MoboReader > Literature > The Romance of Words (4th ed.)

   Chapter 13 ETYMOLOGICAL FACT AND FICTION

The Romance of Words (4th ed.) By Ernest Weekley Characters: 72288

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:03


Romance and Germanic etymology dates from the middle of the 19th century, and is associated especially with the names of two great Germans, Friedrich Diez, who published his W?rterbuch der romanischen Sprachen in 1853, and Jakob Grimm, whose Deutsches W?rterbuch dates from 1852. These two men applied in their respective fields of investigation the principles of comparative philology, and reduced to a science what had previously been an amusement for the learned or the ignorant.

EARLY ETYMOLOGISTS

Men have always been fascinated by word-lore. The Greeks and Romans played with etymology in a somewhat metaphysical fashion, a famous example of which is the derivation of lucus a non lucendo. Medieval writers delight in giving amazing information as to the origin of the words they use. Their method, which may be called learned folk-etymology, consists in attempting to resolve an unfamiliar word into elements which give a possible interpretation of its meaning. Thus Philippe de Thaün, who wrote a kind of verse encyclopedia at the beginning of the 12th century, derives the French names of the days of the week as follows: lundi, day of light (lumière), mardi, day of toil or martyrdom (martyre), mercredi, day of market (marché), jeudi, day of joy (joie), vendredi, day of truth (vérité), samedi, day of sowing (semence). Here we perhaps have, not so much complete ignorance, as the desire to be edifying, which is characteristic of the medieval etymologists.

Playful or punning etymology also appears very early. Wace, whose Roman de Rou dates from about the middle of the 12th century, gives the correct origin of the word Norman-

"Justez (put) ensemble north et man

Et ensemble dites northman."

But he also records the libellous theory that Normendie comes from north mendie (begs). We cannot always say whether an early etymology is serious or not, but many theories which were undoubtedly meant for jokes have been quite innocently accepted by comparatively modern writers.[142]

The philologists of the Renaissance period were often very learned men, but they had no knowledge of the phonetic laws by which sound change is governed. Nor were they aware of the existence of Vulgar Latin, which is, to a much greater extent than classical Latin, the parent of the Romance languages. Sometimes a philologist had a pet theory which the facts were made to fit. Hellenists like Henri Estienne believed in the Greek origin of the French language, and Périon even derived maison from the Gk. ο?κον (ο?κο?, a house) by the simple method of prefixing an m. At other periods there have been Celtomaniacs, i.e., scholars who insisted on the Celtic origin of French.

The first English etymological dictionary which aims at something like completeness is the Guide into the Tongues of John Minsheu, published in 1617. This attempts to deal not only with English, but with ten other languages. It contains a great deal of learning, much valuable information for the student of Tudor literature, and some amazing etymologies. "To purloine,[143] or get privily away," is, says Minsheu, "a metaphor from those that picke the fat of the loines." Parmaceti, a corruption of spermaceti-

"And telling me, the sovereign'st thing on earth

Was parmaceti for an inward bruise."

(1 Henry IV., i. 3.)

he derives from Parma, which has given its name to parmesan cheese. On the word cockney[144] he waxes anecdotic, always a fatal thing in an etymologist-

"Cockney, or cockny, applied only to one borne within the sound of Bow-bell, that is, within the City of London, which tearme came first out of this tale: That a cittizens sonne riding with his father out of London into the country, and being a novice and meerely ignorant how corne or cattell increased, asked, when he heard a horse neigh, what the horse did; his father answered, the horse doth neigh; riding farther he heard a cocke crow, and said, doth the cocke neigh too?"

EARLY ETYMOLOGISTS

Molière often makes fun of the etymologists of his time and has rather unfairly caricatured, as Vadius in Les Femmes savantes, the great scholar Gilles Ménage, whose Dictionnaire étymologique, published in 1650, was long a standard work. Molière's mockery and the fantastic nature of some of Ménage's etymologies have combined to make him a butt for the ignorant, but it may be doubted whether any modern scholar, using the same implements, could have done better work. For Ménage the one source of the Romance languages was classical Latin, and every word had to be traced to a Latin word of suitable form or sense. Thus Fr. haricot[145] is connected by him with Lat. faba, a bean, via the conjectural "forms" *fabarius, *fabaricus, *fabaricotus, *faricotus, *haricotus, a method to which no problem is insoluble.[146] He suggests that Fr. geindre, or gindre,[147] baker's man, comes from Lat. gener, son-in-law, because the baker's man always marries the baker's daughter; but this practice, common though it may be, is not of sufficiently unfailing regularity to constitute a philological law. Perhaps his greatest achievement was the derivation of Span. alfana,[148] a mare, from Lat. equus, a horse, which inspired a well-known epigram-

"Alfana vient d'equus, sans doute,

Mais il faut avouer aussi

Qu'en venant de là jusqu'ici

Il a bien changé sur la route."

These examples show that respect for Ménage need not prevent his work from being a source of innocent merriment. But the above epigram loses some of its point for modern philologists, to whom equations that look equally fantastic, e.g. Eng. wheel and Gk. κ?κλο?,[149] are matters of elementary knowledge. On the other hand, a close resemblance between words of languages that are not nearly related is proof presumptive, and almost positive, that the words are quite unconnected. The resemblance between Eng. nut and Ger. Nuss is the resemblance of first cousins, but the resemblance of both to Lat. nux is accidental. Even in the case of languages that are near akin, it is not safe to jump to conclusions. The Greek cousin of Lat. deus is not θε??, God, but Ζε??, Jupiter.

ANECDOTIC ETYMOLOGY

An etymology that has anything to do with a person or an anecdote is to be regarded with suspicion. For both we want contemporary evidence, and, in the case of an anecdote, we never, to the best of my knowledge, get it. In Chapter III. are a number of instances of words formed according to authentic evidence from names of persons. But the old-fashioned etymologist will not be denied his little story. Thus, in explanation of spencer (p. 40), I find in a manual of popular information of the last century,[150] that-

"His Lordship, when Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, being out a-hunting, had, in the act of leaping a fence, the misfortune to have one of the skirts of his coat torn off; upon which his lordship tore off the other, observing, that to have but one left was like a pig with one ear! Some inventive genius took the hint, and having made some of these half-coats, out of compliment to his lordship, gave them the significant cognomen of Spencer!"

This is what Pooh-Bah calls "corroborative detail intended to give artistic verisimilitude to a bald and unconvincing narrative." From the same authority we learn that-

"Hurly-burly[151] is said to owe its origin to Hurleigh and Burleigh, two neighbouring families, that filled the country around them with contest and violence."

and that-

"The word boh! used to frighten children, was the name of Boh, a great general, the son of Odin, whose very appellation struck immediate panic in his enemies."[152]

The history of chouse exemplifies the same tendency. There is no doubt that it comes from a Turkish word meaning interpreter, spelt chaus in Hakluyt and chiaus by Ben Jonson. The borrowing is parallel to that of cozen (p. 110), interpreters having a reputation little superior to that of horse-dealers. But a century and a half after the introduction of the word we come across a circumstantial story of a Turkish chiaus who swindled some London merchants of a large sum in 1609, the year before Jonson used the word in the Alchemist. "Corroborative detail" again. The story may be true, but there is not an atom of evidence for it, and Skinner, who suggests the correct derivation in his Etymologicon (1671), does not mention it. Until contemporary evidence is adduced, the story must be regarded as one of those fables which have been invented in dozens by early etymologists, and which are perpetuated in popular works of reference. It is an article of faith in Yorkshire that the coarse material called mungo owes its name to the inventor of the machine used in its fabrication, who, when it stuck at a first trial, exclaimed with resolution, "It mun go."

Many stories have been composed après coup to explain the American hoodlum and the Australian larrikin, which are both older than our hooligan (see p. 12). The origin of hoodlum is quite obscure. The story believed in Australia with regard to larrikin is that an Irish policeman, giving evidence of the arrest of a rough, explained that the accused was a-larrikin' (larking) in the street, and this was misunderstood by a reporter. But there appears to be not the slightest foundation for this story. The word is perhaps a diminutive of the common Irish name Larry, also immortalised in the stirring ballad-

"The night before Larry was stretched."

As I write, there is a correspondence going on in the Nottingham papers as to the origin of the nickname Bendigo, borne by a local bruiser and evangelist. According to one account, he was one of triplets, whom a jocular friend of the family nicknamed Shadrach, Meschach, and Abed-Nego, the last of which was the future celebrity. It is at any rate certain that his first challenge (Bell's Life, 1835) was signed "Abed-Nego of Nottingham." The rival theory is that, when he was playing in the streets and his father appeared in the offing, his companions used to warn him by crying "Bendy go!" This theory disregards the assertion of the "oldest inhabitant" that the great man was never called Bendy, and the fact, familiar to any observer of the local dialect, that, even if he had been so called, the form of warning would have been, "Look aht, Bendy, yer daddy's a-coomen."

In the Supplement to Littré there is an article on domino, in which he points out that investigation must start from the phrase faire domino (see p. 102). He also quotes an absurd anecdote from a local magazine, which professes to come from a "vieille chronique." Littré naturally wants to know what chronicle. In Scheler's Dictionnaire étymologique (Brussels, 1888), it is "proved," by means of the same story elaborated, "que c'est là la véritable origine du mot dont nous parlons."

