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   Chapter 7 Our Debt To The Savage.

The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (Third Edition, Vol. 06 of 12) By James George Frazer Characters: 374014

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General conclusion. Human gods, on whom the welfare of the community is believed to depend, are obliged to observe many rules to ensure their own safety and that of their people.

It would be easy to extend the list of royal and priestly taboos, but the instances collected in the preceding pages may suffice as specimens. To conclude this part of our subject it only remains to state summarily the general conclusions to which our enquiries have thus far conducted us. We have seen that in savage or barbarous society there are often found men to whom the superstition of their fellows ascribes a controlling influence over the general course of nature. Such men are accordingly adored and treated as gods. Whether these human divinities also hold temporal sway over the lives and fortunes of their adorers, or whether their functions are purely spiritual and supernatural, in other words, whether they are kings as well as gods or only the latter, is a distinction which hardly concerns us here. Their supposed divinity is the essential fact with which we have to deal. In virtue of it they are a pledge and guarantee to their worshippers of the continuance and orderly succession of those physical phenomena upon which mankind depends for subsistence. Naturally, therefore, the life and health of such a god-man are matters of anxious concern to the people whose welfare and even existence are bound up with his; naturally he is constrained by them to conform to such rules as the wit of early man has devised for averting the ills to which flesh is heir, including the last ill, death. These rules, as an examination of them has shewn, are nothing but the maxims with which, on the primitive view, every man of common prudence must comply if he would live long in the land. But while in the [pg 420] case of ordinary men the observance of the rules is left to the choice of the individual, in the case of the god-man it is enforced under penalty of dismissal from his high station, or even of death. For his worshippers have far too great a stake in his life to allow him to play fast and loose with it. Therefore all the quaint superstitions, the old-world maxims, the venerable saws which the ingenuity of savage philosophers elaborated long ago, and which old women at chimney corners still impart as treasures of great price to their descendants gathered round the cottage fire on winter evenings-all these antique fancies clustered, all these cobwebs of the brain were spun about the path of the old king, the human god, who, immeshed in them like a fly in the toils of a spider, could hardly stir a limb for the threads of custom, "light as air but strong as links of iron," that crossing and recrossing each other in an endless maze bound him fast within a network of observances from which death or deposition alone could release him.

A study of these rules affords us an insight into the philosophy of the savage. Our debt to our savage forefathers.

Thus to students of the past the life of the old kings and priests teems with instruction. In it was summed up all that passed for wisdom when the world was young. It was the perfect pattern after which every man strove to shape his life; a faultless model constructed with rigorous accuracy upon the lines laid down by a barbarous philosophy. Crude and false as that philosophy may seem to us, it would be unjust to deny it the merit of logical consistency. Starting from a conception of the vital principle as a tiny being or soul existing in, but distinct and separable from, the living being, it deduces for the practical guidance of life a system of rules which in general hangs well together and forms a fairly complete and harmonious whole.1551 The flaw-and [pg 421] it is a fatal one-of the system lies not in its reasoning, but in its premises; in its conception of the nature of life, not in any irrelevancy of the conclusions which it draws from that conception. But to stigmatise these premises as ridiculous because we can easily detect their falseness, would be ungrateful as well as unphilosophical. We stand upon the foundation reared by the generations that have gone before, and we can but dimly realise the painful and prolonged efforts which it has cost humanity to struggle up to the point, no very exalted one after all, which we have reached. Our gratitude is due to the nameless and forgotten toilers, whose patient thought and active exertions have largely made us what we are. The amount of new knowledge which one age, certainly which one man, can add to the common store is small, and it argues stupidity or dishonesty, besides ingratitude, to ignore the heap while vaunting the few grains which it may have been our privilege to add to it. There is indeed little danger at present of undervaluing the contributions which modern times and even classical antiquity have made to the general advancement of our race. But when we pass these limits, the case is different. Contempt and ridicule or abhorrence and denunciation are too often the only recognition vouchsafed to the savage and his ways. Yet of the benefactors whom [pg 422] we are bound thankfully to commemorate, many, perhaps most, were savages. For when all is said and done our resemblances to the savage are still far more numerous than our differences from him; and what we have in common with him, and deliberately retain as true and useful, we owe to our savage forefathers who slowly acquired by experience and transmitted to us by inheritance those seemingly fundamental ideas which we are apt to regard as original and intuitive. We are like heirs to a fortune which has been handed down for so many ages that the memory of those who built it up is lost, and its possessors for the time being regard it as having been an original and unalterable possession of their race since the beginning of the world. But reflection and enquiry should satisfy us that to our predecessors we are indebted for much of what we thought most our own, and that their errors were not wilful extravagances or the ravings of insanity, but simply hypotheses, justifiable as such at the time when they were propounded, but which a fuller experience has proved to be inadequate. It is only by the successive testing of hypotheses and rejection of the false that truth is at last elicited. After all, what we call truth is only the hypothesis which is found to work best. Therefore in reviewing the opinions and practices of ruder ages and races we shall do well to look with leniency upon their errors as inevitable slips made in the search for truth, and to give them the benefit of that indulgence which we ourselves may one day stand in need of; cum excusatione itaque veteres audiendi sunt.

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Note. Not To Step Over Persons And Things.1552

The superstition that harm is done to a person or thing by stepping over him or it is very widely spread. Thus the Galelareese think that if a man steps over your fishing-rod or your arrow, the fish will not bite when you fish with that rod, and the game will not be hit by that arrow when you shoot it. They say it is as if the implements merely skimmed past the fish or the game.1553 Similarly, if a Highland sportsman saw a person stepping over his gun or fishing-rod, he presumed but little on that day's diversion.1554 When a Dacota had bad luck in hunting, he would say that a woman had been stepping over some part of the animal which he revered.1555 Amongst many South African tribes it is considered highly improper to step over a sleeper; if a wife steps over her husband he cannot hit his enemy in war; if she steps over his assegais, they are from that time useless, and are given to boys to play with.1556 The Baganda think that if a woman steps over a man's weapons, they will not aim straight and will not kill, unless they have been first purified.1557 The Nandi of British East Africa hold that to step over a snare or trap is to court death and must be avoided at all risks; further, they are of opinion that if a man were to step over a pot, he would fall to pieces whenever the pot were broken.1558 The people of the Lower Congo deem that to step over a person's body or legs will cause ill-luck to that person and they are careful not to do so, especially [pg 424] in passing men who are holding a palaver. At such times a passer-by will shuffle his feet along the ground without lifting them in order that he may not be charged with bringing bad luck on any one.1559 On the other hand among the Wajagga of East Africa grandchildren leap over the corpse of their grandfather, when it is laid out, expressing a wish that they may live to be as old as he.1560 In Laos hunters are careful never to step over their weapons.1561 The Tepehuanes of Mexico believe that if anybody steps over them, they will not be able to kill another deer in their lives.1562 Some of the Australian aborigines are seriously alarmed if a woman steps over them as they lie asleep on the ground.1563 In the tribes about Maryborough in Queensland, if a woman steps over anything that belongs to a man he will throw it away.1564 In New Caledonia it is thought to endanger a canoe if a woman steps over the cable.1565 Everything that a Samoyed woman steps over becomes unclean and must be fumigated.1566 Malagasy porters believe that if a woman strides over their poles, the skin will certainly peel off the shoulders of the bearers when next they take up the burden.1567 The Cherokees fancy that to step over a vine causes it to wither and bear no fruit.1568 The Ba-Pendi and Ba-thonga of South Africa think that if a woman steps over a man's legs, they will swell and he will not be able to run.1569 According to the South Slavonians, the most serious maladies may be communicated to a person by stepping over him, but they can afterwards be cured by stepping over him in the reverse direction.1570 The belief that to step over a child hinders it from growing is found in France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and Syria; in Syria, Germany, and Bohemia the mischief can be remedied by stepping over the child in the opposite direction.1571

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Index.

Abdication of kings in favour of their infant children, 19, 20

Abduction of souls by demons, 58 sqq.

Abipones, the, 328, 350;

changes in their language, 360

Abnormal mental states accounted inspiration, 248

Abortion, superstition as to woman who has procured, 153

Absence and recall of the soul, 30 sqq.

Achilles, 261

Acts, tabooed, 101 sqq.

Adivi or forest Gollas, the, 149

Aetolians, the, 311

Africa, fetish kings in West, 22 sqq.;

names of animals and things tabooed in, 400 sq.

Agutainos, the, 144

Air, prohibition to be uncovered in the open, 3, 14

Akamba, the, 204

Akikuyu, the, 175, 204, 286;

auricular confession among the, 214

Albanians of the Caucasus, 349

Alberti, L., 220

Alcmena and Hercules, 298 sq.

Alfoors of Celebes, 33;

of Minahassa, 63 sq.

Amboyna, 87, 105

Amenophis III., his birth represented on the monuments, 28

American Indians, their fear of naming the dead, 351 sqq.

Ammon, Hanun, King of, 273

Amoy, 59

Amulets, knots used as, 306 sqq.;

rings as, 314 sqq.

Ancestors, names of, bestowed on their reincarnations, 368 sq.;

reborn in their descendants, 368 sq.

Ancestral spirits, cause sickness, 53;

sacrifices to, 104

Andaman Islanders, 183 n.

Andania, mysteries of, 227 n.

Angakok, Esquimaux wizard or sorcerer, 211, 212

Angoni, the, 174

Animals injured through their shadows, 81 sq.;

propitiation of spirits of slain, 190, 204 sq.;

atonement for slain, 207;

dangerous, not called by their proper names, 396 sqq.;

thought to understand human speech, 398 sq., 400

Animism passing into religion, 213

Anklets as amulets, 315

Annamites, the, 235

Anointment of priests at installation, 14

Antambahoaka, the, 216

Ants, bites of, used in purificatory ceremony, 105

Apaches, the, 182, 184, 325, 328

Apollo, purification of, 223 n.1

Apuleius, 270

Arab mode of cursing an enemy, 312

Arabs of Moab, 273, 280

Araucanians, the, 97, 324

Ares, men sacred to, 111

Arikaras, the, 161

Aristeas of Proconnesus, 34

Army under arms, prohibition to see, 13

Arrows to keep off death, 31

Aru Islands, 37, 276

Arunta, their belief as to the ghosts of the slain, 177 sq.;

ceremonies at the end of mourning among the, 373 sq.

Arval Brothers, 226

Aryans, the primitive, their theory of personal names, 319

Ashes strewn on the head, 112

Ash-tree, parings of nails buried under an, 276

Assam, taboos observed by headmen in, 11;

hill tribes of, 323

Astarte at Hierapolis, 286

Aston, W. G., 2 n.2

Astrolabe Bay, 289

Athens, kings at, 21 sq.;

ritual of cursing at, 75

Atonement for slain animals, 207

Attiuoindarons, the, 366

Atua, ancestral spirit, 134, 265

Augur's staff at Rome, 313

[pg 428] Auricular confession, 214

Aurohuaca Indians, 215

Australian aborigines;

their conception of the soul, 27;

personal names kept secret among the, 320 sqq.;

their fear of naming the dead, 349 sqq.

Aversion of spirits and fairies to iron, 229, 232 sq.

Avoidance of common words to deceive spirits or other beings, 416 sqq.

Aymara Indians, the, 97

Aztecs, the, 249;

their priests, 259

Babylonian witches and wizards, 302

Bad Country, the, 109

Badham, Dr., 156 n.

Baduwis, the, of Java, 115 sq., 232

Bag, souls collected in a, 63 sq.

Baganda, the, 78, 87

-- fishermen, taboos observed by, 194 sq. See also Uganda

Bagba, a fetish, 5

Bageshu, the, 174

Bagobos, the, 31, 315, 323

Bahima, the, 183 n.;

names of their dead kings not mentioned, 375

Bahnars of Cochin-China, 52, 58

Baking, continence observed at, 201

Balder, Norse god, 305 n.1

Ba-Lua, the, 330

Banana-trees, fruit-bearing, hair deposited under, 286

Bandages to prevent the escape of the soul, 32, 71

Bangala, the, 195 sq., 330

Bangkok, 90

Baoules, the, 70

Ba-Pedi, the, 141, 153, 163, 202

Baron, R., 380

Baronga, the, 272

Basagala, the, 361

Basket, souls gathered into a, 72

Bastian, A., 252, 253

Basutos, burial custom of the, 107;

purification of warriors among the, 172

Bathing (washing) as a ceremonial purification, 141, 142, 150, 153, 168, 169, 172, 173, 175, 179, 183, 192, 198, 219, 220, 222, 285, 286

Ba-Thonga, the, 141, 154, 163, 202

Battas or Bataks of Sumatra, 34, 45, 46, 65, 116, 296

Bavili, the, 78

Bawenda, the, 243

Bayazid, the Sultan, and his soul, 50

Beans, prohibition to touch or name, 13 sq.

Bear, the polar, taboos concerning, 209;

customs observed by Lapps after killing a, 221

Bears not to be called by their proper names, 397 sq., 399, 402

Bechuanas, purification of manslayers among the, 172 sq., 174

Bed, feet of, smeared with mud, 14;

prohibition to sleep in a, 194

Beef and milk not to be eaten at the same meal, 292

Beer, continence observed at brewing, 200

Bells as talismans, 235

Benin, kings of, 123, 243

Bentley, R., 33 n.3

Besisis, the, 87

Beveridge, P., 363 sq.

Bird, soul conceived as a, 33 sqq.

Birds, ghosts of slain as, 177 sq.;

cause headache through clipped hair, 270 sq., 282

Birth from a golden image, pretence of, 113;

premature, 213. See Miscarriage

Bismarck Archipelago, 128

Bites of ants used as purificatory ceremony, 105

Blackening faces of warriors, 163;

of manslayers, 169, 178, 181

Blackfoot Indians, 159 n.

Black Mountain of southern France, 42

-- ox or black ram in magic, 154

Bladders, annual festival of, among the Esquimaux, 206 sq., 228

"Blessers" or sacred kings, 125 n.

Blood put on doorposts, 15;

of slain, supposed effect of it on the slayer, 169;

smeared on person as a purification, 104, 115, 219;

drawn from bodies of manslayers, 176, 180;

tabooed, 239 sqq.;

not eaten, 240 sq.;

soul in the, 240, 241, 247, 250;

of game poured out, 241;

royal, not to be shed on the ground, 241 sqq.;

unwillingness to shed, 243, 246 sq.;

received on bodies of kinsfolk, 244 sq.;

drops of, effaced, 245 sq.;

horror of, 245;

of chief sacred, 248;

of women, dread of, 250 sq.

-- of childbirth, supposed dangerous infection of, 152 sqq.;

received on heads of friends or slaves, 245

-- -lickers, 246

Blowing upon knots, as a charm, 302, 304

Boa-constrictor, purification of man who has killed a, 221 sq.

Boars, wild, not to be called by their proper names, 411, 415

Boas, Dr. Franz, 210 sqq., 214

Bodia or Bodio, a West African pontiff or fetish king, 14 sq., 23

Bodies, souls transferred to other, 49

Bodos, the, of Assam, 285

Boiled flesh tabooed, 185

[pg 429] Bolang Mongondo, a district in Celebes, 53, 279, 341

Bonds, no man in bonds allowed in priest's house, 14

Bones of human bodies which have been eaten, special treatment of, 189 sq.;

of the dead, their treatment after the decay of the flesh, 372 n.5;

of dead disinterred and scraped, 373 n.

Boobies, the, 8 sq.

Born again, pretence of being, 113

Bornu, Sultan of, 120

Bororos, the, 34, 36

Bourke, Captain J. G., 184

Box, strayed soul caught in, 45, 70, 76

Bracelets as amulets, 315

Brahman student, his cut hair and nails, 277

Brahmans, their common and secret names, 322

Branches used in exorcism, 109

Breath of chief sacred, 136, 256

Breathing on a person as a mode of purification, 149

Brewing, continence observed at, 200, 201 sq.

Bribri Indians, their ideas as to the uncleanness of women, 147, 149

Bride and bridegrooms, all knots on their garments unloosed, 299 sq.

Bronze employed in expiatory rites, 226 n.6;

priests to be shaved with, 226

-- knife to cut priest's hair, 14

Brother and sister not allowed to mention each other's names, 344

Brothers-in-law, their names not to be pronounced, 338, 342, 343, 344, 345

Buddha, Footprint of, 275

Building shadows into foundations, 89 sq.

Bukuru, unclean, 147

Bulgarian building custom, 89

Burghead, 230

Burial under a running stream, 15

-- customs to prevent the escape of the soul, 51, 52

Burials, customs as to shadows at, 80 sq.

Burma, kings of, 375

Burmese conception of the soul as a butterfly, 51 sq.

Burning cut hair and nails to prevent them being used in sorcery, 281 sqq.

Buryat shaman, his mode of recovering lost souls, 56 sq.

Butterfly, the soul as a, 29 n.1, 51 sq.

Cacongo, King of, 115, 118

Caffre customs at circumcision, 156 sq.

Caffres, "women's speech" among the, 335 sq.

Calabar, fetish king at, 22 sq.

Calabashes, souls shut up in, 72

Calchaquis Indians, 31

Californian Indians, 352

Cambodia, kings of, 376

Camden, W., 68

Campbell, J., 384

Camphor, special language employed by searchers for, 405 sqq.

Canelos Indians, 97

Cannibalism at hair-cutting, 264

Cannibals, taboos imposed on, among the Kwakiutl, 188 sqq.

Canoe, fish offered to, 195

Canoes, continence observed at building, 202

Captives killed and eaten, 179 sq.

Carayahis, the, 348

Caribou, taboos concerning, 208

Caribs, difference of language between men and women among the, 348

Caroline Islands, 25, 193, 290, 293

Caron's Account of Japan, 4 n.2

Carrier Indians, 215, 367

Catat, Dr., 98

Catlin, G., 182

Cats with stumpy tails, reason of, 128 sq.

Cattle, continence observed for sake of, 204;

protected against wolves by charms, 307

Caul-fat extracted by Australian enemies, 303

"Cauld airn," 233

Cazembes, the, 132

Celebes, 32, 33, 35;

hooking souls in, 30

Celibacy of holy milkmen, 15, 16

Ceremonial purity observed in war, 157

Ceremonies at the reception of strangers, 102 sqq.;

at entering a strange land, 109 sqq.;

purificatory, on return from a journey, 111 sqq.;

observed after slaughter of panthers, lions, bears, serpents, etc., 219 sqq.;

at hair-cutting, 264 sqq.

Cetchwayo, King, 377

Chams, the, 202, 297

Change of language caused by taboo on the names of the dead, 358 sqq., 375;

caused by taboo on names of chiefs and kings, 375, 376 sqq.

-- of names to deceive ghosts, 354 sqq.

Charms to facilitate childbirth, 295 sq.

Chastity. See Continence

Chegilla, taboo, 137

Cheremiss, the, 391

Cherokee sorcery with spittle, 287 sq.

Chiefs, foods tabooed to, 291, 292;

names of, tabooed, 376 sq., 378 sq., 381, 382

-- and kings tabooed, 131 sqq.

-- sacred, not allowed to leave their [pg 430] enclosures, 124;

regarded as dangerous, 138

Child and father, supposed danger of resemblance between, 88 sq.

Child's nails bitten off, 262

Childbed, taboos imposed on women in, 147 sqq.

Childbirth, precautions taken with mother at, 32, 33;

women tabooed at, 147 sqq.;

confession of sins as a means of expediting, 216 sq.;

women after, their hair shaved and burnt, 284;

homoeopathic magic to facilitate, 295 sqq.;

knots untied at, 294, 296 sq., 297 sq.

Children, young, tabooed, 262, 283;

parents named after their, 331 sqq.

Chiloe, Indians of, 287, 324

China, custom at funerals in, 80;

Emperor of, 125, 375 sq.

Chitomé or Chitombé, a pontiff of Congo, 5 sq., 7

Chittagong, 297

Choctaws, the, 181

Chuckchees, the, 358

Circumcision customs among the Caffres, 156 sq.;

performed with flints, not iron, 227;

in Australia, 244

Circumlocutions adopted to avoid naming the dead, 350, 351, 354, 355;

employed by reapers, 412

Cities, guardian deities of, evoked by enemies, 391

Clasping of hands forbidden, 298

Clavie, the, at Burghead, 229 sq.

Cleanliness fostered by superstition, 130;

personal, observed in war, 157, 158 n.1

Clippings of hair, magic wrought through, 268 sqq., 275, 277, 278 sq.

Clotaire, 259

Clothes of sacred persons tabooed, 131

Cloths used to catch souls, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 64, 67, 75 sq.

Clotilde, Queen, 259

Cobra, ceremonies after killing a, 222 sq.

Coco-nut oil made by chaste women, 201

Codjour, a priestly king, 132 n.1

Coins, portraits of kings not stamped on, 98 sq.

Comanches, the, 360

Combing the hair forbidden, 187, 203, 208, 264;

thought to cause storms, 271

Combs of sacred persons, 256

Common objects, names of, changed when they are the names of the dead, 358 sqq., 375, or the names of chiefs and kings, 375, 376 sqq.

-- words tabooed, 392 sqq.

Concealment of miscarriage in childbed, supposed effects of, 152 sqq.

Concealment of personal names from fear of magic, 320 sqq.

Conciliating the spirits of the land, 110 sq.

Conduct, standard of, shifted from natural to supernatural basis, 213 sq.

Confession of sins, 114, 191, 195, 211 sq., 214 sqq.;

originally a magical ceremony, 217

Connaught, kings of, 11 sq.

Consummation of marriage prevented by knots and locks, 299 sqq.

Contagious magic, 246, 268, 272

Continence enjoined on people during the rounds of sacred pontiff, 5;

of Zapotec priests, 6;

of priests, 159 n.

-- observed on eve of period of taboo, 11;

by those who have handled the dead, 142;

during war, 157, 158 n.1, 161, 163, 164, 165;

after victory, 166 sqq., 175, 178, 179, 181;

by cannibals, 188;

by fishers and hunters, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 207;

by workers in salt-pans, 200;

at brewing beer, wine, and poison, 200 sq., 201 sq.;

at baking, 201;

at making coco-nut oil, 201;

at building canoes, 202;

at house-building, 202;

at making or repairing dams, 202;

on trading voyages, 203;

after festivals, 204;

on journeys, 204;

while cattle are at pasture, 204;

by lion-killers and bear-killers, 220, 221;

before handling holy relics, 272;

by tabooed men, 293

Cooking, taboos as to, 147 sq., 156, 165, 169, 178, 185, 193, 194, 198, 209, 221, 256

Coptic church, 235, 310 n.5

Cords, knotted, in magic, 302, 303 sq.

Corea, clipped hair burned in, 283

-- kings of, 125;

not to be touched with iron, 226

Corpses, knots not allowed about, 310

Cousins, male and female, not allowed to mention each other's names, 344

Covenant, spittle used in making a, 290

Covering up mirrors at a death, 94 sq.

Cow bewitched, 93

Cowboy of the king of Unyoro, 159 n.

Creek Indians, the, 156;

their war customs, 161

Crevaux, J., 105

Criminals shaved as a mode of purification, 287

Crocodiles not called by their proper names, 403, 410, 411, 415 sq.

Crossing of legs forbidden, 295, 298 sq.

Crown, imperial, as palladium, 4

Crystals used in divination, 56

Curr, E. M., 320 sq.

Cursing at Athens, ritual of, 75

-- an enemy, Arab mode of, 312

[pg 431] Curtains to conceal kings, 120 sq.

Cut hair and nails, disposal of, 267 sqq.

Cuts made in the body as a mode of expelling demons or ghosts, 106 sq.;

in bodies of manslayers, 174, 176, 180;

in bodies of slain, 176. See also Incisions

Cutting the hair a purificatory ceremony, 283 sqq.

Cynaetha, people of, 188

Cyzicus, council chamber at, 230

Dacotas, the, 181

Dahomey, the King of, 9;

royal family of, 243;

kings of, their "strong names," 374

Dairi, the, or Mikado of Japan, 2, 4

Dairies, sacred, of the Todas, 15 sqq.

Dairymen, sacred, of the Todas, 15 sqq.

Damaras, the, 247

Dams, continence at making or repairing, 202

Dance of king, 123;

of successful head-hunters, 166

Dances of victory, 169, 170, 178, 182

Danger of being overshadowed by certain birds or people, 82 sq.;

supposed, of portraits and photographs, 96 sqq.;

supposed to attend contact with divine or sacred persons, such as chiefs and kings, 132, 138

Darfur, 81;

Sultan of, 120

Dassera, festival of the, 316

Daughter-in-law, her name not to be pronounced, 338

David and the King of Moab, 273

Dawson, J., 347 sq.

Dead, sacrifices to the, 15, 88;

taboos on persons who have handled the, 138 sqq.;

souls of the dead all malignant, 145;

names of the dead tabooed, 349 sqq.;

to name the dead a serious crime, 352;

names of the dead not borne by the living, 354;

reincarnation or resurrection of the dead in their namesakes, 365 sqq.;

festivals of the, 367, 371

-- body, prohibition to touch, 14

Death, natural, of sacred king or priest, supposed fatal consequences of, 6, 7;

kept off by arrows, 31;

mourners forbidden to sleep in house after a death, 37;

custom of covering up mirrors at a, 94 sq.;

from imagination, 135 sqq.

Debt of civilisation to savagery, 421 sq.

Defiled hands, 174. See Hands

De Groot, J. J. M., 390

Demons, abduction of souls by, 58 sqq.;

of disease expelled by pungent spices, pricks, and cuts, 105 sq.;

and ghosts averse to iron, 232 sqq.

Devils, abduction of souls by, 58 sqq.

Dido, her magical rites, 312

Diet of kings and priests regulated, 291 sqq.

Dieterich, A., 369 n.3

Difference of language between husbands and wives, 347 sq.;

between men and women, 348 sq.

Diminution of shadow regarded with apprehension, 86 sq.

Dio Chrysostom, on fame as a shadow, 86 sq.

Diodorus Siculus, 12 sq.

Dionysus in the city, festival of, 316

Disease, demons of, expelled by pungent spices, pricks, and cuts, 105 sq.

Disenchanting strangers, various modes of, 102 sqq.

Dishes, effect of eating out of sacred, 4;

of sacred persons tabooed, 131. See Vessels

Disposal of cut hair and nails, 267 sqq.

Divination by shoulder-blades of sheep, 229

Divinities, human, bound by many rules, 419 sq.

Divorce of spiritual from temporal power, 17 sqq.

Dobrizhoffer, Father M., 328, 360

Dog, prohibition to touch or name, 13

Dogs, bones of game kept from, 206;

unclean, 206;

tigers called, 402

Dolls or puppets employed for the restoration of souls to their bodies, 53 sqq., 62 sq.

Doorposts, blood put on, 15

Doors opened to facilitate childbirth, 296, 297;

to facilitate death, 309

Doubles, spiritual, of men and animals, 28 sq.

Doutté, E., 390

Dreams, absence of soul in, 36 sqq.;

belief of savages in the reality of, 36 sq.;

omens drawn from, 161

Drinking and eating, taboos on, 116 sqq.;

modes of drinking for tabooed persons, 117 sqq., 120, 143, 146, 147, 148, 160, 182, 183, 185, 189, 197, 198, 256

Drought supposed to be caused by a concealed miscarriage, 153 sq.

Dugong fishing, taboos in connexion with, 192

Dyaks, the Sea, 30;

their modes of recalling the soul, 47 sq., 52 sq., 55 sq., 60, 67;

taboos observed by head-hunters among the, 166 sq.

Eagle, soul in form of, 34

-- -hunters, taboos observed by, 198 sq.

[pg 432] Eagle-wood, special language employed by searchers for, 404

Eating out of sacred vessels, supposed effect of, 4

-- and drinking, taboos on, 116 sqq.;

fear of being seen in the act of, 117 sqq.

Eggs offered to demons, 110;

reason for breaking shells of, 129 sq.

Egypt, rules of life observed by ancient kings of, 12 sq.

Egyptian magicians, their power of compelling the deities, 389 sq.

Egyptians, the ancient, their conception of the soul, 28;

their practice as to souls of the dead, 68 sq.;

personal names among, 322

Elder brother, his name not to be pronounced, 341

Elder-tree, cut hair and nails inserted in an, 275 sq.

Elephant-hunters, special language employed by, 404

Eleusinian priests, their names sacred, 382 sq.

Elfin race averse to iron, 232 sq.

Emetic as mode of purification, 175, 245;

pretended, in auricular confession, 214

Emin Pasha, 108

Epidemics attributed to evil spirits, 30

Epimenides, the Cretan seer, 50 n.2

Esquimaux, their conception of the soul, 27;

their dread of being photographed, 96;

or Inuit, taboos observed by hunters among the, 205 sq.;

namesakes of the dead among the, 371

Esthonians, the, 41 sq., 240

Ethical evolution, 218 sq.

-- precepts developed out of savage taboos, 214

Ethiopia, kings of, 124

Euphemisms employed for certain animals, 397 sqq.;

for smallpox, 400, 410, 411, 416

Europe, south-eastern, superstitions as to shadows in, 89 sq.

Evil eye, the, 116 sq.

Ewe-speaking peoples of the Slave Coast, 9;

rebirth of ancestors among the, 369

Execution, peculiar modes of, for members of royal families, 241 sqq.

Executioners, customs observed by, 171 sq., 180 sq.

Exorcising harmful influence of strangers, 102 sqq.

Eye, the evil, 116 sq.

Eyeos, the, 9

Faces veiled to avert evil influences, 120 sqq.;

of warriors blackened, 163;

of manslayers blackened, 169

Fàdy, taboo, 327

Fafnir and Sigurd, 324

Fairies averse to iron, 229, 232 sq.

Fasting, custom of, 157 n.2, 159 n., 161, 162, 163, 182, 183, 189, 198, 199

Father and child, supposed danger of resemblance between, 88 sq.

-- and mother, their names not to be mentioned, 337, 341

-- in-law, his name not to be pronounced by his daughter-in-law, 335 sqq., 343, 345, 346;

by his son-in-law, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344

Fathers named after their children, 331 sqq.

Faunus, consultation of, 314

Feast of Yams, 123

Feathers worn by manslayers, 180, 186 n.1

Feet, not to wet the, 159. See also Foot

Fernando Po, taboos observed by the kings of, 8 sq., 115, 123, 291

Festival of the Dead among the Hurons, 367

Fetish or taboo rajah, 24

-- kings in West Africa, 22 sqq.

Fever, euphemism for, 400

"Field speech," a special jargon employed by reapers, 410 sq., 411 sq.

Fiji, catching away souls in, 69;

War King and Sacred King in, 21;

custom as to remains of food in, 117

Fijian chief, supposed effect of using his dishes or clothes, 131

-- conception of the soul, 29 sq., 92

-- custom of frightening away ghosts, 170

-- notion of absence of the soul in dreams, 39 sq.

Fingers cut off as a sacrifice, 161

Finnish hunters, 398

Fire, rule as to removing fire from priest's house, 13;

prohibition to blow the fire with the breath, 136, 256;

in purificatory rites, 108, 109, 111, 114, 197;

tabooed, 178, 182, 256 sq.;

new, made by friction, 286

-- and Water, kingships of, 17

Firefly, soul in form of, 67

First-fruits, offering of, 5

Fish-traps, continence observed at making, 202

Fishermen, words tabooed by, 394 sq., 396, 408 sq., 415

Fishers and hunters tabooed, 190 sqq.

Fison, Rev. Lorimer, 30 n.1, 40 n.1, 92 n.3, 131 n.2

Fits and convulsions set down to demons, 59

Flamen Dialis, taboos observed by the, 13 sq., 239, 248, 257, 275, 291, 293, 315 sq.

[pg 433] Flaminica, rules observed by the, 14

Flannan Islands, 392

Flesh, boiled, not to be eaten by tabooed persons, 185;

diet restricted or forbidden, 291 sqq.

Flints, not iron, cuts to be made with, 176;

use of, prescribed in ritual, 176;

sharp, circumcision performed with, 227

Fly, soul in form of, 39

Food, remnants of, buried as a precaution against sorcery, 118, 119, 127 sq., 129;

magic wrought by means of refuse of, 126 sqq.;

taboos on leaving food over, 127 sqq.;

not to be touched with hands, 138 sqq., 146 sqq., 166, 167, 168, 169, 174, 203, 265;

objection to have food over head, 256, 257

Foods tabooed, 291 sqq.

Foot, custom of going with only one foot shod, 311 sqq. See also Feet

Footprint in magic, 74;

of Buddha, 275

Forgetfulness, pretence of, 189

Forks used in eating by tabooed persons, 148, 168, 169, 203

Fors, the, of Central Africa, 281

Foundation sacrifices, 89 sqq.

Fowl used in exorcism, 106

Fowlers, words tabooed by, 393, 407 sq.

Foxes not to be mentioned by their proper names, 396, 397

Frankish kings, their unshorn hair, 258 sq.

Fresh meat tabooed, 143

Fumigation as a mode of ceremonial purification, 155, 177

Funerals in China, custom as to shadows at, 80. See also Burial, Burials

Furfo, 230

Gabriel, the archangel, 302, 303

Gangas, fetish priests, 291

Garments, effect of wearing sacred, 4

Gates, sacrifice of human beings at foundations of, 90 sq.

Gatschet, A. S., 363

Gauntlet, running the, 222

Genitals of murdered people eaten, 190 n.2

Getae, priestly kings of the, 21

Ghost of husband kept from his widow, 143;

fear of evoking the ghost by mentioning his name, 349 sqq.;

chased into the grave at the end of mourning, 373 sq.

Ghosts, sacrifices to, 56, 247;

draw away the souls of their kinsfolk, 51 sqq.;

draw out men's shadows, 80;

as guardians of gates, 90 sq.;

kept off by thorns, 142;

and demons averse to iron, 232 sqq.;

fear of wounding, 237 sq.;

swept out of house, 238;

names changed in order to deceive ghosts or to avoid attracting their attention, 354 sqq.

Ghosts of animals, dread of, 223

-- of the slain haunt their slayers, 165 sqq.;

fear of the, 165 sqq.;

sacrifices to, 166;

scaring away the, 168, 170, 171, 172, 174 sq.;

as birds, 177 sq.

Gilyaks, the, 370

Ginger in purificatory rites, 105, 151

Gingiro, kingdom of, 18

Girls at puberty obliged to touch everything in house, 225 n.;

their hair torn out, 284

Goajiro Indians, 30, 350

Goat, prohibition to touch or name, 13;

transference of guilt to, 214 sq.

-- -sucker, shadow of the, 82

God, "the most great name" of, 390

-- -man a source of danger, 132;

bound by many rules, 419 sq.

Gods, their names tabooed, 387 sqq.;

Xenophanes on the, 387;

human, bound by many rules, 419 sq. See also Myths

Gold excluded from some temples, 226 n.8

-- and silver as totems, 227 n.

-- mines, spirits of the, treated with deference, 409 sq.

Goldie, H., 22

Gollas, the, 149

Good Friday, 229

Goorkhas, the, 316

Gordian knot, 316 sq.

Gran Chaco, Indians of the, 37, 38, 357

Grandfathers, grandsons named after their deceased, 370

Grandidier, A., 380 sq.

Grandmothers, granddaughters named after their deceased, 370

Grass knotted as a charm, 305, 310

Grave, soul fetched from, 54

-- -clothes, no knots in, 310

-- -diggers, taboos observed by, 141, 142

Graves, food offered on, 53;

water poured on, as a rain-charm, 154 sq.

Great Spirit, sacrifice of fingers to the, 161

Grebo people of Sierra Leone, 14

Greek conception of the soul, 29 n.1

-- customs as to manslayers, 188

Grey, Sir George, 364 sq.

Grihya-S?tras, 277

Grimm, J., 305 n.1

Ground, prohibition to touch the, 3, 4, 6;

not to sit on the, 159, 162, 163;

not to set foot on, 180;

royal blood not to be shed on the, 241 sqq.

Guardian deities of cities, 391

[pg 434] Guaycurus, the, 357

Guiana, Indians of, 324

Gypsy superstition about portraits, 100

Haida medicine-men, 31

Hair, mode of cutting the Mikado's, 3;

cut with bronze knife, 14;

of manslayers shaved, 175, 176;

of slain enemy, fetish made from, 183;

not to be combed, 187, 203, 208, 264;

tabooed, 258 sqq.;

of kings, priests, and wizards unshorn, 258 sqq.;

regarded as the seat of a god or spirit, 258, 259, 263;

kept unshorn at certain times, 260 sqq.;

offered to rivers, 261;

of children unshorn, 263;

magic wrought through clippings of, 268 sqq., 275, 277, 278 sq.;

cut or combed out may cause rain and thunderstorms, 271, 272, 282;

clippings of, used as hostages, 272 sq.;

infected by virus of taboo, 283 sq.;

cut as a purificatory ceremony, 283 sqq.;

of women after childbirth shaved and burnt, 284;

loosened at childbirth, 297 sq.;

loosened in magical and religious ceremonies, 310 sq.

