon the future of the carrying trade in the West, when another of these captains of transportation swept his hand in a large circle on a map that hung on the wall. Within his circle was included a good portion of Montana and Wyoming, with other parts of the great Western interior. "All this region must go under irrigation," said he. "It is worthless to-day for farming purposes, but there exists no richer soil when once you get water on it. There is no county or state government, there is not even the richest railroad corporation, that can afford to put this vast acreage under the ditch. It is a problem for the national government of the United States; and, mark my words, that government will one day be obliged to solve that problem. Of course, the interest of our railroad in the matter is purely a business one. We want this country settled up, not by a few scattered grazers, but by many producing farmers. We want this country filled full of small land holders, not that we may carry their products to the East on our railway, but so that we may carry them west to the Pacific, and thence across the ocean to the Asiatic market. There must be a new West, and for that West the market must be found in Asia."

The common carriers, therefore, tell us that our West is now beyond the Pacific; that the East has come into the West; that the Old World has come into the New; that the Latin methods of farming must supplant the Anglo-Saxon ways. Perhaps; but this will take some time. As against the likelihood of any early and sweeping national action in the matter, there remains chiefly the vis inerti? of mental habit in the American farmer, who hitherto has not been acquainted with the doctrine of irrigation and reclamation. Vast tracts of California, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas-large regions in what was once considered the irreclaimable desert of America, go to show that the Western-American can learn irrigation and can successfully carry on farming of that nature; but none the less, for the average American farmer, who has been accustomed to the wide-handed methods of his forefathers, this proposition will carry no immediate appeal.

The proof of this latter statement lies in that very emigration into Canada to which attention has been called, and which constitutes one of the most remarkable phenomena ever known in the history of the American West. These dwellers under the Stars and Stripes, these citizens of the land of the free, of the land supposed to offer the greatest extent of human opportunity to-day, are flocking across her borders with the purpose of establishing homes in an alien land, and under a flag from which in a century gone by they made deliberate and forcible desertion!

They want the cheap lands, the wide acres, the great horizon of a West, even if they must find that West in land other than that which bore them! They do not want irrigated land that is worth one hundred dollars an acre, even though there be an unchanging and pleasant climate as an attraction thereto. They prefer a cold, bleak environment, a rude, hard life, with poorer markets, a looser touch with civilization, but with a bolder, a wider and freer individual horizon. There has been nothing in our history more pathetic than this. There has been nothing more cheerlessly disheartening in our history than the thought that we are exchanging thousands of men of this bold and rugged type, men who are willing and able to go out into the savage wilderness and lay it under tribute, for an equal number of thousands of shiftless and unambitious incoming population, who are willing to live on the droppings of the American table.

As to the extent of this American emigration northward into Canada, the figures are great enough to cause consternation in the mind of more than one railroad man, and to set on foot all possible measures of checking the outgoing stream. Within the year 1902 more than fifty thousand American citizens, some say seventy-five, even a hundred thousand, are thought to have taken up homes on the soil of Canada. These American emigrants took with them twenty million dollars out of the banks of Iowa alone. Great syndicates, in part made up of American capitalists and in conjunction with American and Canadian masters of transportation, have undertaken the settlement of large tracts of these cheap Canadian lands.

The settlers of the remoter West, the men from Iowa, Minnesota, the Dakotas, and so forth, largely move into Manitoba or other western British provinces. Farther to the east, in what is known as New Ontario under the new railroad industrial policy, an equally determined effort is making to influence American citizens to settle on lands subject to the rigorous climate north of Lake Superior. If only the settler shall come here he may have land at any price he likes, on terms of payment that shall suit himself. In all the large Canadian cities, whether under government countenance or not, there are emigration bureaus. In the cities of St. Paul and Minneapolis there are yet other emigration offices, proclaiming as flamboyantly as they ever did for the lands of the United States, the attractions of a home in the far Northwest, across the borders of the United States.

Canada lost one-fifth of her population to the United States. She is regaining much of it to-day, because she still has a West, and we have none. There is systematic, deliberate and highly differentiated effort going on toward the influencing of this American emigration. To offset it we have nothing to offer except the incoming stream of city dwellers from Europe, and the possible policy of national irrigation, subject always to the dubious methods of American politics. Gaze now once more, if you like, on the picture of the old West and of the new!

England fears, and in some portions of Canada that fear is shared, that these Americans will not become good Canadian subjects; that, in short, Canada will become Americanized. Only the years will tell. These great popular movements are matters of individual self-interest. The day of the individual is indeed passing, yet it is not to pass without a fight to the last gasp upon the part of that individual himself. It would lie ill to suggest that the American government has not always properly treated its people, in spite of that vast modern meshwork of monopolies and combinations which has brought about practically an industrial slavery, and has gone so far toward bidding our once free American to hope for freedom no more. Yet the answer as to the patriotism of the American people lies silent before us in the records of the ticket offices of these railways that run from America into Canada.

In a view of the past American transportation methods, and of that natural Monroe doctrine whose basis lies in the abundant natural richness of the environment of the American temperate zone, it is no unbiased prophecy to suggest that this question will eventually be settled, not by the government of the United States, not by the government of England, not by the government of Canada, but by the people themselves. If the transportation of the future shall make Canada and the United States alike, then assuredly the people will attend to the rest, and care not what may be the politics or the government of either the one land or the other. The eventual settlement of the West may mean a country in which there shall be small distinction between Canada and the United States, small distinction between the latter and the more desirable parts of the republic of Mexico on the south. If these questions shall be settled in Washington or Ottawa, it is safe prophecy to believe that it will be in the railroad offices and not the governmental offices of those respective cities. It takes more than politics to suppress the instinct that seeks individual well being. It takes more than politics to prevent water from running down-hill.

The reply to such prophecy or foreboding, or guessing, as one may choose to call it, which has been provided by the government of England, is not apt to take any form different from the ancient policy of England, which after all is military. England is old and is, or presently will be, decadent. Her bigotry is that of age, her unprogressive slowness of change is senile. She has been the great colonizer; and in so far as the development of transportation facilities has brought her colonies closer home to her, it has given England hope-her only hope-that of existing in the future of her robust children. Yet we find the concern of England to-day to be that of securing military touch with all the corners of the world, rather than that of establishing a flexible and durable system of transportation methods that shall make for the individual well-being of all her widely scattered subjects.