ANECDOTIC ETYMOLOGY

In Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, s.v. sirloin, we read that "it is generally said that James I. or Charles II. knighted the loin of beef, but Henry VIII. had done so already." This sounds like a determination to get at the root of things, but does not go far enough. The word is found in the 15th century, and Fr. surlonge, from which it comes, in the 14th. It is compounded of sur, over, and longe, a derivative of Lat. lumbus, loin. The belief in the knightly origin of the sirloin was so strong that we find it playfully called the baronet (Tom Jones, iv. 10). Hence, no doubt, the name baron of beef for the double sirloin. Tram is persistently connected with a Mr Outram, who flourished about 1800. This is another case of intelligent anticipation, for the word is found in 1555. It means log or beam, and was probably first applied to a log-road laid across bad ground, what is called in America a "corduroy" road. On the other hand, the obvious and simple derivation of beef-eater, i.e. a man who is in the enviable position of being sure of his daily allowance,[153] has been obscured by the invention of an imaginary Fr. *beaufetier, waiter at the side-board. Professor Skeat attributes the success of this myth to its inclusion in Mrs Markham's History of England. But the most indestructible of all these superstitions is connected with the word cabal. It comes from a Hebrew word meaning hidden mystery, and is found in the chief Romance languages. The word is of frequent occurrence in English long before the date of Charles II.'s acrostic ministry,[154] though its modern meaning has naturally been affected by this historic connection.

Even anecdotic etymologies accepted by the most cautious modern authorities do not always inspire complete confidence. Martinet is supposed to come from the name of a well-known French officer who re-organised the French infantry about 1670. But we find it used by Wycherley in 1676, about forty years before Martinet's death. Moreover this application of the name is unknown in French, which has, however, a word martinet meaning a kind of cat-o'-nine-tails. In English martinet means the leech-line of a sail, hence, possibly, rope's end, and Wycherley applies the term to a brutal sea-captain. The most renowned of carriers is probably Hobson, of Cambridge. He was sung by Milton, and bequeathed to the town Hobson's conduit which cleanses the Cambridge gutters. To him is also ascribed the phrase Hobson's choice, from his custom of refusing to let out his horses except in strict rotation. But we find a merchant venturer, living in Japan, using "Hodgson's choice" fourteen years before the carrier left this world and became a legendary figure-

"We are put to Hodgson's choise to take such previlegese as they will geve us, or else goe without."

(Correspondence of Richard Cocks, Oct. 1617.)

BACK-FORMATIONS

The most obvious etymology needs to be proved up to the hilt, and the process is rich in surprises. Cambridge appears to be the bridge over the Cam. But the river's older name, which it preserves above the town, is the Granta, and Bede calls the town itself Grantacester. Camden, in his Britannia (trad. Holland, 1637), notes that the county was called "in the English Saxon" Grentbrigseyre, and comments on the double name of the river. Nor can he "easily beleeve that Grant was turned into Cam; for this might seeme a deflexion some what too hardly streined, wherein all the letters but one are quite swallowed up." Grantabrigge became, by dissimilation (see p. 57), Gantabrigge, Cantabrigge (cf. Cantab), Cantbrigge, and, by assimilation (see p. 56), Cambridge, the river being rechristened from the name of the town.

A beggar is not etymologically one who begs, or a cadger one who cadges. In each case the verb is evolved from the noun. About the year 1200 Lambert le Bègue, the Stammerer, is said to have founded a religious order in Belgium. The monks were called after him in medieval Latin beghardi and the nuns beghin?. The Old Fr. begard passed into Anglo-French with the meaning of mendicant and gave our beggar. From béguine we get biggin, a sort of cap-

"Sleep with it (the crown) now!

Yet not so sound, and half so deeply sweet,

As he, whose brow with homely biggin bound,

Snores out the watch of night."

(2 Henry IV., iv. 4.)

Cadger, or rather its Scottish form cadgear, a pedlar, occurs about one hundred and fifty years earlier than the verb to cadge. We find, noted as foreign words, in 16th-century Dutch, the words cagie, a basket carried on the back, and cagiaerd, one who carries such a basket. These must be of French origin, and come, like the obsolete Eng. cadge,[155] a panier, from cage, for the history of which see p. 109. Cadger is used in Scottish of an itinerant fish merchant with his goods carried in paniers by a pony-

"Or die a cadger pownie's death,

At some dyke-back."

(Burns, Epistle to J. Lapraik.)

Tobacco does not take its name from the island of Tobago, but from the native name of the tube through which the Caribs smoked it.

The traditional derivation of vaunt is from Fr. vanter, and this from a late Lat. vanitare, to talk emptily, used by St Augustine. This looks very simple, but the real history of these words is most complicated. In Mid. English we regularly find avaunt, which comes from Old Fr. avanter, to put forward, from avant, before. This gets mixed up during the Tudor period with another vaunt from Fr. vanter, to extol, the derivation of which can only be settled when its earliest form is ascertained. At present we find venter as early as vanter, and this would represent Lat. venditare (frequentative of vendere, to sell), to push one's goods, "to do anything before men to set forth himselfe and have a prayse; to vaunt; to crake; to brag" (Cooper).

ETYMOLOGICAL TESTS

A sound etymology must fulfil three conditions. It must not violate the recognised laws of sound change. The development of meaning must be clearly traced. This must start from the earliest or fundamental sense of the word. It goes without saying that in modern corruptions we are sometimes faced by cases which it would be difficult to explain phonetically (see p. 136). There are, in fact, besides the general phonetic and semantic laws, a number of obscure and accidental influences at work which are not yet codified. As we have seen (p. 188), complete apparent dissimilarity of sound and sense need not prevent two words from being originally one[156]; but we have to trace them both back until dissimilarity becomes first similarity and then identity.

The word peruse meant originally to wear out, Old Fr. par-user. In the 16th century it means to sort or sift, especially herbs, and hence to scrutinise a document, etc. But between the earliest meaning and that of sifting there is a gap which no ingenuity can bridge, and, until this is done, we are not justified in regarding the modern peruse as identical with the earlier.[157]

The maxim of Jakob Grimm, "von den W?rtern zu den Sachen," is too often neglected. In dealing with the etymology of a word which is the name of an object or of an action, we must first find out exactly what the original object looked like or how the original action was performed. The etymologist must either be an antiquary or must know where to go for sound antiquarian information. I will illustrate this by three words denoting objects used by medieval or Elizabethan fighting men.

A fencing foil is sometimes vaguely referred to the verb foil, to baffle, with which it has no connection. The Fr. feuille, leaf, is also invoked, and compared with Fr. fleuret, a foil, the idea being that the name was given to the "button" at the point. Now the earliest foils and fleurets were not buttoned; first, because they were pointless, and secondly, because the point was not used in early fencing. It was not until gunpowder began to bring about the disuse of heavy armour that anybody ever dreamt of thrusting. The earliest fencing was hacking with sword and buckler, and the early foil was a rough sword-blade quite unlike the implement we now use. Fleuret meant in Old French a sword-blade not yet polished and hilted, and we find it used, as we do Eng. foil, of an apology for a sword carried by a gallant very much down at heel. As late as Cotgrave we find floret, "a foile; a sword with the edge rebated." Therefore foil is the same as Fr. feuille,[158] which in Old French meant sword-blade, and is still used for the blade of a saw; but the name has nothing to do with what did not adorn the tip. It is natural that Fr. feuille should be applied, like Eng. leaf, blade, to anything flat (cf. Ger. Blatt, leaf), and we find in 16th-century Dutch the borrowed word folie, used in the three senses of leaf, metal plate, broadsword, which is conclusive.

PETRONEL

We find frequent allusions in the 16th and 17th centuries to a weapon called a petronel, a flint-lock fire-arm intermediate in size between an arquebus and a pistol. It occurs several times in Scott-

"'Twas then I fired my petronel,

And Mortham, steed and rider, fell."

(Rokeby, i. 19.)

On the strength of a French form, poitrinal, it has been connected with Fr. poitrine, chest, and various explanations are given. The earliest is that of the famous Huguenot surgeon Ambroise Paré, who speaks of the "mousquets poitrinals, que l'on ne couche en joue, à cause de leur calibre gros et court, mais qui se tirent de la poitrine." I cannot help thinking that, if the learned author had attempted this method of discharging an early fire-arm, his anatomical experience, wide as it was, would have been considerably enlarged. Minsheu (1617) describes a petronell as "a horseman's peece first used in the Pyrenean mountaines, which hanged them alwayes at their breast, readie to shoote, as they doe now at the horse's breast." This information is derived from Claude Fauchet, whose interesting Antiquités fran?oises et gauloises was published in 1579. Phillips, in his New World of Words (1678) tells us that this "kind of harquebuse, or horseman's piece, is so called, because it is to aim at a horse's brest, as it were poictronel." When we turn from fiction to fact, we find that the oldest French name was pétrinal, explained by Cotgrave as "a petronell, or horse-man's peece." It was occasionally corrupted, perhaps owing to the way in which the weapon was slung, into poitrinal. This corruption would be facilitated by the 16th-century pronunciation of oi (peitrine). The French word is borrowed either from Ital. petronello, pietronello, "a petronell" (Florio), or from Span. pedre?al, "a petronall, a horse-man's peece, ita dict. quod silice petra incenditur" (Minsheu, Spanish Dictionary, 1623). Thus Minsheu knew the origin of the word, though he had put the fiction in his earlier work. We find other forms in Italian and Spanish, but they all go back to Ital. pietra, petra, or Span. piedra, pedra, stone, flint. The usual Spanish word for flint is pedernal. Our word, as its form shows, came direct from Italian.[159] The new weapon was named from its chief feature; cf. Ger. Flinte, "a light gun, a hand-gun, pop-gun, arquebuss, fire-arm, fusil or fusee"[160] (Ludwig). The substitution of the flint-lock for the old match-lock brought about a re-naming of European fire-arms, and, as this substitution was first effected in the cavalry, petronel acquired the special meaning of horse-pistol. It is curious that, while we find practically all the French and Italian fire-arm names in 17th-century German, a natural result of the Thirty Years' War, petronel does not appear to be recorded. The reason is probably that the Germans had their own name, viz., Schnapphahn, snap-cock, the English form of which, snaphaunce, seems also to have prevailed over petronel. Cotgrave has arquebuse à fusil, "a snaphaunce," and explains fusil as "a fire-steele for a tinder-box." This is medieval Lat. focile, from focus, fire, etc.