-- and nails of sacred persons not cut, 3, 4, 16

-- and nails, cut, disposal of, 267 sqq.;

deposited on or under trees, 14, 275 sq., 286;

deposited in sacred places, 274 sqq.;

stowed away in any secret place, 276 sqq.;

kept for use at the resurrection, 279 sqq.;

burnt to prevent them from falling into the hands of sorcerers, 281 sqq.

-- -cutting, ceremonies at, 264 sqq.

Hands tabooed, 138, 140 sqq., 146 sqq., 158, 159 n., 265;

food not to be touched with, 138 sqq., 146 sqq., 166, 167, 168, 169, 174, 265;

defiled, 174;

not to be clasped, 298

Hanun, King of Moab, 273

Hawaii, 72, 106;

customs as to chiefs and shadows in, 255

Head, stray souls restored to, 47, 48, 52, 53 sq., 64, 67;

prohibition to touch the, 142, 183, 189, 252 sq., 254, 255 sq.;

plastered with mud, 182;

the human, regarded as sacred, 252 sqq.;

tabooed, 252 sqq.;

supposed to be the residence of spirits, 252;

objection to have any one overhead, 253 sqq.;

washing the, 253

-- -hunters, customs of, 30, 36, 71 sq., 111, 166 sq., 169 sq.

Headache caused by clipped hair, 270 sq., 282

Heads of manslayers shaved, 177

Hearne, S., quoted, 184 sqq.

Hebesio, god of thunder, 257

Hercules and Alcmena, 298 sq.

Herero, the, 151, 177, 225 n.

Hermotimus of Clazomenae, 50

Hidatsa Indians, taboos observed by eagle-hunters among the, 198 sq.

Hierapolis, temple of Astarte at, 286

Hiro, thief-god, 69

Historical tradition hampered by the taboo on the names of the dead, 363 sqq.

Holiness and pollution not differentiated by savages, 224

Hollis, A. C., 200 n.3

Holy water, sprinkling with, 285 sq.

Homicides. See Manslayers

Homoeopathic magic, 151, 152, 207, 295, 298

Honey-wine, continence observed at brewing, 200

Hooks to catch souls, 30 sq., 51

Horse, prohibition to see a, 9;

prohibition to ride, 13

Hos of Togoland, the, 295, 301

Hostages, clipped hair used as, 272 sq.

Hottentots, the, 220

House, ceremony at entering a new, 63 sq.;

taboos on quitting the, 122 sqq.

-- building, custom as to shadows at, 81, 89 sq.;

continence observed at, 202

Howitt, A. W., 269

Huichol Indians, 197

Human gods bound by many rules, 419 sq.

-- sacrifices at foundation of buildings, 90 sq.

Humbe, a kingdom of Angola, 6

Hunters use knots as charms, 306;

words tabooed by, 396, 398, 399, 400, 402, 404, 410

-- and fishers tabooed, 190 sqq.

Hurons, the, 366;

their conception of the soul, 27;

their Festival of the Dead, 367

Husband's ghost kept from his widow, 143

-- name not to be pronounced by his wife, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339

Husbands and wives, difference of language between, 347 sq.

Huzuls, the, 270, 314

Ilocanes of Luzon, 44

Imagination, death from, 135 sqq.

Imitative or homoeopathic magic, 295

Impurity of manslayers, 167

Incas of Peru, 279

Incisions made in bodies of warriors as a preparation for war, 161;

in bodies of slain, 176;

in bodies of manslayers, 174, 176, 180.

See also Cuts

[pg 435] Incontinence of young people supposed to be fatal to the king, 6

India, names of animals tabooed in, 401 sqq.

Indians of North America, their customs on the war-path, 158 sqq.;

their fear of naming the dead, 351 sqq.

Infants tabooed, 255

Infection, supposed, of lying-in women, 150 sqq.

Infidelity of wife supposed to be fatal to hunter, 197

Initiation, custom of covering the mouth after, 122;

taboos observed by novices at, 141 sq., 156 sq.;

new names given at, 320

Injury to a man's shadow conceived as an injury to the man, 78 sqq.

Inspiration, primitive theory of, 248

Intercourse with wives enjoined before war, 164 n.1;

enjoined on manslayers, 176. See also Continence

Intoxication accounted inspiration, 248, 249, 250

Inuit. See Esquimaux

Ireland, taboos observed by the ancient kings of, 11 sq.

Irish custom as to a fall, 68;

as to friends' blood, 244 sq.

Iron not to be touched, 167;

tabooed, 176, 225 sqq.;

used as a charm against spirits, 232 sqq.

-- instruments, use of, tabooed, 205, 206

-- rings as talismans, 235

Iroquois, the, 352, 385

Isis and Ra, 387 sqq.

Israelites, rules of ceremonial purity observed by the Israelites in war, 157 sq., 177

Issini, the, 171

Itonamas, the, 31

Ivy, prohibition to touch or name, 13 sq.

Ja-Luo, the, 79

Jackals, tigers called, 402, 403

Jackson, Professor Henry, 21 n.3

Japan, the Mikado of, 2 sqq.;

Kaempfer's history of, 3 n.2;

Caron's account of, 4 n.2

Jars, souls conjured into, 70

Jason and Pelias, 311 sq.

Java, 34, 35

Jebu, the king of, 121

Jewish hunters, their customs as to blood of game, 241

Jinn, the servants of their magical names, 390

Journey, purificatory ceremonies on return from a, 111 sqq.;

continence observed on a, 204;

hair kept unshorn on a, 261

Jumping over wife or children as a ceremony, 112, 164 n.1

Juno Lucina, 294

Junod, H. A., 152 sqq., 420 n.1

Jupiter Liber, temple of, at Furfo, 230

Ka, the ancient Egyptian, 28

Kachins of Burma, 200

Kaempfer's History of Japan, 3 sq.

Kafirs of the Hindoo Koosh, 13 n.6, 14 n.2

Kaitish, the, 82, 295

Kalamba, the, a chief in the Congo region, 114

Kami, the Japanese word for god, 2 n.2

Kamtchatkans, their attempts to deceive mice, 399

Karaits, the, 95

Karen-nis of Burma, the, 13

Karens, the Red, of Burma, 292;

their recall of the soul, 43;

their customs at funerals, 51

Karo-Bataks, 52. See also Battas

Katikiro, the, of Uganda, 145 n.4

Kavirondo, 176

Kayans of Borneo, 32, 47, 110, 164, 239

Kei Islanders, 53

Kenyahs of Borneo, 43, 415

Key as symbol of delivery in childbed, 296

Keys as charms against devils and ghosts, 234, 235, 236;

as amulets, 308. See also Locks

Khonds, rebirth of ancestors among the, 368 sq.

Kickapoos, the, 171

Kidd, Dudley, 88 n.

King not to be overshadowed, 83

-- of the Night, 23

King's Evil, the, 134

Kings, supernatural powers attributed to, 1;

beaten before their coronation, 18;

forbidden to see their mothers, 86;

portraits of, not stamped on coins, 98 sq.;

guarded against the magic of strangers, 114 sq.;

forbidden to use foreign goods, 115;

not to be seen eating and drinking, 117 sqq.;

concealed by curtains, 120 sq.;

forbidden to leave their palaces, 122 sqq.;

compelled to dance, 123;

punished or put to death, 124;

not to be touched, 132, 225 sq.;

their hair unshorn, 258 sq.;

foods tabooed to, 291 sq.;

names of, tabooed, 374 sqq.;

taboos observed by, identical with those observed by commoners, 419 sq.

Kings and chiefs tabooed, 131 sqq.;

their spittle guarded against sorcerers, 289 sq.

-- fetish or religious, in West Africa, 22 sqq.

[pg 436] Kingsley, Miss Mary H., 22 n.3, 71, 123 n.2, 251

Kiowa Indians, 357, 360

Klallam Indians, the, 354

Knife as charm against spirits, 232, 233, 234, 235

Knives not to be left edge upwards, 238;

not used at funeral banquets, 238

Knot, the Gordian, 316 sq.

Knots, prohibition to wear, 13;

untied at childbirth, 294, 296 sq., 297 sq.;

thought to prevent the consummation of marriage, 299 sqq.;

thought to cause sickness, disease, and all kinds of misfortune, 301 sqq.;

used to cure disease, 303 sqq.;

used to win a lover or capture a runaway slave, 305 sq.;

used as protective amulets, 306 sqq.;

used as charms by hunters and travellers, 306;

as a charm to protect corn from devils, 308 sq.;

on corpses untied, 310

-- and locks, magical virtue of, 310, 313

-- and rings tabooed, 293 sqq.

Koita, the, 168

Koryak, the, 32

Kruijt, A. C., 319

Kublai Khan, 242

Kukulu, a priestly king, 5

Kwakiutl, the, 53;

customs observed by cannibals among the, 188 sqq.;

change of names in summer and winter among the, 386

Kwun, the spirit of the head, 252;

supposed to reside in the hair, 266 sq.

Lafitau, J. F., 365 sq.

Lampong in Sumatra, 10

Lamps to light the ghosts to their old homes, 371

Language of husbands and wives, difference between, 347 sq.;

of men and women, difference between, 348 sq.

-- change of, caused by taboo on the names of the dead, 358 sqq., 375;

caused by taboo on the names of chiefs and kings, 375, 376 sqq.

-- special, employed by hunters, 396, 398, 399, 400, 402, 404, 410;

employed by searchers for eagle-wood and lignum aloes, 404;

employed by searchers for camphor, 405 sqq.;

employed by miners, 407, 409;

employed by reapers at harvest, 410 sq., 411 sq.;

employed by sailors at sea, 413 sqq.

Laos, 306

Lapps, the, 294;

their customs after killing a bear, 221;

rebirth of ancestors among the, 368

Latuka, the, 245

Leaning against a tree prohibited to warriors, 162, 163

Leavened bread, prohibition to touch, 13

Leaving food over, taboos on, 126 sqq.

Leavings of food, magic wrought by means of, 118, 119, 126 sqq.

Legs not to be crossed, 295, 298 sq.

Leinster, kings of, 11

Leleen, the, 129

Lengua Indians of the Gran Chaco, 38, 357

Leonard, A. G., Major, 136 sq.

Lesbos, building custom in, 89

Lewis, Rev. Thomas, 420 n.1

Life in the blood, 241, 250

Limbs, amputated, kept by the owners against the resurrection, 281

Lion-killer, purification of, 176, 220

Lions not called by their proper names, 400

Lithuanians, the old, their funeral banquets, 238

Liver, induration of the, attributed to touching sacred chief, 133

Lizard, soul in form of, 38

Loango, taboos observed by kings of, 8, 9;

taboos observed by heir to throne of, 291

-- king of, forbidden to see a white man's house, 115;

not to be seen eating or drinking, 117 sq.;

confined to his palace, 123;

refuse of his food buried, 129

Locks unlocked at childbirth, 294, 296;

thought to prevent the consummation of marriage, 299;

as amulets, 308, 309;

unlocked to facilitate death, 309

-- and knots, magical virtue of, 309 sq. See also Keys

Lolos, the, 43

Look back, not to, 157

Loom, men not allowed to touch a, 164

Loss of the shadow regarded as ominous, 88

Lovers won by knots, 305

Lucan, 390

Lucian, 270, 382

Lucina, 294, 398 sq.

Lucky names, 391 n.1

Lycaeus, sanctuary of Zeus on Mount, 88

Lycosura, sanctuary of the Mistress at, 227 n., 314

Lying-in women, dread of, 150 sqq.;

sacred, 151

Mack, an adventurer, 19

Macusi Indians, 36, 159 n.

Madagascar, names of chiefs and kings tabooed in, 378 sqq.

Magic wrought by means of refuse of food, 126 sqq.;

sympathetic, 126, 130, 164, 201, 204, 258, 268, 287;

homoeopathic, [pg 437] 151, 152, 207, 295, 298;

contagious, 246, 268, 272;

wrought through clippings of hair, 268 sqq., 275, 277, 278 sq.;

wrought on a man through his name, 318, 320 sqq.

Magicians, Egyptian, their power of compelling the deities, 389 sq.

Mahafalys of Madagascar, the, 10

Makalaka, the, 369

Makololo, the, 281

Malagasy language, dialectical variations of, 378 sq., 380

Malanau tribes of Borneo, 406

Malay conception of the soul as a bird, 34 sqq.

-- miners, fowlers, and fishermen, special forms of speech employed by, 407 sqq.

-- Peninsula, art of abducting human souls in the, 73 sqq.

Maldives, the, 274

Mandalay, 90, 125

Mandan Indians, 97

Mandelings of Sumatra, 296

Mangaia, separation of religious and civil authority in, 20

Mangaians, the, 87

Manipur, hill tribes of, 292

Mannikin, the soul conceived as a, 26 sqq.

Manslayers, purification of, 165 sqq.;

secluded, 165 sqq.;

tabooed, 165 sqq.;

haunted by ghosts of slain, 165 sqq.;

their faces blackened, 169;

their bodies painted, 175, 178, 179, 180, 186 n.1;

their hair shaved, 175, 177

Maori chiefs, their sanctity or taboo, 134 sqq.;

their heads sacred, 256

-- language, synonyms in the, 381

Maoris, persons who have handled the dead tabooed among the, 138 sq.;

tabooed on the war-path, 157

Marco Polo, 242, 243

Marianne Islands, 288

Mariner, W., quoted, 140

Mariners at sea, special language employed by, 413 sqq.

Marquesans, the, 31;

their regard for the sanctity of the head, 254 sq.;

their customs as to the hair, 261 sq.;

their dread of sorcery, 268

Marquesas Islands, 178

Marriage, the consummation of, prevented by knots and locks, 299 sqq.

Masai, the, 200, 309, 329, 354 sq., 356, 361

Matthews, Dr. Washington, 385

Meal sprinkled to keep off evil spirits, 112

Measuring shadows, 89 sq.

-- -tape deified, 91 sq.

Mecca, pilgrims to, not allowed to wear knots and rings, 293 sq.

Medes, law of the, 121

Mekeo district of New Guinea, 24

Men injured through their shadows, 78 sqq.

-- and women, difference of language between, 348 sq.

Menedemus, 227

Menstruation, women tabooed at, 145 sqq.

Menstruous women, dread of, 145 sqq., 206;

avoidance of, by hunters, 211

Mentras, the, 404

Merolla da Sorrento, 137

Mice thought to understand human speech, 399;

not to be called by their proper names, 399, 415

Midas and his ass's ears, 258 n.1;

king of Gordium, 316

Mikado, rules of life of the, 2 sqq.;

supposed effect of using his dishes or clothes, 131;

the cutting of his hair and nails, 265

Mikados, their relations to the Tycoons, 19

Miklucho-Maclay, Baron N. von, 109

Milk, custom as to drinking, 119;

prohibition to drink, 141;

not to be drunk by wounded men, 174 sq.;

wine called, 249 n.2;

and beef not to be eaten at the same meal, 292

Milkmen of the Todas, taboos observed by the holy, 15 sqq.

Miller, Hugh, 40

Minahassa, a district of Celebes, 99;

the Alfoors of, 63

Minangkabauers of Sumatra, 32, 36, 41

Miners, special language employed by, 407, 409

Mirrors, superstitions as to, 93;

covered after a death, 94 sq.

Miscarriage in childbed, dread of, 149, 152 sqq.;

supposed danger of concealing a, 211, 213

Moab, Arabs of, 280;

their custom of shaving prisoners, 273

Moabites, King David's treatment of the, 273 sq.

Mohammed bewitched by a Jew, 302 sq.

Mongols, their recall of the soul, 44;

sacred books of the, 384

Montezuma, 121

Monumbos, the, 169, 238

Mooney, J., 318 sqq.

Moquis, the, 228

Moral guilt regarded as a corporeal pollution, 217 sq.

Morality developed out of taboo, 213 sq.;

shifted from a natural to a supernatural basis, 213;

survival of savage taboos in civilised, 218 sq.

Morice, A. G., 146 sq.

Mosyni or Mosynoeci, the, 124

[pg 438] Mother-in-law, the savage's dread of his, 83 sqq.;

her name not to be mentioned by her son-in-law, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346

Mothers, African kings forbidden to see their, 86;

named after their children, 332, 333

Mourners, customs observed by, 31 sq., 159 n.;

tabooed, 138 sqq.;

bodies of, smeared with mud or clay, 182 n.2;

hair and nails of, cut at end of mourning, 285 sq.

Mourning of slayers for the slain, 181

Mouse, soul in form of, 37, 39 n.2

Mouth closed to prevent escape of soul, 31, 33;

soul in the, 33;

covered to prevent entrance of demons, etc., 122

Muata Jamwo, the, 118, 290

Mud smeared on feet of bed, 14;

plastered on head, 182

Munster, kings of, 11

Murderers, taboos imposed on, 187 sq.

Murrams, the, of Manipur, 292

Muysca Indians, 121

Myths of gods and spirits to be told only in spring and summer, 384;

to be told only in winter, 385 sq.;

not to be told by day, 384 sq.

Nails, prohibition to cut finger-nails, 194;

of children not pared, 262 sq.

-- and hair, cut, disposal of, 267 sqq.;

deposited in sacred places, 274 sqq.;

stowed away in any secret place, 276 sqq.;

kept for use at the resurrection, 279 sqq.;

burnt to prevent them from falling into the hands of sorcerers, 281 sqq.

Nails, iron, used as charms against fairies, demons, and ghosts, 233, 234, 236

-- parings of, used in rain-charms, 271, 272;

swallowed by treaty-makers, 246, 274

Name, the personal, regarded as a vital part of the man, 318 sqq.;

identified with the soul, 319;

the same, not to be borne by two living persons, 370

Names of relations tabooed, 335 sqq.;

changed to deceive ghosts, 354 sqq.;

of common objects changed when they are the names of the dead, 358 sqq., 375, or the names of chiefs and kings, 375, 376 sqq.;

of ancestors bestowed on their reincarnations, 368 sq.;

of kings and chiefs tabooed, 374 sqq.;

of supernatural beings tabooed, 384 sqq.;

of gods tabooed, 387 sqq.;

of spirits and gods, magical virtue of, 389 sqq.;

of Roman gods not to be mentioned, 391 n.1;

lucky, 391 n.1;

of dangerous animals not to be mentioned, 396 sqq.

Names, new, given to the sick and old, 319;

new, at initiation, 320

-- of the dead tabooed, 349 sqq.;

not borne by the living, 354;

revived after a time, 365 sqq.

-- personal, tabooed, 318 sqq.;

kept secret from fear of magic, 320 sqq.;

different in summer and winter, 386

Namesakes of the dead change their names to avoid attracting the attention of the ghost, 355 sqq.;

of deceased persons regarded as their reincarnations, 365 sqq.

Naming the dead a serious crime, 352, 354;

of children, solemnities at the, connected with belief in the reincarnation of ancestors in their namesakes, 372

Namosi, in Fiji, 264

Nandi, the, 175, 273, 310, 330

Nanumea, island of, 102

Narbrooi, a spirit or god, 60

Narcissus and his reflection, 94

Narrinyeri, the, 126 sq.

Natchez, customs of manslayers among the, 181

Nats, demons, 90

Natural death of sacred king or priest, supposed fatal consequences of, 6, 7

Navajo Indians, 112 sq., 325, 385

Navel-string used to recall the soul, 48

Nazarite, vow of the, 262

Nelson, E. W., 228, 237

Nets to catch souls, 69 sq.;

as amulets, 300, 307

New Britain, 85

-- Caledonia, 92, 141

-- everything, excites awe of savages, 230 sqq.

-- fire made by friction, 286

-- Hebrides, the, 56, 127

-- names given to the sick and old, 319;

at initiation, 320

-- Zealand, sanctity of chiefs in, 134 sqq.

Nias, island of, conception of the soul in, 29;

custom of the people of, 107;

special language of hunters in, 410;

special language employed by reapers in, 410 sq.

Nicknames used in order to avoid the use of the real names, 321, 331

Nicobar Islands, customs as to shadows at burials in the, 80 sq.

Nicobarese, the, 357;

changes in their language, 362 sq.

Nieuwenhuis, Dr. A. W., 99

Night, King of the, 23

Nine knots in magic, 302, 303, 304

Noon, sacrifices to the dead at, 88;

superstitious dread of, 88

Nootka Indians, their idea of the soul, [pg 439] 27;

customs of girls at puberty among the, 146 n.1;

their preparation for war, 160 sq.

North American Indians, their dread of menstruous women, 145;

their theory of names, 318 sq.

Norway, superstition as to parings of nails in, 283

Nose stopped to prevent the escape of the soul, 31, 71

Nostrils, soul supposed to escape by the, 30, 32, 33, 122

Novelties excite the awe of savages, 230 sqq.

Novices at initiation, taboos observed by, 141 sq., 156 sq.

Nubas, the, 132

Nufoors of New Guinea, 332, 341, 415

Obscene language in ritual, 154, 155

O'Donovan, E., 304

Oesel, island of, 42

Ojebways, the, 160

Oldfield, A., 350

Omahas, customs as to murderers among the, 187

Omens, reliance on, 110

One shoe on and one shoe off, 311 sqq.

Ongtong Java Islands, 107

Onitsha, the king of, 123

Opening everything in house to facilitate childbirth, 296 sq.

Orestes, the matricide, 188, 287

Oro, war god, 69

Orotchis, the, 232

Ot Danoms, the, 103

Ottawa Indians, the, 78

Ovambo, the, 227

Overshadowed, danger of being, 82 sq.

Ovid, on loosening the hair, 311

Ox, purification by passing through the body of an, 173

Padlocks as amulets, 307

Painting bodies of manslayers, 175, 178, 179, 180, 186 n.1

Palaces, kings not allowed to leave their, 122 sqq.

Pantang, taboo, 405

Panther, ceremonies at the slaughter of a, 219

Parents named after their children, 331 sqq.

-- -in-law, their names not to be pronounced, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342

Partition of spiritual and temporal power between religious and civil kings, 17 sqq.

Patagonians, the, 281

Paton, W. R., 382 n.4, 383 n.1

Pawnees, the, 228

Peace, ceremony at making, 274

Pelias and Jason, 311

Pentateuch, the, 219

Pepper in purificatory rites, 106, 114

Perils of the soul, 26 sqq.

Perseus and the Gorgon, 312

Persian kings, their custom at meals, 119

Persons, tabooed, 131 sqq.

Philosophy, primitive, 420 sq.

Phong long, ill luck caused by women in childbed, 155

Photographed or painted, supposed danger of being, 96 sqq.

Pictures, supposed danger of, 96 sq.

Pig, the word unlucky, 233

Pigeons, special language employed by Malays in snaring, 407 sq.

Pilgrims to Mecca not allowed to wear knots and rings, 293 sq.

Pimas, the purification of manslayers among the, 182 sqq.

Plataea, Archon of, forbidden to touch iron, 227;

escape of besieged from, 311

Pliny on crossed legs and clasped hands, 298;

on knotted threads, 303

Plutarch, 249

Poison, continence observed at brewing, 200

-- ordeal, 15

Polar bear, taboos concerning the, 209

Polemarch, the, at Athens, 22

Pollution or sanctity, their equivalence in primitive religion, 145, 158, 224

-- and holiness not differentiated by savages, 224

Polynesia, names of chiefs tabooed in, 381

Polynesian chiefs sacred, 136

Pons Sublicius, 230

Port Moresby, 203

Porto Novo, 23

Portraits, souls in, 96 sqq.;

supposed dangers of, 96 sqq.

Powers, S., 326

Pregnancy, husband's hair kept unshorn during wife's, 261;

conduct of husband during wife's, 294, 295;

superstitions as to knots during wife's, 294 sq.

Pregnant women, their superstitions about shadows, 82 sq.

Premature birth, 213. See Miscarriage

Pricking patient with needles to expel demons of disease, 106

Priests to be shaved with bronze, 226;

their hair unshorn, 259, 260;

foods tabooed to, 291

Prisoners shaved, 273;

released at festivals, 316

Propitiation of the souls of the slain, 166;

of spirits of slain animals, 190, 204 sq.;

of ancestors, 197

[pg 440] Prussians, the old, their funeral feasts, 238

Pulque, 201, 249

Puppets or dolls employed for the restoration of souls to their bodies, 53 sqq.

Purge as mode of ceremonial purification, 175

Purification of city, 188;

of Pimas after slaying Apaches, 182 sqq.;

of hunters and fishers, 190 sq.;

of moral guilt by physical agencies, 217 sq.;

by cutting the hair, 283 sqq.

-- of manslayers, 165 sqq.;

intended to rid them of the ghosts of the slain, 186 sq.

Purificatory ceremonies at reception of strangers, 102 sqq.;

on return from a journey, 111 sqq.

Purity, ceremonial, observed in war, 157

Pygmies, the African, 282

Pythagoras, maxims of, 314 n.2

Python, punishment for killing a, 222

Quartz used at circumcision instead of iron, 227

Queensland, aborigines of, 159 n.

Ra and Isis, 387 sqq.

Rabbah, siege of, 273

Rain caused by cut or combed out hair, 271, 272;

word for, not to be mentioned, 413

-- -charm by pouring water, 154 sq.

-- -makers, their hair unshorn, 259 sq.

Rainbow, the, a net for souls, 79

Ramanga, 246

Raven, soul as a, 34

Raw flesh not to be looked on, 239

-- meat, prohibition to touch or name, 13

Reapers, special language employed by, 410 sq., 411 sq.

Reasoning, definite, at the base of savage custom, 420 n.1

Rebirth of ancestors in their descendants, 368 sq.

Recall of the soul, 30 sqq.

Red, bodies of manslayers painted, 175, 179;

faces of manslayers painted, 185, 186 n.1

Reflection, the soul identified with the, 92 sqq.

Reflections in water or mirrors, supposed dangers of, 93 sq.

Refuse of food, magic wrought by means of, 126 sqq.

Regeneration, pretence of, 113

Reincarnation of the dead in their namesakes, 365 sqq.;

of ancestors in their descendants, 368 sqq.

Reindeer, taboos concerning, 208

Relations, names of, tabooed, 335 sqq.

Relationship, terms of, used as terms of address, 324 sq.

Release of prisoners at festivals, 316

Religion, passage of animism into, 213

Reluctance to accept sovereignty on account of taboos attached to it, 17 sqq.

Remnants of food buried as a precaution against sorcery, 118, 119, 127 sq., 129

Resemblance of child to father, supposed danger of, 88 sq.

Resurrection, cut hair and nails kept for use at the, 279 sq.

-- of the dead effected by giving their names to living persons, 365 sqq.

Rhys, Professor Sir John, 12 n.2;

on personal names, 319

Rice used to attract the soul conceived as a bird, 34 sqq., 45 sqq.;

soul of, not to be frightened, 412

-- -harvest, special language employed by reapers at, 410 sq., 411 sq.

Ring, broken, 13;

on ankle as badge of office, 15

Rings used to prevent the escape of the soul, 31;

as spiritual fetters, 313 sqq.;

as amulets, 314 sqq.;

not to be worn, 314

-- and knots tabooed, 293 sqq.

Rivers, Dr. W. H. R., 17

Rivers, prohibition to cross, 9 sq.

Robertson, Sir George Scott, 14 notes

Roepstorff, F. A. de, 362 sq.

Roman gods, their names not to be mentioned, 391 n.1

-- superstition about crossed legs, 298

Romans, their evocation of gods of besieged cities, 391

Rome, name of guardian deity of Rome kept secret, 391

Roscoe, Rev. J., 85 n.1, 145 n.4, 195 n.1, 254 n.5, 277 n.10

Roth, W. E., 356

Rotti, custom as to cutting child's hair in the island of, 276, 283;

custom as to knots at marriage in the island of, 301

Roumanian building superstition, 89

Royal blood not to be shed on the ground, 241 sqq.

Royalty, the burden of, 1 sqq.

Rules of life observed by sacred kings and priests, 1 sqq.

Runaways, knots as charm to stop, 305 sq.

Russell, F., 183 sq.

Sabaea or Sheba, kings of, 124

Sacred chiefs and kings regarded as dangerous, 131 sqq., 138;

their analogy [pg 441] to mourners, homicides, and women at menstruation and childbirth, 138

Sacred and unclean, correspondence of rules regarding the, 145

Sacrifices to ghosts, 56, 166;

to the dead, 88;

at foundation of buildings, 89 sqq.;

to ancestral spirits, 104

Sagard, Gabriel, 366 sq.

Sahagun, B. de, 249

Sailors at sea, special language employed by, 413 sqq.

Sakais, the, 348

Sakalavas of Madagascar, the, 10, 327;

customs as to names of dead kings among the, 379 sq.

Salish Indians, 66

Salmon, taboos concerning, 209

Salt not to be eaten, 167, 182, 184, 194, 195, 196;

name of, tabooed, 401

-- -pans, continence observed by workers in, 200

Samoyeds, 353

Sanctity of the head, 252 sqq.

-- or pollution, their equivalence in primitive religion, 145, 158, 224

Sankara and the Grand Lama, 78

Saragacos Indians, 152

Satapatha Brahmana, 217

Saturday, persons born on a, 89

Saturn, the planet, 315

Savage, our debt to the, 419 sqq.

-- custom the product of definite reasoning, 420 n.1

-- philosophy, 420 sq.

Saxons of Transylvania, 294

Scapegoat, 214 sq.

Scarification of warriors, 160 sq.;

of bodies of whalers, 191

Scaring away the ghosts of the slain, 168, 170, 171, 172, 174 sq.

Schoolcraft, H. R., 325

Scotch fowlers and fishermen, words tabooed by, 393 sqq.

Scotland, common words tabooed in, 392 sqq.

Scratching the person or head, rules as to, 146, 156, 158, 159 n., 160, 181, 183, 189, 196

Scrofula thought to be caused and cured by touching a sacred chief or king, 133 sq.

Sea, horror of the, 10;

offerings made to the, 10;

prohibition to look on the, 10;

special language employed by sailors at, 413 sqq.

-- -mammals, atonement for killing, 207;

myth of their origin, 207

Seals, supposed influence of lying-in women on, 152;

taboos observed after the killing of, 207 sq., 209, 213

Seclusion of those who have handled the dead, 138 sqq.;

of women at menstruation and childbirth, 145 sqq., 147 sqq.;

of tabooed persons, 165;

of manslayers, 166 sqq.;

of cannibals, 188 sqq.;

of men who have killed large game, 220 sq.

Secret names among the Central Australian aborigines, 321 sq.

Sedna, an Esquimau goddess, 152, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213

Semangat, Malay word for the soul, 28, 35

Semites, moral evolution of the, 219

Seoul, capital of Corea, 283

Serpents, purificatory ceremonies observed after killing, 221 sqq.

Servius, on Dido's costume, 313

Seven knots in magic, 303, 304, 308

Sewing as a charm, 307

Shades of dead animals, fear of offending, 205, 206, 207

Shadow, the soul identified with the, 77 sqq.;

injury done to a man through his, 78 sqq.;

diminution of shadow regarded with apprehension, 86 sq.;

loss of the, regarded as ominous, 88;

not to fall on a chief, 255

Shadows drawn out by ghosts, 80;

animals injured through their, 81 sq.;

of trees sensitive, 82;

of certain birds and people viewed as dangerous, 82 sq.;

built into the foundations of edifices, 89 sq.;

of mourners dangerous, 142;

of certain persons dangerous, 173

Shamans among the Thompson Indians, 57 sq.

-- Buryat, their mode of recovering lost souls, 56 sq.

-- Yakut, 63

Shark Point, priestly king at, 5

Sharp instruments, use of, tabooed, 205

-- weapons tabooed, 237 sqq.

Shaving prisoners, reason of, 273

Sheep used in purificatory ceremony, 174, 175;

shoulder-blades of, used in divination, 229

Shetland fishermen, their tabooed words, 394

Shoe untied at marriage, 300;

custom of going with one shoe on and one shoe off, 311 sqq.

Shoulder-blades, divination by, 229

Shuswap Indians, the, 83, 142

Siam, kings of, 226, 241;

names of kings of, concealed from fear of sorcery, 375

Siamese children, ceremony at cutting their hair, 265 sqq.

-- view of the sanctity of the head, 252 sq.

Sick man, attempts to prevent the escape of the soul of, 30 sqq.

[pg 442] Sick people not allowed to sleep, 95;

sprinkled with pungent spices, 105 sq.

-- -room, mirrors covered up in, 95

Sickness explained by the absence of the soul, 42 sqq.;

caused by ancestral spirits, 53

Sierra Leone, priests and kings of, 14 sq., 18

-- Nevada of Colombia, 215, 216

Sigurd and Fafnir, 324

Sikhim, kings of, 20

Silkworms, taboos observed by breeders of, 194

Simpson, W., 125 n.3

Sin regarded as something material, 214, 216, 217 sq.

Singhalese, 297; their fear of demons, 233 sq.

Sins, confession of, 114, 191, 195, 211 sq., 214 sqq.;

originally a magical ceremony, 217

Sisters-in-law, their names not to be pronounced, 338, 342, 343

Sit, Egyptian god, 68

Sitting on the ground prohibited to warriors, 159, 162, 163

Skull-cap worn by girls at their first menstruation, 146;

worn by Australian widows, 182 n.2

Skulls of ancestors rubbed as a propitiation, 197;

of dead used as drinking-cups, 372

Slain, ghosts of the, fear of the, 165 sqq.

Slave Coast, the, 9

Slaves, runaway, charm for recovering, 305 sq.

Sleep, absence of soul in, 36 sqq.;

sick people not allowed to, 95;

forbidden in house after a death, 37 sq.;

forbidden to unsuccessful eagle-hunter, 199

Sleeper not to be wakened suddenly, 39 sqq.;

not to be moved nor his appearance altered, 41 sq.

Smallpox not mentioned by its proper name, 400, 410, 411, 416

Smearing blood on the person as a purification, 104, 115;

on persons, dogs, and weapons as a mode of pacifying their souls, 219

-- bodies of manslayers with porridge, 176

-- porridge or fat on the person as a purification, 112

-- sheep's entrails on body as mode of purification, 174

Smith, W, Robertson, 77 n.1, 96 n.1, 243 n.7, 247 n.5

Smith's craft regarded us uncanny, 236 n.5

Snakes not called by their proper names, 399, 400, 401 sq., 411

Snapping the thumbs to prevent the departure of the soul, 31

Snares set for souls, 69

Son-in-law, his name not to be pronounced, 338 sq., 344, 345

Sorcerers, souls extracted or detained by, 69 sqq.;

make use of cut hair and other bodily refuse, 268 sq., 274 sq.;

278, 281 sq. See also Magic

Soul conceived as a mannikin, 26 sqq.;

the perils of the, 26 sqq.;

ancient Egyptian conception of the, 28 sq.;

representations of the soul in Greek art, 29 n.1;

as a butterfly, 29 n.1, 41, 51 sq.;

absence and recall of the, 30 sqq.;

attempts to prevent the soul from escaping from the body, 30 sqq.;

sickness attributed to the absence of the, 32, 42 sqq.;

tied by thread or string to the body, 32 sq., 43, 51;

conceived as a bird, 33 sqq.;

absent in sleep, 36 sqq.;

in form of mouse, 37, 39 n.2;

in form of lizard, 38;

in form of fly, 39;

caught in a cloth, 46, 47, 48, 52, 53, 64, 67, 75 sq.;

identified with the shadow, 77 sqq.;

identified with the reflection in water or a mirror, 92 sqq.;

supposed to escape at eating and drinking, 116;

in the blood, 240, 241, 247, 250;

identified with the personal name, 319;

of rice not to be frightened, 412

Souls, every man thought to have four, 27, 80;

light and heavy, thin and fat, 29;

transferred to other bodies, 49;

impounded in magic fence, 56;

abducted by demons, 58 sqq.;

transmigrate into animals, 65;

brought back in a visible form, 65 sqq.;

caught in snares or nets, 69 sqq.;

extracted or detained by sorcerers, 69 sqq.;

in tusks of ivory, 70;

conjured into jars, 70;

in boxes, 70, 76;

shut up in calabashes, 72;

transferred from the living to the dead, 73;

gathered into a basket, 72;

wounded and bleeding, 73;

supposed to be in portraits, 96 sqq.