England, concerned with this American invasion of settlers, is to-day planning a great trans-Canadian road, whose western head shall lie somewhere within striking distance of Asia. "This," says one commentator, "is England's answer to Russia and the trans-Siberian railway." To a humble observer it might seem far safer were England concerned, not so much in answering Russia, as in answering the United States.

The best answer to Russia would be multitudes of farms in Western Canada, which one day we may call Western America. She can make that answer only by learning the methods of the United States. Till in some measure she shall have done so, she can not be safe as against the inroads of the American citizens. She can not restore the level of the waters by the building of railroads with military reasons under them. There may be a time in the history of the North American mid-continent when Canada and the United States will agree that it is better to get along comfortably together than it is to aid a far-off and somewhat mythical government to fight its battles somewhere at the end of military roads.

Our little Western secessionists, our little frontier republics cleaved to the government at Washington as soon as the pathways thereto made such loyalty a possible thing. It is nearer from Quebec and Ottawa to Washington, than it is to London. Patriotism is much a matter of transportation. The faster the ocean steamships, the better the telegraphic communication, the nearer Canada is to England; yet at the same time relatively she grows still nearer to the United States.[66]

Germane to these questions are those that rise as to the opening of additional avenues of industry at the other end of those pathways that stretch out across the Pacific Ocean. In the mad race for the gates of the imperial city of China, America had no real friends at her side. That was the time when the covetous powers of Europe, owners of lands overpopulated and industries overcrowded, conceived that they had at length opportunity to urge quarrel on a weaker land, with the result of a war in which the weaker power would inevitably be obliged to pay the penalty of unsuccessful resort to arms. England and Germany wished to do what England had been doing in South Africa and elsewhere for some time. They wanted a quarrel and a war, therefore a dismemberment and a division. Water transportation is cheap. The coal and iron of China lie close to water transportation. It had excellently well served the designs of England and Germany to parcel out this land, so full of raw material fit for manufacturing purposes. It had excellently well suited the powers to wipe the barbarians off the map, as has been done in so many South Asiatic and South African transactions of a similar nature. The secret of the Christian indignation at the barbarity of the heathen Chinese is none too much a secret in the frank vision of commercial desire.

The part of America in this game was well played. It is too late now to cry out for an America for Americans. We have squandered our substance, wasted our heritage, played the spendthrift royally as we might. Now it is too late. We may shut our gates on the East, but we must some time take our part in the great game of going abroad in the West. We have not yet felt that time to be near at hand; but it was splendid statesmanship on the part of America that kept China intact for yet a while, and got the armies off her soil.

The blandishments of England and Germany ought not to appeal to America. There is no nation that loves us unselfishly, or that would aid us unselfishly were we in need of help;[67] but if it shall one day come to the last bitter game among the nations, there will be none then so well equipped as we. We shall not need to call for aid. An English journal deems it "crude vulgarity" for the United States to think of wresting the maritime supremacy from Great Britain. It may be such, though we are not sure. It was perhaps crude vulgarity when we took America from Great Britain, when we took for ourselves a country so full of natural wealth, a country so perfect for the upbuilding of an aggressive and self-reliant national character. It might be crude vulgarity if we took this whole American continent as our own. Let us hope that this same character may still abide with us when we find need for the farther crude vulgarity of going abroad into the world. That we are meantime going abroad is without question true; not at the direction of our "leaders," not by reason of our politics, but by reason of our transportation.

The South, always the leader into the West, exclaims politically against the look toward Asia. It is but politics. The Tennessee troops fought well in the Philippines. Not all the world can stop us from thus going abroad. Whether we shall come home again at a later date remains yet to be seen. Whether we shall then have left a home worth the name remains yet to be proved.

Such are some of the localities and situations into which our trails have nationally led us; such some of the problems into which our vaunted Age of Transportation is carrying us. There are new equations, new questions, new problems constantly confronting us with an ever growing urgency. It is not in any wise certain that a dispassionate study of this nature can leave us with a national vanity wholly untouched. It is not altogether sure that the conclusions framed upon our chosen premises, inevitable as they are, can leave the student wholly convinced of either our universal success or our universal happiness.

Yet we shall do best to dismiss forebodings, and to cling, as still we may, to the faith and hope that was part of the American birthright. Indeed, we find it difficult to study even our grim columns of figures, our unimaginative records of events, without still retaining the curious and awesome feeling that heretofore the settlement of the American West, the birth and growth of the American man, has been a matter of fate, of destiny. There seemed to be a mighty west-bound tide of humanity of which we were but spectators, if indeed we were not part of the tide's burden of hurried flotsam, carried forward without plan or aim or purpose.

We go on apparently still without plan, apparently still borne forward in a throng resistless as of yore. Perhaps in the forefront of our ranks we carry trump of Jericho for other lands; if not in the bugle note of our armies, at least in the humming of our commerce. Let us hope that we do not invite a trumpet call at our own walls.

A million dead men are forgotten. Our wars are as nothing. But a million live men, taken up bodily from one environment, and set down bodily in another environment in any antipodal quarter of the world-that means history; that spells questions in forethought; that bids rise an American statesmanship big and honest, not selfish, not corrupt, and not afraid! These questions are such as must be approached wholly without reference to party or to politics.

It has been hitherto in America not so much a question of politics as of roads; but now the roads are builded that shall lead us to our City of Desire or to our Castle of Despair. Steam will establish our doctrines and our tariffs. But steam has no soul. To it, our flap-hatted frontiersman, our new-American, our product of a noble and unparalleled evolution, is but the same as the wrinkled-booted foreigner that puts down his black box in the middle of a Dakota prairie or in the heart of a crowded Eastern city. Steam has no care for the real glory of our flag. It cares naught for character. It does not love humanity. In it dwells no ancient love for the history of an America which at least might once have been dear to the heart of all humanity. Steam is an equalizer. It breaks down the lines between nations. It makes America like unto Europe, causing us to change to meet the changes of the Old World. If we be not careful we shall see going forward that equalizing of humanity that is brutalizing. And then in the good time of the ages we shall see cataclysm, revolution, change.