HELMETS

The most general name for a helmet up to about 1450 was basnet, or bacinet. This, as its name implies (see p. 156), was a basin-shaped steel cap worn by fighting men of all ranks. The knights and nobles wore it under their great ornamental helms.[161] The basnet itself was perfectly plain. About the end of the 16th century the usual English helmets were the burgonet and morion.[162] These were often very decorative, as may be seen by a visit to any collection of old armour. Spenser speaks of a "guilt engraven morion" (Faerie Queene, vii. 7). Between the basnet and these reigned the salet or salade, on which Jack Cade puns execrably-

"Wherefore, on a brick wall have I climbed into this garden, to see if I can eat grass, or pick a sallet another while, which is not amiss to cool a man's stomach this hot weather. And I think this word sallet was born to do me good, for many a time, but for a sallet, my brain-pan had been cleft with a brown-bill."

(2 Henry VI., iv. 10.)

It comes, through Fr. salade, from Ital. celata, "a scull, a helmet, a morion, a sallat, a headpiece" (Florio). The etymologists of the 17th century, familiar with the appearance of "guilt engraven morions," connected it with Lat. c?lare, to engrave, and this derivation has been repeated ever since without examination. Now in the Tower of London Armoury is a large collection of salets, and these, with the exception of one or two late German specimens from the ornate period, are plain steel caps of the simplest form and design. The salet was, in fact, the basnet slightly modified, worn by the rank and file of 15th-century armies, and probably, like the basnet, worn under the knight's tilting helm. There is no Italian verb celare, to engrave, but there is a very common verb celare, to conceal. A steel cap was also called in Italian secreta, "a thinne steele cap, or close skull, worne under a hat" (Florio), and in Old French segrette, "an yron skull, or cap of fence" (Cotgrave). Both words are confirmed by Duez, who, in his Italian-French Dictionary (1660), has secreta, "une secrette, ou segrette, un morion, une bourguignotte, armure de teste pour les picquiers." Ergo, the salet belongs to Lat. celare, to hide, secrete.

We now caulk a ship by forcing oakum into the seams. Hence the verb to caulk is explained as coming from Mid. Eng. cauken, to tread, Old Fr. cauquer, caucher, Lat. calcare, from calx, heel. This makes the process somewhat acrobatic, although this is not, philologically, a very serious objection. But we caulk the ship or the seams, not the oakum. Primitive caulking consisted in plastering a wicker coracle with clay. The earliest caulker on record is Noah, who pitched[163] his ark within and without with pitch. In the Vulgate (Genesis, vi. 14), the pitch is called bitumen and the verb is linere, "to daub, besmear, etc." Next in chronological order comes the mother of Moses, who "took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch" (Exodus, ii. 3), bitumine ac pice in the Vulgate. Bitumen, or mineral pitch, was regularly applied to this purpose, even by Elizabethan seamen. Failing this, anything sticky and unctuous was used, e.g., clay or lime. Lime now means usually calcium oxide, but its original sense is anything viscous; cf. Ger. Leim, glue, and our bird-lime. The oldest example of the verb to caulk is about 1500. In Mid. English we find to lime used instead, e.g., in reference to the ark-

"Set and limed agen the flood" (c. 1250),

and-

"Lyme it with cleye and pitche within and without." (Caxton, 1483.)

Our caulk is in medieval Latin calcare, and this represents a rare Latin verb calicare, to plaster with lime, from calx, lime. Almost every language which has a nautical vocabulary uses for our caulk a verb related to Fr. calfater. This is of Spanish or Portuguese origin. The Portuguese word is calafetar, from cal, lime, and afeitar, to put in order, trim, etc.

GHOST-WORDS

The readiness of lexicographers to copy from each other sometimes leads to ludicrous results. The origin of the word curmudgeon is quite unknown; but, when Dr Johnson was at work on his dictionary, he received from an unknown correspondent the suggestion that it was a corruption of Fr. c?ur méchant, wicked heart. Accordingly we find in his dictionary, "It is a vitious manner of pronouncing c?ur méchant, Fr. an unknown correspondent." John Ash, LL.D., who published a very complete dictionary in 1775, gives the derivation "from the French c?ur, unknown, and méchant, a correspondent," an achievement which, says Todd, "will always excite both in foreigners and natives a harmless smile!"

It is thus that "ghost-words" come into existence. Every considerable English dictionary, from Spelman's Glossarium (1664) onward, has the entry abacot, "a cap of state, wrought up into the shape of two crowns, worn formerly by English kings." This "word" will no longer appear in dictionaries, the editor of the New English Dictionary having laid this particular ghost.[164] Abacot seems to be a misprint or misunderstanding for a bicocket, a kind of horned head-dress. It corresponds to an Old Fr. bicoquet and Span. bicoquete, cap, the derivation of which is uncertain. Of somewhat later date is brooch, "a painting all in one colour," which likewise occurs in all dictionaries of the 18th and 19th centuries. This is due to Miège (French Dict. 1688) misunderstanding Cotgrave. There is a Fr. cama?eu, a derivative of cameo, which has two meanings, viz., a cameo brooch, and a monochrome painting with a cameo effect. Miège appears to have taken the second meaning to be explanatory of the first, hence his entry-brooch, "camayeu, ouvrage de peinture qui n'est que d'une couleur." In Manwayring's Seaman's Dictionary (1644), the old word carvel, applied to a special build of ship, is misprinted carnell, and this we find persisting, not only in the compilations of such writers as Bailey, Ash, etc., but even in technical dictionaries of the 18th century "by officers who serv'd several years at sea and land." The Anglo-Saxon name for the kestrel (see p. 100) was stangella, stone-yeller (cf. nightingale), which appears later as stonegall and staniel. In the 16th century we find the curious spelling steingall, e.g., Cooper explains tinnunculus as "a kistrel, or a kastrell; a steyngall." In Cotgrave we find it printed fleingall, a form which recurs in several later dictionaries of the 17th century. Hence, somewhere between Cooper and Cotgrave, an ornithologist or lexicographer must have misprinted fleingall for ?teingall by the common mistake of fl for ?t, and the ghost-word persists into the 18th century.

The difficulty of the etymologist's task is exemplified by the complete mystery which often enshrouds a word of comparatively recent appearance. A well-known example is the word Huguenot, for which fifteen different etymologies have been proposed. We first find it used in 1550, and by 1572 the French word-hunter Tabourot, generally known as des Accords, has quite a number of theories on the subject. He is worth quoting in full-

"De nostre temps ce mot de Huguenots, ou Hucnots s'est ainsi intronisé: quelque chose qu'ayent escrit quelques-uns, que ce mot vient Gnosticis h?reticis qui luminibus extinctis sacra faciebant, selon Crinit: ou bien du Roy Hugues Capet, ou de la porte de Hugon à Tours par laquelle ils sortoient pour aller à leur presche. Lors que les pretendus Reformez implorerent l'ayde des voix des Allemans, aussi bien que de leurs armees: les Protestans estans venus parler en leur faveur, devant Monsieur le Chancelier, en grande assemblee, le premier mot que profera celuy qui portoit le propos, fut, Huc nos venimus: Et apres estant pressé d'un reuthme (rhume, cold) il ne peut passer outre; tellement que le second dit le mesme, Huc nos venimus. Et les courtisans presents qui n'entendoient pas telle prolation; car selon la nostre ils prononcent Houc nos venimous, estimerent que ce fussent quelques gens ainsi nommez: et depuis surnommerent ceux de la Religion pretendu? reformee, Hucnos: en apres changeant C en G, Hugnots, et avec le temps on a allongé ce mot, et dit Huguenots. Et voylà la vraye source du mot, s'il n'y en a autre meilleure."[165]

The only serious etymology is Ger. Eidgenoss, oath companion, which agrees pretty well with the earliest recorded Swiss-French form, eiguenot, in Bonivard's Chronique de Genève.

UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

The engineering term culvert first appears about 1800, and there is not the slightest clue to its origin. The victorious march of the ugly word swank has been one of the linguistic phenomena of recent years. There is a dialect word swank, to strut, which may be related to the common Scottish word swankie, a strapping youth-

"I am told, young swankie, that you are roaming the world to seek your fortune."

(Monastery, Ch. 24.)

But, in spite of the many conjectures, plausible or otherwise, which have been made, neither the etymology of swank nor its sudden inroad into the modern language are at present explained. The word ogre, first used by Perrault in his Contes de Fées (1697), has occasioned much grave and learned speculation. Perhaps the philologists of the future may theorise as sapiently as to the origin of jabberwock and bandersnatch.

FOOTNOTES:

[142] The following "etymologies" occur, in the same list with a number which are quite correct, in a 16th-century French author, Tabourot des Accords:-

Bonnet, de bon et net, pource que l'ornement de la teste doit estre tel.