-- of beasts respected, 223

-- of the dead all malignant, 145;

cannot go to the spirit-land till the flesh has decayed from their bones, 372 n.5

-- of the slain, propitiation of, 166

Sovereignty, reluctance to accept the, on account of its burdens, 17 sqq.

Spells cast by strangers, 112;

at hair-cutting, 264 sq.

Spenser, Edmund, 244 sq.

Spices used in exorcism of demons, 105 sq.

Spirit of dead apparently supposed to decay with the body, 372

[pg 443] Spirits averse to iron, 232 sqq.

-- of land, conciliation of the, 110 sq.

Spiritual power, its divorce from temporal power, 17 sqq.

Spitting forbidden, 196;

as a protective charm, 279, 286;

upon knots as a charm, 302

Spittle effaced or concealed, 288 sqq.;

tabooed, 287 sqq.;

used in magic, 268, 269, 287 sqq.;

used in making a covenant, 290

Spoil taken from enemy purified, 177

Spoons used in eating by tabooed persons, 141, 148, 189

Sprained leg, cure for, 304 sq.

Spring and summer, myths of divinities and spirits to be told only in, 384

Sprinkling with holy water, 285 sq.

St. Sylvester's Day, 88

Stabbing reflections in water to injure the persons reflected, 93

Stade, Hans, captive among Brazilian Indians, 231

Standard of conduct shifted from natural to supernatural basis, 213

Stepping over persons or things forbidden, 159 sq., 194, 423 sqq.;

over dead panther, 219.

See also Jumping

Stone knives and arrow-heads used in religious ritual, 228

Stones on which a man's shadow should not fall, 80

Storms caused by cutting or combing the hair, 271, 282

Strange land, ceremonies at entering a, 109 sqq.

Strangers, taboos on intercourse with, 101 sqq.;

suspected of practising magical arts, 102;

ceremonies at the reception of, 102 sqq.;

dread of, 102 sqq.;

spells cast by, 112;

killed, 113

String or thread used to tie soul to body, 32 sq., 43, 51

Strings, knotted, as amulets, 309.

See also Cords, Threads

"Strong names" of kings of Dahomey, 374

Sulka, the, 151, 331

Sultan Bayazid and his soul, 50

Sultans veiled, 120

Sumba, custom as to the names of princes in the island of, 376

Summer, myths of gods and spirits not to be told in, 385 sq.

-- and winter, personal names different in, 386

Sun not allowed to shine on sacred persons, 3, 4, 6

-- -god draws away souls, 64 sq.

Sunda, tabooed words in, 341, 415

Supernatural basis of morality, 213 sq.

Supernatural beings, their names tabooed, 384 sqq.

Superstition a crutch to morality, 219

Swaheli charm, 305 sq.

Sweating as a purification, 142, 184

Swelling and inflammation thought to be caused by eating out of sacred vessels or by wearing sacred garments, 4

Sympathetic connexion between a person and the severed parts of his body, 267 sq., 283

-- magic, 164, 201, 204, 258, 268, 287

Synonyms adopted in order to avoid naming the dead, 359 sqq.;

in the Zulu language, 377;

in the Maori language, 381

Taboo of chiefs and kings in Tonga, 133 sq.;

of chiefs in New Zealand, 134 sqq.;

Esquimaux theory of, 210 sqq.;

the meaning of, 224

-- rajah and chief, 24 sq.

Tabooed acts, 101 sqq.

-- hands, 138, 140 sqq., 146 sqq., 158, 159 n.

-- persons, 131 sqq.;

secluded, 165

-- things, 224 sqq.

-- words, 318 sqq.

Taboos, royal and priestly, 1 sqq.;

on intercourse with strangers, 101 sqq.;

on eating and drinking, 116 sqq.;

on shewing the face, 120 sqq.;

on quitting the house, 122 sqq.;

on leaving food over, 126 sqq.;

on persons who have handled the dead, 138 sqq.;

on warriors, 157 sqq.;

on manslayers, 165 sqq.;

imposed on murderers, 187 sq.;

imposed on hunters and fishers, 190 sqq.;

transformed into ethical precepts, 214;

survivals of, in morality, 218 sq.;

as spiritual insulators, 224;

on sharp weapons, 237 sqq.;

on blood, 239 sqq.;

relating to the head, 252 sqq.;

on hair, 258 sqq.;

on spittle, 287 sqq.;

on foods, 291 sqq.;

on knots and rings, 293 sqq.;

on words, 318 sqq., 392 sqq.;

on personal names, 318 sqq.;

on names of relations, 335 sqq.;

on the names of the dead, 349 sqq.;

on names of kings and chiefs, 374 sqq.;

on names of supernatural beings, 384 sqq.;

on names of gods, 387 sqq.

-- observed by the Mikado, 3 sq.;

by headmen in Assam, 11;

by ancient kings of Ireland, 11 sq.;

by the Flamen Dialis, 13 sq.;

by the Bodia or Bodio, 15;

by sacred milkmen among the Todas, 16 sqq.

Tahiti, 255

[pg 444] Tahiti, kings of, 226;

abdicate on birth of a son, 20;

their names not to be pronounced, 381 sq.

Tails of cats docked as a magical precaution, 128 sq.

Tales, wandering souls in popular, 49 sq.

Tara, the old capital of Ireland, 11

Tartar Khan, ceremony at visiting a, 114

Teeth, loss of, supposed effect of breaking a taboo, 140;

loosened by angry ghosts, 186 n.1;

as a rain-charm, 271;

extracted, kept against the resurrection, 280.

See also Tooth

Temple at Jerusalem, the, 230

Temporary reincarnation of the dead in their living namesakes, 371

Tendi, Batta word for soul, 45.

See also Tondi

Tepehuanes, the, 97

Terms of relationship used as terms of address, 324 sq.

Thakambau, 131

Thebes in Egypt, priestly kings of, 13

Theocracies in America, 6

Thesmophoria, release of prisoners at, 316

Thessalian witch, 390

Things tabooed, 224 sqq.

Thompson Indians of British Columbia, 37 sq.;

customs of mourners among the, 142 sq.

Thomson, Joseph, 98

Thorn bushes to keep off ghosts, 142

Thread or string used to tie soul to body, 32 sq., 43, 51

Threads, knotted, in magic, 303, 304 sq., 307

Three knots in magic, 304, 305

Thumbs snapped to prevent the departure of the soul, 31

Thunderstorms caused by cut hair, 271, 282

Thurn, E. F. im, 324 sq.

Tigers not called by their proper names, 401, 402, 403 sq., 410, 415;

called dogs, 402;

called jackals, 402, 403

Timines of Sierra Leone, 18

Timor, fetish or taboo rajah in, 24;

customs as to war in, 165 sq.

Tin ore, Malay superstitions as to, 407

Tinneh or Déné Indians, 145 sq.

Toboongkoos of Celebes, 48, 78

Todas, holy milkmen of the, 15 sqq.

Togoland, 247

Tolampoos, the, 319

Tolindoos, the, 78

Tondi, Batta word for soul, 35.

See also Tendi

Tonga, divine chiefs in, 21;

the taboo of chiefs and kings in, 133 sq.;

taboos connected with the dead in, 140

Tonquin, division of monarchy in, 19 sq.;

kings of, 125

Tooitonga, divine chief of Tonga, 21

Tooth knocked out as initiatory rite, 244.

See also Teeth

Toradjas, tabooed names among the, 340;

their field-speech, 411 sqq.

Touching sacred king or chief, supposed effects of, 132 sqq.

Trading voyages, continence observed on, 203

Tradition, historical, hampered by the taboo on the names of the dead, 363 sqq.

Transference of souls from the living to the dead, 73;

of souls to other bodies, 49;

of sins, 214 sqq.

Transgressions, need of confessing, 211 sq.

See also Sins

Transmigration of souls into animals, 65

Transylvania, the Germans of, 296, 310

Traps set for souls, 70 sq.

Travail, women in, knots on their garments untied, 294.

See also Childbirth

Travellers, knots used as charms by, 306

Tree-spirits, fear of, 412 sq.

Trees, the shadows of trees sensitive, 82;

cut hair deposited on or under, 14, 275 sq., 286

Tuaregs, the, 117, 122; their fear of ghosts, 353

Tumleo, island of, 150

Tupi Indians, their customs as to eating captives, 179 sq.

Turtle catching, taboos in connexion with, 192

Tusks of ivory, souls in, 70

Twelfth Night, 396

Twins, water poured on graves of, 154 sq.

-- father of, taboos observed by the, 239 sq.;

his hair shaved and nails cut, 284

Tycoons, the, 19

Tying the soul to the body, 32 sq., 43

Tylor, E. B., on reincarnation of ancestors, 372 n.1

Uganda, 84, 86, 112, 145, 164 n.1, 239, 243, 254, 263, 277, 330, 369.

See also Baganda

Ulster, kings of, 12

Unclean and sacred, correspondence of the rules regarding the, 145

Uncleanness regarded as a vapour, 152, 206;

of manslayers, of menstruous and lying-in women, and of persons who have handled the dead, 169;

of whalers, 191, 207;

of lion-killer, 220;

of bear-killers, 221

[pg 445] Uncovered in the open air, prohibition to be, 3, 14

Unyoro, king of, his custom of drinking milk, 119;

cowboy of the king of, 159 n.;

diet of the king of, 291 sq.

Vapour thought to be exhaled by lying-in women and hunters, 152, 206;

supposed, of blood and corpses, 210 sq.;

supposed to be produced by the violation of a taboo, 212

Varuna, festival of, 217

Veiling faces to avert evil influences, 120 sqq.

Venison, taboos concerning, 208 sq.

Vermin from hair returned to their owner, 278

Vessels used by tabooed persons destroyed, 4, 131, 139, 145, 156, 284

-- special, employed by tabooed persons, 138, 139, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 160, 167, 185, 189, 197, 198

Victims, sacrificial, carried round city, 188

Vine, prohibition to walk under a, 14, 248

Virgil, the enchantress in, 305;

on rustic militia of Latium, 311

Vow, hair kept unshorn during a, 261 sq., 285

Wabondei, the, 272

Wadai, Sultan of, 120

Wakan, mysterious, sacred, taboo, 225 n.

Wakelbura, the, 31

Wallis Island, 140

Walrus, taboos concerning, 208 sq.

Wanigela River, 192

Wanika, the, 247

Wanyamwesi, the, 112, 330

Wanyoro (Banyoro), the, 278

War, continence in, 157, 158 n.1, 161, 163, 164, 165;

rules of ceremonial purity observed in, 157 sqq.;

hair kept unshorn in, 261

-- chief, or war king, 20, 21, 24

-- -dances, 169, 170, 178, 182

Warm food tabooed, 189

Warramunga, the, 384

Warriors tabooed, 157 sqq.

Washing the head, 253. See Bathing

Water poured as a rain-charm, 154 sq.;

holy, sprinkling with, 285 sq.

-- -spirits, danger of, 94

Wax figure in magic, 74

Weapons of manslayers, purification of, 172, 182, 219

Wedding ring, an amulet against witchcraft, 314

Were-wolf, 42

Whale, solemn burial of dead, 223

Whalers, taboos observed by, 191 sq., 205 sqq.

Wheaten flour, prohibition to touch, 13

White, faces and bodies of manslayers painted, 175, 186 n.1;

lion-killer painted, 220

-- clay, Caffre boys at circumcision smeared with, 156

Whydah, king of, 129

Widows and widowers, customs observed by, 142 sq., 144 sq., 182 n.2

Wied, Prince of, 96

Wife's mother, the savage's dread of his, 83 sqq.;

her name not to be pronounced by her son-in-law, 337, 338, 343

-- name not to be pronounced by her husband, 337, 338, 339

Wild beasts not called by their proper names, 396 sqq.

Wilkinson, R. J., 416 n.4

Willow wands as disinfectants, 143

Windessi, in New Guinea, 169

Winds kept in jars, 5

Wine, the blood of the vine, 248;

called milk, 249 n.2

Wing-bone of eagle used to drink through, 189

Winter, myths of gods and spirits to be told only in, 385 sq.

Wirajuri, the, 269

Witch's soul departs from her in sleep, 39, 41, 42

Witches make use of cut hair, 270, 271, 279, 282

Wollunqua, a mythical serpent, 384

Wolofs of Senegambia, 323

Wolves, charms to protect cattle from, 307;

not to be called by their proper names, 396, 397, 398, 402

Women tabooed at menstruation and childbirth, 145 sqq.;

abstinence from, during war, 157, 158 n.1, 161, 163, 164;

in childbed holy, 225 n.;

blood of, dreaded, 250 sq.

Women's clothes, supposed effects of touching, 164 sq.

"Women's speech" among the Caffres, 335 sq.

Words tabooed, 318 sqq.;

savages take a materialistic view of words, 331

-- common, changed because they are the names of the dead, 358 sqq., 375,

or the names of chiefs and kings, 375, 376 sqq.;

tabooed, 392 sqq.

Wounded men not allowed to drink milk, 174 sq.

Wrist tied to prevent escape of soul, 32, 43, 51

-- bands as amulets, 315

Wurunjeri tribe, 42

[pg 446] Xenophanes, on the gods, 387

Yabim, the, 151, 306, 354, 386

Yakut shaman, 63

Yams, Feast of, 123

Yaos, the, 97 sq.

Yawning, soul supposed to depart in, 31

Yewe order, secret society in Togo, 383

Yorubas, rebirth of ancestors among the, 369

Zapotecs of Mexico, the pontiff of the, 6 sq.

Zend-Avesta, the, on cut hair and nails, 277

Zeus on Mount Lycaeus, sanctuary of, 88

Zulu language, its diversity, 377

Zulus, names of chiefs and kings tabooed among the, 376 sq.;

their superstition as to reflections in water, 91

* * *

Footnotes

1.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 332 sqq., 373 sqq.

2.

The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 352 sqq.

3.

Manners and Customs of the Japanese in the Nineteenth Century: from recent Dutch Visitors to Japan, and the German of Dr. Ph. Fr. von Siebold (London, 1841), pp. 141 sqq.

4.

W. G. Aston, Shinto (the Way of the Gods) (London, 1905), p. 41; Michel Revon, Le Shinto?sme, i. (Paris, 1907), pp. 189 sqq. The Japanese word for god or deity is kami. It is thus explained by the native scholar Moto?ri, one of the chief authorities on Japanese religion: "The term Kami is applied in the first place to the various deities of Heaven and Earth who are mentioned in the ancient records as well as their spirits (mi-tama) which reside in the shrines where they are worshipped. Moreover, not only human beings, but birds, beasts, plants and trees, seas and mountains, and all other things whatsoever which deserve to be dreaded and revered for the extraordinary and pre-eminent powers which they possess, are called Kami. They need not be eminent for surpassing nobleness, goodness, or serviceableness alone. Malignant and uncanny beings are also called Kami if only they are the objects of general dread. Among Kami who are human beings I need hardly mention first of all the successive Mikados-with reverence be it spoken.... Then there have been numerous examples of divine human beings both in ancient and modern times, who, although not accepted by the nation generally, are treated as gods, each of his several dignity, in a single province, village, or family." Hirata, another native authority on Japanese religion, defines kami as a term which comprises all things strange, wondrous, and possessing isao or virtue. And a recent dictionary gives the following definitions: "Kami. 1. Something which has no form but is only spirit, has unlimited supernatural power, dispenses calamity and good fortune, punishes crime and rewards virtue. 2. Sovereigns of all times, wise and virtuous men, valorous and heroic persons whose spirits are prayed to after their death. 3. Divine things which transcend human intellect. 4. The Christian God, Creator, Supreme Lord." See W. G. Aston, Shinto (the Way of the Gods), pp. 8-10, from which the foregoing quotations are made. Mr. Aston himself considers that "the deification of living Mikados was titular rather than real," and he adds: "I am not aware that any specific so-called miraculous powers were authoritatively claimed for them" (op. cit. p. 41). No doubt it is very difficult for the Western mind to put itself at the point of view of the Oriental and to seize the precise point (if it can be said to exist) where the divine fades into the human or the human brightens into the divine. In translating, as we must do, the vague thought of a crude theology into the comparatively exact language of civilised Europe we must allow for a considerable want of correspondence between the two: we must leave between them, as it were, a margin of cloudland to which in the last resort the deity may retreat from the too searching light of philosophy and science.

5.

M. Revon, op. cit. i. 190 n.2

6.

Kaempfer, "History of Japan," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, vii. 716 sq. However, Mr. W. G. Aston tells us that Kaempfer's statements regarding the sacred character of the Mikado's person cannot be depended on (Shinto, the Way of the Gods, p. 41, note ?). M. Revon quotes Kaempfer's account with the observation that, "les na?vetés recèlent plus d'une idée juste" (Le Shinto?sme, vol. i. p. 191, note 2). To me it seems that Kaempfer's description is very strongly confirmed by its close correspondence in detail with the similar customs and superstitions which have prevailed in regard to sacred personages in many other parts of the world and with which it is most unlikely that Kaempfer was acquainted. This correspondence will be brought out in the following pages.

7.

In Pinkerton's reprint this word appears as "mobility." I have made the correction from a comparison with the original (Kaempfer, History of Japan, translated from the original Dutch manuscript by J. G. Scheuchzer, London, 1728, vol. i. p. 150).

8.

Caron, "Account of Japan," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, vii. 613. Compare B. Varenius, Descriptio regni Japoniae et Siam (Cambridge, 1673), p. 11: "Nunquam attingebant (quemadmodum et hodie id observat) pedes ipsius terram: radiis Solis caput nunquam illustrabatur: in apertum a?rem non procedebat," etc. The first edition of this book was published by Elzevir at Amsterdam in 1649. The Geographia Generalis of the same writer had the honour of appearing in an edition revised and corrected by Isaac Newton (Cambridge, at the University Press, 1672).

9.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste (Jena, 1874-75), i. 287 sq., compare pp. 353 sq.

10.

H. Klose, Togo unter deutscher Flagge (Berlin, 1899), pp. 189, 268.

11.

J. B. Labat, Relation historique de l'éthiopie occidentale (Paris, 1732), i. 254 sqq.

12.

Ch. Wunenberger, "La Mission et le royaume de Humbé, sur les bords du Cunène," Missions Catholiques, xx. (1888) p. 262.

13.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 415 sq.

14.

Brasseur de Bourbourg, Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique et de l'Amérique-centrale, iii. 29 sq.; H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, ii. 142 sq.

15.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 355.

16.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique (Amsterdam, 1686), p. 336.

17.

O. Baumann, Eine afrikanische Tropen-Insel, Fernando Póo und die Bube (Wien und Olmütz, 1888), pp. 103 sq.

18.

G. Zündel, "Land und Volk der Eweer auf der Sclavenküste in Westafrika," Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, xii. (1877) p. 402.

19.

Béraud, "Note sur le Dahomé," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Vme Série, xii. (1866) p. 377.

20.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 263.

21.

Bosman's "Guinea," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 500.

22.

A. Dalzell, History of Dahomey (London, 1793), p. 15; Th. Winterbottom, An Account of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone (London, 1803), pp. 229 sq.

23.

J. B. L. Durand, Voyage au Sénégal (Paris, 1802), p. 55.

24.

W. S. Taberer (Chief Native Commissioner for Mashonaland), "Mashonaland Natives," Journal of the African Society, No. 15 (April 1905). p. 320.

25.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar (Paris, 1904), p. 113.

26.

Father Porte, "Les Reminiscences d'un missionnaire du Basutoland," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 235.

27.

Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 32.

28.

P. J. de Arriaga, Extirpacion de la idolatria del Piru (Lima, 1621), pp. 11, 132.

29.

W. Marsden, History of Sumatra (London, 1811), p. 301.

30.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar, p. 113, quoting De Thuy, étude historique, géographique et ethnographique sur la province de Tuléar, Notes, Rec., Expl., 1899, p. 104.

31.

T. C. Hodson, "The genna amongst the Tribes of Assam," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) p. 98. The word for taboo among these tribes is genna.

32.

The Duibhlinn is the part of the Liffey on which Dublin now stands.

33.

The site, marked by the remains of some earthen forts, is now known as Rathcroghan, near Belanagare in the county of Roscommon.

34.

The Book of Rights, edited with translation and notes by John O'Donovan (Dublin, 1847), pp. 3-8. This work, comprising a list both of the prohibitions (urgharta or geasa) and the prerogatives (buadha) of the Irish kings, is preserved in a number of manuscripts, of which the two oldest date from 1390 and about 1418 respectively. The list is repeated twice, first in prose and then in verse. I have to thank my friend Professor Sir J. Rhys for kindly calling my attention to this interesting record of a long-vanished past in Ireland. As to these taboos, see P. W. Joyce, Social History of Ancient Ireland, i. 310 sqq.

35.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 418 sqq.

36.

Diodorus Siculus, i. 70.

37.

G. Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient classique, ii. 759, note 3; A. Moret, Du caractère religieux de la royauté Pharaonique (Paris, 1902), pp. 314-318.

38.

(Sir) J. G. Scott, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, part ii. vol. i. (Rangoon, 1901) p. 308.

39.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. ii. pp. 191 sq.

40.

Among the Gallas the king, who also acts as priest by performing sacrifices, is the only man who is not allowed to fight with weapons; he may not even ward off a blow. See Ph. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas: die geistige Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal, p. 136.

41.

Among the Kafirs of the Hindoo Koosh men who are preparing to be headmen are considered ceremonially pure, and wear a semi-sacred uniform which must not be defiled by coming into contact with dogs. "The Kaneash [persons in this state of ceremonial purity] were nervously afraid of my dogs, which had to be fastened up whenever one of these august personages was seen to approach. The dressing has to be performed with the greatest care, in a place which cannot be defiled with dogs. Utah and another had convenient dressing-rooms on the top of their houses which happened to be high and isolated, but another of the four Kaneash had been compelled to erect a curious-looking square pen made of poles in front of his house, his own roof being a common thoroughfare" (Sir George Scott Robertson, The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush (London, 1898), p. 466).

42.

Similarly the Egyptian priests abstained from beans and would not even look at them. See Herodotus, ii. 37, with A. Wiedemann's note; Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 5.

43.

Similarly among the Kafirs of the Hindoo Koosh the high priest "may not traverse certain paths which go near the receptacles for the dead, nor may he visit the cemeteries. He may not go into the actual room where a death has occurred until after an effigy has been erected for the deceased. Slaves may cross his threshold, but must not approach the hearth" (Sir George Scott Robertson, op. cit. p. 416).

44.

Aulus Gellius, x. 15; Plutarch, Quaest, Rom. 109-112; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 146; Servius on Virgil, Aen. i. 179, 448, iv. 518; Macrobius, Saturn. i. 16. 8 sq.; Festus, p. 161 a, ed. C. O. Müller. For more details see J. Marquardt, R?mische Staatsverwaltung, iii.2 326 sqq.

45.

Sir Harry Johnston, Liberia (London, 1906), ii. 1076 sq., quoting from Bishop Payne, who wrote "some fifty years ago." The Bodia described by Bishop Payne is clearly identical with the Bodio of the Grain Coast who is described by the Rev. J. L. Wilson (Western Africa, pp. 129 sqq.). See below, p. 23; and The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 353. As to the iron ring which the pontiff wears on his ankle as the badge of his office we are told that it "is regarded with as much veneration as the most ancient crown in Europe, and the incumbent suffers as deep disgrace by its removal as any monarch in Europe would by being deprived of his crown" (J. L. Wilson, op. cit. pp. 129 sq.).

46.

W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas (London, 1906), pp. 98-103.

47.

For restrictions imposed on these lesser milkmen see W. H. R. Rivers, op. cit. pp. 62, 66, 67 sq., 72, 73, 79-81.

48.

W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas, pp. 79-81.

49.

The Magic Art, vol. ii. p. 4.

50.

Id. vol. i. pp. 354 sq.

51.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 354 sq., ii. 9, 11.

52.

Zweifel et Moustier, "Voyage aux sources du Niger," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), VIme Série, xx. (1880) p. 111.

53.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique (Amsterdam, 1686), p. 250.

54.

J. Matthews, Voyage to Sierra-Leone (London, 1791), p. 75.

55.

T. Winterbottom, Account of the Native Africans in the Neighbourhood of Sierra Leone (London, 1803), p. 124.

56.

The Travels of the Jesuits in Ethiopia, collected and historically digested by F. Balthazar Tellez (London, 1710), pp. 197 sq.

57.

Manners and Customs of the Japanese, pp. 199 sqq., 355 sqq.

58.

Richard, "History of Tonquin," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, ix. 744 sqq.

59.

L. A. Waddell, Among the Himalayas (Westminster, 1899), pp. 146 sq.

60.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches, Second Edition (London, 1832-1836), iii. 99 sqq.

61.

W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific, pp. 293 sqq.

62.

The late Rev. Lorimer Fison, in a letter to the author, dated August 26, 1898.

63.

W. Mariner, An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands, Second Edition (London, 1818), ii. 75-79, 132-136.

64.

Strabo, vii. 3. 5, pp. 297 sq. Compare id. vii. 3. 11, p. 304.

65.

Aristotle, Constitution of Athens, iii. 2. My friend Professor Henry Jackson kindly called my attention to this passage.

66.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 416, and above, p. 6.

67.

Miss Mary H. Kingsley in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxix. (1899) pp. 61 sqq. I had some conversation on this subject with Miss Kingsley (1st June 1897) and have embodied the results in the text. Miss Kingsley did not know the rule of succession among the fetish kings.

68.

T. J. Hutchinson, Impressions of Western Africa (London, 1858), pp. 101 sq.; Le Comte C. N. de Cardi, "Ju-ju Laws and Customs in the Niger Delta," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxix. (1899) p. 51.

69.

H. Goldie, Calabar and its Mission, New Edition (London, 1901), P. 43.

70.

J. L. Wilson, Western Africa (London, 1856), p. 129. As to the taboos observed by the Bodio or Bodia see above, p. 15.

71.

Miss Mary H. Kingsley, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxix. (1899) p. 62.

72.

Marchoux, "Ethnographie, Porto-Novo," Revue Scientifique, Quatrième Série, iii. (1895) pp. 595 sq. This passage was pointed out to me by Mr. N. W. Thomas.

73.

O. von Kotzebue, Entdeckungs-Reise in die Süd-See und nach der Berings-Strasse (Weimar, 1821), iii. 149.

74.

J. J. de Hollander, Handleiding bij de Beofening der Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Oost-Indi?, ii. 606 sq. In other parts of Timor the spiritual ruler is called Anaha paha or "conjuror of the land." Compare H. Zondervan, "Timor en de Timoreezen," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, v. (1888) Afdeeling, mehr uitgebreide artikelen, pp. 400-402.

75.

A. C. Haddon, Head-hunters, Black, White, and Brown (London, 1901), pp. 270-272.

76.

Dr. Hahl, "Mittheilungen über Sitten und rechtliche Verh?ltnisse auf Ponape," Ethnologisches Notizblatt, ii. Heft 2 (Berlin, 1901), pp. 5 sq., 7. The title of the prime-minister is Nanekin.

77.

R. Salvado, Mémoires historiques sur l'Australie (Paris, 1854), p. 162; Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vii. (1878) p. 282. In this edifying catechism there is little to choose between the savagery of the white man and the savagery of the black.

78.

Relations des Jésuites, 1634, p. 17; id., 1636, p. 104; id., 1639, p. 43 (Canadian reprint, Quebec, 1858).

79.

H. Rink, Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, p. 36. The Esquimaux of Bering Strait believe that every man has several souls, and that two of these souls are shaped exactly like the body. See E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899) p. 422.

80.

Fr. Boas, in Sixth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 44 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1890).

81.

Fr. Boas, in Ninth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 461 (Report of the British Association for 1894).

82.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic (London, 1900), p. 47.

83.

G. Maspero, études de mythologie et d'archéologie égyptiennes (Paris, 1893), i. 388 sq.; A. Wiedemann, The ancient Egyptian Doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul (London, 1895), pp. 10 sqq. In Greek works of art, especially vase-paintings, the human soul is sometimes represented as a tiny being in human form, generally winged, sometimes clothed and armed, sometimes naked. See O. Jahn, Arch?ologische Beitr?ge (Berlin, 1847), pp. 128 sqq.; E. Pottier, étude sur les lécythes blancs attiques (Paris, 1883), pp. 75-79; American Journal of Archaeology, ii. (1886) pll. xii., xiii.; O. Kern, in Aus der Anomia, Arch?ologische Beitr?ge Carl Robert zur Erinnerung an Berlin dargebracht (Berlin, 1890), pp. 89-95. Greek artists of a later period sometimes portrayed the human soul in the form of a butterfly (O. Jahn, op. cit. pp. 138 sqq.). There was a particular sort of butterfly to which the Greeks gave the name of soul (ψυχ?). See Aristotle, Hist. anim. v. 19, p. 550 b 26, p. 551 b 13 sq.; Plutarch, Quaest. conviv. ii. 3. 2.

84.

W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific (London, 1876), p. 171.

85.

H. Sundermann, "Die Insel Nias und die Mission daselbst," Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift, Bd. xi. October 1884, p. 453.

86.

The late Rev. Lorimer Fison, in a letter to the author, dated November 3, 1898.

87.

H. A. Rose, "Note on Female Tattooing in the Panjab," Indian Antiquary, xxxi. (1902) p. 298.

88.

B. F. Matthes, Over de Bissoes of heidensche priesters en priesteressen der Boeginezen (Amsterdam, 1872), p. 24 (reprinted from the Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, Deel vii.).

89.

A. C. Haddon, Head-hunters, p. 439.

90.

H. Ling Roth, "Low's Natives of Borneo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxi. (1892) p. 115.

91.

A. C. Haddon, Head hunters, pp. 371, 396.

92.

H. Candelier, Rio-Hacha et les Indiens Goajires (Paris, 1893), pp. 258 sq.

93.

R. Southey, History of Brazil, iii. 396.

94.

G. M. Dawson, "On the Haida Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands," Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress for 1878-1879 (Montreal, 1880), pp. 123 B, 139 B.

95.

Panjab Notes and Queries, ii. p. 114, § 665.

96.

M. Radiguet, Les Derniers Sauvages (Paris, 1882), p. 245; Matthias G--, Lettres sur Iles les Marquises (Paris, 1843), p. 115; Clavel, Les Marquisiens, p. 42 note.

97.

Gagnière, in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xxxii. (1860) p. 439.

98.

F. Blumentritt, "Das Stromgebiet des Rio Grande de Mindano," Petermanns Mitteilungen, xxxvii. (1891) p. 111.

99.

A. d'Orbigny, L'Homme américain, ii. 241; T. J. Hutchinson, "The Chaco Indians," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., iii. (1865) pp. 322 sq.; A. Bastian, Culturl?nder des alten Amerika, i. 476. A similar custom is observed by the Cayuvava Indians (A. d'Orbigny, op. cit. ii. 257).

100.

E. Modigliani, Un Viaggio a Nías (Milan, 1890), p. 283.

101.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia (London, 1904), p. 473.

102.

Fr. Boas, "The Central Eskimo," Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1888), pp. 613 sq. Among the Esquimaux of Smith Sound male mourners plug up the right nostril and female mourners the left (E. Bessels in American Naturalist, xviii. (1884) p. 877; cp. J. Murdoch, "Ethnological Results of the Point Barrow Expedition," Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), p. 425). This seems to point to a belief that the soul enters by one nostril and goes out by the other, and that the functions assigned to the right and left nostrils in this respect are reversed in men and women. Among the Esquimaux of Baffin land "the person who prepares a body for burial puts rabbit's fur into his nostrils to prevent the exhalations from entering his own lungs" (Fr. Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. part i. (1901) p. 144). But this would hardly explain the custom of stopping one nostril only.

103.

G. F. Lyon, Private Journal (London, 1824), p. 370.

104.

B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes (The Hague, 1875), p. 54.

105.

J. L. van der Toorn, "Het animisme bij den Minangkabauer der Padangsche Bovenlanden," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) p. 56.

106.

C. Hose and R. Shelford, "Materials for a Study of Tatu in Borneo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) p. 65.

107.

W. Jochelson, "The Koryak, Religion and Myths" (Leyden and New York, 1905), p. 103 (Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. vi. part i.).

108.

W. F. A. Zimmermann, Die Inseln des Indischen und Stillen Meeres (Berlin, 1864-65), ii. 386 sq.

109.

Compare το?τον κατ? ?μου δε?ρον ?χρι? ? ψυχ? | α?το? ?π? χειλ?ων μο?νον ? κακ? λειφθ?, Herodas, Mimiambi, iii. 3 sq.; μ?νον ο?κ ?π? το?? χε?λεσι τ?? ψυχ?? ?χοντα?, Dio Chrysostom, Orat. xxxii. vol. i. p. 417, ed. Dindorf; modern Greek μ? τ? ψυχ? ?? τ? δ?ντια, G. F. Abbott, Macedonian Folklore, p. 193 note; "mihi anima in naso esse, stabam tanquam mortuus," Petronius, Sat. 62; "in primis labris animam habere," Seneca, Natur. quaest. iii. praef. 16; "Voilà un pauvre malade qui a le feu dans le corps, et l'ame sur le bout des lèvres," J. de Brebeuf, in Relations des Jésuites, 1636, p. 113 (Canadian reprint); "This posture keeps the weary soul hanging upon the lip; ready to leave the carcass, and yet not suffered to take its wing," R. Bentley, "Sermon on Popery," quoted in Monk's Life of Bentley,2 i. 382. In Czech they say of a dying person that his soul is on his tongue (Br. Jelínek, in Mittheilungen der anthropolog. Gesellschaft in Wien, xxi. (1891) p. 22).

110.

Compare the Greek ποτ?ομαι, ?ναπτερ?ω, etc.

111.

K. von den Steinen, Unter den Naturv?lkern Zentral-Brasiliens (Berlin, 1894), pp. 511, 512.

112.

Fr. Boas, in Seventh Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, pp. 14 sq. (separate reprint of the Report of the British Association for 1891).

113.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, pp. 207 sq.

114.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 174. Compare Herodotus, iv. 14 sq.; Maximus Tyríus, Dissert. xvi. 2.

115.

Br. Jelínek, "Materialien zur Vorgeschichte und Volkskunde B?hmens," Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxi. (1891) p. 22.

116.

G. A. Wilken, "Het animisme bij de volken van den Indischen Archipel," De Indische Gids, June 1884, p. 944.

117.

G. A. Wilken, l.c.

118.

E. L. M. Kühr, "Schetsen uit Borneo's Westerafdeeling," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indie, xlvii. (1897) p. 57.

119.

B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes, p. 33; id., Over de Bissoes of heidensche priesters en priesteressen der Boeginezen, pp. 9 sq.; id., Makassaarsch-Hollandsch Woordenboek, s.vv. K?erróe and soemā?gá, pp. 41, 569. Of these two words, the former means the sound made in calling fowls, and the latter means the soul. The expression for the ceremonies described in the text is ápak?erróe soemā?gá. So common is the recall of the bird-soul among the Malays that the words koer (kur) semangat ("cluck! cluck! soul!") often amount to little more than an expression of astonishment, like our "Good gracious me!" See W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 47, note 2.

120.

B. F. Matthes, "Over de adá's of gewoonten der Makassaren en Boegineezen," Verslagen en Mededeelingen der koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam), Afdeeling Letterkunde, Reeks iii. Deel ii. (1885) pp. 174 sq.; J. K. Niemann, "De Boegineezen en Makassaren," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxviii.(1889) p. 281.

121.

A. C. Kruyt, "Het koppensnellen der Toradja's," Verslagen en Mededeelingen der koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen (Amsterdam), Afdeeling Letterkunde, Reeks iv. Deel iii. (1899) p. 162.

122.

J. L. van der Toorn, "Het animisme bij den Minangkabauer der Padangsche Bovenlanden," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) pp. 56-58. On traces of the bird-soul in Mohammedan popular belief, see I. Goldziher, "Der Seelenvogel im islamischen Volksglauben," Globus, lxxxiii. (1903) pp. 301-304; and on the soul in bird-form generally, see J. von Negelein, "Seele als Vogel," Globus, lxxix. (1901) pp. 357-361, 381-384.

123.

K. von den Steinen, Unter den Naturv?lkern Zentral-Brasiliens, p. 340; E. F. im Thurn, Among the Indians of Guiana, pp. 344 sqq.

124.

V. Fric, "Eine Pilcomayo-Reise in den Chaco Central," Globus, lxxxix. (1906) p. 233.

125.

Shway Yoe, The Burman, his Life and Notions (London, 1882), ii. 100.

126.

R. Andree, Braunschweiger Volkskunde (Brunswick, 1896), p. 266.

127.