Whatever the product of that change after the revolutions that are yet to be, no man of all the future will ever again behold a land like that American West which is now no more. That was indeed a land rich in the bounty of nature, rich in opportunity for humanity. It was a land where a man could indeed be a man; where indeed he might live honestly and cleanly and nobly, unshrinking from his fate, unfearing for his own survival, helpful to his neighbor, independent as to himself.

Now we have seen our old rider going far, our flap-hatted man, the fearless one. He has strange company to-day, at home and abroad. In all reverence, let us hope that God may prosper him! In all reverence, let us hope that there may never arise from the great and understanding soul of any leader of this country that sad and bitter cry, "Give me back my Americans!"

* * *

[66]

Canada does not lack a fearless view in some of these matters. In 1902 a prominent journal of Halifax, N. S., boldly compared British and American institutions: "Had our forefathers thrown in their lot with the other American colonies at the time of the Revolution," says this journal editorially, "Nova Scotia would now be a greater Massachusetts. The Dominion of Canada would have five-fold its wealth and population." Per contra, American emigrants face some facts which to-day are not wholly satisfactory. Taxation in Canada in 1901 was $10 per capita, and but $7.50 per capita in the United States. To-day the debt of the Dominion is $66 per capita, whereas that of the United States figures but $14.52. In proportion to population, Canada has twice as much foreign trade as the United States; yet much of her foreign trade is with the United States. The Dominion of Canada clings still to the mother country, but in these modern days, the lines between states and provinces and governments become annually more faint. Life bases itself upon the doctrine of the survival of the fittest. The interdependence of a mutual self interest makes the strongest bonds between peoples, between governments, or between government and people.

[67]

Unless it might perhaps be the republic, France, from whom took the difficult doctrine that all men are "free and equal."

GENERAL INDEX

Abbott, J. S. C.: 158, 162-3, 224, 236.

Abenakis: 22.

Adams, Josiah: opinion on admission of Louisiana as a state, 61-2.

Alabama: few whites there in 1800, 46;

part included in Free State of Franklin, 125.

Alamo, The: no messengers of defeat, 149;

Travis hemmed in, 177;

battle of, 179.

"Alamo baby": 180.

Alarcon: 328.

Alaska: 387.

Alexander, Colonel: defeats Crockett for Congress, 165.

Allegheny mountains: barrier formed by, 48.

America: her debt to her early explorers, 74;

population of, 221;

gets her territory first, 372;

potentially most powerful of all world powers, 375;

utterly changed from original America, 398;

a look into the future, 424-428.

American, The: his birth, 103.

American frontiersmen: dress of, 18.

American Fur Company: first steamboat, 188;

gets posts of Northwest Company, 197;

beginning of, 329.

Appalachians: first trails were waterways, 39.

Archer, of Virginia: 177.

Armijo, Governor: 242.

Armstrong, Lieutenant-Governor: 169.

Asenesipia: 69, 124.

Ashley, General: goes up the Platte, 294;

takes cannon through South Pass, 328;

undertakes exploration of Green River, 336-7.

Astor, John Jacob: 289;

expedition to Astoria, 329-333.

Astoria: 329.

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fé Railroad: 270.

Austin, Stephen A.: 173.

Austin: 177.

Austria-Hungary: emigration to the United States, 409-410.

Ax, The American: description and uses, 7-10.

Bacon, quotation from: 388.

Baird, J. M.: 268.

Baird, McKnight & Chambers: 268-271.

Baker and Company, I. G.: 210.

Balance of trade: 393.

Baltimore: 45, 168.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Co. organized: 349.

Bank examiner: distance traveled by one, 208.

Batts, Thomas: 101.

Beale, Lieutenant: 250.

Bear, black: 163.

Beaver, skin: price of, 190.

Becknell, William: 270-272.

Bee Hunter, The: 176, 181.

Benton, Thomas: 300.

Benton, Fort: 209.

Bering Sea: 387.

Berkeley, Bishop: 38.

Bicknell, William: 270.

Big Men: America rich in, 126-7.

Birch-bark: absence of in Montana, 197.

Birch-bark canoe: description of, 19-24.

Blackfeet, The: 341-2.

Blue Ridge mountains: barrier formed by, 48.

Boarding: cost of in the West, 215.

Boat, The American: description of, 19-24.

Bob, Col. R. E.: foot-note, 164.

Bodley, Thomas: 79.

Bonneville, Captain: 312-315, 329.

Boone, Daniel: 45;

leaves Society of Friends, 77;

moves from Bucks county, 77-8;

brothers-in-law, 79;

marriage, 80;

called Luther of frontiering, 88;

personality, 89-90;

personal description, 91-94;

birth, 94;

second marriage, 95;

with Braddock as a wagoner, 96;

determines to explore Kentucky, 98;

where is his fame as an explorer, 102;

departure from the Yadkin settlement for the West, 103;

left alone in the wilderness, 105;

moves family to Kentucky, 107;

undertakes discovery of surveyors, 107-8;

lays out road from the Holston to the Kentucky, 108;

knowledge of woodcraft, 109;

capture of his daughter by the Indians, 110;

captured by Indians and taken to Detroit, 111;

life saved by Kenton, 114-15;

adventure with two Indians, 115-16;

leaves Kentucky, 116;

granted a commission by Spanish governor of Louisiana, 117;

land taken from him by the government, 117;

date of death, 118;

his late years, 118-19;

his body and that of his wife moved to Kentucky, 120;

compared with Davy Crockett, 145-6.

Boone, Squire: 104;

family moves to Kentucky, 106;

death, 113.

Boonesborough: 42, 99;

founding of, 108;

saved by Boone, 111-112.

Bore, in rifle: 13.

Bowie, James: 177.

Braddock: 96.

Brandywine, battle of: 82.

Brant, Mohawk chief: 48.

Bread riot: 216-218.

Bridger, Fort: 295-6.

Bridger, Jim: 295-6.

Britain, ancient: 36.

Broadwater, Colonel Charles A.: 210.

Bryan, James: 79.

Bryan, Morgan: 79-80.

Bryan, Rebecca: 80, 95.

Bryan, William: 79.

Bryant's Station, fight at: 113.

Buchanan, Mrs. Sally: 56.