Chapeau, quasi, eschappe eau; aussi anciennement ne le souloit on porter que par les champs en temps de pluye.

Chemise, quasi, sur chair mise.

Velours, quasi, velu ours.

Galant, quasi, gay allant.

Menestrier, quasi, meine estrier des espousées.

Orgueil, quasi, orde gueule.

Noise, vient de nois (noix), qui font noise et bruit portées ensemble.

Parlement, pource qu'on y parle et ment!

[143] Old Fr. pourloignier, to remove; cf. éloigner.

[144] A very difficult word. Before it was applied to a Londoner it meant a milksop. It is thus used by Chaucer. Cooper renders delicias facere, "to play the wanton, to dally, to play the cockney." In this sense it corresponds to Fr. acoquiné, made into a coquin, "made tame, inward, familiar; also, growne as lazy, sloathful, idle, as a beggar" (Cotgrave).

[145] Thought to be a Mexican word.

[146] "Sache que le mot galant homme vient d'élégant; prenant le g et l'a de la dernière syllabe, cela fait ga, et puis prenant l, ajoutant un a et les deux dernières lettres, cela fait galant, et puis ajoutant homme, cela fait galant homme." (Molière, Jalousie du Barbouillé, scène 2.)

[147] Old Fr. joindre, Lat. junior.

[148] Of Arabic origin.

[149] That is, they are both descended from the same Indo-Germanic original. Voltaire was thus, superficially, right when he described etymology as a science in which the vowels do not count at all and the consonants very little.

[150] Pulleyn's Etymological Compendium, 3rd ed., revised and improved by M. A. Thoms (Tegg & Co., 1853).

[151] Cf. Fr. hurluberlu, which occurs in Rabelais, and in Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac.

[152] Tit-Bits, which honoured the Romance of Words with a notice (8th June 1912), approvingly quoted these three "etymologies" as being seriously propounded by the author. This is dramatic justice.

[153] The following explanation, given in Miège's French Dictionary (1688), is perhaps not far wrong: "C'est ainsi qu'on appelle par dérision les Yeomen of the Guard dans la cour d'Angleterre, qui sont des gardes à peu près comme les cent Suisses en France. Et on leur donne ce nom-là, parce qu' à la cour ils ne vivent que de b?uf: par opposition à ces collèges d'Angleterre, où les écoliers ne mangent que du mouton."

[154] An acrostic of this kind would have no point if it resulted in a meaningless word. In the same way the Old Fr. Fauvel, whence our curry favour (see p. 131), has a medieval explanation of the acrostic kind. It is supposed to be formed from the initial letters of the vices Flatterie, Avarice, Vilenie, Variété, Envie, Lacheté.

[155] There is also a word cadge, explained in the glossary to a book on falconry (1615) as a kind of frame on which an itinerant vendor of hawks carried his birds. But it is unrecorded in literature and labours under the suspicion of being a ghost-word. Its first occurrence, outside the dictionaries, is, I believe, in Mr Maurice Hewlett's Song of Renny-"the nominal service of a pair of gerfalcons yearly, in golden hoods, upon a golden cadge" (Ch. 1).

[156] This seems to have been realised by the author of the Etymological Compendium (see p. 188, n. 2), who tells us that the "term swallow is derived from the French hirondelle, signifying indiscriminately voracious, literally a marshy place, that absorbs or swallows what comes within its vortex."

[157] It is much more likely that it originated as a misunderstanding of pervise, to survey, look through, earlier printed peruise. We have a similar misunderstanding in the name Alured, for Alvred, i.e. Alfred. The influence of spelling upon sound is, especially in the case of words whi

ch are more often read than heard, greater than is generally realized. Most English people pronounce a z in names like Dalziel, Mackenzie, Menzies, etc., whereas this z is really a modern printer's substitution for an old symbol which had nearly the sound y (Dalyell, etc.).

[158] And therefore identical with the foil of tinfoil, counterfoil, etc.

[159] It is a diminutive of some word which appears to be unrecorded (cf. Fr. pistolet for the obsolete pistole). Charles Reade, whose arch?ology is very sound, makes Denys of Burgundy say, "Petrone nor harquebuss shall ever put down Sir Arbalest" (Cloister and Hearth, Ch. 24); but I can find no other authority for the word.

[160] Fusee, in this sense, occurs in Robinson Crusoe.

[161] Over the tomb of the Black Prince in Canterbury Cathedral hangs his cumbrous tilting helmet. But the magnificent recumbent bronze effigy below represents him in his fighting kit, basnet on head.

[162] Burgonet, Fr. bourguignotte, is supposed to mean Burgundian helmet. The origin of morion is unknown, but its use by Scott in Ivanhoe-"I have twice or thrice noticed the glance of a morrion from amongst the green leaves." (Ch. 40)-is an anachronism by four centuries. Both words are used vaguely as general names for helmet.

[163] See pay (p. 160). It will be found that all verbs of this nature are formed from the name of the substance applied.

[164] See letter by Dr Murray, afterwards Sir James Murray, in the Athen?um, Feb. 4, 1884.

[165] The Encyclop?dia Britannica does not imitate the wise reticence of Tabourot's saving clause, but pronounces authoritatively for the porte de Hugon fable.

* * *

INDEX

Abacot, 201

abet, 77, n.

abeyance, 108

abominable, 3, n.

abominate, 3

abracadabra, 15, n. 2

accomplice, 128, n.

acquaint, 78

acton, 115

adder, 113

adjutant, 34, 147

admiral, 148

affidavit, 4

ague, 139

aitch-bone, 113

akimbo, 100

Alabaster, 170

alarm, 115

alarum, 115

albert chain, 39

alcade, 115

alderman, 92

Aldridge, 171

Alec, 70

alert, 115

alfana, 187

Alfred David, 125

alguazil, 115

alibi, 4

alley, 69

alligator, 115

Allman, 173

allure, 110

alone, 62

Alured, 195, n. 2

A.M., 4

ampersand, 57

analysis, 6

ananas, 32, n. 1

ancient, 128

andiron, 115

Andrea Ferrara, 50

anecdotage, 132

animal, 4

anlace, 59

Annabel, 58

ansatus, 100

antic, 141

antlers, 99

ant-lion, 32

apache, 12

Apfelsine, 31

appeach, 62

appendicitis, 11

apprentice, 118

apricot, 20

apron, 57, 113

Arabella, 58

arbour, 133

arch, 83

argosy, 50

aringo, 21

Arkwright, 176

arles, 119

armada, 2

armée, 2

Armitage, 5

Armstrong, 180

aroma, 6

arquebus, 127

arrant, 83

arras, 47

array, 95, n.

arrière-ban, 72

artillery, 161, n.

assassin, 22

assegai, 25

asset, 116

* * *

assize, 62

assoil, 10

astonish, 106

astound, 106

Atkin, 171

atlas, 6

atomy, 62

atout, 9

Atterbury, 172

Atwood, 172

auberge, 133, 164

Aubray, 174

Augensprosse, 99

auger, 113

avers, 143

avoirdupois, 143, n. 2

ayah, 26

Bacchus, 170

'baccy, 66

bacinet, 198

bachelor's buttons, 30

backgammon, 158

badaud, 108, n. 1

Bailey, 175

bailler, 108, n. 1

bait, 77, n.

baize, 119

Bakerloo, 66

bald, 38

bald-faced stag, 38

ballad, 152

ballet, 152

baluster, 60

ban, 72

banal, 73

bandore, 149

bandy, 109

banish, 72

Banister, 179

banister, 60

banlieue, 73

banjo, 149

bannal, 73, n.

banns, 72

Barclay, 145

Bardell, 171

Barker, 178

baron, 191

barracking, 13

bartisan, 14

Barton, 172

Bart's, 66

basilisk, 38

basnet, 156, 198

bastinado, 26, n. 2

battant neuf, 107

batter, 154

battledore, 132

Bauer, 160

bay, 108, 119

Bayard, 119

Bayliss, 175

bead, 74

beadroll, 74

beadsman, 74

béante, 108, n. 1

beat the bush, 108

Beaufoy, 170

Beaulieu, 123

beaupré, 128, n.

beaver, 155

bec-jaune, 96

bedlam, 61

Beecham, 169

beef-eater, 191

beejam, 96

beg, 193

begum, 157

belcher, 85

beldam, 85

belette, 91

belfry, 164

Bell, 170

Bella, 70

belladonna, 85

Bellows, 170

Bendigo, 190

benêt, 45

bergamot, 157

bergeronnette, 34

bergomask, 157

Bert, 70

bess, 42

bet, 77, n.

bête à bon Dieu, 35

Betts, 172

betty, 42

bever, 124

beverage, 60

Bewsher, 85, n.

bey, 157

bezant, 49

bible, 86

biggin, 193

bike, 66

* * *

bilbo, 50

billiments, 66

Billingsgate, 48

billy-cock, 40

binnacle, 63

bird-lime, 200

Bishop, 175

biz, 67

black art, 130

blackguard, 84

Blood, 181

Blount, 181

bluff, 94, n.

Blundell, 181

blunderbuss, 127

Blunt, 181

Bob, 172

bobby, 45

bodice, 118

Bodkin, 171

boer, 84, n. 1

bo?te, 127

Boleyn, 173

bombasine, 96

bombast, 96

bona-fide, 4

Bone, 181

bonfire, 151

bonhomme, 80

bonne femme, 80

Bonner, 181

bonus, 4

boojum, 16

book, 86

Booker, 178

boom, 17

Boon, 170, 181

boor, 84

boot and saddle, 129

bordereau, 93

borel, 73

boss, 20

boudoir, 75

boulevard, 121

boussole, 127

boutique, 114

bouvreuil, 33

Bovril, 16

bowdlerise, 41

bower, 160

Bowery, 160, n. 2

bowie, 39

Bowser, 85, n.