H. von Wlislocki, Volksglaube und Volksbrauch der Siebenbürger Sachsen (Berlin, 1893), p. 167.

128.

J. L. Wilson, Western Africa (London, 1856), p. 220; A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 20.

129.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 267. For detention of a sleeper's soul by spirits and consequent illness, see also Mason, quoted in A. Bastian's Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, ii. 387 note.

130.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 327. The Koryak of North-Eastern Asia also keep awake so long as there is a corpse in the house. See W. Jochelson, "The Koryak, Religion and Myths," Memoir of the American Museum for Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. vi. part i. (Leyden and New York, 1905) p. 110.

131.

G. Kurze, "Sitten und Gebr?uche der Lengua-Indianer," Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, xxiii. (1905) p. 18.

132.

H. Ling Roth, "Low's Natives of Borneo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxi. (1892) p. 112.

133.

Indian Antiquary, vii. (1878) p. 273; A. Bastian, V?lkerst?mme am Brahmaputra, p. 127. A similar story is told by the Hindoos and Malays, though the lizard form of the soul is not mentioned. See Panjab Notes and Queries, iii. p. 166, § 679; N. Annandale, "Primitive Beliefs and Customs of the Patani Fishermen," Fasciculi Malayenses, Anthropology, part i. (April 1903) pp. 94 sq.

134.

E. Gerard, The Land beyond the Forest, ii. 27 sq. A similar story is told in Holland (J. W. Wolf, Nederlandsche Sagen, No. 250, pp. 343 sq.). The story of King Gunthram belongs to the same class; the king's soul comes out of his mouth as a small reptile (Paulus Diaconus, Hist. Langobardorum, iii. 34). In an East Indian story of the same type the sleeper's soul issues from his nose in the form of a cricket (G. A. Wilken, in De Indische Gids, June 1884, p. 940). In a Swabian story a girl's soul creeps out of her mouth in the form of a white mouse (A. Birlinger, Volksthümliches aus Schwaben, i. 303). In a Saxon story the soul comes out of the sleeper's mouth in the shape of a red mouse. See E. Mogk, in R. Wuttke's S?chsische Volkskunde2 (Dresden, 1901), p. 318.

135.

Shway Yoe, The Burman, ii. 103; M. and B. Ferrars, Burma (London, 1900), p. 77; R. G. Woodthorpe, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxvi. (1897) p. 23; A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, ii. 389; F. Blumentritt, "Der Ahnencultus und die religi?sen Anschauungen der Malaien des Philippinen-Archipels," Mittheilungen der Wiener Geogr. Gesellschaft, 1882, p. 209; J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik-en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 440; id., "Die Landschaft Dawan oder West-Timor," Deutsche geographische Bl?tter, x. 280; A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschapelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxix. (1895) p. 4; K. von den Steinen, Unter den Naturv?lkern Zentral-Brasiliens, pp. 340, 510; L. F. Gowing, Five Thousand Miles in a Sledge (London, 1889), p. 226; A. C. Hollis, The Masai (Oxford, 1905), p. 308. The rule is mentioned and a mystic reason assigned for it in the Satapatha Brahmana (part v. p. 371, J. Eggeling's translation).

136.

Rev. Lorimer Fison, in a letter to the author dated August 26, 1898.

137.

K. von den Steinen, Unter den Naturv?lkern Zentral-Brasiliens, p. 340.

138.

Hugh Miller, My Schools and Schoolmasters (Edinburgh, 1854), ch. vi. pp. 106 sq.

139.

J. L. van der Toorn, "Het animisme bij den Minangkabauer der Padangsche Bovenlanden," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) p. 50.

140.

N. Annandale, in Fasciculi Malayenses, Anthropology, part i. (April 1903) p. 94.

141.

Panjab Notes and Queries, iii. p. 116, § 530.

142.

W. W. Rockhill, "Notes on some of the Laws, Customs, and Superstitions of Korea," American Anthropologist, iv. (1891) p. 183.

143.

W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, pp. 117 sq.; F. S. Krauss, Volksglaube und religi?ser Brauch der Südslaven (Münster i. W., 1890), p. 112. The latter writer tells us that the witch's spirit is also supposed to assume the form of a fly, a hen, a turkey, a crow, and especially a toad.

144.

Holzmayer, "Osiliana," Verhandlungen der gelehrten Estnischen Gesellschaft zu Dorpat, vii. (1872) No. 2, p. 53.

145.

P. Einhorn, "Wiederlegunge der Abg?tterey," etc., reprinted in Scriptores rerum Livonicarun, ii. 645 (Riga and Leipsic, 1848).

146.

A. de Nore, Coutumes, mythes et traditions des provinces de France (Paris and Lyons, 1846), p. 88.

147.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 387.

148.

Bringaud, "Les Karens de la Birmanie," Missions Catholiques, xx. (1888) pp. 297 sq.

149.

A. Henry, "The Lolos and other tribes of Western China," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiii. (1903) p. 102.

150.

C. Hose and W. M'Dougall, "The Relations between Men and Animals in Sarawak," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxi. (1901) pp. 183 sq.

151.

De los Reyes y Florentino, "Die religi?se Anschauungen der Ilocanen (Luzon)," Mittheilungen der k. k. Geograph. Gesellschaft in Wien, xxxi (1888) pp. 569 sq.

152.

A. Bastian, Die Seele und ihre Erscheinungswesen in der Ethnographie, p. 36.

153.

H. Ward, Five Years with the Congo Cannibals (London, 1890), pp. 53 sq.

154.

A. G. Morice, "The Western Dénés, their Manners and Customs," Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Toronto, Third Series, vii. (1888-1889) pp. 158 sq.; id., Au pays de l'ours noir, chez les sauvages de la Colombie Britannique (Paris and Lyons, 1897), p. 75.

155.

Clicteur, in Annales de l'Association de la Propagation de la Foi, iv (1830) p. 479.

156.

M. Joustra, "Het leven, de zeden en gewoonten der Bataks," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 408.

157.

J. H. Meerwaldt, "Gebruiken der Bataks in het maatschappelijk leven," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, li. (1907) pp. 98 sq. The writer gives tondi as the form of the Batak word for "soul."

158.

Dr. R. R?mer, "Bijdrage tot de Geneeskunst der Karo-Batak's," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, i. (1908) pp. 212 sq.

159.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, In Centraal Borneo (Leyden, 1900), i. 148, 152 sq., 164 sq.; id., Quer durch Borneo (Leyden, 1904-1907), i. 112 sq., 125.

160.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, ii. 481.

161.

J. Perham, "Manangism in Borneo," Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 19 (Singapore, 1887), p. 91, compare pp. 89, 90; H. Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, i. 274, compare pp. 272 sq.

162.

E. L. M. Kühr, "Schetsen uit Borneo's Westerafdeeling," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvii. (1897) pp. 60 sq.

163.

A. C. Kruijt, "Eenige ethnografische aanteekeningen omtrent de Toboengkoe en de Tomori," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xliv. (1900) p. 225.

164.

Pantschatantra, übersetzt von Th. Benfey (Leipsic, 1859), ii. 124 sqq.

165.

J. Brandes, "Iets over het Pape-gaai-boek, zooals het bij de Maleiers voorkomt," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xli. (1899) pp. 480-483. A story of this sort is quoted from the Persian Tales in the Spectator (No. 578, Aug. 9, 1714).

166.

Katha Sarit Ságara, translated by C. H. Tawney (Calcutta, 1880), i. 21 sq. For other Indian tales of the same general type, with variations in detail, see Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, Nouvelle édition, xii. 183 sq.; North Indian Notes and Queries, iv. p. 28, § 54.

167.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, iv. 104.

168.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. vii. 174; Plutarch, De genio Socratis, 22; Lucian, Muscae encomium, 7. Plutarch calls the man Hermodorus. Epimenides, the Cretan seer, had also the power of sending his soul out of his body and keeping it out as long as he pleased. See Hesychius Milesius, in Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Müller, v. 162; Suidas, s.v. ?πιμεν?δη?. On such reported cases in antiquity see further E. Rohde, Psyche,3 ii. 91 sqq.

169.

Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century by Evliyā Efendī, translated from the Turkish by the Ritter Joseph von Hammer (Oriental Translation Fund), vol. i. pt. ii. p. 3. I have not seen this work. An extract from it, containing the above narrative, was kindly sent me by Colonel F. Tyrrel, and the exact title and reference were supplied to me by Mr. R. A. Nicholson, who was so good as to consult the book for me in the British Museum.

170.

E. B. Cross, "On the Karens," Journal of the American Oriental Society, iv. (1854) p. 311.

171.

A. R. McMahon, The Karens of the Golden Chersonese (London, 1876), p. 318.

172.

F. Mason, "Physical Character of the Karens," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1866, pt. ii. pp. 28 sq.

173.

R. G. Woodthorpe, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxvi. (1897) p. 23.

174.

C. J. S. F. Forbes, British Burma (London, 1878), pp. 99 sq.; Shway Yoe, The Burman (London, 1882), ii. 102; A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, ii. 389.

175.

Guerlach, "M?urs et superstitions des sauvages Ba-hnars," Missions Catholiques, xix. (1887) pp. 525 sq.

176.

J. H. Neumann, "De begoe in de godsdienstige begrippen der Karo-Bataks in de Doesoen," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 27.

177.

F. Grabowsky, in Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, ii. (1889) p. 182.

178.

Fr. Boas, in Eleventh Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 6 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1896).

179.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 414.

180.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. pp. 221 sq.

181.

N. Ph. Wilken en J. A. Schwarz, "Het heidendom en de Islam in Bolaang Mongondou," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xi. (1867) pp. 263 sq.

182.

James Dawson, Australian Aborigines (Melbourne, Sydney, and Adelaide, 1881), pp. 57 sq.

183.

W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific (London, 1876), pp. 171 sq.

184.

De Flacourt, Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar (Paris, 1658), pp. 101 sq.

185.

E. L. M. Kühr, "Schetsen uit Borneo's Westerafdeeling," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvii. (1897) pp. 61 sq.

186.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, pp. 138 sq.

187.

Bishop Hose, "The Contents of a Dyak Medicine Chest," Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 39, June 1903, p. 69.

188.

R. H. Codrington, op. cit. p. 208.

189.

R. H. Codrington, op. cit. pp. 146 sq.

190.

V. M. Mikhailovskii, "Shamanism in Siberia and European Russia," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxiv. (1895) pp. 69 sq.

191.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) pp. 363 sq.

192.

Rev. Myron Eels, "The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam Indians of Washington Territory," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1887, pt. i. pp. 677 sq.

193.

A. Landes, "Contes et légendes annamites," No. 76 in Cochinchine Fran?aise: excursions et reconnaissances, No. 23 (Saigon, 1885), p. 80.

194.

Guerlach, "Chez les sauvages Ba-hnars," Missions Catholiques, xvi. (1884) p. 436, xix. (1887) p. 453, xxvi. (1894) pp. 142 sq.

195.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, i. 243 sq.

196.

See above, p. 45.

197.

M. J. van Baarda, "Fabelen, Verhalen en Overleveringen der Galelareezen," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlv. (1895) p. 509.

198.

M. T. H. Perelaer, Ethnographische Beschrijving der Dajaks (Zalt-Bommel, 1870), pp. 26 sq.

199.

"Eenige bijzonderheden betreffende de Papoeas van de Geelvinksbaai van Nieuw-Guinea," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Neêrlandsch-Indi?, ii. (1854) pp. 375 sq. It is especially the souls of children that the spirit loves to take to himself. See J. L. van Hasselt, "Die Papuast?mme an der Geelvinkbai," Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, ix. (1891) p. 103; compare ib. iv. (1886) pp. 118 sq. The mists seen to hang about tree-tops are due to the power of trees to condense vapour, as to which see Gilbert White, Natural History of Selborne, part ii. letter 29.

200.

Fr. Valentyn, Oud- en nieuw Oost-Indi?n, iii. 13 sq.

201.

Van Schmidt, "Aanteekeningen nopens de zeden, gewoonten en gebruiken, benevens de vooroordeelen en bijgelovigheden der bevolking van de eilanden Saparoea, Haroekoe, Noessa Laut, en van een gedeelte van de zuidkust van Ceram," in Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indi?, 1843, dl. ii. 511 sqq.

202.

A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxix. (1895) pp. 5-8.

203.

A. Bastian, Die Seele und ihre Erscheinungswesen in der Ethnographie (Berlin, 1868), pp. 36 sq.; J. G. Gmelin, Reise durch Sibirien, ii. 359 sq. This mode of curing sickness, by inducing the demon to swap the soul of the patient for an effigy, is practised also by the Dyaks and by some tribes on the northern coast of New Guinea. See H. Ling Roth, "Low's Natives of Borneo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxi. (1892) p. 117; E. L. M. Kühr, "Schetsen uit Borneo's Westerafdeeling," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvii. (1897) pp. 62 sq.; F. S. A. de Clercq, "De West- en Noordkust van Nederlandsch Nieuw-Guinea," Tijdschrift van het kon. Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, x. (1893) pp. 633 sq.

204.

V. Priklonski, "Todtengebr?uche der Jakuten," Globus, lix. (1891) pp. 81 sq. Compare id., "über das Schamenthum bei den Jakuten," in A. Bastian's Allerlei aus Volks- und Menschenkunde, i. 218 sq.

205.

P. N. Wilken, "Bijdragen tot de kennis van de zeden en gewoonten der Alfoeren in de Minahassa," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, vii. (1863) pp. 146 sq. Why the priest, after restoring the soul, tells it to go away again, is not clear.

206.

J. G. F. Riedel "De Minahasa in 1825," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xviii. 523.

207.

N. Graafland, De Minahassa (Rotterdam, 1869), i. 327 sq.

208.

Fr. Kramer, "Der G?tzendienst der Niasser," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxiii. (1890) pp. 490 sq.

209.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 357.

210.

G. Turner, Samoa, pp. 142 sq.

211.

J. B. Neumann, "Het Pane- en Bila-stroomgebied op het eiland Sumatra," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, dl. iii., Afdeeling, meer uitgebreide artikelen, No. 2 (1886), p. 302.

212.

R. H. Codrington, "Religious Beliefs and Practices in Melanesia," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, x. (1881) p. 281; id., The Melanesians, p. 267.

213.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 229

214.

Horatio Hale, United States Exploring Expedition, Ethnography and Philology (Philadelphia, 1846), pp. 208 sq. Compare Ch. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (London, 1845), iv. 448 sq. Similar methods of recovering lost souls are practised by the Haidas, Nootkas, Shuswap, and other Indian tribes of British Columbia. See Fr. Boas, in Fifth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, pp. 58 sq. (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1889); id. in Sixth Report, etc., pp. 30, 44, 59 sq., 94 (separate reprint of the Report of the Brit. Assoc. for 1890); id. in Ninth Report, etc., p. 462 (in Report of the Brit. Assoc. for 1894). Kwakiutl medicine-men exhibit captured souls in the shape of little balls of eagle down. See Fr. Boas, in Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1895, pp. 561, 575.

215.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, pp. 77 sq.

216.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. pp. 356 sq.

217.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. p. 376.

218.

Spenser St. John, Life in the Forests of the Far East,2 i. 189; H. Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, i. 261. Sometimes the souls resemble cotton seeds (Spenser St. John, l.c.). Compare id. i. 183.

219.

Nieuwenhuisen en Rosenberg, "Verslag omtrent het Eiland Nias," Verhandel. van het Batav. Genootsch. van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxx. (Batavia, 1863) p. 116; H. von Rosenberg, Der Malayische Archipel, p. 174; E. Modigliani, Viaggio a Nías (Milan, 1890), p. 192.

220.

"Lettre du curé de Santiago Tepehuacan à son évêque sur les m?urs et coutumes des Indiens soumis à ses soins," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, ii. (1834) p. 178.

221.

W. Camden, Britannia (London, 1607), p. 792. The passage has not always been understood by Camden's translators.

222.

A. Moret, Le Rituel du culte divin journalier en égypte (Paris, 1902), pp. 32-35, 83 sq.

223.

Th. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians2 (London, 1860), i. 250.

224.

W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific, p. 171; id., Life in the Southern Isles, pp. 181 sqq. Cinet, sinnet, or sennit is cordage made from the dried fibre of the coco-nut husk. Large quantities of it are used in Fiji. See Th. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 69.

225.

J. Williams, Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands (London, 1838), pp. 93, 466 sq. A traveller in Zombo-land found traps commonly set at the entrances of villages and huts for the purpose of catching the devil. See Rev. Th. Lewis, "The Ancient Kingdom of Kongo," The Geographical Journal, xix. (1902) p. 554.

226.

Relations des Jésuites, 1639, p. 44 (Canadian reprint, Quebec, 1858).

227.

L. J. B. Bérenger-Féraud, Les Peuplades de la Sénégambie (Paris, 1879), p. 277.

228.

Delafosse, in L'Anthropologie, xi. (1895) p. 558.

229.

W. H. Bentley, Life on the Congo (London, 1887), p. 71.

230.

Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa (London, 1897), pp. 461 sq.

231.

E. L. M. Kühr, in Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, ii. (1889) p. 163; id., "Schetsen uit Borneo's Westerafdeeling," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvii. (1897) pp. 59 sq. Among the Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands "every war-party must be accompanied by a shaman, whose duty it was to find a propitious time for making an attack, etc., but especially to war with and kill the souls of the enemy. Then the death of their natural bodies was certain." See J. R. Swanton, "Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida" (Leyden and New York, 1905), p. 40 (Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. v. part i.). Some of the Dyaks of south-eastern Borneo perform a ceremony for the purpose of extracting the souls from the bodies of prisoners whom they are about to torture to death. See F. Grabowsky, "Der Tod, das Begr?bnis, etc., bei den Dajaken," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, ii. (1889) p. 199.

232.

A. Bastian, Allerlei aus Volks- und Menschenkunde (Berlin, 1888), i. 119.

233.

Relations des Jésuites, 1637, p. 50 (Canadian reprint, Quebec, 1858).

234.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua (the Hague, 1886), pp. 78 sq.

235.

E. B. Cross, "On the Karens," Journal of the American Oriental Society, iv. (1854) p. 307.

236.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic (London, 1900), pp. 568 sq.

237.

W. W. Skeat, op. cit. pp. 569 sq.

238.

W. W. Skeat, op. cit. pp. 574 sq.

239.

W. W. Skeat, op. cit. pp. 576 sq.

240.

Lysias, Or. vi. 51, p. 51 ed. C. Scheibe. The passage was pointed out to me by my friend Mr. W. Wyse. As to the mutilation of the Hermae, see Thucydides, vi. 27-29, 60 sq.; Andocides, Or. i. 37 sqq.; Plutarch, Alcibiades, 18.

241.

Above, p. 69.

242.

J. B. McCullagh, in The Church Missionary Gleaner, xiv. No. 164 (August 1887), p. 91. The same account is copied from the "North Star" (Sitka, Alaska, December 1888) in Journal of American Folk-lore, ii. (1889) pp. 74 sq. Mr. McCullagh's account (which is closely followed in the text) of the latter part of the custom is not quite clear. It would seem that failing to find the soul in the head-doctor's box it occurs to them that he may have swallowed it, as the other doctors were at first supposed to have done. With a view of testing this hypothesis they hold him up by the heels to empty out the soul; and as the water with which his head is washed may possibly contain the missing soul, it is poured on the patient's head to restore the soul to him. We have already seen that the recovered soul is often conveyed into the sick person's head.

243.

Fr. Boas in Eleventh Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 571 (Report of the British Association for 1896). For other examples of the recapture or recovery of lost, stolen, and strayed souls, in addition to those which have been cited in the preceding pages, see J. N. Vosmaer, Korte Beschrijving van het Zuid-oostelijk Schiereiland van Celebes, pp. 119-123 (this work, of which I possess a copy, forms part of a Dutch journal which I have not identified; it is dated Batavia, 1835); J. G. F. Riedel, "De Topantunuasu of oorspronkelijke volksstammen van Central Selebes," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxv. (1886) p. 93; J. B. Neumann, "Het Pane- en Bilastroom-gebeid," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, dl. iii., Afdeeling, meer uitgebreide artikelen, No. 2 (1886), pp. 300 sq.; J. L. van der Toorn, "Het animisme bei den Minangkabauer," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) pp. 51 sq.; H. Ris, "De onderafdeeling Klein Mandailing Oeloe en Pahantan," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvi. (1896) p. 529; C. Snouck Hurgronje, De Atjéhers (Batavia and Leyden, 1893-4), i. 426 sq.; W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, pp. 49-51, 452-455, 570 sqq.; Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxiv. (1895) pp. 128, 287; Chimkievitch, "Chez les Bouriates de l'Amoor," Tour du monde, N.S. iii. (1897) pp. 622 sq.; Father Ambrosoli, "Notice sur l'?le de Rook," Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xxvii. (1855) p. 364; A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, ii. 388, iii. 236; id., V?lkerst?mme am Brahmaputra, p. 23; id., "Hügelst?mme Assam's," Verhandlungen der Berlin. Gesell. für Anthropol., Ethnol. und Urgeschichte, 1881, p. 156; Shway Yoe, The Burman, i. 283 sq., ii. 101 sq.; G. M. Sproat, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, p. 214; J. Doolittle, Social Life of the Chinese, pp. 110 sq. (ed. Paxton Hood); T. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 242; E. B. Cross, "On the Karens," Journal of the American Oriental Society, iv. (1854) pp. 309 sq.; A. W. Howitt, "On some Australian Beliefs," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) pp. 187 sq.; id., "On Australian Medicine Men," Journ. Anthrop. Inst. xvi. (1887) p. 41; E. P. Houghton, "On the Land Dayaks of Upper Sarawak," Memoirs of the Anthropological Society of London, iii. (1870) pp. 196 sq.; L. Dahle, "Sikidy and Vintana," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Annual, xi. (1887) pp. 320 sq.; C. Leemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae eorumque lingua, vita et religione pristina commentatio (Copenhagen, 1767), pp. 416 sq.; A. E. Jenks, The Bontoc Igorot (Manilla, 1905), pp. 199 sq.; C. G. Seligmann, The Melanesians of British New Guinea (Cambridge, 1910), pp. 185 sq. My friend W. Robertson Smith suggested to me that the practice of hunting souls, which is denounced in Ezekiel xiii. 17 sqq., may have been akin to those described in the text.

244.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 440.

245.

A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, v. 455.

246.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. p. 340.

247.

N. Adriani en A. C. Kruijt, "Van Posso naar Parigi, Sigi en Lindoe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlii. (1898) p. 511; compare A. C. Kruijt, ib. xliv. (1900) p. 247.

248.

A. C. Kruijt, "Eenige ethnografische aanteekeningen omtrent de Toboengkoe en de Tomori," op. cit. xliv. (1900) p. 226.

249.

Annales de l'Association de la Propagation de la Foi, iv. (1830) p. 481.

250.

Rev. J. Roscoe, in a letter to me dated Mengo, Uganda, May 26, 1904.

251.

R. E. Dennett, "Bavili Notes," Folk-lore, xvi. (1905) p. 372; id., At the Back of the Black Man's Mind (London, 1906), p. 79.

252.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 84.

253.

Dudley Kidd, Savage Childhood, p. 68.

254.

C. W. Hobley, "British East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiii. (1903) pp. 327 sq.

255.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, iv. 84 sq.

256.

E. Modigliani, Viaggio a Nías, p. 620, compare p. 624.

257.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 184.

258.

R. H. Codrington, op. cit. p. 176.

259.

Fr. Boas, in Ninth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, pp. 461 sq. (Report of the British Association for 1894).

260.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, i. 94, 210 sq.

261.

E. H. Man, "Notes on the Nicobarese," Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) pp. 257-259. Compare Sir R. C. Temple, in Census of India, 1901, iii. 209.

262.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 143.

263.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 54.

264.

Mohammed Ebn-Omar El-Tounsy, Voyage au Darfour, traduit de l'Arabe par le Dr. Perron (Paris, 1845), p. 347.

265.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 306.

266.

[Aristotle] Mirab. Auscult. 145 (157); Geoponica, xv. 1. In the latter passage, for κατ?γει ?αυτ?ν we must read κατ?γει α?τ?ν, an emendation necessitated by the context, and confirmed by the passage of Dam?r? quoted and translated by Bochart, Hierozoicon, i. col. 833, "cum ad lunam calcat umbram canis, qui supra tectum est, canis ad eam [scil. hyaenam] decidit, et ea illum devorat." Compare W. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites,2 p. 129.

267.

Dudley Kidd, Savage Childhood, p. 71.

268.

W. Crooke, in Indian Antiquary, xix. (1890) p. 254.

269.

Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 612.

270.

M. R. Pedlow, in Indian Antiquary, xxix. (1900) p. 60.

271.

W. Cornwallis Harris, The Highlands of Aethiopia (London, 1844), i. 158.

272.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 313.

273.

D. Kidd, op. cit. p. 356.

274.

Dudley Kidd, Savage Childhood, p. 70.

275.

Panjab Notes and Queries, i. p. 15, § 122.

276.

Fr. Boas, in Sixth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, pp. 92, 94 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1890); compare id. in Seventh Report, etc., p. 13 (separate reprint from the Rep. Brit. Assoc. for 1891).

277.

A. W. Howitt, "The Jeraeil, or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kurnai Tribe," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiv. (1885) p. 316.

278.

Miss Mary E. B. Howitt, Folk-lore and Legends of some Victorian Tribes (in manuscript).

279.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 266.

280.

A. W. Howitt, op. cit. p. 267.

281.

A. W. Howitt, op. cit. pp. 256 sq.

282.

A. W. Howitt, op. cit. pp. 280 sq. Compare J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, pp. 32 sq.

283.

Partly from notes sent me by my friend the Rev. J. Roscoe, partly from Sir H. Johnston's account (The Uganda Protectorate, ii. 688). In his printed notes (Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 39) Mr. Roscoe says that the mother-in-law "may be in another room out of sight and speak to him through the wall or open door."

284.

Father Picarda, "Autour du Mandera, Notes sur l'Ouzigoua, l'Oukwéré et l'Oudoé (Zanguebar)," Missions Catholiques, xviii. (1886) p. 286.

285.

Father Porte, "Les Réminiscences d'un missionnaire du Basutoland," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 318.

286.

H. H. Romily and Rev. George Brown, in Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, N.S. ix. (1887) pp. 9, 17.

287.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 43.

288.

J. G. Bourke, On the Border with Crook, p. 132. More evidence of the mutual avoidance of mother-in-law and son-in-law among savages is collected in my Totemism and Exogamy; see the Index, s.v. "Mother-in-law." The custom is probably based on a fear of incest between them. To the almost universal rule of savage life that a man must avoid his mother-in-law there is a most remarkable exception among the Wahehe of German East Africa. In that tribe a bridegroom must sleep with his mother-in-law before he may cohabit with her daughter. See Rev. H. Cole, "Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 312.

289.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, p. 312; H. Ling Roth, Great Benin, p. 119; Missions Catholiques, xv. (1883) p. 110; J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 67.

290.

Dio Chrysostom, Or. lxvii. vol. ii. p. 230, ed. L. Dindorf.

291.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 61.

292.

W. W. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South Pacific, pp. 284 sqq.

293.

W. W. Skeat and C. O. Blagden. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula (London, 1906), ii. 110.

294.

The Rev. J. Roscoe, in a letter to me dated Mengo, Uganda, May 26, 1904.

295.

T. Arbousset et F. Daumas, Voyage d'exploration (Paris, 1842), p. 291; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, pp. 83, 303; id., Savage Childhood, p. 69. In the last passage Mr. Kidd tells us that "the mat was not held up in the sun, but was placed in the hut at the marked-off portion where the itongo or ancestral spirit was supposed to live; and the fate of the man was divined, not by the length of the shadow, but by its strength."

296.

Theocritus, i. 15 sqq.; Philostratus, Heroic. i. 3; Porphyry, De antro nympharum, 26; Lucan, iii. 423 sqq.; Drexler, s.v. "Meridianus daemon," in Roscher's Lexikon der griech. und r?m. Mythologie, ii. 2832 sqq.; Bernard Schmidt, Das Volksleben der Neugriechen, pp. 94 sqq., 119 sq.; Georgeakis et Pineau, Folk-lore de Lesbos, p. 342; A. de Nore, Coutumes, mythes, et traditions des provinces de France, pp. 214 sq.; J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,4 ii. 972; C. L. Rochholz, Deutscher Glaube und Brauch, i. 62 sqq.; E. Gerard, The Land beyond the Forest, i. 331; "Lettre du curé de Santiago Tepehuacan," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, ii. (1834) p. 180; N. von Stenin, "Die Permier," Globus, lxxi. (1897) p. 374; D. Louwerier, "Bijgeloovige gebruiken, die door die Javanen worden in acht genomen," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlix. (1905) p. 257.

297.

Schol. on Aristophanes, Frogs, 293.

298.

Pausanias, viii. 38. 6; Polybius, xvi. 12. 7; Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae, 39.

299.

Th. Vernaleken, Mythen und Br?uche des Volkes in ?sterreich, p. 341; Reinsberg-Düringsfeld, Das festliche Jahr, p. 401; A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 p. 207, § 314.

300.

M. J. van Baarda, "Fabelen, Verhalen en Overleveringen der Galelareezen," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlv. (1895) p. 459.

301.

J. H. Weeks, "Notes on some Customs of the Lower Congo People," Folk-lore, xix. (1908) p. 422.

302.

B. Schmidt, Das Volksleben der Neugriechen (Leipsic, 1871), pp. 196 sq.

303.

Georgeakis et Pineau, Folk-lore de Lesbos, pp. 346 sq.

304.

A. Strausz, Die Bulgaren (Leipsic, 1898), p. 199; W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, p. 127.

305.

W. Schmidt, Das Jahr und seine Tage in Meinung und Brauch der Rom?nen Siebenbürgens (Hermannstadt, 1866), p. 27; E. Gerard, The Land beyond the Forest, ii. 17 sq. Compare F. S. Krauss, Volksglaube und religi?ser Brauch der Südslaven, p. 161.

306.

Mgr. Bruguière, in Annales de l'Association de la Propagation de la Foi, v. (1831) pp. 164 sq.; Pallegoix, Description du royaume Thai ou Siam, ii. 50-52.

307.

A. Fytche, Burma, Past and Present (London, 1878), i. 251 note.

308.

On such practices in general, see E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture,2 i. 104 sqq.; F. Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, pp. 284-296; F. S. Krauss, "Der Bauopfer bei den Südslaven," Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xvii. (1887) pp. 16-24; P. Sartori, "über das Bauopfer," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxx. (1898) pp. 1-54; E. Westermarck, Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas (London, 1906-1908), i. 461 sqq. For some special evidence, see H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, pp. 363 sqq. (as to ancient India); Sonnerat, Voyage aux Indes Orientales et à la Chine, ii. 47 (as to Pegu); Guerlach, "Chez les sauvages Bahnars," Missions Catholiques, xvi. (1884) p. 82 (as to the Sedans of Cochin-China); W. H. Furness, Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters, p. 3 (as to the Kayans and Kenyahs of Burma); A. C. Kruijt, "Van Paloppo naar Posso," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlii. (1898) p. 56 note (as to central Celebes); L. Hearn, Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan (London, 1894), i. 148 sq.; H. Ternaux-Compans, Essai sur l'ancien Cundinamarca, p. 70 (as to the Indians of Colombia). These customs are commonly called foundation-sacrifices. But the name is inappropriate, as Prof. H. Oldenberg has rightly observed, since they are not sacrifices but charms.

309.

D. F. van Braam Morris, in Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxiv. (1891) p. 224.

310.

J. H. de Vries, "Reis door eenige eilandgroepen der Residentie Amboina," Tijdschrift van het koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweedie Serie, xvii. (1900) pp. 612 sq.

311.

E. H. Mann, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, p. 94.

312.

T. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 241. However, the late Mr. Lorimer Fison wrote to me that this reported belief in a bright soul and a dark soul "is one of Williams' absurdities. I inquired into it on the island where he was, and found that there was no such belief. He took the word for 'shadow,' which is a reduplication of yalo, the word for soul, as meaning the dark soul. But yaloyalo does not mean the soul at all. It is not part of a man as his soul is. This is made certain by the fact that it does not take the possessive suffix yalo-na = his soul; but nona yaloyalo = his shadow. This settles the question beyond dispute. If yaloyalo were any kind of soul, the possessive form would be yaloyalona" (letter dated August 26, 1898).

313.

James Chalmers, Pioneering in New Guinea (London, 1887), p. 170.

314.

Father Lambert, M?urs et superstitions des Néo-Calédoniens (Nouméa, 1900), pp. 45 sq.

315.

M. J. van Baarda, "Fabelen, Verhalen en Overleveringen der Galelareezen," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlv. (1895) p. 462.

316.

B. de Sahagun, Histoire générale des choses de la Nouvelle-Espagne (Paris, 1880), p. 314. The Chinese hang brass mirrors over the idols in their houses, because it is thought that evil spirits entering the house and seeing themselves in the mirrors will be scared away (China Review, ii. 164).

317.

G. Vuillier, "Chez les magiciens et les sorciers de la Corrèze," Tour du monde, N.S. v. (1899) pp. 522, 524.

318.

H. Callaway, Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus (Natal and London, 1868), p. 342.

319.

T. Arbousset et F. Daumas, Voyage d'exploration au nord-est de la colonie du Cap de Bonne-Espérance, p. 12; T. Lindsay Fairclough, "Notes on the Basuto," Journal of the African Society, No. 14 (January 1905), p. 201.

320.

R. H. Codrington, "Religious Beliefs and Practices in Melanesia," Journ. Anthrop. Inst. x. (1881) p. 313; id., The Melanesians, p. 186.

321.

Fragmenta philosophorum Graecorum, ed. F. G. A. Mullach, i. 510; Artemidorus, Onirocr. ii. 7; Laws of Manu, iv. 38 (p. 135, G. Bühler's translation, Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxv.).

322.

See above, p. 37.

323.

A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 pp. 429 sq., § 726.

324.

A. Wuttke, l.c.; E. Monseur, Le Folklore Wallon, p. 40.

325.

Folk-lore Journal, iii. (1885) p. 281; T. F. Thiselton Dyer, English Folk-lore, p. 109; J. Napier, Folk-lore, or Superstitious Beliefs in the West of Scotland, p. 60; W. Ellis, History of Madagascar, i. 238. Compare A. Grandidier, "Des rites funéraires chez les Malgaches," Revue d'Ethnographie, v. (1886) p. 215.

326.

S. Weissenberg, "Die Kar?er der Krim," Globus, lxxxiv. (1903) p. 143; id. "Krankheit und Tod bei den südrussischen Juden," Globus, xci. (1907) p. 360.

327.

Panjab Notes and Queries, ii. p. 169, § 906.

328.

J. V. Grohmann, Aberglauben und Gebr?uche aus B?hmen und M?hren, p. 151, § 1097; Folk-lore Journal, vi. (1888) pp. 145 sq.: Panjab Notes and Queries, ii. p. 61, § 378.

329.

J. G. Frazer, "On certain Burial Customs as illustrative of the Primitive Theory of the Soul," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xv. (1886) pp. 82 sqq. Among the heathen Arabs, when a man had been stung by a scorpion, he was kept from sleeping for seven days, during which he had to wear a woman's bracelets and earrings (Rasmussen, Additamenta ad historiam Arabum ante Islamismum, p. 65, compare p. 69). The old Mexican custom of masking and the images of the gods so long as the king was sick (Brasseur de Bourbourg, Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique et de l'Amérique-Centrale, iii. 571 sq.) may perhaps have been intended to prevent the images from drawing away the king's soul.

330.

W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, p. 117. The objection, however, may be merely Puritanical. W. Robertson Smith informed me that the peculiarities of the Raskolniks are largely due to exaggerated Puritanism.

331.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Part I. (Washington, 1899) p. 422.

332.

J. Owen Dorsey, "A Study of Siouan Cults," Eleventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1894), p. 484; id. "Teton Folk-lore," American Anthropologist, ii. (1889) p. 143.

333.

Maximilian Prinz zu Wied, Reise in das innere Nord-America, i. 417.

334.

Ibid. ii. 166.

335.

C. Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico (London, 1903), i. 459 sq.

336.

A. Simson, "Notes on the Jivaros and Canelos Indians," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, ix. (1880) p. 392.

337.

D. Forbes, in Journal of the Ethnological Society of London, ii. (1870) p. 236.

338.

E. R. Smith, The Araucanians (London, 1855), p. 222.

339.

Rev. A. Hetherwick, "Some Animistic Beliefs among the Yaos of British Central Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) pp. 89 sq.