Buena Ventura: 243.

Buffaloes: first seen by Boone, 103.

"Bullboats": 197.

Bullitt's Lick: 65.

Burro: price of, 203.

"Caches" of Baird and Chambers: 269.

Cahokia: 45.

Calico: price of, 190.

California: discovery of gold in, 200;

density of population in 1870, 220;

discovery of gold, and its effect on the West, 381-385.

Callison, Susannah: 82.

Calloway family: 110.

Canada: emigration to, and cause, 391;

emigration to the United States 1821-1850, 407;

emigration to, 416-418;

will it be Americanized, 418-422.

Canal, Washington's: 67.

Ca?on of the Colorado: 231, 328.

Canot du Ma?tre: 23.

Canot du Nord: 22, 195, 197.

Caravan trade: its extent, 281;

goods carried, 282;

carried on by Southern-Western men, 282.

Cardenas: 328.

Carolina: 47; rallying ground for adventures, 88.

Carolina, North: its relations with the Washington District, 128;

annexes Watauga, 131;

gives Washington District to the United States, 132;

repeals act of cession of Washington District, 133;

appoints officers for state of Franklin, 137.

Carson, Kit: grandson of Daniel Boone, 120;

birth, 223;

description, 225;

dress and equipment, 227;

greatest of American travelers, 228;

dispute concerning birth place, 228;

boyhood days, 229;

wanderings from 1826 to 1834, 229-238;

first marriage, 239;

hunter for Bent's Fort, 1834-1842, 239-240;

guide for first Frémont expedition, 241;

second marriage, 242;

guide for second Frémont expedition, 242-245;

guide for Frémont a third time, 247-9;

messenger to Washington three times, 249, 250, 251;

appointed lieutenant in the U. S. A., 251;

expedition with eighteen old friends, 254;

sheep drive to California, 255;

Indian agent and counselor, 257;

death, 258.

Carter, John: 128.

Castrillon: Mexican general, 180.

Caucasian population: largest is that of America, 374.

Cavalier: 37, 53, 75.

Census: second of the U. S., 45.

Center of population in 1860: 220.

Central Pacific Railroad: 209.

Chambers, Baird and McKnight: 268-271.

Champlain: 265.

Cherokees: 54; League with Spain, 59.

Cherronesus: 69, 124.

Chicago: a city of transportation, 364.

Chicasas: 140.

China: struggle of the nations for its commerce, 422-424.

Chittenden: 337.

Choctaws: 140.

Chouteau: 266, 338.

Church: first in the West, 126.

Civil government: first written compact of, 130.

Civil War, The: causes and results, 354.

Clark: 71, 287.

Cleveland: founded, 70.

Cleveland, Moses: 70.

Coahuila: 174.

Coal oil: price of, 214.

Coast Indians: 331.

Cocke, General William: 134.

College: first in the West, 126.

Colorado, Grand Ca?on of: 231, 328.

Colter, John: 335.

Commerce, Western: 191.

"Commerce of the Prairies, The": 268.

Commercial West: its beginning, 65-6.

Congress: sells land to Ohio Land Company, 41;

proposes to sell vacant lands, 132;

does not recognize independence of Franklin, 137.

Coureurs du bois: 194.

Coole, William: 103.

Cooley, William: 103.

Cooper, Braxton: 271.

Cooper, Fennimore: 45.

Corn: price of in early days, 189.

Coronado: 339.

Cost of living: greater to-day than in 1899, 392.

Courts: follow swiftly into Kentucky, 112.

Crittenden: orator at Boone's burial in Kentucky, 120.

Creek War: 154.

Crockett, Davy: 145;

compared with Boone, 145-4;

his rapid change after going to Congress, 147;

birth, 149;

leaves home, 151;

works for his freedom, 152;

goes to school, 153;

marriage, 153;

moves toward the West, 153-4;

serves in the Creek War, 154-5;

wife dies and he marries a second time, 156;

elected to the legislature, 157;

moves to the Mississippi, 157;

electioneering stories, 159-163;

skill as a bear hunter, 163-4;

defeated by Alexander for Congress, 165;

elected to Congress, 166;

changes from bear hunter to politician, 166-7;

opposes Jackson, 167;

motto, 167;

makes a trip through the North and East, 168-9;

result of northern trip, 169;

open animosity toward Jackson, 170;

his experience with the political machine, 171-2;

determines to move to Texas, 172;

"autobiography," 175;

route of journey to Texas, 176;

accuses Houston, 178;

death, 180;

alleged diary, 181.

Crockett, John: 150;

opens a tavern, 151.

Crooks: 333.

Cutler, Manasseh: 41.

Cutthroat: sign for, 195.

Danger of a stage trip: 213.

"Dark and Bloody Ground," The: 114.

Davis, Cushman K.: 361.

Day: 333.

Dechard: 13.

Dechert: 13.

De Munn: 266.

Dequelo, The: 179.

Detroit: 111.

Development of the West: influenced by difficult route of entry, 49-50.

"Diamond hitch": 205.

"Diamond R" Transportation Company, The: 210.

Difficulties of Western travel: 212.

Doan, Reverend Samuel: 131.

Dogs: use of in packing, 196.

Donelson, Rachel: 55.

Doylestown, Pennsylvania: 385.

Drake, Joseph: 100.

Dress of American frontiersmen: 18.

"Driving the nail": 16.

Dugout, The: 23.

East, The: occupies Western territory the South opens, 189.

Easterner, The: his idea of the Westerner, 67.

Ely, Warren S.: 76.

Emigration to Canada: cause, 391, 416-418.

Empire, Westward the course of, takes its way: 38.

England: 61, 72;

transfers trading posts to United States, 196;

fears Canada will be Americanized, 418-422;

answer to Russia, 421;

wished division of China, 423.

Europe: must combat the West, 373.

Expansion, geographical: how it proceeds, 46.

Explorations by men of Kentucky and Tennessee: 43-44.

Fannin: 177.

Fare, from Atchison to Helena: 214.

Farms: not wanted West of the Mississippi, 193.

"Father of the Santa Fé trail": 272.

Fergusons, The: 79.

Finley, Alexander: 79.

Finley, Archibald: 79.

Finley, Henry:

79.