Bowyer, 176

boycott, 41

Boyer, 176

Brabazon, 173

brand new, 107

brandy, 68

branks, 8

brasse, 87

Brazil, 51

breeches, 117

breeks, 117

Brett, 173

Brewer, 182

briar, 165

bridal, 121

Bridges, 173

brig, 67

brigantine, 67

brisk, 63, n. 2

Bristow, 173

Britton, 173, n. 2

Brock, 180

Broderer, 178

broker, 150

bronze, 48

brooch, 151, 202

brose, 118

brougham, 39

Bruin, 36

Brunel, 181

buccaneer, 61, n.

Büchse, 127

Buchstabe, 86

buck, 150

Buckhurst Holt, 135

budget, 88

bugle, 69

Bull, 181

Bullen, 173

bulwark, 121

buncombe, 48

bungalow, 94, n.

bunkum, 48

burden, 157

bureau, 73

burgonet, 199

Burgoyne, 173

Burke, 41

Bursche, 94

bus, 69

bushes, 127

butcher, 150

buttery, 165

* * *

buxom, 82

Bythesea, 172

Cab, 66

cabal, 192

cabbage, 153

caboche, 153

cad, 66

caddie, 66

cadge, 193

C?sar, 175

Caffyn, 181

cage, 109

cahier, 146

caitiff, 139

cajole, 109

calculation, 87

calendar, 159

calender, 159

calfater, 201

Caliban, 132

callant, 68

calumet, 24

Calvert, 179

cambric, 47

Cambridge, 193

camomile, 32

canary, 51

cancel, 88

cancer, 35

canif, 55

canker, 35

cannibal, 132

canter, 68

canvass, 72

cape, 26

Capel Court, 152

capestro, 67

capot, 102

captain, 139

captive, 139

carat, 21

Carew, 123

Carfax, 122, n. 2

cargo, 142

cark, 142

carmine, 147

carnell, 202

carol, 152

carousal, 166

carouse, 166

cartridge, 61

case, 157

cash, 157

cashier, 18, 157

cashmere, 47

casket, 140

cass, 157

cast, 157

caste, 26

catch, 143

catchpole, 165

cate, 62

cater, 63

caterpillar, 33

catkin, 33

Catonet, 41

Cator, 62

cattle, 143

caucus, 13

caudle, 7

cauliflower, 153

caulk, 200

causeway, 125

caveat, 4

cavestrolo, 67

cavie, 109

celandine, 30

cercueil, 140

cerf-volant, 38

cervelas, 136

chabouk, 26

chaise, 116, n. 2

Challen, 173

Challis, 173

Chaloner, 177

chamberlain, 90

chambrée, 94

chameleon, 32

Champain, 173

Champneys, 174

chancel, 88

chancellor, 88

chancery, 165

Chaney, 174

Chantecler, 36

chap, 67

chapeau, 26

chapel, 26, 152

chaperon, 27

chaplet, 26

Chapman, 175

chapman, 67

chare, 2

charge, 142

charwoman, 2

* * *

chase, 143, 157

Chater, 143

chaton, 33

chattel, 143

Chaucer, 175

chauvin, 13

chawbuck, 26

Chawner, 177

Chaworth, 173

cheat, 84

check, 87, 120

cheer, 135

chelidonium, 30

chenapan, 55

Chenevix, 174, n. 2

chenille, 33

cheptel, 143

cheque, 89

chequer, 87

chercher, 57

cherry, 116

Chesney, 174

chess, 120

Chesterfield, 40

cheval-de-frise, 47, n. 1

chevalet, 39

chevaucher, 66

chewet, 37

chieftain, 139

chime, 8

Chinee, 116

Chippendale, 40

Chipping, 67, n.

chit, 96

chore, 2

chortle, 16

chou, 153

choucroute, 129

chouse, 189

chuet, 37

chum, 94

churl, 84

cinch, 24

cinematograph, 11

cipher, 147

cit, 66

citizen, 122

Clark, 145

Claude, 45

claymore, 132

Cleaver, 178

clerk, 145

clothes-horse, 39

clove, 91

club, 78

cobalt, 44

Cobbett, 171

cobra, 26

cockney, 186

cocoa, 23

cocoa-nut, 23

coffer, 140

Coffin, 181

coffin, 140

cognovit, 4

colander, 154

Colas, 45

cole, 153

Collet, 170

colon, 6

colonel, 58

Coltman, 177

colza, 153

comadreja, 92

comma, 6

commère, 94

companion, 93, 165

compassion, 2

compère, 94

complex, 4

compound, 157

comptroller, 88

comrade, 94

connect, 105

constable, 89

contr?le, 88

controller, 88

Conyers, 173

coon, 64

cooper, 81, n.

coopering, 67

cordonnier, 128

cordwainer, 128

corne, 117

Corner, 177

Cornwall, 151

Cornwallis, 174

corp, 116

corsair, 22

costermonger, 63, n. 1

couleuvre, 7

counterpane, 137

counterpoint, 137

court-card, 129

Coward, 181

coward, 36

* * *

cowslip, 30

cozen, 110

crack, 67

cracovienne, 50

crane, 38

crane's bill, 29

cratch, 8

cravat, 48

crayfish, 125

credence table, 123

crestfallen, 108

crétin, 45

crew, 64

Cri, 66

crimson, 147

crinoline, 137

Crocker, 178

Croker, 178

crowd, 176

crowfoot, 29

Crowther, 176

crosier, 164

cubit, 87

Cuddy, 36

cuddy, 165

cuirass, 161

Cullen, 173

cullis, 154

culverin, 7, 38

culvert, 203

cummer, 92, 95

curée, 161

curmudgeon, 201

currant, 49

curry, 95

curry favour, 131

curtal axe, 126

Curtis, 181

cushion, 169, n.

cuss, 68

Custance, 171

custodia, 103

cutlass, 60, 126

cutler, 126

cutlet, 126

Dada, 91

dado, 142

daffadowndilly, 71

daffodil, 71

Daft, 183

Dago, 45

dahlia, 31

dainty, 139

dairy, 165

dais, 139

daisy, 29

Dalmain, 174

Dalziel, 195

dam, 120, 142

damask, 47

dame, 142

dame-jeanne, 44

Dampier, 173

damson, 49

Dance, 181

dandelion, 30

dandy, 45

Dangerfield, 175

Danvers, 174

dapper, 80

dapple-gray, 71

darbies, 40

Darblay, 174

Darby, 145

Daubeney, 174

dauphin, 34

Daus, 109

davier, 42

davit, 42

Dawnay, 174

Day, 165

day-woman, 165

dé, 61, 131

dead men's fingers, 30

Debbyhouse, 175, n. 1

debenture, 5

decoy, 109

Dedman, 181

déjeuner, 148

delf, 48

deliberate, 1

delight, 122, n. 1

demijohn, 44

demure, 101

denizen, 122

Dennis, 170

Denry, 70

Depew, 8

dérive, 55

derrick, 40

derring-do, 15

derringer, 39

desk, 139

deuce, 109

Deus, 188

* * *

Devereux, 174

Dexter, 176

dexterity, 3

di, 8

diablotin, 171

diane, 10

diaper, 52

dice, 142

Dick, 172

dickens, 44

dicky bird, 37

die, 142

Dietrich, 42

Digg, 172

digit, 87

dimity, 149

dinde, 52

dindon, 52

d?ner, 148

diocese, 150

dirge, 5

dirk, 20

dirk, 42

Dirne, 82

disaster, 106

disc, 139

dish, 139

dishevelled, 135

disk, 139

dismal, 8

Disney, 174

ditto, 153

ditty, 153

Dob, 172

Dobbin, 91

docket, 93

dodo, 33

dogma, 6

doily, 40

Dolman, 174

doll, 43

dollar, 49

dominie, 5

domino, 102, 191

Dompfaffe, 34

donah, 142

doninha, 92

donkey engine, 38

donna, 142

donnola, 92

do re me fa sol la si, 7

dornick, 47

dote, 80

dotterel, 33

dowlas, 48

Drachen, 38

dragon, 38

dragoon, 38

Drakensberg, 31

dram, 87

drat, 65

draught, 120

drawing-room, 65

drill, 148

drilling, 148

Drinkwater, 180

dropsy, 61

drub, 26, n. 2

Druce, 173

drugget, 52

Dubberley, 174

ducat, 49

duenna, 142

duffel, 48

Duke, 175

dummer Peter, Michel, 45

dunce, 45

Dupuy, 8

Durbeyfield, 175

Durward, 179

duty, 11

Duverney, 174, n.. 1

D.V., 4

dyrk, 42

Eager, 80

earnest, 119

easel, 18, 39

échouer, 97

écouvillon, 43

écrou, 93, n.