340.

W. A. Elmslie, Among the Wild Ngoni (Edinburgh and London, 1899), pp. 70 sq.

341.

J. Thomson, Through Masai Land (London, 1885), p. 86.

342.

E. Clodd, in Folk-lore, vi. (1895) pp. 73 sq., referring to The Times of March 24, 1891.

343.

L. A. Waddell, Among the Himalayas (Westminster, 1899), pp. 85 sq.

344.

E. Young, The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe (Westminster, 1898), p. 140.

345.

Ch. Dallet, Histoire de l'église de Corée (Paris, 1874), i. p. xxv. This account of Corea was written at a time when the country was still almost secluded from European influence. The events of recent years have naturally wrought great changes in the habits and ideas of the people.

346.

"Iets over het bijgeloof in de Minahasa," Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indi?, III. Série, iv. (1870) pp. 8 sq.

347.

J. Freiherr von Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Würzburg, 1894), p. 195.

348.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, i. 314.

349.

"A Far-off Greek Island," Blackwood's Magazine, February 1886, p. 235.

350.

J. A. E. K?hler, Volksbrauch, Aberglauben, Sagen und andre alte überlieferungen im Voigtlande (Leipsic, 1867), p. 423.

351.

W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, p. 117.

352.

Miss M. E. Durham, High Albania (London, 1909), p. 107.

353.

F. H. Groome, In Gipsy Tents (Edinburgh, 1880), pp. 337 sq.

354.

James Napier, Folk-lore, or Superstitious Beliefs in the West of Scotland, p. 142. For more examples of the same sort, see R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, Neue Folge (Leipsic, 1889), pp. 18 sqq.

355.

Menander Protector, in Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Müller, iv. 227. Compare Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch. xlii. vol. vii. pp. 294 sq. (Edinburgh, 1811).

356.

G. Turner, Samoa, pp. 291 sq.

357.

Charles New, Life, Wanderings, and Labours in Eastern Africa (London, 1873), p. 432. Compare ibid. pp. 400, 402. For the demons on Mt. Kilimanjaro, see also J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa (London, 1860), p. 192.

358.

Pierre Bouche, La C?te des Esclaves et le Dahomey (Paris, 1885), p. 133.

359.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar (Paris, 1904), p. 42.

360.

C. A. L. M. Schwaner, Borneo (Amsterdam, 1853-54), ii. 77.

361.

Ibid. ii. 167.

362.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, ii. 102.

363.

E. Aymonier, Notes sur le Laos (Saigon, 1885), p. 196.

364.

Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IVme Série, vi. (1853) pp. 134 sq.

365.

H. von Rosenberg, Der malayische Archipel (Leipsic, 1878), p. 198.

366.

D. W. Horst, "Rapport van eene reis naar de Noordkust van Nieuw Guinea," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxii. (1889) p. 229.

367.

Capt. John Moresby, Discoveries and Surveys in New Guinea (London, 1876), pp. 102 sq.

368.

R. I. Dodge, Our Wild Indians (Hartford, Conn., 1886), p. 119.

369.

J. Crevaux, Voyages dans l'Amérique du Sud (Paris, 1883), p. 300.

370.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 78.

371.

J. Kreemer, "Hoe de Javaan zijne zieken verzorgt," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxvi. (1892) p. 13. Mr. E. W. Lewis, of Woodthorpe, Atkins Rood, Clapham Park, London, S.W., writes to me (July 2, 1902) that his grandmother, a native of Cheshire, used to make bees sting her as a cure for local rheumatism; she said the remedy was infallible and had been handed down to her from her mother.

372.

Father Baudin, "Le Fétichisme," Missions Catholiques, xvi. (1884) p. 249; A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast (London, 1894), pp. 113 sq.

373.

A. Bastian, Allerlei aus Volks- und Menschenkunde (Berlin, 1888), i. 116.

374.

J. B. de Callone, "Iets over de geneeswijze en ziekten der Daijakers ter Zuid Oostkust van Borneo," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indie, 1840, dl. i. p. 418.

375.

M. T. H. Perelaer, Ethnographische Beschrijving der Dajaks, pp. 44, 54, 252; B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes (The Hague, 1875), p. 49.

376.

H. Grützner, "über die Gebr?uche der Basutho," in Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte, 1877, pp. 84 sq.

377.

L. Decle, Three Years in Savage Africa (London, 1898), p. 81.

378.

P. Reichard, Deutsch-Ostafrika (Leipsic, 1892), p. 431.

379.

Nieuwenhuisen en Rosenberg, "Verslag omtrent het eiland Nias," in Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxx. (Batavia, 1863) p. 26.

380.

R. Parkinson, "Zur Ethnographie der Ontong Java- und Tasman-Inseln," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, x. (1897) p. 112.

381.

T. S. Weir, "Note on Sacrifices in India as a Means of averting Epidemics," Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, i. 35.

382.

E. O'Donovan, The Merv Oasis (London, 1882), ii. 58.

383.

Emin Pasha in Central Africa, being a Collection of his Letters and Journals (London, 1888), p. 107.

384.

H. Ling Roth, Great Benin (Halifax, England, 1903), p. 123.

385.

Narrative of the Second Arctic Expedition made by Charles F. Hall, edited by Prof. J. G. Nourse, U.S.N. (Washington, 1879), p. 269, note. Compare Fr. Boas, "The Central Eskimo," Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1888), p. 609.

386.

J. A. Grant, A Walk across Africa, pp. 104 sq.

387.

E. Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders2 (London, 1856), p. 103.

388.

N. von Miklucho-Maclay, "Ethnologische Bemerkungen über die Papuas der Maclay-Kuste in Neu-Guinea," Natuurkundig Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indie, xxxvi. 317 sq.

389.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin, 1894), p. 94.

390.

R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 134.

391.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 403.

392.

Ch. Hose, Notes on the Natives of British Borneo (in manuscript).

393.

A. C. Kruijt, "Het koppensnellen der Toradja's van Midden-Celebes, en zijne beteekenis," Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Konikl. Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, iv. Reeks, iii. (1899) p. 204.

394.

Scholiast on Euripides, Phoenissae, 1377, ed. E. Schwartz.

395.

Conon, Narrationes, 18; Pausanias, iii. 19. 12; Francis Fleming, Southern Africa (London, 1856), p. 259; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 307.

396.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. ii. pp. 263 sq.

397.

John Campbell, Travels in South Africa, being a Narrative of a Second Journey in the Interior of that Country (London, 1822), ii. 205.

398.

Ladislaus Magyar, Reisen in Süd-Afrika (Buda-Pesth and Leipsic, 1859), p. 203.

399.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin, 1894), p. 89.

400.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 62.

401.

C. J. Andersson, Lake Ngami2 (London, 1856), p. 223.

402.

Washington Matthews, "The Mountain Chant: a Navajo Ceremony," Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1887), p. 410.

403.

Asiatick Researches, vi. 535 sq. ed. 4to (p. 537 sq. ed. 8vo).

404.

Fran?ois Valentyn, Oud en nieuw Oost-Indi?n, iii. 16.

405.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, In Centraal Borneo, i. 165.

406.

G. Turner, Samoa, pp. 305 sq.

407.

De Plano Carpini, Historia Mongolorum quos nos Tartaros appellamus, ed. D'Avezac (Paris, 1838), cap. iii. § iii. p. 627, cap. ult. § i. x. p. 744, and Appendix, p. 775; "Travels of William de Rubriquis into Tartary and China," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, vii. 82 sq.

408.

Paul Pogge, "Bericht über die Station Mukenge," Mittheilungen der Afrikanischen Gesellschaft in Deutschland, iv. (1883-1885) pp. 182 sq.

409.

Coillard, "Voyage au pays des Banyais et au Zambèse," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), VIme Série, xx. (1880) p. 393.

410.

J. L. Krapf, Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours during an Eighteen Years' Residence in Eastern Africa (London, 1860), pp. 252 sq.

411.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique (Amsterdam, 1686), p. 391.

412.

Proyart, "History of Loango, Kakongo," etc., in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 583; Dapper, op. cit. p. 340; J. Ogilby, Africa (London, 1670), p. 521. Compare A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 288.

413.

A. Bastian, op. cit. i. 268 sq.

414.

See above, pp. 8 sq.

415.

L. von Ende, "Die Baduwis auf Java," Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xix. (1889) pp. 7-10. As to the Baduwis (Badoejs) see also G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi? (Leyden, 1893), pp. 640-643.

416.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 107.

417.

J. B. Neumann, "Het Pane- en Bila- Stroomgebied op het eiland Sumatra," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, dl. iii. (1886) Afdeeling, meer uitgebreide artikelen, No. 2, p. 300.

418.

J. Richardson, "Tanala Customs, Superstitions and Beliefs," The Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, Reprint of the First Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1885), p. 219.

419.

W. Cornwallis Harris, The Highlands of Aethiopia, iii. 171 sq.

420.

Th. Lefebvre, Voyage en Abyssinie, i. p. lxxii.

421.

Lieut. V. L. Cameron, Across Africa (London, 1877), ii. 71; id., in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vi. (1877) p. 173.

422.

Ebn-el-Dyn el-Eghouathy, "Relation d'un voyage dans l'intérieur de l'Afrique septentrionale," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, i. (1834) p. 290.

423.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 360.

424.

Th. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians.2 i. 249.

425.

"Adventures of Andrew Battel," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 330; O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, p. 330; A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 262 sq.; R. F. Burton, Abeokuta and the Cameroons Mountains, i. 147.

426.

Proyart's "History of Loango, Kakongo," etc., in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 584.

427.

J. L. Wilson, Western Africa, p. 202; John Duncan, Travels in Western Africa, i. 222. Compare W. W. Reade, Savage Africa, p. 543.

428.

Paul Pogge, Im Reiche des Muata Jamwo (Berlin, 1880), p. 231.

429.

F. T. Valdez, Six Years of a Traveller's Life in Western Africa (London, 1861), ii. 256.

430.

A. F. Mockler-Ferryman, Up the Niger (London, 1892), p. 38.

431.

Baron Roger, "Notice sur le gouvernement, les m?urs et les superstitions des Nègres du pays de Walo," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), viii. (1827) p. 351.

432.

G. Schweinfurth, The Heart of Africa, ii. 45 (third edition, London, 1878); G. Casati, Ten Years in Equatoria (London and New York, 1891), i. 177. As to the various customs observed by Monbutto chiefs in drinking see G. Burrows, The Land of the Pigmies (London, 1898), pp. 88, 91.

433.

J. G. Frazer, Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 526, from information furnished by the Rev. John Roscoe.

434.

W. Cornwallis Harris, The Highlands of Aethiopia, iii. 78.

435.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, pp. 162 sq.

436.

Capt. James Cook, Voyages, v. 374 (ed. 1809).

437.

Heraclides Cumanus, in Athenaeus, iv. 26, p. 145 b-d. On the other hand, in Kafa no one, not even the king, may eat except in the presence of a legal witness. A slave is appointed to witness the king's meals, and his office is esteemed honourable. See F. G. Massaja, in Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Vme Série, i. (1861) pp. 330 sq.; Ph. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas: die geistige Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal (Berlin, 1896), pp. 248 sq.

438.

Notes analytiques sur les collections ethnographiques du Musée du Congo, I. Les Arts, Religion (Brussels, 1902-1906), p. 164.

439.

Mohammed Ibn-Omar el Tounsy, Voyage au Darfour (Paris, 1845), p. 203; Travels of an Arab Merchant [Mohammed Ibn-Omar el Tounsy] in Soudan, abridged from the French (of Perron) by Bayle St. John (London, 1854), pp. 91 sq.

440.

Mohammed Ibn-Omar el Tounsy, Voyage au Ouaday (Paris, 1851), p. 375.

441.

Ibn Batoutah, Voyages, ed. C. Defrémery et B. R. Sanguinetti (Paris, 1853-1858), iv. 441.

442.

Le Commandant Mattei, Bas-Niger, Bénoué, Dahomey (Paris, 1895), pp. 90 sq.

443.

H. Ternaux-Compans, Essai sur l'ancien Cundinamarca, p. 60.

444.

Manuscrit Ramirez, histoire de l'origine des Indiens qui habitent la Nouvelle Espagne selon leurs traditions, publié par D. Charnay (Paris, 1903), pp. 107 sq.

445.

Herodotus, i. 99.

446.

A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 170.

447.

Ebn-el-Dyn el-Eghouathy, "Relation d'un voyage," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, i. (1834) p. 290; H. Duveyrier, Exploration du Sahara: les Touareg du Nord, pp. 391 sq.; Reclus, Nouvelle Géographie Universelle, xi. 838 sq.; James Richardson, Travels in the Great Desert of Sahara, ii. 208.

448.

J. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums2 (Berlin, 1897), p. 196.

449.

Tertullian, De virginibus velandis, 17 (Migne's Patrologia Latina, ii. col. 912).

450.

Pseudo-Dicaearchus, Descriptio Graeciae, 18, in Geographi Graeci Minores, ed. C. Müller, i. 103; id., in Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum, ed. C. Müller, ii. 259.

451.

G. Turner, Samoa, pp. 67 sq.

452.

J. G. F. Riedel, "Die Landschaft Dawan oder West-Timor," Deutsche geographische Bl?tter, x. 230.

453.

A. W. Howitt, "On some Australian Ceremonies of Initiation," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 456.

454.

Above, pp. 30 sqq.

455.

See above, pp. 5, 8 sq.

456.

This rule was mentioned to me in conversation by Miss Mary H. Kingsley. However, he is said to have shewn himself outside his palace on solemn occasions once or twice a year. See O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, pp. 311 sq.; H. Ling Roth, Great Benin, p. 74. As to the worship of the king of Benin, see The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 396.

457.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 263. However, a case is recorded in which he marched out to war (ibid. i. 268 sq.).

458.

S. Crowther and J. C. Taylor, The Gospel on the Banks of the Niger (London, 1859), p. 433.

459.

Le Commandant Mattei, Bas-Niger, Bénoué, Dahomey (Paris, 1895), pp. 67-72. The annual dance of the king of Onitsha outside of his palace is mentioned also by S. Crowther and J. C. Taylor (op. cit. p. 379), and A. F. Mockler-Ferryman (Up the Niger, p. 22).

460.

"Mission Voulet-Chanoine," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), VIIIme Série, xx. (1899) p. 223.

461.

C. Partridge, Cross River Natives (London, 1905), p. 7; compare id. pp. 8, 200, 202, 203 sq. See also Major A. G. Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (London, 1906), pp. 371 sq.

462.

Strabo, xvii. 2. 2 σ?βονται δ? ?? θεο?? τουσ βασιλεασ, κατακλειστουσ οντασ και ο?κουρο?? τ? πλ?ον.

463.

Xenophon, Anabasis, v. 4. 26; Scymnus Chius, Orbis descriptio, 900 sqq. (Geographi Graeci Minores, ed. C. Müller, i. 234); Diodorus Siculus, xiv. 30. 6 sq.; Nicolaus Damascenus, quoted by Stobeaus, Florilegium, xliv. 41 (vol. ii. p. 185, ed. Meineke); Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. ii. 1026, sqq., with the note of the scholiast; Pomponius Mela, i. 106, p. 29, ed. Parthey. Die Chrysostom refers to the custom without mentioning the name of the people (Or. xiv. vol. i. p. 257, ed. L. Dindorf).

464.

Strabo, xvi. 4. 19, p. 778; Diodorus Siculus, iii. 47. Inscriptions found in Sheba (the country about two hundred miles north of Aden) seem to shew that the land was at first ruled by a succession of priestly kings, who were afterwards followed by kings in the ordinary sense. The names of many of these priestly kings (makarribs, literally "blessers") are preserved in inscriptions. See Prof. S. R. Driver, in Authority and Archaeology Sacred and Profane, edited by D. G. Hogarth (London, 1899), p. 82. Probably these "blessers" are the kings referred to by the Greek writers. We may suppose that the blessings they dispensed consisted in a proper regulation of the weather, abundance of the fruits of the earth, and so on.

465.

Heraclides Cumanus, in Athenaeus, xii. 13, p. 517 b.c.

466.

Ch. Dallet, Histoire de l'église de Coreé (Paris, 1874), i. pp. xxiv-xxvi. The king sometimes, though rarely, left his palace. When he did so, notice was given beforehand to his people. All doors must be shut and each householder must kneel before his threshold with a broom and a dust-pan in his hand. All windows, especially the upper ones, must be sealed with slips of paper, lest some one should look down upon the king. See W. E. Griffis, Corea, the Hermit Nation, p. 222. These customs are now obsolete (G. N. Curzon, Problems of the Far East, Westminster, 1896, pp. 154 sq. note).

467.

This I learned from the late Mr. W. Simpson, formerly artist of the Illustrated London News.

468.

Richard, "History of Tonquin," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, ix. 746.

469.

Shway Yoe, The Burman (London, 1882), i. 30 sq.; compare Indian Antiquary, xx. (1891) p. 49.

470.

G. Taplin, "The Narrinyeri," in Native Tribes of South Australia (Adelaide, 1879), pp. 24-26; id., in E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, ii. p. 247.

471.

G. Taplin, "The Narrinyeri," in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 63; id., "Notes on the Mixed Races of Australia," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, iv. (1875) p. 53; id., in E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, ii. 245.

472.

H. E. A. Meyer, "Manners and Customs of the Aborigines of the Encounter Bay Tribe," in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 196.

473.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, pp. 203 sq., compare pp. 178, 188, 214.

474.

G. Turner, Samoa, pp. 302 sq. See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, i. 341 sq.

475.

K. Vetter, Komm herüber und hilf uns! iii. (Barmen, 1898) p. 9; M. Krieger, Neu-Guinea, pp. 185 sq.; R. Parkinson, "Die Berlinhafen Section, ein Beitrag zur Ethnographie der Neu-Guinea Küste," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, xiii. (1900) p. 44; M. J. Erdweg, "Die Bewohner der Insel Tumleo, Berlinhafen, Deutsch-Neu-Guinea," Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxxii. (1902) p. 287.

476.

Mgr. Couppé, "En Nouvelle-Poméranie," Missions Catholiques, xxiii. (1891) p. 364; J. Graf Pfeil, Studien und Beobachtungen aus der Südsee (Brunswick, 1899), pp. 141 sq.; P. A. Kleintitschen, Die Küstenbewohner der Gazellehalbinsel (Hiltrup bei Münster, n.d.), pp. 343 sq.

477.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, p. 330. We have seen that the food left by the king of the Monbutto, is carefully buried (above, p. 119).

478.

Bosman's "Guinea," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 487.

479.

P. N. Wilken, "Bijdragen tot de kennis van de zeden en gewoonten der Alfoeren in de Minahassa," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, vii. (1863) p. 126.

480.

W. Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual, pp. 163 sq.

481.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 19. For other examples of witchcraft wrought by means of the refuse of food, see E. S. Hartland, The Legend of Perseus, ii. 83 sqq.

482.

On the covenant entered into by eating together see the classical exposition of W. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites2 (London, 1894), pp. 269 sqq. For examples of the blood-covenant, see H. C. Trumbull, The Blood Covenant (London, 1887). The examples might easily be multiplied.

483.

Kaempfer's "History of Japan," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, vii. 717.

484.

Rev. Lorimer Fison, in a letter to me dated August 26, 1898. In Fijian, kana is to eat; the meaning of lama is unknown.

485.

"Coutumes étranges des indigènes du Djebel-Nouba," Missions Catholiques, xiv. (1882) p. 460; Father S. Carceri, "Djebel-Nouba," ibid. xv. (1883) p. 450. The title of the priestly king is cogiour or codjour. "The codjour is the pontifical king of each group of villages; it is he who regulates and administers the affairs of the Nubas. He is an absolute monarch, on whom all depend. But he has no princely privileges or immunities; no royal insignia, no badge mark him off from his subjects. He lives like them by the produce of his fields and his industry; he works like them, earns his daily bread, and has no guard of honour, no tribunal, no code of laws, no civil list" (Father S. Carceri, loc. cit.).

486.

"Der Muata Cazembe und die V?lkerst?mme der Maravis, Chevas, Muembas, Lundas und andere von Süd-Afrika," Zeitschrift für allgemeine Erdkunde (Berlin), vi. (1856) pp. 398 sq.; F. T. Valdez, Six Years of a Traveller's Life in Western Africa (London, 1861), ii. 251 sq.

487.

W. Mariner, The Natives of the Tonga Islands,2 i. 141 sq. note, 434 note, ii. 82 sq., 221-224; Captain J. Cook, Voyages (London, 1809), v. 427 sq. Similarly in Fiji any person who had touched the head of a living chief or the body of a dead one was forbidden to handle his food, and must be fed by another (J. E. Erskine, The Western Pacific, p. 254).

488.

On the custom of touching for the King's Evil, see The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 368 sqq.

489.

"The idea in which this law [the law of taboo or tapu, as it was called in New Zealand] originated appears to have been, that a portion of the spiritual essence of an atua or of a sacred person was communicated directly to objects which they touched, and also that the spiritual essence so communicated to any object was afterwards more or less retransmitted to anything else brought into contact with it" (E. Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, Second Edition, London, 1856, p. 102). Compare id., Maori Religion and Mythology, p. 25.

490.

Old New Zealand, by a Pakeha Maori (London, 1884), pp. 96 sq.

491.

W. Brown, New Zealand and its Aborigines (London, 1845), p. 76. For more examples of the same kind see ibid. pp. 177 sq.

492.

E. Tregear, "The Maoris of New Zealand," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xix. (1890) p. 100.

493.

R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, or, New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 p. 164.

494.

R. Taylor, op. cit. p. 165.

495.

Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 537 sq.

496.

R. Southey, History of Brazil, i.2 (London, 1822), p. 238.

497.

Major A. G. Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (London, 1906), pp. 257 sq.

498.

Merolla's "Voyage to Congo," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, xvi. 237 sq. As to these chegilla or taboos on food, which are commonly observed by the natives of this part of Africa, see further my Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 614 sqq.

499.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches (Second Edition, London, 1832-1836), iv. 388. Ellis appears to imply that the rule was universal in Polynesia, but perhaps he refers only to Hawaii, of which in this part of his work he is specially treating. We are told that in Hawaii the priest who carried the principal idol about the country was tabooed during the performance of this sacred office; he might not touch anything with his hands, and the morsels of food which he ate had to be put into his mouth by the chiefs of the villages through which he passed or even by the king himself, who accompanied the priest on his rounds (L. de Freycinet, Voyage autour du monde, Historique, ii. Première Partie, Paris, 1829, p. 596). In Tonga the rule applied to chiefs only when their hands had become tabooed by touching a superior chief (W. Mariner, Tonga Islands, i. 82 sq.). In New Zealand chiefs were fed by slaves (A. S. Thomson, The Story of New Zealand, i. 102); or they may, like tabooed people in general, have taken up their food from little stages with their mouths or by means of fern-stalks (R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 p. 162).

500.

Old New Zealand, by a Pakeha Maori (London, 1884), pp. 104-114. For more evidence see W. Yate, New Zealand, p. 85; G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand, ii. 90; E. Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, ii. 104 sq.; J. Dumont D'Urville, Voyage autour du monde et à la recherche de La Pérouse, ii. 530; Father Servant, "Notice sur la Nouvelle Zélande," Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xv. (1843) p. 22.

501.

G. Turner, Samoa, p. 145. Compare G. Brown, D.D., Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), p. 402: "The men who took hold of the body were paia (sacred) for the time, were forbidden to touch their own food, and were fed by others. No food wad eaten in the same house with the dead body."

502.

W. Mariner, The Natives of the Tonga Islands2 (London, 1818), i. 141 sq., note.

503.

Father Bataillon, in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xiii. (1841) p. 19. For more evidence of the practice of this custom in Polynesia, see Captain J. Cook, Voyages (London, 1809), vii. 147; James Wilson, Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean (London, 1799), p. 363.

504.

Ch. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, New Edition (New York, 1851), iii. 99 sq.

505.

W. G. Lawes, "Ethnological Notes on the Motu, Koitapu, and Koiari Tribes of New Guinea," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, viii. (1879) p. 370.

506.

Father Lambert, in Missions Catholiques, xii. (1880) p. 365; id., M?urs et superstitions des Néo-Calédoniens (Nouméa, 1900), pp. 238 sq.

507.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), p. 70.

508.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 153.

509.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 563.

510.

Fr. Boas, in Sixth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, pp. 91 sq. (separate Reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1890).

511.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) pp. 331, 332 sq.

512.

C. Hill-Tout, The Far West, the Home of the Salish and Déné (London, 1907), pp. 193 sq.

513.

G. M. Dawson, "Notes and Observations on the Kwakiool People of the Northern part of Vancouver Island and adjacent Coasts," Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada for the Year 1887, vol. v. (Montreal, 1888) Trans. Section ii. pp. 78 sq.

514.

F. Blumentritt, "über die Eingeborenen der Insel Palawan und der Inselgruppe der Talamlanen," Globus, lix. (1891) p. 182.

515.

Father Guis, "Les Canaques, Mort-Deuil," Missions Catholiques, xxxiv. (1902) pp. 208 sq.

516.

Capt. W. E. Armit, "Customs of the Australian Aborigines," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, ix. (1880) p. 459.

517.

W. Ridley, "Report on Australian Languages and Traditions," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, ii. (1873) p. 268.

518.

From information given me by Messrs. Roscoe and Miller, missionaries to Uganda (June 24, 1897), and afterwards corrected by the Katikiro (Prime Minister) of Uganda in conversation with Mr. Roscoe (June 20, 1902).

519.

Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska (Washington, 1885), p. 46.

520.

Alexander Mackenzie, Voyages from Montreal through the Continent of North America (London, 1801), p. cxxiii.

521.

Gavin Hamilton, "Customs of the New Caledonian Women," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, vii. (1878) p. 206. Among the Nootkas of British Columbia a girl at puberty is hidden from the sight of men for several days behind a partition of mats; during her seclusion she may not scratch her head or her body with her hands, but she may do so with a comb or a piece of bone, which is provided for the purpose. See Fr. Boas, in Sixth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 41 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1890). Again, among the Shuswap of British Columbia a girl at puberty lives alone in a little hut on the mountains and is forbidden to touch her head or scratch her body; but she may scratch her head with a three-toothed comb and her body with the painted bone of a deer. See Fr. Boas, op. cit. pp. 89 sq. In the East Indian island of Ceram a girl may not scratch herself with her fingers the night before her teeth are filed, but she may do it with a piece of bamboo. See J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 137.

522.

A. G. Morice, "The Canadian Dénés," Annual Archaeological Report (Toronto), 1905, p. 218.

523.

H. Pittier de Fabrega, "Die Sprache der Bribri-Indianer in Costa Rica," Sitzungsberichte der philosophischen-historischen Classe der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Vienna), cxxxviii. (1898) p. 20.

524.

C. G. Seligmann, in Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, v. (Cambridge, 1904) pp. 201, 203.

525.

James Wilson, Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean, p. 354.

526.

G. Turner, Samoa, p. 276.

527.

C. G. Seligmann, "The Medicine, Surgery, and Midwifery of the Sinaugolo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 302. In Uganda a bride is secluded for a month, during which she only receives near relatives; she wears her veil all this time. She may not handle food, but is fed by one of her attendants. A peasant's wife is secluded for two or three days only. See J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 37.

528.

Father Guis, "Les Canaques, ce qu'ils font, ce qu'ils disent," Missions Catholiques, xxx. (1898) p. 119.

529.

V. Lisiansky, A Voyage Round the World (London, 1814), p. 201.

530.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d' Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 153.

531.

H. Pittier de Fábrega, op. cit. pp. 20 sq.

532.

F. Fawcett, "Note on a Custom of the Mysore 'Gollaválu' or Shepherd Caste People," Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay, i. 536 sq.; E. Thurston, Castes and Tribes of Southern India (Madras, 1909), ii. 287 sq.

533.

M. J. Erdweg, "Die Bewohner der Insel Tumleo, Berlinhafen, Deutsch Neu-Guinea," Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxxii. (1902) p. 280.

534.

P. Rascher, "Die Sulka," Archiv für Anthropologie, xxix. (1904) p. 212; R. Parkinson, Dreissig Jahre in der Südsee (Stuttgart, 1907), p. 180.

535.

K. Vetter, in Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 87.

536.

Rev. E. Dannert, "Customs of the Ovaherero at the Birth of a Child," (South African) Folk-lore Journal, ii. (1880) p. 63.

537.

Levrault, "Rapport sur les provinces de Canélos et du Napo," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Deuxième Série, xi. (1839) p. 74.

538.

Franz Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. part i. (New York, 1901) pp. 125 sq. As to Sedna, see id. pp. 119 sqq.

539.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 139.

540.

H. A. Junod, op. cit. pp. 139 sq.

541.

H. A. Junod, op. cit. pp. 140 sq.

542.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 262 sqq., 278.

543.

Le R. P. Cadière, "Coutumes populaires de la vallée du Ngu?n-So'n," Bulletin de l'école Fran?aise d'Extrême-Orient, ii. (Hanoi, 1902) pp. 353 sq.

544.

Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum,2 No. 566; Ch. Michel, Recueil d'inscriptions grecques, No. 730 ?γνευ?τωσαν δ? κα? ε?σ?τωσαν ε?? τ?ν τ?? θεο[? να?ν] ... ?σα?τω? δ? κα? ?π? κ?δου? κα? τεκο?ση? γυναικ?? δευτερα?ο?: Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, 380 sqq.:

τ? τ?? θεο? δ? μ?μφομαι σοφ?σματα, ?τι?. βροτ?ν μ?ν ?ν τι? ?ψηται φ?νου ? κα? λοχε?α? ? νεκρο? θιγ? χερο?ν, βωμ?ν ?πε?ργει, μυσαρ?ν ?? ?γουμ?νη.

Compare also a mutilated Greek inscription found in Egypt (Revue archéologique, IIIme Série, ii. 182 sqq.). In the passage of Euripides which I have just quoted an acute verbal scholar, the late Dr. Badham, proposed to omit the line ? κα? λοχε?α? ? νεκρο? θιγ? χερο?ν with the comment: "Nihil facit ad argumentum puerperae mentio; patet versum a sciolo additum." To do Dr. Badham justice, the inscription which furnishes so close a parallel to the line of Euripides had not yet been discovered among the ruins of Pergamum, when he proposed to mutilate the text of the poet.

545.

B. Hawkins, "The Creek Confederacy," Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, iii. pt. i. (Savannah, 1848) pp. 78 sq. Hawkins's account is reproduced by A. S. Gatschett, in his Migration Legend of the Creek Indians, i. 185 sq. (Philadelphia, 1884). In the Turrbal tribe of southern Queensland boys at initiation were not allowed to scratch themselves with their fingers, but they might do it with a stick. See A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 596.

546.

L. Alberti, De Kaffers (Amsterdam, 1810), pp. 76 sq.; H. Lichtenstein, Reisen im südlichen Afrika (Berlin, 1811-12), i. 427; S. Kay, Travels and Researches in Caffraria (London, 1833), pp. 273 sq.; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 208; J. Stewart, D.D., Lovedale, South Africa (Edinburgh, 1894), pp. 105 sq., with illustrations.

547.

Old New Zealand, by a Pakeha Maori (London, 1884), pp. 96, 114 sq. One of the customs mentioned by the writer was that all the people left in the camp had to fast strictly while the warriors were out in the field. This rule is obviously based on the sympathetic connexion supposed to exist between friends at a distance, especially at critical times. See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 126 sqq.

548.

Deuteronomy xxiii. 9-14; 1 Samuel xxi. 5. The rule laid down in Deuteronomy xxiii. 10, 11, suffices to prove that the custom of continence observed in time of war by the Israelites, as by a multitude of savage and barbarous peoples, was based on a superstitious, not a rational motive. To convince us of this it is enough to remark that the rule is often observed by warriors for some time after their victorious return, and also by the persons left at home during the absence of the fighting men. In these cases the observance of the rule evidently does not admit of a rational explanation, which could hardly, indeed, be entertained by any one conversant with savage modes of thought. For examples, see The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 125, 128, 131, 133, and below, pp. 161, 163, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 175 sq., 178, 179, 181.

The other rule of personal cleanliness referred to in the text is exactly observed, for the reason I have indicated, by the aborigines in various parts of Australia. See (Sir) George Grey, Journals, ii. 344; R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 165; J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 12; P. Beveridge, in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, xvii. (1883) pp. 69 sq. Compare W. Stanbridge, "On the Aborigines of Victoria," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S. i. (1861) p. 299; Fison and Howitt, Kamilaroi and Kurnai, p. 251; E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, iii. 178 sq., 547; W. E. Roth, North Queensland Ethnography, Bulletin No. 5 (Brisbane, 1903), p. 22, § 80. The same dread has resulted in a similar custom of cleanliness in Melanesia and Africa. See R. Parkinson, Im Bismarck-Archipel, pp. 143 sq.; R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 203 note; F. von Luschan, "Einiges über Sitten und Gebr?uche der Eingeborenen Neu-Guineas," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte (1900), p. 416; J. Macdonald, "Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 131. Mr. Lorimer Fison sent me some notes on the Fijian practice, which agrees with the one described by Dr. Codrington. The same rule is observed, probably from the same motives, by the Miranha Indians of Brazil. See Spix und Martius, Reise in Brasilien, iii. 1251 note. On this subject compare F. Schwally, Semitische Kriegsaltertümer, i. (Leipsic, 1901) pp. 67 sq.

549.

Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner (London, 1830), p. 122.

550.

We have seen (pp. 146, 156) that the same rule is observed by girls at puberty among some Indian tribes of British Columbia and by Creek lads at initiation. It is also observed by Kwakiutl Indians who have eaten human flesh (see below, p. 189). Among the Blackfoot Indians the man who was appointed every four years to take charge of the sacred pipe and other emblems of their religion might not scratch his body with his finger-nails, but carried a sharp stick in his hair which he used for this purpose. During the term of h

is priesthood he had to fast and practise strict continence. None but he dare handle the sacred pipe and emblems (W. W. Warren, "History of the Ojibways," Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society, v. (1885) pp. 68 sq.). In Vedic India the man who was about to offer the solemn sacrifice of soma prepared himself for his duties by a ceremony of consecration, during which he carried the horn of a black deer or antelope wherewith to scratch himself if necessary (Satapatha-Brahmana, bk. iii. 31, vol. ii. pp. 33 sq. trans. by J. Eggeling; H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, p. 399). Some of the Peruvian Indians used to prepare themselves for an important office by fasting, continence, and refusing to wash themselves, to comb their hair, and to put their hands to their heads; if they wished to scratch themselves, they must do it with a stick. See P. J. de Arriaga, Extirpacion de la idolatria del Piru (Lima, 1621), p. 20. Among the Isistines Indians of Paraguay mourners refrained from scratching their heads with their fingers, believing that to break the rule would make them bald, no hair growing on the part of the head which their fingers had touched. See Guevara, "Historia del Paraguay," in P. de Angelis's Coleccion de obras y documentos relativos a la historia antigua y moderna de las provincias del Rio de la Plata, ii. (Buenos-Aires, 1836) p. 30. Amongst the Macusis of British Guiana, when a woman has given birth to a child, the father hangs up his hammock beside that of his wife and stays there till the navel-string drops off the child. During this time the parents have to observe certain rules, of which one is that they may not scratch their heads or bodies with their nails, but must use for this purpose a piece of palm-leaf. If they broke this rule, they think the child would die or be an invalid all its life. See R. Schomburgk, Reisen in Britisch-Guiana, ii. 314. Some aborigines of Queensland believe that if they scratched themselves with their fingers during a rain-making ceremony, no rain would fall. See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 254. In all these cases, plainly, the hands are conceived to be so strongly infected with the venom of taboo that it is dangerous even for the owner of the hands to touch himself with them. The cowboy who herded the cows of the king of Unyoro had to live strictly chaste, no one might touch him, and he might not scratch or wound himself so as to draw blood. But it is not said that he was forbidden to touch himself with his own hands. See my Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 527.

551.

Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner (London, 1830), p. 123. As to the custom of not stepping over a person or his weapons, see the note at the end of the volume.

552.

J. G. Bourke, On the Border with Crook (New York, 1891), p. 133; id., in Folk-lore, ii. (1891) p. 453; id., in Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), p. 490.

553.

J. G. Kohl, Kitschi-Gami, ii. 168.

554.

Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt (Middletown, 1820), pp. 148 sq.

555.

J. de Smet, in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xiv. (1842) pp. 67 sq. These customs have doubtless long passed away, and the Indians who practised them may well have suffered the extinction which they did their best to incur.

556.