Finley, John: 79, 81;

president of Log College, 85;

traded with Indians on Red River, 99;

on the Ohio River, 101;

goes West with Boone, 103.

Finley family, members of: 79.

Fitch, John: 385-6.

Fitzpatrick, noted fur trader:

233.

Flack, Ann (Baxter): 81.

Flack, Benjamin: 82.

Flack, James: 81.

Flack, William: birth, 81;

marriage, 82.

Flack, W. W.: 81.

Flat-boat: its use carried men away from the East, 66.

Flour, price of: 215.

Forbes, John Murray: 368.

Fowler, Jacob: 271.

France: 61, 72;

cedes trading posts to England, 196.

Frankfort, Kentucky: Boone erects palisades near present site of, 108;

Boone buried here, 120.

Frankland: 134.

Franklin, Benjamin: 134.

Franklin, Free State of: beginnings of, 124-5;

legal tender in, 135;

salaries of officers, 136;

clings to standards of North Carolina, 136;

ceases to exist, 138;

looked southward for an alliance, 139.

Free State of Franklin: 124-5.

Freight rates: comparative costs in Europe and America, 390.

Frémont: 224;

first expedition, 241;

second expedition, 242-245;

hunts a more direct trail to California, 247-9;

last expedition, 257-8;

shall he share honors with Carson, 312.

Frémont, Jessie Benton: 251.

French, The: 47-8;

expedition of 1735, 101.

Friends, Society of: 77.

Frontier, Western: question of gradually solves itself, 141-2;

in 1810, 185.

Frontiersman, American: outline of his westward progress, 87.

Fur trade: its home in the West, 194;

end of, 200;

end of the beginning of a new day, foot-note, 238.

"Fur trade, The American": 337.

Fur-traders: find a way to the Rockies, 186;

many in the trans-Missouri before 1840, 339.

Garces, Father: 327.

Gardoquoi: Spanish minister, 139, 140.

Geography, a lost art: 260.

Georgia: few whites there in 1800, 46;

part included in Free State of Franklin, 125;

refuses to interfere in North Carolina-Franklin controversy, 137-8;

sells a portion of its territory, 140.

Germans, The: 76.

Germany: emigration from to the United States, 408;

wished division of China, 423.

Gibson House, Helena: 216.

Gillespie, Lieutenant: 248.

Girty: 113.

Gist, Christopher: 98, 101.

Glenn, Hugh: 271.

Gold: discovery of in California and its effect on the West, 200, 381-383.

Governor of Louisiana: grants Daniel Boone a commission, 117.

Grape vine: use of by Daniel Boone, 106.

Great Britain: arms savages below the Great Lakes, 110;

emigration to the United States, 408.

Great Meadows: 96.

Green River: exploration of by Ashley and Henry, 336.

Greenbacks: value of in the West, 214.

Greene, Jonathan H.: 176.

Gregg, Josiah: 268, 275, 326.

Hall, Fort: 289.

Hall, John: 128.

Hamilton: commandant of Detroit, 111.

"Harrington": 176.

Harris, Ann: 79.

Harris, Hannah: 78.

Harrod, James: 99.

Harrodsburg: 42, 99.

Harvard College: 169.

Hawkins, Joseph: 150.

Helplessness of trapper without a horse: 28.

Henderson, Colonel: 108.

Henry, Fort: 332, 334.

Henry, Major Andrew: builds Fort Henry, 334;

undertakes exploration of Green River, 336.

Hill, James J.: 390.

Holden, Joseph: 103.

Horse, The American: aid r=endered Western explorer, 25-31.

Horse stealing: a serious crime, 28.

Houston, Sam: 174, 177.

Howard, John: 101.

Howe, Henry: 352.

Huger, Isaac: 140.

Hunt: 333.

Hunt, Wilson Price: 294.

Hunter, John D.: 340.

Hunter, Mary: 78.

Hynds, Alexander: 130.

Illinois Central Railroad: 369-371.

Illinois, Governor of: 189.

Immigration: caused by Civil War, 356;

its effect on the West, 357;

an argument against unrestricted immigration, 401-412;

restriction contemplated by Great Britain, 404;

statistics for, 407-411.

Independence: starting point of Santa Fé trail, 276.

Indians: could not occupy trans-Alleghany ground, 49.

Individual, The: losing his grip in America to-day, 399.

Industrial revolution of the West: 355.

Ingles, Mary Draper: 99.

Inman: 270.

Iroquois, The: trafficked with the English, 43;

allied with New York, 47.

Irrigation of the West: 413-416.

Italy: emigration to the United States, 409, 410.

Jackson, General Andrew: 55;

serves in Creek War, 154;

opposed by Crockett, 167;

denounced by Crockett, 170;

favors annexation of Texas, 178;

opposed by Crockett because of veto for Maysville road, 183.

Jamison, Robert: 79.

Jefferson, Thomas: 68, 300.

Jews, Russian: 405.

Johnston, General Albert Sidney: 298.

Johnson, Sir William: Indian agent, 48;

foot-note, 83.

Jonesboro, meeting at: 133;

courts held at by Franklin, 137.

Joy, James F.: 367.

Kaskaskia: 45; visited by General Lafayette, 189.

Kearney, General: 249.

Keel-boat, The: 185.

Kenton, Simon: 114.

Kentucky: fights for a highway over the Appalachians, 41;

occupied by dangerous Indian tribes, 43;

outpost of civilization, 50;

saved to the Union, 58;

pioneers of, 80;

by whom settled, 88;

explored by Salling and Walker, 98;

recapitulation of explorations, 100-101;

separated from Virginia and set up as a state, 116;

pays debt to Daniel Boone and his wife, 120;

part included in Free State of Franklin, 125.

Kentucky settlements: 58.

Kephart, Horace: 44.

Kin Cade: 230.

Kincaid: 229.

Kootenai trail, The: 341.

Labor unions: 399.

Lafayette, General: 189.

Lafitte: 173.

Lajeunesse Basil: 241, 248.

La Lande: 263.

Langford, N. P.: 134, 140, 210.

Laramie, Fort: 295.

Law: position of the West in regard to, 127-128.

"Leatherstocking Tales": 45.

Lederer, John: 101.

Lee, Captain U. S. A.: 236.