écurie, 135

écuyer, 135

effendi, 22

Eisenhut, 29

eke, 114

elbow, 87

ell, 87

Eltern, 92

embarrass, 106

emir, 148

Emmot, 36

employ, 105

endeavour, 11

ensign, 128

epitome, 6

* * *

equerry, 134

'Erb, 70

ermine, 48

errant, 83

Erz-, 83

escabeau, 107

escheat, 84

eschew, 64

esquire, 64, 135

etch, 18, 133

étincelle, 59

ewer, 115

example, 64

exchequer, 87

excise, 134

exeat, 4

exit, 4

expression, 105

eyas, 114

eyre, 83

Faire la noce, 95

Fairfax, 181

fairy, 77, 92

falconet, 38

faldstool, 141

fane, 58

farce, 93

Farrar, 176

farrier, 176

farthingale, 137

Fata Morgana, 77

Faulkner, 176

fauteuil, 141

Fauvel, 131, 192, n.

fay, 77

feckless, 12

fed up, 96

fee, 143

feeble, 58

fellow-feeling, 2

felon, 24

fence, 64

fender, 64

ferret, 33, 149

Ferrier, 176

ferrule, 167

ferule, 167

fetish, 26

feverfew, 30

fiat, 4

filbert, 35

filibuster, 61

fille, 82

fire-new, 107

firkin, 21, n. 2

Fitch, 180

fives, 10

flail, 58

flawn, 136, n.

fleingall, 202

Fletcher, 176

floret, 150

florin, 49

flounce, 60

flour, 144

flower, 144

foil, 196

foist, 107, n.

folio, 6

fond, 80

foot, 86

footpad, 167

force-meat, 93

foreign, 122

forget-me-not, 30

forlorn hope, 18, 129

Forster, 176

Foster, 176

fou, 80

fouet, 129

Frauenzimmer, 94

fragile, 139

frail, 58, 139

freebooter, 61

fret, 133

fretwork, 133

frieze, 47

fritter, 154

Frobisher, 177

froncle, 25

frontispiece, 82, n. 1

frounce, 60

fruiterer, 63

fuchsia, 31

fugleman, 59

Fuller, 178

funkelnagelneu, 107

furlong, 87

furlough, 18

furoncle, 25

fusee, 198

fusil, 198

fustian, 47, 96

fustian-anapes, 46

fusty, 107

* * *

Galvanism, 40

gambit, 158

gamboge, 51

game, 158

gammon, 158

gammy, 158

gamut, 6

gantlope, 130

gaol, 109

garage, 125

garble, 21, 72

garce, 82

garibaldi, 39

garret, 104

Garrett, 171

gas, 16

Gascoyne, 173

Gaskin, 173

gaufre, 78

Gaunt, 173

gauntlet, 130

geezer, 12

gefallen, 109

geindre, 187

Gelbschnabel, 96

Geld, 142

generous, 3

geneva, 68

genius, 4

gent, 66

geranium, 30

gerben, 95

gerfaut, 121, n.

Geschenk, 91

Geselle, 94

Gevatter, 95

Gewehr, 64, n.

Gibbon, 172

Gift, 91

gift horse, 97

Gilbey, 171

Gillott, 170

gilly-flower, 125

gimbals, 144

gimmal, 144

gin, 65, 68

gindre, 187

gingham, 52

gist, 10

glai, 132

glaive, 132

glamour, 13, 60, 145

gleek, 102

gloss, 155

gloze, 155

Godbehere, 170

goffer, 78

Gogs, 65

gonfalon, 57

Goodbeer, 170

Goodenough, 170

Goodeve, 171

Goodlake, 171

Goodrich, 171

gorilla, 27

goshawk, 153

Gosling, 180

Gosse, 180

gossip, 94

Gotobed, 170

goupil, 35

graft, 111

grail, 13

grain, 87

gramarye, 146

grampus, 33

Grant, 181

Great Orme, 99, n.

Grecian steps, 118

Greenfield, 175

greengage, 32

greenhorn, 95

Greenhow, 135

Greenman, 181

greyhound, 135

grief, 122

grimaldello, 42

grimalkin, 43

grimoire, 146

grize, 118

grocer, 175

grog, 68

grogram, 56, n., 68

gross, 175, n. 3

grotesque, 141, n.

guérite, 103

guillotine, 170

guinea, 51

guinea-fowl, 51

guinea-pig, 32, 51

guitar, 149

guts, 84

guy, 45

Habeas Corpus, 125

hack, 66

* * *

hackbut, 127

Hackett, 171

hag, 109

haggard, 108

haggis, 37, n.

Hahnenfuss, 29

Haig, 179, n.

half a mo', 66

halibut, 35

Hammond, 171

hand, 87

hand of glory, 131

hangar, 125

Hannay, 174

Hannibal, 170

Hansom, 56, n.

hansom, 53, n.

Hanway, 173

harangue, 23, 55

harbinger, 2, 90, 164

harbour, 2, 133, 164

harry, 2

Harvey, 171

hatchell, 12

hatchment, 136

hauberk, 164

Haunce, 174

haut, 132

haversack, 18, n.

'haviour, 66

hawse, 164, n.

Hawtrey, 173

Hay, 179, n.

Hayward, 179

hearse, 75

heart's ease, 30

heckle, 12

hempie, 67

Herd, 179

Hereford, 2

herrisch, 92, n. 2

Hewett, 171

Hewlett, 171

Hibbert, 171

hiccough, 125

Hick, 172

Hig, 172

hinterland, 14

hippopotamus, 32

Hitch, 172

Hob, 172

hobby, 91

hobgoblin, 37

Hobson's choice, 192

Hochzeit, 95

hock, 68

Hoggart, 179

holland, 47

hollyhock, 35

homely, 81

Homer, 176

homespun, 73

homme, 55

Honeyball, 170

honeysuckle, 99

honte, 55

Hood, 172

hooligan, 12

Horner, 177

horse-coper, 67

host, 2, 158

Howard, 179

Howitt, 171

Hudson, 172

Huggin, 171

Huguenot, 203

humble pie, 113

hunks, 82

hurly-burly, 70, 189

hussar, 22

hussy, 82

Hutchin, 171

Ib, 70

Ibbotson, 172

ill-starred, 106

imp, 111

indenture, 89

index, 4

Indian corn, 52

Indian ink, 52

indigo, 51

infantry, 76

innuendo, 3

inoculate, 112

insult, 3

interfere, 106

inure, 159

inveigle, 110

invoice, 118

Irrgarten, 63

isinglass, 137

item, 4

Jack, 42, 44

jackanapes, 45

* * *

jackass, 37

jackdaw, 37

jacket, 44

Janaway, 174

jaquette, 37

Jarvey, 41

jaunty, 127

jean, 47

jemmy, 42

Jenner, 176

jenneting, 121

Jenny wren, 37

jeopardy, 108

jesses, 120

Jessop, 171

jest, 74

jilt, 46

jingo, 13

jockey, 45, 111

Johannisapfel, 121

jolis fous, 129

J?nk?ping, 67, n.

jonquil, 153

joss, 27

journeyman, 106, 165

jovial, 106

jug, 43

Juggins, 43, n.

jumble, 144

junket, 153

Jütte, 42

Kafir, 26, n. 1

kail, 153

Kanzel, 88

Kapelle, 152

Kemp, 176

kennel, 158

kerseymere, 47

kestrel, 100

kickshaws, 116

Kiddier, 176

kidnap, 110

kilderkin, 21

kilt, 19

kimmer, 95

King, 175

kirtle, 150

Kisser, 178

kit, 149

kitcat, 42

kite, 38

kittle, 59

Kj?benhavn, 67, n.

kj?nne, 92

Klaus, 42

kloof, 91

knapsack, 18

knave, 55

Knecht, 84

knickerbockers, 44

knight, 84

Knoblauch, 91

Kohl, 153

kooi, 109

kraal, 25

Laager, 18

label, 93

Labouchère, 178

lace, 24

lacrosse, 164

lady-bird, 35

lady's bedstraw, 35

lady's garter, 35

lady's slipper, 35

Lambert, 179

Lambertsnuss, 35

lampoon, 9

lancegay, 25

Lander, 178

landier, 115

landscape, 18

Langlois, 115

lanterloo, 69

larboard, 121

larder, 165

lariat, 24, 115

Larkin, 171

larkspur, 29

L?rm, 115

larrikin, 12, 190

larum, 115

lasso, 24

lateen, 51

Latimer, 177

Launay, 174

Launder, 178

lavandière, 34

lawn, 47

lay-figure, 18, 166

leaguer, 18

leech, 155

legend, 3

Leggatt, 171

lemon, 160

* * *

lemon sole, 160

lettuce, 119

level, 58

lévier, 115

Levick, 115, 175, n. 2

lèvre, 117

Lhuissier, 90, n., 115

libel, 42

liber, 86

lieb?ugeln, 110

lierre, 115

Lilywhite, 180

limb, 98

limbeck, 63

limbo, 5

lime, 56

Limehouse, 48

limner, 63

linden, 56

Lindwurm, 99, n.

lingot, 115

liquorice, 137

list, 93

Lister, 176

little Mary, 43

littoral, 14

Liverpool, 56

livery, 77

lobelia, 31

locomotor ataxy, 125

lockram, 48

Loftus, 170

Lombard, 56

lone, 62

'longing, 66

loo, 69

lords and ladies, 30

Lorimer, 177

Loring, 174

Loveday, 172

love in a mist, 30

Lovell, 171

Lowell, 171

L?wenmaul, 30

L?wenzahn, 30

L. s. d., 4

Lubbock, 173

lucifer, 4

Luck, 173

lucus, 184

lugger, 101

lugsail, 101

lumber-room, 76

Lümmel, 96, n.

luncheon, 124

lupus, 35

Lush, 90, n.

Lusher, 90, n.

lutestring, 128

Lyndhurst, 56

Mabel, 58

macadamise, 41

Mackenzie, 195

mackintosh, 39

Macnab, 19, n.

Macpherson, 19, n.