J. Adair, History of the American Indians (London, 1775), p. 163.

557.

J. Adair, History of the American Indians, pp. 380-382.

558.

Maj. M. Marston, in Rev. Jedidiah Morse's Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs (New-haven, 1822), Appendix, p. 130. The account in the text refers especially to the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo Indians, at the junction of the Rock and Mississippi rivers.

559.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 149.

560.

For more evidence of the practice of continence by warriors, see R. Taylor, Te Ika A Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 p. 189; E. Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, ii. 85 sq.; Ch. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition, iii. 78; J. Chalmers, "Toaripi," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxvii. (1898) p. 332; id., Pioneering in New Guinea, p. 65; Van Schmidt, "Aanteekeningen nopens de zeden, etc., der bevolking van de eilanden Saparoea, Haroekoe, Noessa Laut, etc.," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indie, 1843, deel ii. p. 507; J. G. F. Riedel, De sluikharige en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 223; id., "Galela und Tobeloresen," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xvii. (1885) p. 68; W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 524; E. Reclus, Nouvelle Géographie universelle, viii. 126 (compare J. Biddulph, Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh, p. 18); N. Isaacs, Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa, i. 120; H. Callaway, Religious System of the Amazulu, iv. 437 sq.; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 306; A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 203; H. Cole, "Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 317; R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa, p. 177; H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iv. 63; J. Morse, Report to the Secretary of War of the U.S. on Indian Affairs (New-haven, 1822), pp. 130, 131; H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, i. 189. On the other hand in Uganda, before an army set out, the general and all the chiefs had either to lie with their wives or to jump over them. This was supposed to ensure victory and plenty of booty. See J. Roscoe, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 59. And in Kiwai Island, off British New Guinea, men had intercourse with their wives before they went to war, and they drew omens from it. See J. Chalmers, "Notes on the Natives of Kiwai," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiii. (1903) p. 123.

561.

See above, pp. 151 sq.

562.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, i. 350.

563.

T. C. Hodson, "The genna amongst the Tribes of Assam," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) p. 100.

564.

S. Müller, Reizen en Onderzoekingen in den Indischen Archipel (Amsterdam, 1857), ii. 252.

565.

J. S. G. Gramberg, "Eene maand in de binnenlanden van Timor," Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxxvi. (1872) pp. 208, 216 sq. Compare H. Zondervan, "Timor en de Timoreezen," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, v. (1888) Afdeeling, meer uitgebreide artikelen, pp. 399, 413. Similarly Gallas returning from war sacrifice to the jinn or guardian spirits of their slain foes before they will re-enter their own houses (Ph. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas, die geistige Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal, pp. 50, 136). Sometimes perhaps the sacrifice consists of the slayers' own blood. See below, pp. 174, 176, 180. Orestes is said to have appeased the Furies of his murdered mother by biting off one of his fingers (Pausanias, viii. 34. 3).

566.

N. Adriani en A. C. Kruijt, "Van Posso naar Parigi, Sigi en Lindoe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlii. (1898) p. 451.

567.

S. W. Tromp, "Uit de Salasila van Koetei," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxvii. (1888) p. 74.

568.

Dr. L. Loria, "Notes on the Ancient War Customs of the Natives of Logea and Neighbourhood," British New Guinea, Annual Report for 1894-1895 (London, 1896), p. 52.

569.

Rev. J. Chalmers, "Toaripi," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxvii. (1898) p. 333.

570.

R. E. Guise, "On the Tribes inhabiting the Mouth of the Wanigela River, New Guinea," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxviii. (1899) pp. 213 sq.

571.

C. G. Seligmann, The Melanesians of British New Guinea (Cambridge, 1910), p. 298.

572.

C. G. Seligmann, op. cit. pp. 129 sq.

573.

C. G. Seligmann, op. cit. pp. 563 sq.

574.

P. Franz Vormann, "Zur Psychologie, Religion, Soziologie und Geschichte der Monumbo-Papua, Deutsch-Neuguinea," Anthropos, v. (1910) pp. 410 sq.

575.

J. L. D. van der Roest, "Uit het leven der Bevolking van Windessi," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xl. (1898) pp. 157 sq.

576.

H. von Rosenberg, Der malayische Archipel, p. 461.

577.

K. Vetter, in Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 94.

578.

J. E. Erskine, The Western Pacific (London, 1853), p. 477.

579.

Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, vi. pp. 77, 122 sq.; J. F. Lafitau, M? urs des sauvages ameriquains, ii. 279. In many places it is customary to drive away the ghosts even of persons who have died a natural death. An account of these customs is reserved for another work.

580.

W. H. Keating, Narrative of an Expedition to the Source of St. Peter's River (London, 1825), i. 109.

581.

Father Baudin, "Féticheurs, ou ministres religieux des Nègres de la Guinée," Missions Catholiques, xvi. (1884) p. 332.

582.

Juan de la Concepcion, Historia general de Philipinas, xi. (Manilla, 1791) p. 387.

583.

G. Loyer, "Voyage to Issini on the Gold Coast," in T. Astley's New General Collection of Voyages and Travels, ii. (London, 1745) p. 444. Among the tribes of the Lower Niger it is customary for the executioner to remain in the house for three days after the execution; during this time he sleeps on the bare floor, eats off broken platters, and drinks out of calabashes or mugs, which are also damaged. See Major A. G. Leonard, The Lower Niger and its Tribes (London, 1906), p. 180.

584.

E. Casalis, The Basutos, p. 258. So Caffres returning from battle are unclean and must wash before they enter their houses (L. Alberti, De Kaffers, p. 104). It would seem that after the slaughter of a foe the Greeks or Romans had also to bathe in running water before they might touch holy things (Virgil, Aen. ii. 719 sqq.).

585.

Father Porte, "Les Réminiscences d'un missionnaire du Basutoland," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 371. For a fuller description of a ceremony of this sort see T. Arbousset et F. Daumas, Voyage d'exploration au nord-est de la colonie du Cap de Bonne-Espérance (Paris, 1842), pp. 561-563.

586.

"Extrait du journal des missions évangeliques," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, ii. (1834) pp. 199 sq.

587.

Rev. W. C. Willoughby, "Notes on the Totemism of the Becwana," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxv. (1905) pp. 305 sq.

588.

Rev. J. Roscoe, "Notes on the Bageshu," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, xxxix. (1909) p. 190.

589.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 310.

590.

C. Wiese, "Beitr?ge zur Geschichte der Zulu im Norden des Zambesi," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxxii. (1900) pp. 197 sq.

591.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, pp. 309 sq.

592.

Rev. J. Macdonald, "Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 138; id., Light in Africa, p. 220.

593.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), p. 74. As to the painting of the body red on one side and white on the other see also C. W. Hobley, Eastern Uganda, pp. 38, 42; Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate, ii. 868. As to the custom of painting the bodies of homicides, see below, p. 178 note 1 and p. 186 note 1.

594.

H. R. Tate, "Further Notes on the Kikuyu Tribe of British East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiv. (1904) p. 264.

595.

C. W. Hobley, "British East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiii. (1903) p. 353.

596.

Miss Alice Werner, Natives of British Central Africa (London, 1906), pp. 67 sq.

597.

H. Schinz, Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika, p. 321.

598.

P. H. Brincker, "Heidnisch-religi?se Sitten der Bantu, speciell der Ovaherero und Ovambo," Globus, lxvii. (1895) p. 289; id., "Charakter, Sitten und Gebr?uche speciell der Bantu Deutsch-Südwestafrikas," Mittheilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, iii. (1900) Dritte Abtheilung, p. 76.

599.

Id., "Beobachtungen über die Deisid?monie der Eingeborenen Deutsch-Südwest-Afrikas," Globus, lviii. (1890) p. 324; id., in Globus, lxvii. (1895) p. 289; id., in Mittheilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, iii. (1900) Dritte Abtheilung, p. 83.

600.

Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate (London, 1902), ii. 743 sq.; C. W. Hobley, Eastern Uganda (London, 1902), p. 20.

601.

M. Weiss, Die V?lkerst?mme im Norden Deutsch-Ostafrikas (Berlin, 1910), p. 198.

602.

Sir H. Johnston, op. cit. ii. 794; C. W. Hobley, op. cit. p. 31.

603.

Numbers xxxi. 19-24.

604.

E. Casalis, The Basutos, pp. 258 sq.

605.

Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 493-495; id., Northern Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 563-568. The writers suggest that the practice of painting the slayers black is meant to render them invisible to the ghost. A widow, on the contrary, must paint her body white, in order that her husband's spirit may see that she is mourning for him.

606.

G. H. von Langsdorff, Reise um die Welt (Frankfort, 1812), i. 114 sq.

607.

T. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 55 sq.

608.

J. Kubary, Die socialen Einrichtungen der Pelauer (Berlin, 1885), pp. 126 sq., 130.

609.

F. A. Thevet, Les Singularités de la France Antarctique, autrement nommée Amérique (Antwerp, 1558), pp. 74-76; id., Cosmographie universelle (Paris, 1575), pp. 944 [978] sq.; Pero de Magalhanes de Gandavo, Histoire de la province de Sancta-Cruz (Paris, 1837), pp. 134-141 (H. Ternaux-Compans, Voyages, relations, et mémoires originaux pour servir à l'histoire de la découverte de l'Amérique; the original of Gandavo's work was published in Portuguese at Lisbon in 1576); J. Lery, Historia navigationis in Brasiliam, quae et America dicitur (1586), pp. 183-194; The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse, in a.d. 1547-1555, among the Wild Tribes of Eastern Brazil, translated by A. Tootal (London, 1874), pp. 155-159; J. F. Lafitau, M?urs des sauvages ameriquains, ii. 292 sqq.; R. Southey, History of Brazil, i.2 227-232.

610.

"Relation des Natchez," Voyages au nord, ix. 24 (Amsterdam, 1737); Lettres édifiantes et curieuses, vii. 26; Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, vi. 186 sq.

611.

Bossu, Nouveaux Voyages aux Indes occidentales (Paris, 1768), ii. 94.

612.

H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iv. 63.

613.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 357.

614.

J. O. Dorsey, "An Account of the War Customs of the Osages," American Naturalist, xviii. (1884) p. 126.

615.

G. Catlin, North American Indians, i. 246.

616.

H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, i. 553; Capt. Grossman, cited in Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), pp. 475 sq. The custom of plastering the head with mud was observed by Egyptian women in mourning (Herodotus, ii. 85; Diodorus Siculus, i. 91). Among some of the aboriginal tribes of Victoria and New South Wales widows wore a thick skullcap of clay or burned gypsum, forming a cast of the head, for some months after the death; when the period of mourning was over, the cap was removed, baked in the fire, and laid on the husband's grave. One of these widows' caps is exhibited in the British Museum. See T. L. Mitchell, Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia (London, 1838), i. 251 sq.; E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia, ii. 354; G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), i. 86; G. Krefft, "On the Manners and Customs of the Aborigines of the Lower Murray and Darling," Transactions of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales, 1862-1865 (Sydney, 1866), pp. 373 sq.; J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 66; R. Brough Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, i. p. xxx.; W. Stanbridge, "On the Aborigines of Victoria," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., i. (1861) p. 298; A. Oldfield, "The Aborigines of Australia," ibid. iii. (1865) p. 248; F. Bonney, "On some Customs of the Aborigines of the River Darling, New South Wales," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 135; E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, i. 88, ii. 238 sq., iii. 21; A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, pp. 248, 452; R. Etheridge, jun., "The 'Widow's Cap' of the Australian Aborigines," Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New South Wales for the Year 1899, xxiv. (Sydney, 1900) pp. 333-345 (with illustrations). In the Andaman Islands mourners coat their heads with a thick mass of white clay (Jagor, in Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, 1876, p. (57); M. V. Portman, "Disposal of the Dead among the Andamanese," Indian Antiquary, xxv. (1896) p. 57; compare E. H. Man, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, pp. 73, 75). Among the Bahima of the Uganda Protectorate, when herdsmen water their cattle in the evening, they plaster their faces and bodies with white clay, at the same time stiffening their hair with mud into separate lumps. This mud is left on the head for days till it crumbles into dust (Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate, ii. 626, compare 620).

617.

F. Russell, "The Pima Indians," Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, 1908), pp. 204 sq.

618.

J. G. Bourke, On the Border with Crook, p. 203.

619.

F. Russell, "The Pima Indians," Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology (Washington, 1908), p. 204.

620.

S. Hearne, Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean (London, 1795), pp. 204-206. The custom of painting the face or the body of the manslayer, which may perhaps be intended to disguise him from the vengeful spirit of the slain, is practised by other peoples, as by the Nandi (see above, p. 175). Among the Ba-Yaka of the Congo Free State a man who has been slain in battle is supposed to send his soul to avenge his death on his slayer; but the slayer can protect himself against the ghost by wearing the red tail-feathers of a parrot in his hair and painting his forehead red (E. Torday and T. A. Joyce, "Notes on the Ethnography of the Ba-Yaka," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) pp. 50 sq.). Among the Borana Gallas, when a war-party has returned to the village, the victors who have slain a foe are washed by the women with a mixture of fat and butter, and their faces are painted with red and white (Ph. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nord-ost-Afrikas: die materielle Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal (Berlin, 1893), p. 258). When Masai warriors kill enemies in fight they paint the right half of their own bodies red and the left half white (A. C. Hollis, The Masai, p. 353). Among the Wagogo of German East Africa, a man who has killed an enemy in battle paints a red circle round his right eye and a black circle round his left eye (Rev. H. Cole, "Notes on the Wagogo of German East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 314). Among the Angoni of central Africa, after a successful raid, the leader calls together all who have killed an enemy and paints their faces and heads white; also he paints a white band round the body under the arms and across the chest (British Central Africa Gazette, No. 86, vol. v. No. 6 (April 30, 1898), p. 2). A Koossa Caffre who has slain a man is accounted unclean. He must roast some flesh on a fire kindled with wood of a special sort which imparts a bitter flavour to the meat. This flesh he eats, and afterwards blackens his face with the ashes of the fire. After a time he may wash himself, rinse his mouth with fresh milk, and paint himself brown again. From that moment he is clean (H. Lichtenstein, Reisen im südlichen Africa, i. 418). Among the Yabim of German New Guinea, when the relations of a murdered man have accepted a bloodwit instead of avenging his death, they must allow the family of the murderer to mark them with chalk on the brow. If this is not done, the ghost of their murdered kinsman may come and trouble them for not doing their duty by him; for example, he may drive away their swine or loosen their teeth (K. Vetter, in Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 99). In this last case the marking the face with chalk seems to be clearly a disguise to outwit the ghost.

621.

J. Owen Dorsey, "Omaha Sociology," Third Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1884), p. 369.

622.

Plato, Laws, ix. pp. 865 D-866 A; Demosthenes, Contra Aristocr. pp. 643 sq.; Hesychius, s.v. ?πενιαυτιαμ??.

623.

Euripides, Iphig. in Taur. 940 sqq.; Pausanias, ii. 31. 8. We may compare the wanderings of the other matricide Alcmaeon, who could find no rest till he came to a new land on which the sun had not yet shone when he murdered his mother (Thucydides, ii. 102; Apollodorus, iii. 7. 5; Pausanias, viii. 24. 8).

624.

Polybius, iv. 21.

625.

Fr. Boas, "The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians," Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1895, pp. 440, 537 sq.

626.

Th. H. Ruys, "Bezoek an den Kannibalenstam van Noord Nieuw-Guinea," Tijdschrift van het koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, xxiii. (1906) p. 328. Among these savages the genitals of a murdered man are eaten by an old woman, and the genitals of a murdered woman are eaten by an old man. What the object of this curious practice may be is not apparent. Perhaps the intention is to unsex and disarm the dangerous ghost. On the dread of ghosts, especially the ghosts of those who have died a violent death, see further Psyche's Task, pp. 52 sqq.

627.

Meantime I may refer the reader to The Golden Bough, Second Edition, vol. ii. pp. 389 sqq.

628.

Narrative of the Adventures and Sufferings of John R. Jewitt (Middletown, 1820), pp. 133, 136.

629.

See above, pp. 160 sq.

630.

Baron d'Unienville, Statistique de l'?le Maurice (Paris, 1838), iii. 271. Compare A. van Gennep, Tabou et Totémisme à Madagascar (Paris, 1904), p. 253, who refers to Le Gentil, Voyage dans les Mers de l'Inde (Paris, 1781), ii. 562.

631.

U. Lisiansky, Voyage Round the World (London, 1814), pp. 174, 209.

632.

A. C. Haddon, "The Ethnography of the Western Tribe of Torres Straits," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xix. (1890) p. 397; Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, v. 271.

633.

A. C. Haddon, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xix. (1890) p. 467.

634.

Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, v. 271 note.

635.

R. E. Guise, "On the Tribes inhabiting the Mouth of the Wanigela River," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxviii. (1899) p. 218. The account refers specially to Bulaa, which the author describes (pp. 205, 217) as "a marine village" and "the greatest fishing village in New Guinea." Probably it is built out over the water. This would explain the allusion to the sanctified headman going ashore daily at sundown.

636.

Captain F. R. Barton and Dr. Strong, in C. G. Seligmann's The Melanesians of British New Guinea (Cambridge, 1910), pp. 292, 293 sq.

637.

W. H. Furness, The Island of Stone Money, Uap of the Carolines (Philadelphia and London, 1910), pp. 38 sq., 44 sq. Though the fisherman may have nothing to do with his wife and family, he is not wholly debarred from female society; for each of the men's clubhouses has one young woman, or sometimes two young women, who have been captured from another district, and who cohabit promiscuously with all the men of the clubhouse. The name for one of these concubines is mispil. See W. H. Furness, op. cit. pp. 46 sqq. There is a similar practice of polyandry in the men's clubhouses of the Pelew Islands. See J. Kubary, Die socialen Einrichtungen der Pelauer (Berlin, 1885), pp. 50 sqq. Compare Adonis, Attis, Osiris, Second Edition, pp. 435 sq.

638.

J. S. Kubary, Ethnographische Beitr?ge zur Kenntnis des Karolinen Archipels (Leyden, 1895), p. 127.

639.

W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), ii. 257. In Chota Nagpur and the Central Provinces of India the rearers of silk-worms "carefully watch over and protect the worms, and while the rearing is going on, live with great cleanliness and self-denial, abstaining from alcohol and all intercourse with women, and adhering very strictly to certain ceremonial observances. The business is a very precarious one, much depending on favourable weather" (Indian Museum Notes, issued by the Trustees, vol. i. No. 3 (Calcutta, 1890), p. 160).

640.

The Rev. J. Roscoe in letters to me dated Mengo, Uganda, April 23 and June 6, 1903.

641.

Rev. J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 56.

642.

Rev. J. H. Weeks, "Anthropological Notes on the Bangala of the Upper Congo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxix. (1909) pp. 458, 459.

643.

J. W. Thomas, "De jacht op het eiland Nias," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvi. (1880) pp. 276 sq.

644.

J. Chalmers, Pioneering in New Guinea (London, 1887), p. 186.

645.

P. Reichard, Deutsch-Ostafrika (Leipsic, 1892), p. 427.

646.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 123.

647.

Mgr. Le Roy, "Les Pygmées," Missions Catholiques, xxix. (1897) p. 269.

648.

C. Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico, ii. 40 sq.

649.

Father A. G. Morice, "Notes, Archaeological, Industrial, and Sociological on the Western Denés," Transactions of the Canadian Institute, iv. (1892-93) pp. 107, 108.

650.

M. C. Stevenson, "The Sia," Eleventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1894), p. 118.

651.

Fr. Boas, in Tenth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 47 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1895).

652.

Id., in Sixth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 90 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1890).

653.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 347.

654.

J. Teit, op. cit. p. 348.

655.

Washington Matthews, Ethnography and Philology of the Hidatsa Indians (Washington, 1877), pp. 58-60. Other Indian tribes also observe elaborate superstitious ceremonies in hunting eagles. See Totemism and Exogamy, iii. 182, 187 sq.

656.

E. Aymonier, Notes sur le Laos (Saigon, 1885), p. 141.

657.

P. Ch. Gilhodes, "La Culture matérielle des Katchins (Birmanie)," Anthropos, v. (1910) p. 622. Compare J. Anderson, From Mandalay to Momien (London, 1876), p. 198, who observes that among the Kakhyens (Kachins) the brewing of beer "is regarded as a serious, almost sacred, task, the women, while engaged in it, having to live in almost vestal seclusion."

658.

J. G. Frazer, Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 410 sq., on Mr. A. C. Hollis's authority.

659.

M. Weiss, Die V?lker-St?mme im Norden Deutsch-Ostafrikas (Berlin, 1910), p. 396.

660.

G. A. Wilken, "Bijdrage tot de Kennis der Alfoeren van het eiland Boeroe," p. 30 (Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxxvi.).

661.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 179.

662.

G. H. von Langsdorff, Reise um die Welt (Frankfort, 1812), i. 118 sq.

663.

G. H. von Langsdorff, op. cit. i. 117.

664.

B. de Sahagun, Histoire générale des choses de la Nouvelle Espagne, traduite par D. Jourdanet et R. Simeon, p. 45.

665.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 148.

666.

Dameon Grangeon, "Les Chams et leurs superstitions," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 70.

667.

Father Lambert, "M?urs et superstitions de la tribu Bélep," Missions Catholiques, xii. (1880) p. 215; id., M?urs et superstitions des Néo-Calédoniens (Nouméa, 1900), pp. 191 sq.

668.

R. Parkinson, Dreissig Jahre in der Südsee (Stuttgart, 1907), p. 99.

669.

Captain F. R. Barton, in C. G. Seligmann's The Melanesians of British New Guinea (Cambridge, 1910), pp. 100-102. The native words which I have translated respectively "skipper" and "mate" are baditauna and doritauna. The exact meaning of the words is doubtful.

670.

Quoted by Dr. George Turner, Samoa (London, 1884), pp. 349 sq.

671.

J. M. Hildebrandt, "Ethnographische Notizen über Wakamba und ihre Nachbarn," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, x. (1878) p. 401.

672.

H. R. Tate, "Further Notes on the Kikuyu Tribe of British East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiv. (1904) pp. 260 sq. At the festivals sheep and goats are sacrificed to God (Ngai), and the people feast on the roast flesh.

673.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899) pp. 438, 440.

674.

E. W. Nelson, op. cit. p. 440, compare pp. 380 sq. The bladder festival of these Esquimaux will be described in a later part of this work.

675.

I. Petroff, Report on the Population, Industries, and Resources of Alaska (preface dated August 7, 1882), pp. 154 sq.

676.

W. H. Dall, Alaska and its Resources (London, 1870), p. 404.

677.

Fr. Boas, "The Central Eskimo," Sixth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1888), pp. 584 sq., 595; id. "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. part i. (1901) pp. 121-124. See also id. "Die Sagen der Baffin-land Eskimo," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte (1885), pp. 162 sq.; id., in Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, v. (Montreal, 1888) section ii. pp. 35 sq.; C. F. Hall, Life with the Esquimaux (London, 1864), ii. 321 sq.; id., Narrative of the Second Arctic Expedition made by Charles F. Hall, edited by Professor J. E. Nourse (Washington, 1879), pp. 191 sq.

678.

That is, the wizard or sorcerer.

679.

That is, the wizard or sorcerer.

680.

Fr. Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. pt. i. (1901) pp. 119-121, 124-126. In quoting these passages I have changed the spelling of a few words in accordance with English orthography.

681.

Le P. P. Cayzac, "La Religion des Kikuyu," Anthropos, v. (1905) p. 311.

682.

Le P. P. Cayzac, loc. cit. The nature of the "ignoble ceremony" of transferring sin to a he-goat is not mentioned by the missionary. It can hardly have been the simple Jewish one of laying hands on the animal's head.

683.

D. W. Harmon, in Rev. Jedidiah Morse's Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs (New-haven, 1822), p. 345. The Carriers are an Indian tribe of North-West America who call themselves Ta-cul-lies, "a people who go upon water" (ibid. p. 343).

684.

Francis C. Nicholas, "The Aborigines of Santa Maria, Colombia," American Anthropologist, N.S. iii. (1901) pp. 639-641.

685.

A. de Herrera, The General History of the Vast Continent and Islands of America, translated by Capt. J. Stevens (London, 1725-26), iv. 148. The confession of sins appears to have held an important place in the native religion of the American Indians, particularly the Mexicans and Peruvians. There is no sufficient reason to suppose that they learned the practice from Catholic priests. For more evidence of the custom among the aborigines of America see L. H. Morgan, League of the Iroquois (Rochester, U.S. America, 1851), pp. 170 sq., 187 sq.; B. de Sahagun, Histoire générale des choses de la Nouvelle Espagne, bk. i. ch. 12, bk. vi. ch. 7, pp. 22-27, 339-344 (Jourdanet and Simeon's French translation); A. de Herrera, op. cit. iv. 173, 190; Diego de Landa, Relation des choses de Yucatan (Paris, 1864), pp. 154 sqq.; Brasseur de Bourbourg, Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique et de l'Amérique Centrale, ii. 114 sq., 567, iii. 567-569; P. J. de Arriaga, Extirpacion de la idolatria del Piru (Lima, 1621), pp. 18, 28 sq.

686.

As to this means of hastening the delivery see Totemism and Exogamy, iv. 248 sqq. The intention of the exchange of clothes at childbirth between husband and wife seems to be to relieve the woman by transferring the travail pangs to the man.

687.

G. Ferrand, Les Musulmans à Madagascar, Deuxième Partie (Paris, 1893), pp. 20 sq.

688.

H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda (Berlin, 1894), pp. 319 sq.

689.

Satapatha Brahmana, translated by J. Eggeling, pt. i. p. 397 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xii.).

690.

The similarity of some of the Mosaic laws to savage customs has struck most Europeans who have acquired an intimate knowledge of the savage and his ways. They have often explained the coincidences as due to a primitive revelation or to the dispersion of the Jews into all parts of the earth. Some examples of these coincidences were cited in my article "Taboo," Encyclopaedia Britannica,9 xxiii. 17. The subject has since been handled, with consummate ability and learning, by my lamented friend W. Robertson Smith in his Religion of the Semites (New Edition, London, 1894). In Psyche's Task I have illustrated by examples the influence of superstition on the growth of morality.

691.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, i. 106 sq.

692.

J. Adair, History of the American Indians, p. 118.

693.

C. J. Andersson, Lake Ngami, p. 224.

694.

L. Alberti, De Kaffers aan de Zuidkust van Afrika (Amsterdam, 1810), pp. 158 sq. Compare H. Lichtenstein, Reisen im südlichen Africa (Berlin, 1811-12), i. 419. These accounts were written about a century ago. The custom may since have become obsolete. A similar remark applies to other customs described in this and the following paragraph.

695.

P. Kolbe, Present State of the Cape of Good Hope, I.2 (London, 1738) pp. 251-255. The reason alleged for the custom is to allow the slayer to recruit his strength. But the reason is clearly inadequate as an explanation of this and similar practices.

696.

J. Scheffer, Lapponia (Frankfort, 1673), pp. 234-243; C. Leemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae eorumque lingua, vita et religione pristina commentatio (Copenhagen, 1767), pp. 502 sq.; E. J. Jessen, De Finnorum Lapponumque Nouvegicorum religione pagana tractatus singularis, pp. 64 sq. (bound up with Leemius's work).

697.

S. Kay, Travels and Researches in Caffraria (London, 1833), pp. 341 sq.

698.

J. Duncan, Travels in Western Africa (London, 1847), i. 195 sq.; F. E. Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans (London, 1851), i. 107; P. Bouche, La C?te des Esclaves (Paris, 1885), p. 397; A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, pp. 58 sq.

699.

Indian Antiquary, xxi. (1892) p. 224. Many of the above examples of expiation exacted for the slaughter of animals have already been cited by me in a note on Pausanias, ii. 7. 7, where I suggested that the legendary purification of Apollo for the slaughter of the python at Delphi (Plutarch, Quaest. Graec., 12; id., De defectu oraculorum, 15; Aelian, Var. Hist. iii. 1) may be a reminiscence of a custom of this sort.

700.

Le R. P. Cadière, "Croyances et dictons populaires de la Vallée du Ngu?n-son, Province de Quang-binh (Annam)," Bulletin de l'école Fran?aise d'Extrême Orient, i. (1901) pp. 183 sq.

701.

On the nature of taboo see my article "Taboo" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th edition, vol. xxiii. (1888) pp. 15 sqq.; W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites2 (London, 1894), pp. 148 sqq., 446 sqq. Some languages have retained a word for that general idea which includes under it the notions which we now distinguish as sanctity and pollution. The word in Latin is sacer, in Greek, ?γιο?. In Polynesian it is tabu (Tongan), tapu (Samoan, Tahitian, Marquesan, Maori, etc.), or kapu (Hawaiian). See E. Tregear, Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary (Wellington, N.Z., 1891), s.v. tapu. In Dacotan the word is wakan, which in Riggs's Dakota-English Dictionary (Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. vii., Washington, 1890, pp. 507 sq.) is defined as "spiritual, sacred, consecrated; wonderful, incomprehensible; said also of women at the menstrual period." Another writer in the same dictionary defines wakan more fully as follows: "Mysterious; incomprehensible; in a peculiar state, which, from not being understood, it is dangerous to meddle with; hence the application of this word to women at the menstrual period, and from hence, too, arises the feeling among the wilder Indians, that if the Bible, the church, the missionary, etc., are 'wakan,' they are to be avoided, or shunned, not as being bad or dangerous, but as wakan. The word seems to be the only one suitable for holy, sacred, etc., but the common acceptation of it, given above, makes it quite misleading to the heathen." On the notion designated by wakan, see also G. H. Pond, "Dakota Superstitions," Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society for the year 1867 (Saint Paul, 1867), p. 33; J. Owen Dorsey, in Eleventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1894), pp. 366 sq. It is characteristic of the equivocal notion denoted by these terms that, whereas the condition of women in childbed is commonly regarded by the savage as what we should call unclean, among the Herero the same condition is described as holy; for some time after the birth of her child, the woman is secluded in a hut made specially for her, and every morning the milk of all the cows is brought to her that she may consecrate it by touching it with her mouth. See H. Schinz, Deutsch-Südwest-Afrika, p. 167. Again, whereas a girl at puberty is commonly secluded as dangerous, among the Warundi of eastern Africa she is led by her grandmother all over the house and obliged to touch everything (O. Baumann, Durch Massailand sur Nilquelle (Berlin, 1894), p. 221), as if her touch imparted a blessing instead of a curse.

702.

Plutarch, Agis, 19.

703.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 iii. 102.

704.

E. Aymonier, Le Cambodge, ii. (Paris, 1901) p. 25.

705.

J. Moura, Le Royaume du Cambodge (Paris, 1883), i. 226.

706.

Ch. Dallet, Histoire de l'église de Corée (Paris, 1874), i. pp. xxiv. sq.; W. E. Griffis, Corea, the Hermit Nation (London, 1882), p. 219. These customs are now obsolete (G. N. Curzon, Problems of the Far East (Westminster, 1896), pp. 154 sq. note).

707.

Macrobius, Sat. v. 19. 13; Servius on Virgil, Aen. i. 448; Joannes Lydus, De mensibus, i. 31. We have already seen (p. 16) that the hair of the Flamen Dialis might only be cut with a bronze knife. The Greeks attributed a certain cleansing virtue to bronze; hence they employed it in expiatory rites, at eclipses, etc. See the Scholiast on Theocritus, ii. 36.

708.

Acta Fratrum Arvalium, ed. G. Henzen (Berlin, 1874), pp. 128-135; J. Marquardt, R?mische Staatsverwaltung, iii.2 (Das Sacralwesen) pp. 459 sq.

709.

Plutarch, Praecepta gerendae reipublicae, xxvi. 7. Plutarch here mentions that gold was also excluded from some temples. At first sight this is surprising, for in general neither the gods nor their ministers have displayed any marked aversion to gold. But a little enquiry suffices to clear up the mystery and set the scruple in its proper light. From a Greek inscription discovered some years ago we learn that no person might enter the sanctuary of the Mistress at Lycosura wearing golden trinkets, unless for the purpose of dedicating them to the goddess; and if any one did enter the holy place with such ornaments on his body but no such pious intention in his mind, the trinkets were forfeited to the use of religion. See ?φημερ?? ?ρχαιολογικ? (Athens, 1898), col. 249; Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum,2 No. 939. The similar rule, that in the procession at the mysteries of Andania no woman might wear golden ornaments (Dittenberger, op. cit. No. 653), was probably subject to a similar exception and enforced by a similar penalty. Once more, if the maidens who served Athena on the Acropolis at Athens put on gold ornaments, the ornaments became sacred, in other words, the property of the goddess (Harpocration, s.v. ?ρρηφορε?ν, vol. i. p. 59, ed. Dindorf). Thus it appears that the pious scruple about gold was concerned rather with its exit from, than with its entrance into, the sacred edifice. At the sacrifice to the Sun in ancient Egypt worshippers were forbidden to wear golden trinkets and to give hay to an ass (Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 30)-a singular combination of religious precepts. In India gold and silver are common totems, and members of such clans are forbidden to wear gold and silver trinkets respectively. See Totemism and Exogamy, iv. 24.

710.

Callimachus, referred to by the Old Scholiast on Ovid, Ibis. See Callimachea, ed. O. Schneider, ii. p. 282, Frag. 100a E.; Chr. A. Lobeck, Aglaophamus, p. 686.

711.

Plutarch, Aristides, 21. This passage was pointed out to me by my friend Mr. W. Wyse.

712.

Theophilus Hahn, Tsuni-Goam, the Supreme Being of the Khoi-Khoi (London, 1881), p. 22.

713.

Dr. P. H. Brincker, "Charakter, Sitten und Gebr?uche speciell der Bantu Deutsch-Südwestafrikas," Mittheilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, iii. (1900) Dritte Abtheilung, p. 80.

714.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar (Paris, 1904), p. 38.

715.

W. H. Furness, The Island of Stone Money, Uap of the Carolines (Philadelphia and London, 1910), p. 151.

716.

J. G. Bourke, The Snake Dance of the Moquis of Arizona (New York, 1891), pp. 178 sq.

717.

G. B. Grinnell, Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-tales (New York, 1889), p. 253.

718.

See above, pp. 205 sq.

719.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Part I. (Washington, 1899) p. 392.

720.

E. W. Nelson, op. cit. p. 383.

721.

Fr. Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. Part I. (1901) p. 149.

722.

C. F. Gordon Cumming, In the Hebrides (ed. 1883), p. 195.

723.

James Logan, The Scottish Gael (ed. Alex. Stewart), ii. 68 sq.

724.

J. G. Campbell, Witchcraft and Second Sight in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1902), pp. 262, 298, 299.

725.

R. C. Maclagan, M.D., "Notes on Folklore Objects from Argyleshire," Folk-lore, vi. (1895) p. 157; J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), pp. 263-266. The shoulder-blades of sheep have been used in divination by many peoples, for example by the Corsicans, South Slavs, Tartars, Kirghiz, Calmucks, Chukchees, and Lolos, as well as by the Scotch. See J. Brand, Popular Antiquities, iii. 339 sq. (Bohn's ed.); Sir John Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Origin of Civilisation,4 pp. 237 sq.; Ch. Rogers, Social Life in Scotland, iii. 224; Camden, Britannia, translated by E. Gibson (London, 1695), col. 1046; M. MacPhail, "Traditions, Customs, and Superstitions of the Lewis," Folk-lore, vi. (1895) p. 167; J. G. Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, pp. 515 sqq.; F. Gregorovius, Corsica, (London, 1855), p. 187; F. S. Krauss, Volksglaube und religi?ser Brauch der Südslaven, pp. 166-170; M. E. Durham, High Albania (London, 1909), pp. 104 sqq.; E. Doutté, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord (Algiers, 1908), p. 371; W. Radloff, Proben der Volksliteratur der türkischen St?mme Süd-Sibiriens, iii. 115, note 1, compare p. 132; J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,4 ii. 932; W. W. Rockhill, The Land of the Lamas (London, 1891), pp. 176, 341-344; P. S. Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs, i. 393; J. G. Georgi, Beschreibung aller Nationen des russischen Reichs, p. 223; T. de Pauly, Description ethnographique des peuples de la Russie, peuples de la Sibérie orientale (St. Petersburg, 1862), p. 7; Krahmer, "Der Anadyr-Bezirk nach A. W. Olssufjew," Petermann's Mittheilungen, xlv. (1899) pp. 230 sq.; W. Bogoras, "The Chuckchee Religion," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. vii. part ii. (Leyden and New York) pp. 487 sqq.; Crabouillet, "Les Lolos," Missions Catholiques, v. (1873) p. 72; W. G. Aston, Shinto, p. 339; R. Andree, "Scapulimantia," in Boas Anniversary Volume (New York, 1906), pp. 143-165.