Lee's army: 215.

Lewis, Meriwether: 76.

Lewis and Clark: 71, 287.

Linseed oil: price of in Montana, 214.

Liza, Manuel: 335.

Log College: 85.

Long, Major: report of his Platte expedition, 193;

seeks the Red River, 287.

"Long Hunters": 100.

Louis the Grand Monarch: 194.

Louisiana: settled after Canada, 46;

evils likely to arise from its incorporation into the Union, 63;

dispute with Spain over Sabine as boundary of, 173.

Louisiana Purchase: 60-61;

significance of, 61.

Luther, Martin: 88.

McBride, James: 100.

McComb, H. S.: 371.

McCullough, John: 101.

McGary fight: 113.

McKee: 113.

Mackenzie: 333.

Mackinaw boats: 198.

McKnight, John: 271.

McKnight, Robert: 230.

McKnight, Baird and Chambers: 268-271.

McLaughlin, Doctor: 324.

McLellan: 333.

Malgres: 266.

Mallet brothers, The: 263.

Man, The West-bound American: 51.

Mansco, Kasper: 99.

Mansker, Kasper: 99.

Maritime supremacy: struggle for, with Great Britain, 424.

Markets of the world: a struggle for to-day, 388.

Martin, Governor of North Carolina: 136-137.

Martin Academy: 132.

Maryland Canal: 348.

Massachusetts: part played in the development of the West, 347.

"Mayflower," The: 42.

Maxwell: establishes ranch with Carson, 253.

Maysville road: bill for, 183.

Merriwether: 267.

Metropotamia: 69.

Mexican capital: in western trade, 274.

Michigan, Lake: 188.

Militia, The Pennsylvania: 96.

Mills: improvement of rifle by, 13.

Minneapolis: emigration offices in, 418.

Mississippi: few whites there in 1800, 46.

"Mississippi Territory": 70.

Mississippi River: why explored from the North, 46;

control of secured, 60;

little understood by statesmen a hundred years ago, 61;

as a boundary of civilization, 68;

a boundary of states in "Ordinance of Northwest," 68;

descended by John McCullough, 101;

first explorers, 73.

Missouri: becomes outpost of civilization, 50;

first steamboat on, 188.

Missouri Fur Company: 197.

Monay, James: 103.

Montana, routes to: 211.

"Montana Post": 210.

Mooney, James: 103.

Morgan, Colonel George: foot-note, 82-83.

Morgan, J. Pierpont: 369.

Mormons, The: 296.

Morrison, William: merchant of Kaskaskia, 282, 335.

Morton, Paul: 388.

Mother of the West: 40.

Moultrie, Alexander: 140.

Murphy wagons: 211.

Murray, John Dormer: 78.

Napoleon Bonaparte: 61, 212.

Nashville, Tennessee: settlement, 54-57;

in touch with the Ohio River, 58.

National road: 64, 183.

Neeley, Alexander: 104.

Neshaminy Church: 85.

New England: not the mother of the West, 39;

realization of the West, 40;

character of population compared to that of western Pennsylvania, 44;

explanation of her part in discovery of the West, 44;

chances in favor of it in western movement, 49;

gives a cordial reception to Crockett, 169.

Newfoundland: emigration to the United States, 407.

New Madrid earthquakes: 157.

New Orleans: easy to reach from Kentucky, 58;

visited by John McCullough, 101;

the steamer, 187.

"New Purchase": 156.

Newspaper: first in the West, 126.

New York, parent of the West: 40;

her policy toward the Indians, 47;

spared by Six Nations, 47;

influence with Indians due to Sir William Johnson, 48;

gains lands from the Iroquois, 48;

chances in favor of it in westward movement, 49.

Nicollet: 265.

North, The: occupies Western territory;

the South opens, 189.

North Carolina: men from, built Harrodsburg and Boonesborough, 42.

Northern Pacific Railway, The: 365.

Northwest, The: its rapid settlement to-day, 299.

Northwest Company: extends posts along our Northern border, 196;

rival of Hudson Bay Company, 329.

Northwestern Company, The: 333.

Northwest Territory, The: 124.

Norway: emigration to the United States, 408.

Occupation of the West: a study of transportation, 36.

Ohio: receives first population from New England, 70.

"Ohio Land Company": 41.

Ohio River: known in early days, 38;

center of population on, 220.

Ojibways: 22.

"Old Betsy": 168.

"Ordinance of the Northwest": 68.

Oregon: density of population in 1870, 220;

should extend to Alaska, 289-290.

Oregon trail: greatest of all American roads, 262;

early need for, 289;

early makers, 291;

its beginning, 293;

early adventurers along, 294;

a second stage begins, 297;

first agricultural invasion along, 298;

distance and direction, 305-310.

"Oregon Trail," Parkman's: 303.

Osborn, William Henry: 368-372.

Oxen: used as pack animals, 206.

Pacific: first man to reach it by land trail, 318.

Pacific Fur Company: 197.

Pacific railway: delayed by the Civil War, 354.

Pack horse: 202.

Packing, flexibility of charges for: 204.

Paine, Justice of Wisconsin: 377.

Panniers:

30.

Parkman, Francis: 275, 300-304.

Pastimes of frontiersmen: 16.

Pathfinder, The Great: 224.

Pawnees, The: wear Spanish medals, 338.

Pax Jacksonii: 178.

Pelesipia: 69, 124.

Penn, William: 76.

Pennsylvania: starting point of the westward movement, 13;

chances against it in westward movement, 49;

first trail from, 73;

migrations from in last half of eighteenth century, 77.

Peters, Doctor: 228.

Petition of Robertson and Sevier's men: 59.

Phenicia: 36.

Philadelphia: 76, 168.

Phillibert: 266-7.

Physical strength: its importance in the West, 192.

Piano taken to a mining camp: 204.

Pike, Lieutenant Zebulon: marches to the Colorado, 71;

theory of straight lines, 262;

seeks headwaters of Red River, 264;

opposed by the Spaniards, 266;

selects route of Santa Fé trail, 270;

mistakes Rio Grande for Red River, 287;

journeys of, 337-339.

Pioneers of Kentucky: 80.

Pirate, The: 176, 181.

Plains, Indians: 340.