Madeira, 51

madge owl, 37

madonna, 142

magazine, 93

magenta, 39, n.

maggot, 59

magnet, 48

magnolia, 31

magpie, 37

mailed fist, 156

main de gloire, 131

Mainwaring, 169

majolica, 48

Malins, 173

malkin, 42

Mall, 166, n. 2

malmsey, 51

Malthus, 170

malvoisie, 51

mammet, 43

manant, 150

mandarin, 27

mandoline, 149

manger, 8

mangle, 140

mangonel, 140

Mann, 173

manner, 158

man?uvre, 159

manor, 9

Mansell, 173

mansworn, 15, n. 1

manual, 3

manure, 159

marabout, 147

maravedi, 147

marble, 69

marchand des quatre saisons, 63, n.

Marchant, 145

* * *

Marienk?fer, 35

marionnette, 43

marmalade, 31

Marner, 176

marquee, 116

Marriot, 36

marshal, 89

Marshalsea, 90

marsouin, 32

Martello tower, 60

martin, 37

martinet, 192

martin-pêcheur, 37

mascot, 13

mask, 145

masnadiere, 151

Massinger, 177

masterpiece, 106

match, 8

mate, 93

matelot, 93

Maud, 70

maudlin, 61

maul, 166

Maulbeere, 58

maul-stick, 166

maxim, 39

maximum, 4

Mayhew, 171

Mayne, 173

mayor, 153

maze, 63

mazurka, 49

mediastinus, 92

Meerschwein, 32

Meerschweinchen, 51

megrims, 35

meiny, 151

melon, 31

ménage, 151

ménagerie, 151

mend, 62

ménétrier, 76

menial, 151

Menzies, 195

merchant, 67

mercurial, 106

merino, 153

Merryweather, 180

mesmerism, 40

mess, 93

messer, 92

messmate, 93

metal, 144

métier, 160

mettle, 144

mews, 120

miasma, 6

Middlemas, 172

milliner, 48

miniature, 81

minstrel, 76

mint, 142

minx, 82

miscreant, 127

miser, 4

misnomer, 9

miss, 160, n. 1

mister, 160

mistery, 159

mizen, 9

mob, 66

Mohock, 12

moidore, 142

moineau, 34

money, 141

monkey, 36

monkey-wrench, 38

monkshood, 29

monnaie, 142

monsieur, 92

Moon, 170

Morel, 181

morion, 199

Morris, 174

morris dance, 49

morris pike, 49

mosaic, 168

mosquito, 39, 59

Mother Carey's chicken, 36

mouchoir, 99

moustique, 59

Moxon, 172

muckinder, 99

muguet, 148

mulberry, 58

mulligrubs, 35

Mullins, 175

mungo, 190

Münze, 142

m?re, 58

mushroom, 56

musk, 148

musket, 38

muslin, 47

mustang, 23

* * *

Musters, 175

mutande, 99

mystery, 159

N?gele, 91

namby-pamby, 70

Napier, 57, 182

napkin, 57

nappe, 57

Nash, 114

naunt, 114

nausea, 6

nave, 153

navvy, 68

navy, 153

nectar, 6

nectarine, 6

Ned, 114

Neddy, 36

négromancie, 131

negus, 40

neighbour, 84, n. 1

Neil, 171

Nelke, 91

Nell, 114

newt, 114

nice, 80

nickel, 44

nickname, 114

nickum, 45

nickumpoop, 45

Nicodème, 45

nicotine, 40

niddering, 15

nincompoop, 45

ninny, 45

ninnyhammer, 45

niveau, 58

noddy, 45

noddypeak, 45

noix gauge, 152

Nokes, 114

Noll, 114

nonce, 114

Norfolk Howard, 180

Norman, 185

Norris, 174

Norroy, 174

nostrum, 4

Nowell, 172

Nugent, 173

nuncheon, 124

nuncle, 114

nurse, 174

nut, 188

nutmeg, 148

Nutter, 179

nux, 188

Object, 105

obligation, 3

obvious, 105

odium, 4

odsbodikins, 65

ogle, 110

ogre, 204

oignon, 95

oiseau de Saint Martin, 37

Old Nick, 44

omelet, 136

omen, 4

omnibus, 5

onion, 91, n. 1

Onslow, 182

orange, 31

oreste, 132

oriel, 58

orlop, 18

orrery, 40

orteil, 132

ortolan, 33

oseille, 162

ostler, 55, 164

ounce, 114

Pad, 167

padder, 167

padding, 96

Padgett, 172

padrastro, 25

paj, 66

paladin, 139

Palatine, 139

palaver, 26

pallet, 156

Palliser, 177

Pall Mall, 166, n. 2

palmer, 33

Palsgrave, 139

palsy, 61

Pam, 69

pamphlet, 41

pandy, 5

pantaloons, 44

pantry, 165

Panzer, 156

* * *

paper, 86

parable, 26

parbleu, 65

parchment, 49

parish, 61, 150

Parker, 177

Parkin, 171

parley, 26

parmaceti, 186

parmesan, 186

Parminter, 177

Parnell, 172

parole, 26

parrot, 36

parse, 5

parson, 145

Partlet, 36

partridge, 61

Pascal, 172

Pascoe, 172

pasquinade, 41

pastern, 76

past master, 106

Patch, 181

patch, 8

pathos, 6

patten, 117

patter, 69

paume, 10

pauper, 4

Pav, 66

pawn, 160

pay, 160

Payn, 181

paynim, 77

pea, 116

peach, 49, 62

peajacket, 135

peal, 62

Pearce, 181

pecunia, 143

pedigree, 77, 123

Peel, 173

pelargonium, 30

pèlerin, 58

Pelissier, 176

pen, 167

pencil, 167

Pennefather, 180

Pentecost, 172

penthouse, 125

peon, 160

perch, 87

periwig, 63, n. 2

periwinkle, 128

Perkin, 171

Perrot, 36

person, 145

pert, 80

peruse, 195

pester, 76, 167

Peterchen, 42

petrel, 36

petronel, 197

Pettifer, 77

Pettigrew, 77

petty, 80

pew, 8

Pfalz, 139

Phillimore, 175

Philpot, 171

Physick, 170

pickaback, 71

pick-axe, 126

Pickard, 173

pie, 37

piebald, 38

pierrot, 36

pig-iron, 38

Pilcher, 176

pilgrim, 58

pinchbeck, 40

Pinder, 177

pine-apple, 32

pion, 160

pips, 102

plain, 81

plaudit, 5

Playfair, 181

plover, 99

pluck, 83

pocket, 97, n.

pocket-handkerchief, 98

Pocock, 181

Poidevin, 173

pointe, 66

poison, 91

poke, 97

polecat, 165

polka, 49

Pollock, 174

Poll parrot, 36

polonaise, 50

polony, 49

pomander, 57

pomcitron, 32

* * *

pomegranate, 32

Pomeranze, 31

Pomeroy, 174

pomme de pin, 32

ponder, 1

Pope Joan, 129

porcelain, 39

porcupine, 32

porpoise, 32

porridge, 118

port, 51

portcullis, 154

porter, 81, n.

Portugee, 116

Portwine, 173, n. 3

Poslett, 169

Posnett, 169

possum, 64

posthumous, 126

post-mortem, 4

posy, 145

potence, 40

Potz, 65

pouce, 87

Pouille, 114

poulterer, 63

pounce, 108

pouncet-box, 108

pourboire, 91

Power, 181

power, 9

pow-wow, 14

Poyser, 176

prayer, 74

premises, 6

premisses, 6

premium, 4

prentice, 63, 106

prepense, 1

preposterous, 129, n.

press-gang, 130

Prester John, 92, n. 2

Priddle, 175, n. 1

priest, 92

primrose, 125

proctor, 61

pub, 66

pudding, 74

puisne, 80

pun, 66

punch, 94, n.

pundigrion, 66

pundit, 94, n.

Punjaub, 94, n.

puny, 80

Purcell, 180

purley, 124

purlieu, 123

purloin, 186

pursy, 126

purview, 4

Puy de D?me, 8

puzzle, 64

python, 6

pyx, 6, 127

Quaint, 78

quair, 146

quarrel, 161

quarry, 160

quarto, 6

quean, 82

querry, 134

query, 5

quilt, 137

quince, 119

quintal, 21

quire, 146

quirry, 134

quirt, 24

quorum, 6

Rack, 155

radius, 4

raiment, 61

rampart, 121

ramper, 121

ranch, 23

rank, 23

rappee, 9

Read, 181

Reader, 178

reasty, 79

reata, 24

rebus, 5

recreant, 127

recruit, 64

redstart, 117

Reed, 181

Reeder, 178

Regenpfeifer, 99

Regenschirm, 64, n.

Reginald, 36

rehearse, 106

Reid, 181

reine Claude, 32

* * *

reist, 79

relent, 3

remainder, 9

remnant, 9

Renard, 35

rendre, 122

renegade, 127

requiem, 5

restive, 79

revel, 141

revelly, 10

Reynold, 36

Rich, 172

Rick, 172

Rittersporn, 29

rival, 3

Rob, 172

rob, 148

robe, 148

Robin, 91

robin, 37

Rocinante, 177

romance, 74

Ronald, 36

rosemary, 125

rossignol, 42

roster, 18

rote, 176

rouncy, 177

Rouse, 181

rouse, 117

row, 117

Rudge, 181

rudimentary, 105

rum, 68

rummage, 76

runagate, 127

Runciman, 177

Russell, 181

rusty, 79

Sabotage, 11

Sacheverell, 182

sack, 116, n. 1

sake, 2

saker, 38

salade, 199

salary, 3

salet, 199

Salmon, 181

salt-cellar, 135

salver, 123

salvo, 123

samite, 149

samphire, 35

sample, 64

Samt, 149

sandwich, 39

Sandy, 70

Sankt Peters Vogel, 36

Saragossa, 51

sarcenet, 47

sardine, 48

Sarg, 140

Sargent, 145

sash, 158

sassafras, 30

satire, 93

saveloy, 136

saxifrage, 30

scabbard, 164

scallion, 48

scaramouch, 64, n., 142

scavenger, 84

schedule, 93

scheitern, 97

Schemel, 107

schirmen, 64, n.