726.

C. F. Gordon Cumming, In the Hebrides, p. 226; E. J. Guthrie, Old Scottish Customs (London and Glasgow, 1885), p. 223.

727.

1 Kings vi. 7; Exodus xx. 25.

728.

Dionysius Halicarnasensis, Antiquit. Roman. iii. 45, v. 24; Plutarch, Numa, 9; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxvi. 100.

729.

Acta Fratrum Arvalium, ed. G. Henzen, p. 132; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, i. No. 603.

730.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxxvi. 100.

731.

Indian Antiquary, x. (1881) p. 364.

732.

Prof. W. Ridgeway ingeniously suggests that the magical virtue of iron may be based on an observation of its magnetic power, which would lead savages to imagine that it was possessed of a spirit. See Report of the British Association for 1903, p. 816.

733.

Frank Hatton, North Borneo (1886), p. 233.

734.

A. E. Pratt, "Two Journeys to Ta-tsien-lu on the eastern Borders of Tibet," Proceedings of the R. Geographical Society, xiii. (1891) p. 341.

735.

W. Svoboda, "Die Bewohner des Nikobaren-Archipels," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, vi. (1893) p. 13.

736.

The Captivity of Hans Stade of Hesse, in a.d. 1547-1555, translated by A. Tootal (London, 1874), pp. 85 sq.

737.

E. H. Fraser, "The Fish-skin Tartars," Journal of the China Branch of the R. Asiatic Society for the Year 1891-92, N.S. xxvi. p. 15.

738.

Fr. Kreutzwald und H. Neus, Mythische und magische Lieder der Ehsten (St. Petersburg, 1854), p. 113.

739.

Alexand. Guagninus, "De ducatu Samogitiae," in Respublica sive status regni Poloniae, Lituaniae, Prussiae, Livoniae, etc. (Elzevir, 1627) p. 276; Johan. Lasicius, "De diis Samogitarum caeterorumque Sarmatum," in Respublica, etc. (ut supra), p. 294 (p. 84, ed. W. Mannhardt, in Magazin herausgegeben von der Lettisch-Liter?rischen Gesellschaft, vol. xiv.).

740.

L. von Ende, "Die Baduwis von Java," Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xix. (1889) p. 10.

741.

J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), pp. 46 sq.

742.

E. J. Guthrie, Old Scottish Customs, p. 149; Ch. Rogers, Social Life in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1884-1886), iii. 218.

743.

J. Macdonald, Religion and Myth, p. 91.

744.

W. Gregor, Folk-lore of the North-East of Scotland (London, 1881), p. 201. The fishermen think that if the word "pig," "sow," or "swine" be uttered while the lines are being baited, the line will certainly be lost.

745.

A. Leared, Morocco and the Moors (London, 1876), p. 273.

746.

Wickremasinghe, in Am Urquell, v. (1894) p. 7.

747.

G. F. D'Penha, "Superstitions and Customs in Salsette," Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) p. 114.

748.

W. Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, iii. 431.

749.

F. Jagor, "Bericht über verschiedene Volksst?mme in Vorderindien," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxvi. (1894) p. 70.

750.

E. Thurston, Ethnographic Notes in Southern India (Madras, 1906), p. 341.

751.

E. M. Gordon, Indian Folk Tales (London, 1908), p. 31.

752.

L. R. P. Cadière, "Coutumes populaires de la vallée du Ngu?n-So'n," Bulletin de l'école Fran?aise d'Extrême-Orient, ii. (1902) pp. 354 sq.

753.

Baudin, "Le Fétichisme," Missions Catholiques, xvi. (1884) p. 249; A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 113.

754.

Il Fetha Nagast o legislazione dei re, codice ecclesiastico e civile di Abissinia, tradotto e annotato da Ignazio Guidi (Rome, 1899), p. 140.

755.

The reader may observe how closely the taboos laid upon mourners resemble those laid upon kings. From what has gone before, the reason of the resemblance is obvious.

756.

Panjab Notes and Queries, iii. p. 61, § 282.

757.

G. F. D'Penha, "Superstitions and Customs in Salsette," Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) p. 115.

758.

W. Gregor, Folk-lore of the North-East of Scotland, p. 206.

759.

This is expressly said in Panjab Notes and Queries, iii. p. 202, § 846. On iron as a protective charm see also F. Liebrecht, Gervasius von Tilbury, pp. 99 sqq.; id., Zur Volkskunde, p. 311; L. Strackerjan, Aberglaube und Sagen aus dem Herzogthum Oldenburg, i. pp. 354 sq. § 233; A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 § 414 sq.; E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture,2 i. 140; W. Mannhardt, Baumkultus, p. 132 note. Many peoples, especially in Africa, regard the smith's craft with awe or fear as something uncanny and savouring of magic. Hence smiths are sometimes held in high honour, sometimes looked down upon with great contempt. These feelings probably spring in large measure from the superstitions which cluster round iron. See R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, pp. 153-159; G. McCall Theal, Records of South-Eastern Africa, vii. 447; O. Lenz, Skizzen aus West-Afrika (Berlin, 1878), p. 184; A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, ii. 217; M. Merkel, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), pp. 110 sq.; A. C. Hollis, The Masai (Oxford, 1905), pp. 330 sq.; id., The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), pp. 36 sq.; J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme (Berlin, 1906), p. 776; E. Doutté, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord, pp. 40 sqq.; Ph. Paulitschke, Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas, die geistige Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal (Berlin, 1896), p. 30; id., Ethnographie Nordost-Afrikas, die materielle Cultur der Danakil, Galla und Somal (Berlin, 1893), p. 202; Th. Levebvre, Voyage en Abyssinie, i. p. lxi.; A. Cecchi, Da Zeila alle frontiere del Caffa, i. (Rome, 1886) p. 45; M. Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia2 (London, 1868), pp. 300 sq.; J. T. Bent, Sacred City of the Ethiopians (London, 1893), p. 212; G. Rohlf, "Reise durch Nord-Afrika," Petermann's Mittheilungen, Erg?nzungsheft, No. 25 (Gotha, 1868), pp. 30, 54; G. Nachtigal, "Die Tibbu," Zeitschrift für Erdkunde zu Berlin, v. (1870) pp. 312 sq.; id., Sahara und Sudan, i. 443 sq., ii. 145, 178, 371, iii. 189, 234 sq. The Kayans of Borneo think that a smith is inspired by a special spirit, the smith's spirit, and that without this inspiration he could do no good work. See A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, ii. 198.

760.

A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, i. (Leipsic, 1866) p. 136.

761.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899) p. 312. Compare ibid. pp. 315, 364; W. H. Dall, Alaska and its Resources, p. 146; id., in American Naturalist, xii. 7; id., in The Yukon Territory (London, 1898), p. 146.

762.

See above, p. 205.

763.

A. Woldt, Captain Jacobsen's Reise an der Nordwestküste Americas 1881-1883 (Leipsic, 1884), p. 243.

764.

W. Schmidt, Das Jahr und seine Tage in Meinung und Brauch der Rom?nen Siebenbürgens (Hermannstadt, 1866), p. 40; E. Gerard, The Land beyond the Forest, i. 312.

765.

J. H. Gray, China (London, 1878), i. 288.

766.

Jo. Meletius (Maeletius, Menecius), "De religione et sacrificiis veterum Borussorum," in De Russorum Muscovitarum et Tartarorum religione, sacrificiis, nuptiarum, funerum ritu (Spires, 1582), p. 263; id., reprinted in Scriptores rerum Livonicarum, vol. ii. (Riga and Leipsic, 1848) pp. 391 sq., and in Mitteilungen der Litterarischen Gesellschaft Masovia, viii. (L?tzen, 1902) pp. 194 sq. Compare Chr. Hartknoch, Alt und neues Preussen (Frankfort and Leipsic, 1684), pp. 187 sq.

767.

B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes, p. 136.

768.

Tettau und Temme, Die Volkssagen Ostpreussens, Litthauens und Westpreussens, p. 285; J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,4 iii. 454, compare pp. 441, 469; J. V. Grohmann, Aberglauben und Gebr?uche aus B?hmen und M?hren, p. 198, § 1387.

769.

Franz Vormann, "Zur Psychologie, Soziologie und Geschichte der Monumbo-Papua, Deutsch-Neuginea," Anthropos, v. (1910) p. 410.

770.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, In Centraal Borneo (Leyden, 1900), i. 61; id., Quer durch Borneo, i. 69.

771.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (Berlin, 1894), p. 184.

772.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, iii. 1045 (Leyden, 1897).

773.

Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 110; Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 12. See above, p. 13.

774.

Grihya-Sutras, translated by H. Oldenberg, part i. pp. 81, 141 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xxix.).

775.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 53.

776.

J. Kubary, Die socialen Einrichtungen der Pelauer (Berlin, 1885), pp. 126 sq.

777.

F. J. Wiedemann, Aus dem inneren und ?ussern Leben der Ehsten (St. Petersburg, 1876), pp. 448, 478.

778.

James Adair, History of the American Indians (London, 1775), pp. 134, 117. The Indians described by Adair are the Creek, Cherokee, and other tribes in the south-east of the United States.

779.

A. G. Morice, "The Western Dénés, their Manners and Customs," Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Third Series, vii. (1888-89) p. 164.

780.

E. Petitot, Monographie des Dènè-Dindjié (Paris, 1876), p. 76.

781.

Schl?mann, "Die Malepa in Transvaal," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 1894, p. (67).

782.

Leviticus xvii. 10-14. The Hebrew word (???) translated "life" in the English version of verse 11 means also "soul" (marginal note in the Revised Version). Compare Deuteronomy xii. 23-25.

783.

Servius on Virgil, Aen. v. 79; compare id. on Aen. iii. 67.

784.

J. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentumes (Berlin, 1887), p. 217.

785.

J. J. M. de Groot, Religious System of China, iv. 80-82.

786.

A. Goudswaard, De Papoewa's van de Geelvinksbaai (Schiedam, 1863), p. 77.

787.

Hamilton's "Account of the East Indies," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, viii. 469. Compare W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites,2 i. 369, note 1.

788.

De la Loubere, Du royaume de Siam (Amsterdam, 1691), i. 317.

789.

Pallegoix, Description du royaume Thai ou Siam, i. 271, 365 sq.

790.

Marco Polo, translated by Col. H. Yule (Second Edition, 1875), i. 335.

791.

Col. H. Yule on Marco Polo, l.c.

792.

A. Fytche, Burma, Past and Present (London, 1878), i. 217 note. Compare Indian Antiquary, xxix. (1900) p. 199.

793.

Indian Antiquary, xx. (1891) p. 49.

794.

Baron's "Description of the Kingdom of Tonqueen," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, ix. 691.

795.

T. E. Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee (London, 1873), p. 207.

796.

A. B. Ellis, Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 224, compare p. 89.

797.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique (Amsterdam, 1686), p. 313.

798.

J. Sibree, Madagascar and its People, p. 430.

799.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 50.

800.

C. T. Wilson and R. W. Felkin, Uganda and the Egyptian Soudan (London, 1882), i. 200.

801.

J. Roscoe, op. cit. p. 67. There is an Arab legend of a king who was slain by opening the veins of his arms and letting the blood drain into a bowl; not a drop might fall on the ground, otherwise there would be blood revenge for it. Robertson Smith conjectured that the legend was based on an old form of sacrifice regularly applied to captive chiefs (Religion of the Semites,2 p. 369 note, compare p. 418 note).

802.

Rev. E. Gottschling, "The Bawenda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxv. (1905) p. 366.

803.

Marco Polo, i. 399, Yule's translation, Second Edition.

804.

Sir Walter Scott, note 2 to Peveril of the Peak, ch. v.

805.

Charlotte Latham, "Some West Sussex Superstitions," Folk-lore Record, i. (1878) p. 17.

806.

Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 230; E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia, ii. 335; R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 75 note.

807.

D. Collins, Account of the English Colony of New South Wales (London, 1798), p. 580.

808.

Native Tribes of South Australia, pp. 224 sq.; G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), i. 110 sq.

809.

The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 256.

810.

Edmund Spenser, View of the State of Ireland, p. 101 (reprinted in H. Morley's Ireland under Elizabeth and James the First, London, 1890).

811.

"Futuna, or Horne Island and its People," Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol. i. No. 1 (April 1892), p. 43.

812.

Max Radiguet, Les Derniers Sauvages (Paris, 1882), p. 175.

813.

B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes, p. 53.

814.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, p. 795.

815.

Miss Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, pp. 440, 447.

816.

A. Kropf, "Die religi?sen Anschauungen der Kaffern," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 1888, p. (46).

817.

R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa (London, 1904), p. 83.

818.

Le R. P. Guis, "Les Nepu ou Sorciers," Missions Catholiques, xxxvi. (1904) p. 370. See also The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. p. 205.

819.

A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar, p. 338, quoting J. Sibree, "Remarkable Ceremonial at the Decease and Burial of a Betsileo Prince," Antananarivo Annual, No. xxii. (1898) pp. 195 sq.

820.

Brun-Rollet, Le Nil Blanc et le Soudan (Paris, 1855), pp. 239 sq.

821.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 169.

822.

Lieut. Emery, in Journal of the R. Geographical Society, iii. 282.

823.

Ch. Andersson, Lake Ngami (London, 1856), p. 224.

824.

Ch. New, Life, Wanderings, and Labours in Eastern Africa, p. 124; Francis Galton, "Domestication of Animals," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., iii. (1865) p. 135. On the original sanctity of domestic animals see, above all, W. Robertson Smith, The Religion of the Semites,2 pp. 280 sqq., 295 sqq.

825.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, p. 796.

826.

L. Linton Palmer, "A Visit to Easter Island," Journal of the R. Geographical Society, xl. (1870) p. 171.

827.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 129.

828.

Strabo, xv. 1. 54, p. 710.

829.

R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 pp. 194 sq.

830.

Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 112; Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 13. See above, p. 14.

831.

The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. ii. pp. 18, 20.

832.

Compare W. Robertson Smith, Religion of the Semites,2 p. 230.

833.

"Dialis cotidie feriatus est," Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 16.

834.

Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 6. A myth apparently akin to this has been preserved in some native Egyptian writings. See Ad. Erman, ?gypten und ?gyptisches Leben im Altertum, p. 364. Wine might not be taken into the temple at Heliopolis (Plutarch, Isis et Osiris, 6). It was apparently forbidden to enter the temple at Delos after drinking wine (Dittenberger, Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum,2 No. 564). When wine was offered to the Good Goddess at Rome it was not called wine but milk (Macrobius, Saturn, i. 12. 5; Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 20). It was a rule of Roman religion that wine might not be poured out in libations to the gods which had been made either from grapes trodden with bleeding feet or from the clusters of a vine beside which a human body had hung in a noose (Pliny, Nat. Hist. xiv. 119). This rule shews that wine was supposed to be defiled by blood or death.

835.

Bernardino de Sahagun, Histoire générale des choses de la Nouvelle-Espagne, traduite par Jourdanet et Siméon (Paris, 1880), pp. 46 sq. The native Mexican wine (pulque) is made from the sap of the great American aloe. See the note of the French translators of Sahagun, op. cit. pp. 858 sqq.; E. J. Payne, History of the New World called America, i. 374 sqq. The Chiquites Indians of Paraguay believed that the spirit of chica, or beer made from maize, could punish with sickness the person who was so irreverent or careless as to upset a vessel of the liquor. See Charlevoix, Histoire du Paraguay (Paris, 1756), ii. 234.

836.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 381 sqq.

837.

Op. cit. vol. i. pp. 384 sq.

838.

E. M. Curr, The Australian Race (Melbourne and London, 1887), iii. 179.

839.

H. B. Guppy, The Solomon Islands and their Natives (London, 1887), p. 41.

840.

E. B. Cross, "On the Karens," Journal of the American Oriental Society, iv. (1854) p. 312.

841.

A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, iii. 230.

842.

For the reason, see E. Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, pp. 112 sq., 292; E. Tregear, "The Maoris of New Zealand," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xix. (1890) p. 118.

843.

F. J. Gillen, in Report of the Horn Scientific Expedition to Central Australia, pt. iv. p. 182.

844.

Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 186.

845.

Mrs. James Smith, The Booandik Tribe, p. 5.

846.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 450.

847.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. p. 139, compare p. 209.

848.

F. J. Wiedemann, Aus dem innern und ?ussern Leben der Ehsten, p. 475.

849.

Miss Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, p. 447. Conversely among the central Australian tribes women are never allowed to witness the drawing of blood from men, which is often done for purposes of decoration; and when a quarrel has taken place and men's blood has been spilt in the presence of women, it is usual for the man whose blood has been shed to perform a ceremony connected with his own or his father or mother's totem. See Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, p. 463.

850.

A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, pp. 125 sq.

851.

E. B. Cross, "On the Karens," Journal of the American Oriental Society, iv. (1854) pp. 311 sq.

852.

A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, ii. 256, iii. 71, 230, 235 sq. The spirit is called kwun by E. Young (The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe, pp. 75 sqq.). See below, pp. 266 sq.

853.

Herodotus, ix. 110. This passage was pointed out to me by the late Mr. E. S. Shuckburgh of Emmanuel College, Cambridge.

854.

Plutarch, Quaestiones Romanae, 100. Plutarch's words (μ?λιστα ??πτεσθαι τ?? κεφαλ?? κα? καθα?ρειν ?πιτηδε?ουσι) leave room to hope that the ladies did not strictly confine their ablutions to one day in the year.

855.

P. J. de Arriaga, Extirpación de la Idolatria del Piru (Lima, 1621), pp. 28, 29.

856.

A. Bastian, op. cit. ii. 150; Sangermano, Description of the Burmese Empire (Rangoon, 1885), p. 131; C. F. S. Forbes, British Burma, p. 334; Shway Yoe, The Burman (London, 1882), i. 91.

857.

E. Young, The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe (Westminster, 1898), p. 131.

858.

J. Moura, Le Royaume du Cambodge, i. 178, 388.

859.

Duarte Barbosa, Description of the Coasts of East Africa and Malabar in the beginning of the Sixteenth Century (Hakluyt Society, 1866), p. 197.

860.

This I learned in conversation with Messrs. Roscoe and Miller, missionaries to Uganda. The system of totemism exists in full force in Uganda. No man will eat his totem animal or marry a woman of his own totem clan. Among the totems of the clans are the lion, leopard, elephant, antelope, mushroom, buffalo, sheep, grasshopper, crocodile, otter, beaver, and lizard. See Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 472 sqq.

861.

David Porter, Journal of a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean in the U.S. Frigate "Essex" (New York, 1822), ii. 65.

862.

Vincendon-Dumoulin et C. Desgraz ?les Marquises (Paris, 1843), p. 262.

863.

Le P. Matthias G--, Lettres sur les ?les Marquises (Paris, 1843), p. 50.

864.

G. H. von Langsdorff, Reise um die Welt (London, 1812), i. 115 sq.

865.

Max Radiguet, Les Derniers Sauvages (Paris, 1882), p. 156.

866.

Capt. James Cook, Voyages, v. 427 (London, 1809).

867.

Jules Remy, Ka Mooolelo Hawaii, Histoire de l'Archipel Havaiien (Paris and Leipsic, 1862), p. 159.

868.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches2 (London, 1832-36), iii. 102.

869.

James Wilson, A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean (London, 1799), pp. 354 sq.

870.

W. Colenso, "The Maori Races of New Zealand," p. 43, in Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 1868, vol. i. (separately paged).

871.

R. Taylor, To Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 p. 165. We have seen that under certain special circumstances common persons also are temporarily forbidden to touch their heads with their hands. See above, pp. 146, 156, 158, 160, 183.

872.

R. Taylor, l.c.

873.

E. Shortland, The Southern Districts of New Zealand (London, 1851), p. 293; id., Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, pp. 107 sq.

874.

J. Dumont D'Urville, Voyage autour du monde et à la recherche de La Pérouse, exécuté sous son commandement sur la corvette "Austrolabe": histoire du voyage, ii. 534.

875.

R. A. Cruise, Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand (London, 1823), p. 187; J. Dumont D'Urville, op. cit. ii. 533; E. Shortland, The Southern Districts of New Zealand, p. 30.

876.

Herodotus, i. 187.

877.

H. France, "Customs of the Awuna Tribes," Journal of the African Society, No. 17 (October, 1905), p. 39.

878.

Agathias, Hist. i. 3; J. Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsalterthümer,3 pp. 239 sqq. Compare F. Kauffmann, Balder (Strasburg, 1902), pp. 209 sq. The story of the Phrygian king Midas, who concealed the ears of an ass under his long hair (Aristophanes, Plutus, 287; Ovid, Metam. xi. 146-193) may perhaps be a distorted reminiscence of a similar custom in Phrygia. Parallels to the story are recorded in modern Greece, Ireland, Brittany, Servia, India, and among the Mongols. See B. Schmidt, Griechische M?rchen, Sagen und Volkslieder, pp. 70 sq., 224 sq.; Grimm's Household Tales, ii. 498, trans. by M. Hunt; Patrick Kennedy, Legendary Fictions of the Irish Celts, pp. 248 sqq. (ed. 1866); A. de Nore, Coutumes, mythes, et traditions des provinces de la France, pp. 219 sq.; W. S. Karadschitsch, Volksm?rchen der Serben, No. 39, pp. 225 sqq.; North Indian Notes and Queries, iii. p. 104, § 218; B. Jülg, Mongolische M?rchen-Sammlung, No. 22, pp. 182 sqq.; Sagas from the Far East, No. 21, pp. 206 sqq.

879.

Gregory of Tours, Histoire ecclésiastique des Francs, iii. 18, compare vi. 24 (Guizot's translation).

880.

Dr. Hahl, "Mitteilungen über Sitten und rechtliche Verh?ltnisse auf Ponape," Ethnologisches Notizblatt, ii. Heft 2 (Berlin, 1901), p. 6.

881.

Manuscrit Ramirez, Histoire de l'origine des Indiens qui habitent la Nouvelle Espagne (Paris, 1903), p. 171; J. de Acosta, Natural and Moral History of the Indies, ii. 365 (Hakluyt Society); A. de Herrera, General History of the vast Continent and Islands of America, iii. 216 (Stevens's translation). The author of the Manuscrit Ramirez speaks as if the rule applied only to the priests of the god Tezcatlipoca.

882.

G. M. Dawson, "On the Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands," in Geological Survey of Canada, Report of Progress for 1878-79, p. 123 b.

883.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, p. 229.

884.

Missions Catholiques, xxv. (1893) p. 266.

885.

M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), pp. 21, 22, 143.

886.

A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, i. 68.

887.

Satapatha Brahmana, translated by J. Eggeling, part iii. pp. 126, 128, with the translator's note on p. 126 (Sacred Books of the East, vol. xli.).

888.

P. N. Wilken, "Bijdragen tot de kennis van de zeden en gewoonten der Alfoeren in de Minahassa," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, vii. (1863) p. 126.

889.

R. P. Ashe, Two Kings of Uganda (London, 1889), p. 109.

890.

Fr. Boas, in Tenth Report on the North-Western Tribes of Canada, p. 45 (separate reprint from the Report of the British Association for 1895).

891.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 137.

892.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. pp. 292 sq.

893.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 44.

894.

Diodorus Siculus, i. 18.

895.

W. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge, 1885), pp. 152 sq.

896.

Homer, Iliad, xxiii. 141 sqq. This Homeric passage has been imitated by Valerius Flaccus (Argonaut. i. 378). The Greeks often dedicated a lock of their hair to rivers. See Aeschylus, Choephori, 5 sq.; Philostratus, Heroica, xiii. 4; Pausanias, i. 37. 3, viii. 20. 3, viii. 41. 3. The lock might be at the side or the back of the head or over the brow; it received a special name (Pollux, ii. 30).

897.

S. W. Tromp, "Een Dajaksch Feest," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) p. 38.

898.

T. Arbousset et F. Daumas, Relation d'un voyage d'exploration, p. 565.

899.

D. Porter, Journal of a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean, ii. 120.

900.

Tacitus, Germania, 31. Vows of the same sort were occasionally made by the Romans (Suetonius, Julius, 67; Tacitus, Hist. iv. 61).

901.

Paulus Diaconus, Hist. Langobard. iii. 7; Gregory of Tours, Histoire ecclésiastique des Francs, v. 15, vol. i. p. 268 (Guizot's translation, Nouvelle Edition, Paris, 1874).

902.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 iv. 387.

903.

Numbers vi. 5.

904.

J. A. E. K?hler, Volksbrauch, etc., im Voigtlande, p. 424; W. Henderson, Folk-lore of the Northern Counties, pp. 16 sq.; F. Panzer, Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie, i. p. 258, § 23; I. V. Zingerle, Sitten, Br?uche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes,2 §§ 46, 72; J. W. Wolf, Beitr?ge zur deutschen Mythologie, i. p. 208, § 45, p. 209 § 53; O. Knoop, Volkssagen, Erz?hlungen, etc., aus dem ?stlichen Hinterpommern, p. 157, § 23; E. Veckenstedt, Wendische Sagen, M?rchen und abergl?ubische Gebr?uche, p. 445; J. Haltrich, Zur Volkskunde der Siebenbürger Sachsen, p. 313; E. Krause, "Abergl?ubische Kuren und sonstiger Aberglaube in Berlin," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xv. (1883) p. 84.

905.

Panjab Notes and Queries, ii. p. 205, § 1092.

906.

G. Gibbs, "Notes on the Tinneh or Chepewyan Indians of British and Russian America," in Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1866, p. 305; W. Dall, Alaska and its Resources, p. 202. The reason alleged by the Indians is that if the girls' nails were cut sooner the girls would be lazy and unable to embroider in porcupine quill-work. But this is probably a late invention like the reasons assigned in Europe for the similar custom, of which the commonest is that the child would become a thief if its nails were cut.

907.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 30.

908.

Lieut. Herold, "Religi?se Anschauungen und Gebr?uche der deutschen Ewe-Neger," Mittheilungen aus den Deutschen Schutzgebieten, v. 148 sq.

909.

S. J. Curtiss, Primitive Semitic Religion To-day (Chicago, etc., 1902), p.153.

910.

A. C. Kruyt, "Het koppensnellen der Toradja's," Verslagen en Mededeelingen der konink. Akademie van Wetenschapen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, iv. Reeks, iii. 198 n2 (Amsterdam, 1899).

911.

R. R?mer, "Bijdrage tot de Geneeskunst der Karo-Batak's," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, i. (1908) p. 216.

912.

O. Knoop, Volkssagen, Erz?hlungen, etc., aus dem ?stlichen Hinterpommern (Posen, 1885), p. 157, § 23.

913.

J. W. Wolf, Beitr?ge zur deutschen Mythologie, i. p. 209, § 57.

914.

Rev. Lorimer Fison, in a letter to the author, dated August 26, 1898.

915.

From the report of a lecture delivered in Melbourne, December 9, 1898, by the Rev. H. Worrall, of Fiji, missionary. The newspaper cutting from which the above extract is quoted was sent to me by the Rev. Lorimer Fison in a letter, dated Melbourne, January 9, 1899. Mr. Fison omitted to give the name and date of the newspaper.

916.

R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants2 (London, 1870), pp. 206 sqq.

917.

Richard A. Cruise, Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand (London, 1823), pp. 283 sq. Compare J. Dumont D'Urville, Voyage autour du monde et à la recherche de La Pérouse: histoire du voyage (Paris, 1832), ii. 533.

918.

E. Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, pp. 108 sqq.; R. Taylor, l.c.

919.

G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), ii. 90 sq.

920.

J. Moura, Le Royaume du Cambodge, i. 226 sq.

921.

See above, p. 3.

922.

See above, p. 252.

923.

E. Young, The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe (Westminster, 1898), pp. 64 sq., 67-84. I have abridged the account of the ceremonies by omitting some details. For an account of the ceremonies observed at cutting the hair of a young Siamese prince, at the age of thirteen or fourteen, see Mgr. Bruguière, in Annales de l'Association de la Propagation de la Foi, v. (1831) pp. 197 sq.

924.

The aboriginal tribes of Central Australia form an exception to this rule; for among them no attempt is made to injure a person by performing magical ceremonies over his shorn hair. See Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 478.

925.

See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 52-54, 174 sqq.

926.

C. Martin, "über die Eingeborenen von Chiloe," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, ix. (1877) p. 177.

927.

Vincendon-Dumoulin et C. Desgraz, ?les Marquises (Paris, 1843), pp. 247 sq.

928.

D. Porter, Journal of a Cruise made to the Pacific Ocean2 (New York, 1882), ii. 188.

929.

R. Taylor, Te Ika a Maui, or New Zealand and its Inhabitants,2 pp. 203 sq.; A. S. Thomson, The Story of New Zealand (London, 1859), i. 116 sq.

930.

R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 468 sq.

931.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 36.

932.

A. W. Howitt, "On Australian Medicine-men," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xvi. (1887) p. 27. Compare id., Native Tribes of South-East Australia, pp. 360 sq.

933.

E. Palmer, "Notes on some Australian Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 293.

934.

Lucian, Dial. meretr. iv. 4 sq.

935.

Apuleius, Metamorph. iii. 16 sqq. For more evidence of the same sort, see Th. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 248; James Bonwick, Daily Life of the Tasmanians, p. 178; James Chalmers, Pioneering in New Guinea, p. 187; J. S. Polack, Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders, i. 282; A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, iii. 270; G. H. von Langsdorff, Reise um die Welt, i. 134 sq.; W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 i. 364; A. B. Ellis, Ewe-speaking peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 99; R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 203; K. von den Steinen, Unter den Naturv?lkern Zentral-Brasiliens, p. 343; Miss Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, p. 447; I. V. Zingerle, Sitten, Br?uche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes,2 § 178; R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, Neue Folge, pp. 12 sqq.; E. S. Hartland, Legend of Perseus, ii. 64-74, 132-139.

936.

R. F. Kaindl, "Neue Beitr?ge zur Ethnologie und Volkeskunde der Huzulen," Globus, lxix. (1896) p. 94.

937.

E. Meier, Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebr?uche aus Schwaben, p. 509; A. Birlinger, Volksthümliches aus Schwaben, i. 493; F. Panzer, Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie, i. 258; J. A. E. K?hler, Volksbrauch, etc., im Voigtlande, p. 425; A. Witzschel, Sagen, Sitten und Gebr?uche aus Thüringen, p. 282; I. V. Zingerle, op. cit. § 180; J. W. Wolf, Beitr?ge zur deutschen Mythologie, i. p. 224, § 273. A similar belief prevails among the gypsies of Eastern Europe (H. von Wlislocki, Volksglaube und religi?ser Brauch der Zigeuner, p. 81).

938.

I. V. Zingerle, op. cit. § 181.

939.

Charlotte Latham, "Some West Sussex Superstitions," Folk-lore Record, i. (1878) p. 40.

940.

J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), p. 237.

941.

W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas (London, 1906), pp. 268 sq.

942.

I. V. Zingerle, op. cit. §§ 176, 179.

943.

A. Krause, Die Tlinkit-Indianer (Jena, 1885), p. 300.

944.

Petronius, Sat. 104.

945.

J. G. Campbell, op. cit. pp. 236 sq.

946.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, i. 231 sq.; id., Ein Besuch in San Salvador, pp. 117 sq.

947.

P. B. du Chaillu, Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa (London, 1861), pp. 426 sq.

948.

O. Baumann, Usambara und seine Nachbargebiete (Berlin, 1891), p. 141.

949.

A. Junod, Les Ba-Ronga (Neuchatel, 1898), pp. 398-400.

950.

W. Stanbridge, "On the Aborigines of Victoria," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., i. (1861) p. 300.

951.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), pp. 30, 74 sq.

952.

Le P. A. Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes au pays de Moab (Paris, 1908), pp. 94 sq.

953.

2 Samuel, x. 4.

954.

2 Samuel, x., xii. 26-31.

955.

R. Torday and T. A. Joyce, "Notes on the Ethnography of the Ba-Yaka," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) p. 49.

956.

Fran?ois Pyrard, Voyages to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas, and Brazil, translated by Albert Gray (Hakluyt Society, 1887), i. 110 sq.

957.

E. Shortland, Traditions and Superstitions of the New Zealanders, p. 110.

958.

J. S. Polack, Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders, i. 38 sq. Compare G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), ii. 108 sq.

959.

James Wilson, A Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean (London, 1799), p. 355.

960.

R. A. Freeman, Travels and Life in Ashanti and Jaman (Westminster, 1898), pp. 171 sq.

961.

E. Young, The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe, p. 79.

962.

Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 15. The ancients were not agreed as to the distinction between lucky and unlucky trees. According to Cato and Pliny, trees that bore fruit were lucky, and trees which did not were unlucky (Festus, ed. C. O. Müller, p. 29, s.v. Felices; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xvi. 108); but according to Tarquitius Priscus those trees were unlucky which were sacred to the infernal gods and bore black berries or black fruit (Macrobius, Saturn, ii. 16, but iii. 20 in L. Jan's edition, Quedlinburg and Leipsic, 1852).

963.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xvi. 235; Festu, p. 57 ed. C. O. Müller, s.v. Capillatam vel capillarem arborem.

964.

M. Quedenfelt, "Aberglaube und halbreligi?se Bruderschaft bei den Marokkanern," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 1886, p. (680).

965.

A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 pp. 294 sq., § 464.

966.

W. Mannhardt, Germanische Mythen (Berlin, 1858), p. 630.

967.

W. Henderson, Folk-lore of the Northern Counties (London, 1879), p. 17.

968.

J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, p. 74.

969.

J. G. F. Riedel, op. cit. p. 265.

970.

G. Heijmering, "Zeden en gewoonten op het eiland Rottie," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indi?, 1843, dl. ii. pp. 634-637.

971.

W. Dall, Alaska and its Resources (London, 1870), p. 54; F. Whymper, "The Natives of the Youkon River," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., vii. (1869) p. 174.

972.

E. Meier, Deutsche Sagen, Sitten und Gebr?uche aus Schwaben, p. 509; A. Birlinger, Volksthümliches aus Schwaben, i. 493.

973.

W. Mannhardt, Germanische Mythen, p. 630.

974.

H. B. Guppy, The Solomon Islands and their Natives (London, 1887), p. 54.

975.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, p. 203.

976.

Th. Williams, Fiji and the Fijians,2 i. 249.

977.

J. G. Scott and J. P. Hardiman, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, part i. vol. ii. p. 37.

978.

The Zend-Avesta, Vend?dad Fargaard, xvii. (vol. i. pp. 186 sqq., translated by J. Darmesteter, Sacred Books of the East, vol. iv.).

979.

Grihya-S?tras, translated by H. Oldenberg, part i. p. 57; compare id., pp. 303, 399, part ii. p. 62 (Sacred Books of the East, vols. xxix., xxx.). Compare H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, p. 487.

980.

Grihya-S?tras, translated by H. Oldenberg, part ii. pp. 165 sq., 218.

981.

R. W. Felkin, "Notes on the Madi or Moru Tribe of Central Africa," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, xii. (1882-84) p. 332.

982.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, p. 185 note. The same thing was told me in conversation by the Rev. J. Roscoe, missionary to Uganda; but I understood him to mean that the hair was not carelessly disposed of, but thrown away in some place where it would not easily be found.

983.

Fr. Stuhlmann, op. cit. pp. 516 sq.

984.

J. Macdonald, Light in Africa, p. 209; id., "Manners, Customs, Superstitions and Religions of South African Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 131.

985.

A. Steedman, Wanderings and Adventures in the Interior of Southern Africa (London, 1835), i. 266.

986.

Emin Pasha in Central Africa, being a Collection of his Letters and Journals (London, 1888), p. 74.

987.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, p. 625.

988.

M. Merkel, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), p. 243.

989.

J. L. Wilson, Western Africa, p. 215.

990.

Ch. Partridge, Cross River Natives (London, 1905), pp. 8, 203 sq.

991.

James Teit, "The Thompson River Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 360.

992.

N. P. Wilken en J. A. Schwarz, "Allerlei over het land en volk van Bolaang Mongondou," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xi. (1867) p. 322.

993.

I. V. Zingerle, Sitten, Br?uche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes2 (Innsbruck, 1871), §§ 176, 580; Mélusine, 1878, col. 79; E. Monseur, Le Folklore Wallon, p. 91.

994.