Platt River: ancient road of the Indians, 293.

Poland: emigration to the United States, 410.

Polk, Colonel: 159.

Population: center of in 1860, 220;

of America, 221.

Post, The: 215-216.

Potatoes: price of in San Juan mining camp in 1875, 203;

in Montana, 215;

in Chicago in 1902, 393.

Powell, Major: 336.

Prices: high in the Rockies, 203;

in Virginia City, Montana, 214-216.

Princeton: 85, 131.

"Proceedings of Sundry Citizens of Baltimore": 349.

Prosperity: a false condition of to-day, 395-401.

Protestant, The: 53.

Purcell, James: 263.

Puritans: 42-3.

Putnam, Rufus: 41.

Quakers: 53; stem of pioneer stock, 76;

find homes west of the Alleghanies, 77.

Quicksilver: hard to pack in the mountains, 205.

Railroads: wooden-railed road from Chicago to Galena, 346;

idea of Philip Evans Thomas, 348-9;

routes suggested to the Pacific, 351-2;

prophecy of what a road to the Pacific would do, 353;

to the Pacific delayed by Civil War, 354;

part played by them in the development of the West, 362-367;

changes wrought by them, 385;

their growth in America, 386;

formerly owned largely outside the U. S., 389;

an overgrowth to-day, 391;

will settle future of the West, 420.

Ramsey: 134.

Receipt-book of William Flack: 81.

Red River carts: 345.

Reed: 333.

"Remember the Alamo": 182.

Rifle, The American: description, 11-18.

Rio Grande: 173.

Robertson: rebellion of his men against Washington, 59;

formulates first written compact of civil government, 130.

Robertson, Charles: 128.

Robertson, James: 53-4.

Rocky Mountain Fur Company: 197.

Roosevelt, Mr.: of New York, 187.

Roundhead: 37.

Routes suggested to the Pacific: 351-2.

Routes to Montana: 211.

Rush: 177.

Russia: emigration to the U. S., 410;

England's answer to, 421.

Sabine River: 173.

St. Clair: defeat of, 114.

St. Louis: became great by reason of her situation, 51;

depot for fur trade, 70;

a city of location, 364.

St. Paul: emigration offices in, 418.

St. Vrain, Colonel: 257.

Salem Presbyterian Church: 131.

Salling, John Peter: 98-9, 101.

Salt: its importance in early days, 100.

San Antonio: Texans at, 175;

Crockett inside the gates of, 177.

San Francisco: 256.

San Jacinto: 182.

Santa Anna: marches on San Antonio, 174;

his peons march toward the Alamo, 179.

Santa Fé railway: 279-280.

"Santa Fé Trail, Old": 270.

Santa Fé trail: not a transcontinental trail, 262;

extent of, 276;

distances and directions of, 276-280;

a fate finger pointing to Mexico, 285.

"Saw Buck," The: 30.

School-building: first one in Tennessee, 131.

Scotch-Irish: stem of pioneer stock, 76.

Scott, General: 114.

Secession: position of the West in regard to, in early days, 123-4.

Settlement: advanced toward the Mississippi in the shape of a wedge, 45.

Sevier, John: rebellion of his men against Washington, 59;

honored by Tennessee, 125;

friend of Washington, 128;

a member of the North Carolina legislature, 128-9;

formulates first written compact of civil government, 130;

part taken in annexation of Watauga to North Carolina, 131;

presides at Jonesboro meeting, 133;

elected governor, 134;

arrested on charge of treason, 138;

elected to Congress, 138.

Sevier and Robertson: riflemen of, 58.

"Shakes," The: 157.

Shawnee Indians capture Daniel Boone: 111.

Shelby, Captain Evan: 128.

Shenandoah-Kentucky stock: 73.

Shiells, Dr. Hugh: 79.

Shiells, Kitty: 79.

Sierra Nevada mountains: 243-4.

Sioux Indians, The: 195.

Six Nations: 47.

Skaggs, Henry: 101.

Smet, Father de: 297.

Smith, Henry: 174.

Smith, James: 101.

Smith, Jedediah: meets his fate on Sante Fé trail, 273;

goes to the Pacific by land trail, 318-327.

Snipes, Major William: 140.

"Snuffing the candle": 16.

Socialism: captains of industry likely to cause the spread of, 398.

"Society of Friends": records of, 77.

South, The: mother of the West, 40;

opens Western territory, 189;

is to-day American, 356;

little understood, 366.

"South Seas, The": 129.

Southern Pacific Railway, The: 365.

Southern riflemen: their skill, 14.

Spain: league with the Cherokees, 59;

claims portion of Georgia, 140;

claims Sabine as a boundary, 173.

Spaniards: result of letting their horses struggle over the plain, 27;

interfere with Jedediah Smith, 321.

Spencer, Judge: 138.

Stage lines: 207.

Stage trip: description of, 213.

Star of empire: 38.

Steam, era of: causes great change in America, 362.

Steamboat: first one built on the Ohio River, 187;

run regularly on western rivers, 201.

Steiner, Michael: 99, 108.

Stewart, John: 103;

killed by Indians, 104.

Stewart, William: 78.

Stone, Uriah: 101.

Stoner, Michael: 99, 108.

Streams: their appeal to explorers, 292.

Strode, Martha: 80.

Stuart, John: 103.

Stuart, Robert: 294.

Sturges, Jonathan: 369, 370.

Sublette, William: 295.

Sugar: price of in running camps, 203.

Sumpter mule: 202.

Supplies: how received by outlying posts, 198;

taken to Montana mining camps, 211.

Sweden: emigration to the United States, 408.

Sylvania: 69.

Taylor, Colonel: foot-note, 83.

Tennessee: saved to the Union, 58;

by whom peopled, 88;

part included in Free State of Franklin, 125;

honors John Sevier, 125;

early form of government, 130;

first literary institution in, 131.

Tennent: 85.

Texans: harass western commerce, 273.

Texas: size, 172;

population, 174;

declared independent, 174;

situation in after declaration of independence, 177.

Thermopyl?: 149.

Thimblerig: 176, 181.

Thomas, Philip Evans: 347-349.

Thorne, captain of the Tonquin: 330-331.

Timber lands: being abandoned, 375.