Sch?ntierlein, 92

school, 56, 162

scintilla, 4

scion, 111

scissors, 127

score, 89

scrimer, 64, n.

scrimmage, 64, n., 142

Scriven, 178

scroll, 93

scruple, 87

scull, 162

scullery, 43

scullion, 43

'sdeath, 65

seal, 133

sea-lion, 32

sear, 162

search, 57

secretary, 34

sedan, 52

seel, 133

seesaw, 70

sehr, 168

Seide, 27

seigneur, 92

Sekt, 116, n. 1

* * *

selig, 45

sendal, 47

seneschal, 92

senior, 4

sennet, 153

se?or, 92

sentinel, 102

sentry, 102

sepoy, 146

seraglio, 132

serge, 27

sergeant, 148

serpent, 38

servant, 148

service-tree, 129

Seward, 179

sexton, 61

Seymour, 169

shalloon, 47

shallop, 55

shallot, 48

shambles, 106

shame-faced, 125

shark, 33

shawm, 24

shay, 116

Sheepshanks, 77

sherbet, 146

sherry, 51, 116

shift, 99

shilly-shally, 70

ship, 105

shirk, 33

shirt, 150

short, 150

shrapnel, 39

shrew, 34

shrewd, 34

shrive, 74

shrub, 146

sieur, 92

signor, 92

silhouette, 40

silk, 27

silly, 45

silly Johnny, 45

Sinclair, 169

sinister, 3

sir, 92

sire, 92, 142, n.

sirloin, 191

sirup, 146

Sisson, 172

sizar, 62

size, 62

sjambok, 26

skate, 117

skeeter, 65

sketch, 18, 22

skew, 64

skinker, 124, n. 2

skipper, 17

skirmish, 61, 64, n., 142

skirt, 150

slave, 22

slim, 20

Sloper, 178

slow-worm, 99

slug, 94, n.

slug-horn, 14

smock, 99

smug, 81

snap, 18

snapdragon, 29

snaphaunce, 198

snapsack, 18

snark, 16

snickersnee, 70

Snooks, 170

soccer, 66

solder, 154

soldier, 154

S?ldner, 154

solemn, 140

sorrel, 162

sorrow, 168

sorry, 168

soudard, 154

souillon, 43

souse, 120

sovereign, 122, n. 1

spade, 78

spahi, 146

span, 87

spaniel, 49

sparagus, 66

sparrow-grass, 125

spatula, 78

spec', 67

species, 140

spence, 165

Spencer, 65, 165

spencer, 39, 188

spice, 64, 140

Spicer, 175

* * *

spick and span, 107

spinning-jenny, 42

Spitalfields, 64

spite, 65

Spittlegate, 64

splay, 65

sponge, 56

Spoonerism, 60

sport, 65

sprightly, 122, n. 1

sprite, 64

Spr?ssling, 111

spruce, 48

squarson, 66

squire, 64

stable, 56

stage, 64

staid, 101

stain, 65

stale, 101

stance, 143

staniel, 202

stank, 26

stanza, 143

starboard, 121

stationer, 63, n. 1

Steckenpferd, 91

Steinbrech, 30

steingall, 202

Steppdecke, 137

sterling, 79

stevedore, 76, n.

steward, 90

Stewart, 90

stickler, 75, 172, n. 2

still-room, 165

stimulus, 4

Stoddart, 179

stomacher, 156

stone, 87

stonegall, 202

Storchschnabel, 29

stortelli, 144

stout, 81

stranded, 97

stun, 106

sullen, 140

Summerfield, 175

Sumner, 176

supercilious, 3

surcease, 126

surly, 92

surplice, 176, n.

surround, 164

Surtees, 172

swank, 203

sward, 84

sweet William, 30

sympathy, 2

synopsis, 6

syrup, 146

Tabby, 47

taffrail, 126

taint, 64

talisman, 22

tallage, 134

tally, 88

talon, 9

Tammany, 14

tandem, 4

tank, 26

tankard, 59

tansy, 30

tantalise, 41

tante, 70

tarantella, 50

tarantula, 50

tartan, 19, 47

tassel, 163

'tater, 66

tattoo, 18, 162

tawdry, 65

tease, 12

teasel, 12

'tec, 65

teetotaller, 6

teetotum, 6

Telford, 182

'tench, 65

tender, 64

tenet, 4

tennis, 10

tent, 163

tenter-hooks, 154

termagant, 46

test, 106

testy, 79

tetchy, 163

tête, 106

thimble, 61

Thoroughgood, 170

Tibbet, 171

Tibert, 36

tick, 67

tidbit, 123

* * *

tiddlebat, 172, n. 2

'Tilda, 70

Tillet, 171

Tillotson, 172

tilt, 108

tinnunculus, 100

tinsel, 59

tire, 63

tit, 123

titbit, 123

titmouse, 123

tittlebat, 172, n. 2

tittle-tattle, 70

'Tizer, 69

tobacco, 194

toby jug, 44

tocsin, 152

Todhunter, 177

toils, 108

tolle Buchen, 129

tomtit, 37

Tono-Bungay, 16

Toogood, 170

Tooley St., 65

touchy, 163

tousle, 12

Towser, 12

toy, 18

Tozer, 12

trace, 118

tram, 191

traveller's joy, 30

treacle, 75

trellis, 148

trepan, 109

tret, 144

trews, 117

tribunal, 4

Trinkgeld, 91

tripod, 140

tripos, 140

trivet, 139

trivial, 3

trouble, 59

Troublefield, 175

trousers, 117

trove, 61, 101

troy, 50

truce, 119

trump, 9

Trumper, 177

tuberose, 125

Tucker, 178

tucket, 153

tuck of drum, 153

tulip, 147

turban, 147

turkey, 52

Turney, 171

turnip, 95

tweeny, 92

tweezers, 120

twill, 148

Tybalt, 36

Umber, 152

umbrella, 152

umpire, 113

uncouth, 2

Underhill, 172

undertaker, 63, n. 1

unkempt, 2

unseal, 133

upholder, 178

upholsterer, 63

usher, 90

usquebaugh, 68

utterance, 163

Vagabond, 168

vagrant, 168

Valais, 152

vambrace, 62

vamose, 10

vamp, 61

van, 62, 69

vane, 58

vanguard, 62

varech, 55

Varney, 174, n. 1

'varsity, 69

varsovienne, 50

vaunt, 194

vauntcourier, 62

Veck, 175, n. 2

vedette, 104

vellum, 56

veneer, 147

venew, 123

veney, 123

venom, 56

venue, 124

verdigris, 129

verheeren, 2

Verney, 174, n. 1

verse, 143

* * *

vertugadin, 137

vet, 66

veto, 4

Vick, 175, n. 2

victoria, 39

videlicet, 4

vie, 65

vigie, 103

vignette, 81

viking, 168

villa, 150

villain, 150

vinegar, 80

viva-voce, 4

viz., 4

voile, 117

voltaism, 40

vril, 16, n.

Wafer, 78

wag, 67

Wait, 176

waits, 76

Wales, 151

Walker, 178

Wallachia, 151

wallet, 59

Wallis, 152

Walloon, 151

walnut, 151

Ward, 179

warison, 14

Warner, 176

Wat, 36

wattle, 59

weed, 2

week-end, 12

Weenen, 31

weir, 64, n.

wellington, 39

wench, 82

wergild, 142

wheatear, 117

wheel, 189

whisky, 63, n. 2, 68

white feather, 108

Whittaker, 175

Whittier, 177

wig, 69

Wilmot, 171

wipe, 66

wire, 66

wiseacre, 128

wistaria, 31

witch-elm, 128

worsted, 48

write, 74

Wyatt, 171

Xeres, 51

Yacht, 18

Yankee, 116

yard, 87

yare, 95

Ysopet, 41

Zany, 45

Zentner, 21

zero, 147

zest, 112

Zettel, 93

zigzag, 70

zijde, 27

Zins, 134

Zoo, 66

zounds, 65

Zwiebel, 95

Zwilch, 148

* * *

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY

OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH

* * *

Transcriber's Endnotes

The text remains as printed, with the following exceptions:

Page 60. Chapter V. "colonets" amended to colonnettes.

"... but to the bulging colonnettes on which it rests."

Page 174. Chapter XII. "Northener" amended to Northerner.

"... may stand for le Noreis, the Northerner."

Page 177. Chapter XII. "palissades" amended to palisades.

"... maker of palings and palisades ..."

Page 186. Chapter XIII. Diacriticals amended on Greek text.

"... from the Gk. ο?κον (ο?κο?, a house) ..."

Page 222. Index. "sire, 92, 131, n." amended to sire, 92, 142, n.

(← Keyboard shortcut) Previous Contents (Keyboard shortcut →)
 Novels To Read Online Free

Scan the QR code to download MoboReader app.

Back to Top

shares