Tonquin: ship of Astor, 330-331.

Trade, caravan: its extent, 281;

goods carried, 282;

carried on by southern-western men, 282.

Trail: the Iroquois, 47;

the Santa Fé, 260;

the Oregon, 287.

Tramell, Colonel: 230.

Transportation: in its infancy, 64;

difficulty of, leads to attempts of secession, 124;

its importance in early days, 191;

means employed in early times, 328.

Transylvania University: 79.

Travel: difficulties of in the West, 212.

Travis: 177.

Travois, The: 196.

Tucker, Benjamin: 41.

Two Medicine: The valley of, 341.

Ulster, Ireland: 84.

Ulster Scots: 83-86.

Union Pacific Railroad: 209, 365.

Van Buren: 183.

Verendrye, Sieur de la: explores the West in 1742, 265;

one of the first to tread the Oregon trail, 294.

Victoria Cross: 115.

Villard, Henry: 368.

Virginia City, Montana: market reports, 214.

Virginia: noted as a breeding ground for horses, 26;

men from built Harrodsburg and Boonesborough, 42;

part included in Free State of Franklin, 125.

Virginia, West: part included in Free State of Franklin, 125.

Von Humboldt, Baron: 287.

Wagon train: description of, 209.

Walker, J. R.: goes to the Pacific, 315-318.

Walker, Doctor Thomas: 98, 101.

Wallace, John: 80.

Wallace, Rev. J. W.: 80.

Washington, George: canal, 67;

birth, 94;

defeated at Great Meadows, 96;

on the Ohio River, 101;

friend of Sevier, 128, 140.

Washington: authorities at, unable to be firm with France, Spain

and England, 59.

Washington College: 132.

Washington District: men of offer their services in the Revolution, 128;

becomes part of North Carolina, 131;

given to the United States, 132;

takes steps to establish a government, 133.

Washington, government at: Wilkinson stirs up dissatisfaction against, 141.

Watauga: 130;

annexed to North Carolina, 131.

Watauga Articles of Association: 130.

Water trail: from Green Bay to the Mississippi, 70.

"Wautap": 20.

Webster, Daniel: 64, 300.

Welsh: 76.

West, The: indebted to southern states for its inhabitants, 184;

either old or new, 302;

a prediction of its development, 375-377;

little difference between it and the East, 379.

West-bound man: The American, 51.

Western man, The: his reliance and development, 67.

Westward movement: starting point, 13;

compared to flock of wild pigeons, 143;

one of angles, 144.

Wharton, Samuel: foot-note, 83.

Whartons, The: 177.

Wheat: cost of moving a ton in 1800, 389.

White, James: opinion on future of Louisiana after its purchase, 62.

White people: portion of country inhabited by them in 1800, 45.

"Whoa-haw": 299.

"Widow and orphan makers": rifle so called, 14.

Wilkinson, General James: plans to hand over the West to Spain, 59-60, 124;

continues his intrigues, 139.

Williams, Bill: guide for Frémont, 258.

Williams, Ezekiel, 294.

Wills of Bucks countians: 80.

Women: two go West along Oregon trail, 297.

Wyeth, Nathaniel J.: 289.

Yazoo: 140.

Yellowstone National Park: 335.

Young, Ewing: 230.

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LOOKOUT MAN, THE

LURE OF THE DIM TRAILS, THE

PHANTOM HERD, THE

QUIRT, THE

RANGE DWELLERS, THE

RIM O' THE WORLD

SKYRIDER

STARR OF THE DESERT

THUNDER BIRD, THE

TRAIL OF THE WHITE MULE, THE

UPHILL CLIMB, THE

Grosset & Dunlap, Publishers, New York

RUBY M. AYRE'S NOVELS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset & Dunlap's list.

RICHARD CHATTERTON

A fascinating story in which love and jealousy play strange tricks with women's souls.

A BACHELOR HUSBAND

Can a woman love two men at the same time?

In its solving of this particular variety of triangle "A Bachelor Husband" will particularly interest, and strangely enough, without one shock to the most conventional minded.

THE SCAR

With fine comprehension and insight the author shows a terrific contrast between the woman whose love was of the flesh and one whose love was of the spirit.

THE MARRIAGE OF BARRY WICKLOW

Here is a man and woman who, marrying for love, yet try to build their wedded life upon a gospel of hate for each other and yet win back to a greater love for each other in the end.

THE UPHILL ROAD

The heroine of this story was a consort of thieves. The man was fine, clean, fresh from the West. It is a story of strength and passion.

WINDS OF THE WORLD

Jill, a poor little typist, marries the great Henry Sturgess and inherits millions, but not happiness. Then at last-but we must leave that to Ruby M. Ayres to tell you as only she can.

THE SECOND HONEYMOON

In this story the author has produced a book which no one who has loved or hopes to love can afford to miss. The story fairly leaps from climax to climax.

THE PHANTOM LOVER

Have you not often heard of someone being in love with love rather than the person they believed the object of their affections? That was Esther! But she passes through the crisis into a deep and profound love.

Grosset & Dunlap, Publishers, New York

ELEANOR H. PORTER'S NOVELS

May be had wherever books are sold. Ask for Grosset & Dunlap's list.

JUST DAVID

The tale of a loveable boy and the place he comes to fill in the hearts of the gruff farmer folk to whose care he is left.

THE ROAD TO UNDERSTANDING

A compelling romance of love and marriage.

OH, MONEY! MONEY!

Stanley Fulton, a wealthy bachelor, to test the dispositions of his relatives, sends them each a check for $100,000, and then as plain John Smith comes among them to watch the result of his experiment.

SIX STAR RANCH

A wholesome story of a club of six girls and their summer on Six Star Ranch.

DAWN

The story of a blind boy whose courage leads him through the gulf of despair into a final victory gained by dedicating his life to the service of blind soldiers.

ACROSS THE YEARS

Short stories of our own kind and of our own people. Contains some of the best writing Mrs. Porter has done.

THE TANGLED THREADS

In these stories we find the concentrated charm and tenderness of all her other books.

THE TIE THAT BINDS

Intensely human stories told with Mrs. Porter's wonderful talent for warm and vivid character drawing.

Grosset & Dunlap, Publishers, New York

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