Pliny, Nat. Hist., xxviii. 35; Theophrastus, Characters, "The Superstitious Man"; Theocritus, id. vi. 39, vii. 127; Persius, Sat. ii. 31 sqq. At the siege of Danzig in 1734, when the old wives saw a bomb coming, they used to spit thrice and cry, "Fi, ti, fi, there comes the dragon!" in the persuasion that this secured them against being hit (Tettau und Temme, Die Volkssagen Ostpreussens, Litthauens und Westpreussens (Berlin, 1837), p. 284). For more examples, see J. E. B. Mayor on Juvenal, Sat. vii. 112; J. E. Crombie, "The Saliva Superstition," International Folk-lore Congress, 1891, Papers and Transactions, pp. 249 sq.; C. de Mensignac, Recherches ethnographiques sur la salive et le crachat (Bordeaux, 1892), pp. 50 sqq.; F. W. Nicolson, "The Saliva Superstition in Classical Literature," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, viii. (1897) pp. 35 sqq.

995.

Garcilasso de la Vega, First Part of the Royal Commentaries of the Yncas, bk. ii. ch. 7 (vol. i. p. 127, Markham's translation).

996.

Mélusine, 1878, coll. 583 sq.

997.

The People of Turkey, by a Consul's daughter and wife, ii. 250.

998.

M. Abeghian, Der armenische Volksglaube, p. 68.

999.

G. F. Abbott, Macedonian Folklore (Cambridge, 1903), p. 214.

1000.

M. Quedenfelt, "Aberglaube und halbreligi?se Bruderschaft bei den Marokkanern," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 1886, p. (680).

1001.

Le P. A. Jaussen, Coutumes des Arabes au pays de Moab (Paris, 1908), p. 94 note 1.

1002.

Boecler-Kreutzwald, Der Ehsten abergl?ubische Gebr?uche, Weisen und Gewohnheiten, p. 139; F. J. Wiedemann, Aus dem innern und ?ussern Leben der Ehsten, p. 491.

1003.

L. F. Sauvé, Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges (Paris, 1889), p. 41.

1004.

Miss A. H. Singleton, in a letter to me, dated Rathmoyle House, Abbeyleix, Ireland, 24th February 1904.

1005.

Dr. Antoine Petit, in Th. Lefebvre, Voyage en Abyssinie, i. 373.

1006.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, i. 342 sq. (Leyden, 1892).

1007.

R. W. Felkin, "Notes on the For Tribe of Central Africa," Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, xiii. (1884-86) p. 230.

1008.

A. D'Orbigny, Voyage dans l'Amérique méridionale, ii. 93; Lieut. Musters, "On the Races of Patagonia," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, i. (1872) p. 197; J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 36. The Patagonians sometimes throw their hair into a river instead of burning it.

1009.

L. F. Sauvé, Le Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges, p. 170.

1010.

Z. Zanetti, La Medicina delle nostre donne (Città di Castello, 1892), pp. 234 sq.

1011.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 99; Miss Mary H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, p. 447; R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa (London, 1904), p. 83; A. F. Mockler-Ferryman, British Nigeria (London, 1902), p. 286; David Livingstone, Narrative of Expedition to the Zambesi, pp. 46 sq.; W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 i. 365. In some parts of New Guinea cut hair is destroyed for the same reason (H. H. Romilly, From my Verandah in New Guinea, London, 1889, p. 83).

1012.

W. H. Furness, The Island of Stone Money, Uap of the Carolines (Philadelphia and London, 1910), P. 137.

1013.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, p. 451.

1014.

W. E. Roth, North Queensland Ethnography, Bulletin No. 5 (Brisbane, 1903), p. 21.

1015.

Captain R. Fitzroy, Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships Adventure and Beagle, i. (London, 1839). pp. 313 sq.

1016.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 360.

1017.

I. V. Zingerle, Sitten, Br?uche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes2 (Innsbruck, 1871), p. 28, §§ 177, 179, 180.

1018.

U. Jahn, Hexenwesen und Zauberei in Pommern (Breslau, 1886), p. 15; Mélusine, 1878, col. 79; E. Monseur, Le Folklore Wallon, p. 91.

1019.

E. H. Meyer, Indogermanische Mythen, ii. Achilleis (Berlin, 1877), p. 523.

1020.

P. Lowell, Chos?n, the Land of the Morning Calm, a Sketch of Korea (London, Preface dated 1885), pp. 199-201; Mrs. Bishop, Korea and her Neighbours (London, 1898), ii. 55 sq.

1021.

Above, p. 276.

1022.

Above, pp. 4, 131, 139, 145, 156.

1023.

W. Ridley, "Report on Australian Languages and Traditions," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, ii. (1873) p. 268.

1024.

Fr. Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, p. 795.

1025.

F. de Castelnau, Expédition dans les parties centrales de l'Amérique du Sud, v. (Paris, 1851) p. 46.

1026.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 34.

1027.

See G. A. Wilken, über das Haaropfer und einige andere Trauergebr?uche bei den V?lkern Indonesiens, pp. 94 sqq. (reprinted from the Revue Coloniale Internationale, Amsterdam, 1886-87); H. Ploss, Das Kind in Brauch und Sitte der V?lker,2 i. 289 sqq.; K. Potkanski, "Die Ceremonie der Haarschur bei den Slaven und Germanen," Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Krakau, May 1896, pp. 232-251.

1028.

Above, p. 261.

1029.

Above, pp. 111 sqq.

1030.

J. Campbell, Travels in South Africa, Second Journey (London, 1822), ii. 205.

1031.

H. Oldenberg, Die Religion des Veda, pp. 426 sq.

1032.

L. F. Alfred Maury, "Les Populations primitives du nord de l'Hindoustan," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IVme Série, vii. (1854) p. 197.

1033.

Lucian, De dea Syria, 53.

1034.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 160.

1035.

W. H. Furness, Folk-lore in Borneo (Wallingford, Pennsylvania, 1899; privately printed), p. 28.

1036.

B. Gutmann, "Trauer und Begr?bnissitten der Wadschagga," Globus, lxxxix. (1906) p. 198.

1037.

Miss A. Werner, The Natives of British Central Africa (London, 1906), pp. 165, 166, 167.

1038.

J. M. Hildebrandt, "Ethnographische Notizen über Wakamba und ihre Nachbarn," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, x. (1878) p. 395. Children who are born in an unusual position, the second born of twins, and children whose upper teeth appear before the lower, are similarly exposed by the Akikuyu. The mother is regarded as unclean, not so much because she has exposed, as because she has given birth to such a child.

1039.

Monier Williams, Religious Thought and Life in India, p. 375.

1040.

Strabo, xii. 2. 3, p. 535; Pausanias, viii. 34. 3. In two paintings on Greek vases we see Apollo in his character of the purifier preparing to cut off the hair of Orestes. See Monumenti inediti, 1847, pl. 48; Annali dell' Instituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica, 1847, pl. x.; Archaeologische Zeitung, 1860, pll. cxxxvii. cxxxviii.; L. Stephani, in Compte rendu de la Commission archéologique (St. Petersburg), 1863, pp. 271 sq.

1041.

C. Martin, "über die Eingeborenen von Chiloe," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, ix. (1877) pp. 177 sq.

1042.

J. Mooney, "Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees," Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1891), pp. 392 sq.

1043.

B. C. A. J. van Dinter, "Eenige geographische en ethnographische aanteekeningen betreffende het eiland Siaoe," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xii. (1899) p. 381.

1044.

A. W. Howitt, "On Australian Medicine-men," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xvi. (1887) p. 27; id., Native Tribes of South-east Australia, p. 365.

1045.

E. Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand (London, 1843), ii. 59.

1046.

Rev. J. Macdonald, Light in Africa, p. 209; id., in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 131.

1047.

C. le Gobin, Histoire des Isles Marianes (Paris, 1700), p. 52. The writer confesses his ignorance of the reason of the custom.

1048.

C. de Mensignac, Recherches ethnographiques sur la salive et le crachat (Bordeaux, 1892), pp. 48 sq.

1049.

Vahness, reported by F. von Luschan, in Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 1900, p. (416).

1050.

K. Vetter, Komm herüber und hilf uns! iii. (Barmen, 1898) pp. 9 sq.

1051.

Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) pp. 83 sq.

1052.

W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 i. 365.

1053.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 99.

1054.

C. Partridge, Cross River Natives (London, 1905), p. 8.

1055.

A. Raffenel, Voyage dans l'Afrique occidentale (Paris, 1846), p. 338.

1056.

C. de Mensignac, op. cit. p. 48.

1057.

Mission Evangelica al reyno de Congo por la serafica religion de los Capuchinos (Madrid, 1649), p. 70 verso.

1058.

R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, Neue Folge (Leipsic, 1889), p. 13.

1059.

F. W. Christian, The Caroline Islands (London, 1899), pp. 289 sq.

1060.

R. Southey, History of Brazil, i.2 (London, 1822) pp. 127, 138.

1061.

J. Raum, "Blut und Speichelbünde bei den Wadschagga," Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, x. (1907) pp. 290 sq.

1062.

Above, pp. 13 sq.

1063.

Porphyry, De abstinentia, iii. 18.

1064.

A. Bastian, Die deutsche Expedition an der Loango-Küste, ii. 170. The blood may perhaps be drunk by them as a medium of inspiration. See The Magic Art and the Evolution of Kings, vol. i. pp. 381 sqq.

1065.

O. Dapper, Description de l'Afrique, p. 336.

1066.

T. J. Hutchinson, Impressions of Western Africa (London, 1858), p. 198.

1067.

M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), p. 21.

1068.

J. G. Frazer, Totemism and Exogamy, ii. 526 sqq., from information furnished by the Rev. J. Roscoe.

1069.

G. Watt (quoting Col. W. J. M'Culloch), "The Aboriginal Tribes of Manipur," in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xvi. (1887) p. 360.

1070.

T. C. Hodson, "The Native Tribes of Manipur," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxi. (1901) p. 306.

1071.

Indian Antiquary, xxi. (1892) pp. 317 sq.; (Sir) J. G. Scott and J. P. Hardiman, Gazetteer of Upper Burma and the Shan States, part ii. vol. i. p. 308.

1072.

"Die Pschawen und Chewsuren im Kaukasus," Zeitschrift für allgemeine Erdkunde, ii. (1857) p. 76.

1073.

A. Senfft, "Ethnographische Beitr?ge über die Karolineninsel Yap," Petermanns Mitteilungen, xlix. (1903) p. 54. In Gall, another village of the same island, the people grow bananas for sale, but will not eat them themselves, fearing that if they did so the women of the village would be barren (ibid.).

1074.

Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 6 and 9. See above, p. 13.

1075.

E. Doutté, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord, pp. 87 sq.

1076.

J. Hillner, Volksthümlicher Brauch und Glaube bei Geburt und Taufe im Siebenbürger Sachsenlande, p. 15. This tractate (of which I possess a copy) appears to be a programme of the High School (Gymnasium) at Sch?ssburg in Transylvania for the school year 1876-1877.

1077.

C. Leemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiac eorumque lingua, vita, et religione pristina commentatio (Copenhagen, 1767), p. 494.

1078.

W. Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual (Amsterdam, 1900), p. 108.

1079.

Servius on Virgil, Aen. iii. 518.

1080.

J. Kreemer, "Hoe de Javaan zijne zieken verzorgt," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxvi. (1892) p. 114; C. M. Pleyte, "Plechtigheden en gebruiken uit den cyclus van het familienleven der volken van den Indischen Archipel," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xli. (1892) p. 586.

1081.

H. Ling Roth, The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, i. 98.

1082.

Spenser St. John, Life in the Forests of the Far East,2 i. 170.

1083.

J. G. F. Riedel, "Alte Gebr?uche bei Heirathen, Geburt und Sterbef?llen bei dem Toumbuluh-Stamm in der Minahasa (Nord Selebes)," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, viii. (1895) pp. 95 sq.

1084.

Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 606 sq.

1085.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, p. 692.

1086.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, pp. 433 sq.

1087.

J. A. E. K?hler, Volksbrauch, Aberglauben, Sagen und andre alte überlieferungen im Voigtlande, pp. 435 sq.; A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 p. 355, § 574.

1088.

J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, p. 37. note 1.

1089.

Festus, p. 56, ed. C. O. Müller.

1090.

G. F. D'Penha, "Superstitions and Customs in Salsette," Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) p. 115.

1091.

H. Ris, "De onderafdeeling Klein Mandailing Oeloe en Pahantan en hare Bevolking," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlvi. (1896) p. 503. Compare A. L. van Hasselt, Volksbeschrijving van Midden Sumatra, p. 266.

1092.

J. H. Meerwaldt, "Gebruiken der Bataks in het maatschappelijk leven," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlix. (1905) p. 117.

1093.

H. K[ern], "Bijgeloof onder de inlanders in den Oosthoek van Java," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvi. (1880) 310; J. Kreemer, "Hoe de Javaan zijne zieken verzorgt," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxvi. (1892) pp. 120, 124; D. Louwerier, "Bijgeloovige gebruiken, die door de Javanen worden in acht genomen bij de verzorging en opvoeding hunner kinderen," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlix. (1905) p. 253.

1094.

A. W. P. V. Pistorius, Studien over de inlandsche huishouding in de Padangsche Bovenlanden (Zalt-Bommel, 1871), pp. 55 sq.; A. L. van Hasselt, Volksbeschrijving van Midden-Sumatra (Leyden, 1882), p. 266; J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua (the Hague, 1886), pp. 135, 207, 325.

1095.

Th. Bérengier, "Croyances superstitieuses dans le pays de Chittagong," Missions Catholiques, xiii. (1881) p. 515.

1096.

Damien Grangeon, "Les Chams et leurs superstitions," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 93.

1097.

A. A. Perera, "Glimpses of Singhalese Social Life," Indian Antiquary, xxxi. (1902) p. 378.

1098.

B. Pilsudski, "Schwangerschaft, Entbindung und Fehlgeburt bei den Bewohnern der Insel Sachalin," Anthropos, v. (1910) p. 759.

1099.

E. M. Gordon, Indian Folk Tales (London, 1908), p. 39.

1100.

R. Campbell Thompson, Semitic Magic (London, 1908), p. 169.

1101.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 59. Compare Hippocrates, De morbo sacro, μηδ? π?δα ?π? ποδ? ?χειν, μηδ? χε?ρα ?π? χειρ?; τα?τα γ?ρ π?ντα κωλ?ματα ε?ναι (vol. i. p. 589, ed. Kühn, Leipsic, 1825, quoted by E. Rohde, Psyche,3 ii. 76 note 1).

1102.

Ovid, Metam. ix. 285 sqq. Antoninus Liberalis, quoting Nicander, says it was the Fates and Ilithyia who impeded the birth of Hercules, but though he says they clasped their hands, he does not say that they crossed their legs (Transform. 29). Compare Pausanias, ix. 11. 3.

1103.

A. Strausz, Die Bulgaren (Leipsic, 1898), p. 293.

1104.

F. Panzer, Beitrag zur deutschen Mythologie, ii. 303.

1105.

J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,4 ii. 897, 983; J. Brand, Popular Antiquities, iii. 299; J. G. Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, pp. 302, 306 sq.; B. Souché, Croyances, présages et traditions diverses, p. 16; J. G. Bourke, in Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), p. 567.

1106.

J. G. Dalyell, ll.cc.

1107.

Rev. Dr. Th. Bisset, in Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland, v. (Edinburgh, 1793) p. 83. In his account of the second tour which he made in Scotland in the summer of 1772, Pennant says that "the precaution of loosening every knot about the new-joined pair is strictly observed" (Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, iii. 382). He is here speaking particularly of the Perthshire Highlands.

1108.

Pennant, "Tour in Scotland," Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, iii. 91. However, at a marriage in the island of Skye, the same traveller observed that "the bridegroom put all the powers of magic to defiance, for he was married with both shoes tied with their latchet" (Pennant, "Second Tour in Scotland," Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, iii. 325). According to another writer the shoe-tie of the bridegroom's right foot was unloosed at the church-door (Ch. Rogers, Social Life in Scotland, iii. 232).

1109.

Eijüb Abela, "Beitr?ge zur Kenntniss abergl?ubischer Gebr?uche in Syrien," Zeitschrift des deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, vii. (1884) pp. 91 sq.

1110.

Georgeakis et Pineau, Folk-lore de Lesbos, pp. 344 sq.

1111.

E. Doutté, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du Nord, pp. 288-292.

1112.

"Eenige mededeelingen betreffende Rote door een inlandischen Schoolmeester," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvii. (1882) p. 554; N. Graafland, "Eenige aanteekeningen op ethnographisch gebied ten aanzien van het eiland Rote," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxiii. (1889) pp. 373 sq.

1113.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, p. 533.

1114.

M. Jastrow, The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, pp. 268, 270.

1115.

J. G. Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 307.

1116.

Al Baidawī's Commentary on the Koran, chap. 113, verse 4. I have to thank my friend Prof. A. A. Bevan for indicating this passage to me, and furnishing me with a translation of it.

1117.

E. Palmer, "Notes on some Australian Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 293. The Tahitians ascribed certain painful illnesses to the twisting and knotting of their insides by demons (W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 i. 363).

1118.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 48.

1119.

C. Fossey, La Magie assyrienne (Paris, 1902), pp. 83 sq.; R. Campbell Thompson, Semitic Magic (London, 1908), pp. 164 sqq.

1120.

R. Campbell Thompson, Semitic Magic, pp. 168 sq.

1121.

E. O'Donovan, The Merv Oasis (London, 1882), ii. 319.

1122.

J. Spieth, Die Ewe-St?mme, p. 531.

1123.

R. C. Maclagan, M.D., "Notes on Folklore Objects collected in Argyleshire," Folk-lore, vi. (1895) pp. 154-156. In the north-west of Ireland divination by means of a knotted thread is practised in order to discover whether a sick beast will recover or die. See E. B. Tylor, in International Folk-lore Congress, 1891, Papers and Transactions, pp. 391 sq.

1124.

R. Chambers, Popular Rhymes of Scotland, New Edition, p. 349. Grimm has shewn that the words of this charm are a very ancient spell for curing a lame horse, a spell based on an incident in the myth of the old Norse god Balder, whose foal put its foot out of joint and was healed by the great master of spells, the god Woden. See J. Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie,4 i. 185, ii. 1030 sq. Christ has been substituted for Balder in the more modern forms of the charm both in Scotland and Germany.

1125.

W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), i. 279.

1126.

Virgil, Ecl. viii. 78-80. Highland sorcerers also used three threads of different colours with three knots tied on each thread. See J. G. Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 306.

1127.

J. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums2 (Berlin, 1897), p. 163.

1128.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 263.

1129.

C. Velten, Sitten und Gebr?uche der Suaheli (G?ttingen, 1903), p. 317.

1130.

David Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas (Edinburgh, 1875), p. 147.

1131.

Gríhya-S?tras, translated by H. Oldenberg, part i. p. 432, part ii. p. 127 (Sacred Books of the East, vols. xxix., xxx.).

1132.

J. Shooter, The Kafirs of Natal and the Zulu Country (London, 1857), pp. 217 sq.

1133.

E. Aymonier, Notes sur le Laos (Saigon, 1885), pp. 23 sq.

1134.

Vetter, in Mitteilungen der geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, xii. (1893) p. 95.

1135.

W. R. S. Ralston, Songs of the Russian People, pp. 388-390.

1136.

Ovid, Fasti, ii. 577 sqq.; compare W. Warde Fowler, Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic, pp. 309 sq.

1137.

Geoponica, i. 14.

1138.

M. Abeghian, Der armenische Volksglaube, p. 115.

1139.

M. Abeghian, op. cit. p. 91.

1140.

V. Titelbach, "Das heilige Feuer bei den Balkanslaven," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, xiii. (1900) p. 3.

1141.

A. Heinrich, Agrarische Sitten und Gebr?uche unter den Sachsen Siebenbürgens (Hermannstadt, 1880), p. 9.

1142.

C. J. R. Le Mesurier, "Customs and Superstitions connected with the Cultivation of Rice in the Southern Province of Ceylon," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, N.S., xvii. (1885) p. 371.

1143.

J. G. Dalyell, Darker Superstitions of Scotland, p. 307.

1144.

J. Brand, Popular Antiquities, ii. 231 (Bohn's edition); R. Hunt, Popular Romances of the West of England, p. 379; T. F. Thiselton Dyer, English Folk-lore, pp. 229 sq. On the other hand the Karaits, a Jewish sect in the Crimea, lock all cupboards when a person is in the last agony, lest their contents should be polluted by the contagion of death. See S. Weissenberg, "Die Kar?er der Krim," Globus, lxxxiv. (1903) p. 143.

1145.

Extract from The Times of 4th September 1863, quoted in Folk-lore, xix. (1908) p. 336.

1146.

M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), p. 98.

1147.

H. Runge, "Volksglaube in der Schweiz," Zeitschrift für deutsche Mythologie und Sittenkunde, iv. (1859) p. 178, § 25. The belief is reported from Zurich.

1148.

J. G. Campbell, Witchcraft and Second Sight in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, p. 174; id., Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, p. 241.

1149.

E. Gerard, The Land beyond the Forest, i. 208.

1150.

R. F. Kaindl, "Volksüberlieferungen der Pidhireane," Globus, lxxiii. (1898) p. 251.

1151.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), pp. 89 sq. The tying and untying of magic knots was forbidden by the Coptic church, but we are not told the purposes for which the knots were used. See Il Fetha Nagast o legislazione dei re, codice ecclesiastico e civile di Abissinia, tradotto e annotato da Ignazio Guidi (Rome, 1899), p. 140.

1152.

For examples see Horace, Sat. i. 8, 23 sq.; Virgil, Aen. iii. 370, iv. 509; Ovid, Metam. vii. 182 sq.; Tibullus, i. 3. 29-32; Petronius, Sat. 44; Aulus Gellius, iv. 3. 3; Columella, De re rustica, x. 357-362; Athenaeus, v. 28, p. 198 e; Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum,2 Nos. 653 (lines 23 sq.) and 939; Ch. Michel, Recueil d'inscriptions grecques, No. 694. Compare Servius on Virgil, Aen. iv. 518, "In sacris nihil solet esse religatum."

1153.

Ovid, Fasti, iii. 257 sq.

1154.

Thucydides, iii. 22.

1155.

Schol. on Pindar, Pyth. iv. 133.

1156.

Virgil, Aen. vii. 689 sq.

1157.

Pindar, Pyth. iv. 129 sqq.: Apollonius Rhodius, Argonaut. i. 5 sqq.; Apollodorus, i. 9. 16.

1158.

Artemidorus, Onirocrit. iv. 63. At Chemmis in Upper Egypt there was a temple of Perseus, and the people said that from time to time Perseus appeared to them and they found his great sandal, two cubits long, which was a sign of prosperity for the whole land of Egypt. See Herodotus, ii. 91.

1159.

Gazette archéologique, 1884, plates 44, 45, 46 with the remarks of De Witte and F. Lenormant, pp. 352 sq. The skin on which the man is crouching is probably the so-called "fleece of Zeus" (Δι?? κ?διον), as to which see Hesychius and Suidas, s.v.; Polemo, ed. Preller, pp. 140-142; C. A. Lobeck, Aglaophamus, pp. 183 sqq. Compare my note on Pausanias, ii. 31. 8.

1160.

Virgil, Aen. iv. 517 sqq.

1161.

I. Goldziher, "Der D?wan des Garwal b. Aus Al-Hutej' a," Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenl?ndischen Gesellschaft, xlvi. (1892) p. 5.

1162.

See Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iii. 370: "In ratione sacrorum par est et animae et corporis causa: nam plerumque quae non possunt circa animam fieri fiunt circa corpus, ut solvere vel ligare, quo possit anima, quod per se non potest, ex cognatione sentire."

1163.

Livy, i. 18. 7.

1164.

"UNUM EXUTA PEDEM quia id agitur, ut et ista solvatur et implicetur Aeneas," Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iv. 518.

1165.

"On a Far-off Island," Blackwood's Magazine, February 1886, p. 238.

1166.

Clement of Alexandria, Strom. v. 5. 28, p. 662, ed. Potter; Jamblichus, Adhortatio ad philosophiam, 23; Plutarch, De educatione puerorum, 17. According to others, all that Pythagoras forbade was the wearing of a ring on which the likeness of a god was engraved (Diogenes Laertius, viii. 1. 17; Porphyry, Vit. Pythag. 42; Suidas, s.v. Πυθαγ?ρα?); according to Julian a ring was only forbidden if it bore the names of the gods (Julian, Or. vii. p. 236 d, p. 306 ed. Dindorf). I have shewn elsewhere that the maxims or symbols of Pythagoras, as they were called, are in great measure merely popular superstitions (Folk-lore, i. (1890) pp. 147 sqq.).

1167.

This we learn from an inscription found on the site. See ?φημερ?? ?ρχαιολογικ?, Athens, 1898, col. 249; Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum,2 No. 939.

1168.

Ovid, Fasti, iv. 657 sq.

1169.

I. V. Zingerle, Sitten, Br?uche und Meinungen des Tiroler Volkes,2 p. 3.

1170.

J. Scheffer, Lapponia (Frankfort, 1673), p. 313.

1171.

R. F. Kaindl, Die Huzulen (Vienna, 1894), p. 89; id., "Viehzucht und Viehzauber in den Ostkarpaten," Globus, lxix. (1896) p. 386.

1172.

W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), ii. 13, 16.

1173.

M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), p. 143.

1174.

M. Merker, op. cit. pp. 200 sq., 202; compare, id. p. 250.

1175.

Above, p. 267.

1176.

Above, pp. 32, 51.

1177.

Above, p. 31.

1178.

De la Borde, "Relation de l'origine, etc., des Caraibes sauvages," p. 15, in Recueil de divers voyages faits en Afrique et en l'Amérique (Paris, 1684).

1179.

A considerable body of evidence as to rings and the virtues attributed to them has been collected by Mr. W. Jones in his work Finger-ring Lore (London, 1877). See also W. G. Black, Folk-medicine, pp. 172-177.

1180.

Aulus Gellius, x. 15. 8. See above, p. 14.

1181.

Marcellinus on Hermogenes, in Rhetores Graeci, ed. Walz, iv. 462; Sopater, ibid. viii. 67.

1182.

Demosthenes, Contra Androt. 68, p. 614; P. Foucart, Le Culte de Dionysos en Attique (Paris, 1904), p. 168.

1183.

H. A. Oldfield, Sketches from Nipal (London, 1880), ii. 342 sq.

1184.

Arrian, Anabasis, ii. 3; Quintus Curtius, iii. 1; Justin, xi. 7; Schol. on Euripides, Hippolytus, 671.

1185.

Public talismans, on which the safety of the state was supposed to depend, were common in antiquity. See C. A. Lobeck, Aglaophamus, pp. 278 sqq., and my note on Pausanias, viii. 47. 5.

1186.

On the primitive conception of the relation of names to persons and things, see E. B. Tylor, Early History of Mankind,3 pp. 123 sqq.; R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche (Stuttgart, 1878), pp. 165 sqq.; E. Clodd, Tom-tit-tot (London, 1898), pp. 53 sqq., 79 sqq. In what follows I have used with advantage the works of all these writers.

1187.

J. Mooney, "Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees," Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1891), p. 343.

1188.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899) p. 289.

1189.

A. C. Kruijt, "Van Paloppo naar Posso," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlii. (1898) pp. 61 sq.

1190.

Professor (Sir) J. Rhys, "Welsh Fairies," The Nineteenth Century, xxx. (July-December 1891) pp. 566 sq.

1191.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 377; compare id. p. 440.

1192.

R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 469, note.

1193.

C. Lumholtz, Among Cannibals (London, 1889), p. 280.

1194.

A. W. Howitt, op. cit. p. 736.

1195.

A. W. Howitt, op. cit. p. 133.

1196.

E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, i. 46.

1197.

J. Bulmer, in Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, ii. 94. The writer appears to mean that the natives feared they would die if any one, or at any rate, an enemy, learned their real names.

1198.

Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, p. 139; compare ibid. p. 637; id., Northern Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 584 sq.

1199.

E. Lefébure, "La Vertu et la vie du nom en égypte," Mélusine, viii. (1897) coll. 226 sq.

1200.

Mansfield Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia (London, 1868), pp. 301 sq.

1201.

Grihya S?tras, translated by H. Oldenberg, part i. pp. 50, 183, 395, part ii. pp. 55, 215, 281; A. Hillebrandt, Vedische Opfer und Zauber, pp. 46, 170 sq.; W. Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual, p. 162, note 20; D. C. J. Ibbetson, Outlines of Punjáb Ethnography (Calcutta, 1883), p. 118; W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folklore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), i. 24, ii. 5; id., Natives of Northern India (London, 1907), p. 199.

1202.

A. B. Ellis, The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast, p. 109.

1203.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 98.

1204.

L. J. B. Bérenger-Féraud, Les Peuples de la Sénégambie (Paris, 1879), p. 28.

1205.

E. Modigliani, Un Viaggio a Nías (Milan, 1890), p. 465.

1206.

T. C. Hodson, "The genna amongst the Tribes of Assam," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxvi. (1906) p. 97.

1207.

C. de Sabir, "Quelques notes sur les Manègres," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Vme Série, i. (1861) p. 51.

1208.

A. Schadenburg, "Die Bewohner von Süd-Mindanao und der Insel Samal," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xvii. (1885) p. 30.

1209.

J. H. W. van der Miesen, "Een en ander over Boeroe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 455; J. W. Meerburg, "Proeve einer beschrijving van land en volk van Midden-Manggarai (West-Flores), Afdeeling Bima," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxiv. (1891) p. 465.

1210.

F. Kauffmann, Balder (Strasburg, 1902), p. 198.

1211.

This I learned from my wife, who spent some years in Chili and visited the island of Chiloe.

1212.

E. R. Smith, The Araucanians (London, 1855), p. 222.

1213.

E. F. im Thurn, Among the Indians of Guiana (London, 1883), p. 220.

1214.

F. A. Simons, "An Exploration of the Goajira Peninsula, U.S. of Colombia," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, N.S., vii. (1885) p. 790.

1215.

Dr. Cullen, "The Darien Indians," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., iv. (1866) p. 265.

1216.

A. Pinart, "Les Indiens de l'état de Panama," Revue d'Ethnographie, vi. (1887) p. 44.

1217.

C. Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico, i. 462.

1218.

H. R. Schoolcraft, The American Indians, their History, Condition, and Prospects (Buffalo, 1851), p. 213. Compare id., Oneóta, or Characteristics of the Red Race of America (New York and London, 1845), p. 456.

1219.

H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iv. 217.

1220.

J. G. Bourke, "Notes upon the Religion of the Apache Indians," Folk-lore ii. (1891) p. 423.

1221.

A. S. Galschet, The Karankawa Indians, the Coast People of Texas (Archaeological and Ethnological Papers of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, vol. i. No. 2), p. 69.

1222.

S. Powers, Tribes of California (Washington, 1877), p. 315.

1223.

G. B. Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, p. 194.

1224.

Relations des Jésuites, 1633, p. 3 (Canadian reprint, Quebec, 1858).

1225.

Peter Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians, p. 162. Compare A. P. Reid, "Religious Beliefs of the Ojibois or Sauteux Indians," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, iii. (1874) p. 107.

1226.

J. Sibree, The Great African Island (London, 1880), p. 289.

1227.

H. W. Grainge, "Journal of a Visit to Mojanga on the North-West Coast," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, No. i. p. 25 (reprint of the first four numbers, Antananarivo and London, 1885).

1228.

J. G. Bourke, "Medicine-men of the Apaches," Ninth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), p. 461.

1229.

R. C. Mayne, Four Years in British Columbia and Vancouver Island (London, 1862), pp. 278 sq.

1230.

J. G. Bourke, On the Border with Crook, pp. 131 sq.

1231.

M. Dobrizhoffer, Historia de Abiponibus (Vienna, 1784), ii. 498.

1232.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899) p. 289.

1233.

G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, p. 221. Compare J. H. F. Kohlbrugge, "Naamgeving in Insulinde," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, lii. (1901) pp. 172 sq. The custom is reported for the British settlements in the Straits of Malacca by T. J. Newbold (Political and Statistical Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, London, 1839, ii. 176); for Sumatra in general by W. Marsden (History of Sumatra, pp. 286 sq.), and A. L. van Hasselt (Volksbeschrijving van Midden-Sumatra, p. 271); for the Battas by Baron van Ho?vell ("Iets over 't oorlogvoeren der Batta's," Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indi?, N.S., vii. (1878) p. 436, note); for the Dyaks by C. Hupe ("Korte Verhandeling over de Godsdienst, Zeden, enz. der Dajakkers," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indi?, 1846, dl. iii. p. 250), and W. H. Furness (Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters, Philadelphia, 1902, p. 16); for the island of Sumba by S. Roos ("Bijdrage tot de Kennis van Taal, Land en Volk op het Eiland Soemba," p. 70, Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxxvi.); and for Bolang Mongondo, in the west of Celebes, by N. P. Wilken and J. A. Schwarz ("Allerlei over het land en volk van Bolaang Mongondou," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xi. (1867) p. 356).

1234.

J. Chalmers, Pioneering in New Guinea, p. 187. If a Motumotu man is hard pressed for his name and there is nobody near to help him, he will at last in a very stupid way mention it himself.

1235.

O. Schellong, "über Familienleben und Gebr?uche der Papuas der Umgebung von Finschhafen," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxi. (1889) p. 12. Compare M. Krieger, Neu Guinea (Berlin, 1899), p. 172.

1236.

Th. J. F. van Hasselt, "Gebruik van vermomde Taal door de Nufooren," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlv. (1902) p. 279. The Nufoors are a Papuan tribe on Doreh Bay, in Dutch New Guinea. See id., in Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlvi. (1903) p. 287.

1237.

J. Graf Pfeil, Studien und Beobachtungen aus der Südsee (Brunswick, 1899), p. 78; P. A. Kleintitschen, Die Küstenbewohner der Gazellehalbinsel (Hiltrup bei Münster, preface dated Christmas, 1906), pp. 237 sq.

1238.

J. Macdonald, "Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 131.

1239.

V. L. Cameron, Across Africa (London, 1877), ii. 61.

1240.

S. L. Hinde and H. Hinde, The Last of the Masai (London, 1901), pp. 48 sq. Compare Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate (London, 1902), ii. 826 sq.; M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), p. 56.

1241.

P. Reichard, "Die Wanjamuesi," Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, xxiv. (1889) p. 258.

1242.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 29.

1243.

E. Torday and T. A. Joyce, "Note on the Southern Ba-Mbala," Man, vii. (1907) p. 81.

1244.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi, p. 43.

1245.

Rev. J. H. Weeks, "Anthropological Notes on the Bangala of the Upper Congo River," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxix. (1909) pp. 128, 459.

1246.

R. Parkinson, Dreissig Jahre in der Südsee, p. 198.

1247.

Dudley Kidd, Savage Childhood, p. 73.

1248.

E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, iii. 545. Similarly among the Dacotas "there is no secrecy in children's names, but when they grow up there is a secrecy in men's names" (H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iii. 240).

1249.

Th. J. F. van Hasselt, "Gebruik van vermomde Taal door de Nufooren," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlv. (1902) p. 278.

1250.

A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xl. (1896) pp. 273 sqq.

1251.

G. Mansveld (Kontroleur van Nias), "Iets over de namen en Galars onder de Maleijers in de Padangsche Bovenlanden, bepaaldelijk in noordelijk Agam," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxiii. (1876) pp. 443, 449.

1252.

Spenser St. John, Life in the Forests of the Far East,2 i. 208.

1253.

Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, p. 202.

1254.

L. A. Waddell, "The Tribes of the Brahmapootra Valley," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lxix. part iii. (1901) pp. 52, 69, compare 46.

1255.

H. Callaway, Religious System of the Amazulu, part iii. p. 316, note.

1256.

W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), ii. 5 sq. Compare id., Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, ii. 251.

1257.

G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, pp. 216-219; E. B. Tylor, "On a Method of Investigating the Developement of Institutions," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xviii. (1889) pp. 248-250 (who refers to a series of papers by G. A. Wilken, "Over de primitieve vormen van het huwelijk," published in Indische Gids, 1880, etc., which I have not seen). Wilken's theory is rejected by Mr. A. C. Kruijt (l.c.), who explains the custom by the fear of attracting the attention of evil spirits to the person named. Other explanations are suggested by Mr. J. H. F. Kohlbrugge ("Naamgeving in Insulinde," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, lii. (1901) pp. 160-170), and by Mr. E. Crawley (The Mystic Rose, London, 1902, pp. 428-433).

1258.

For evidence of the custom of naming parents after their children in Australia, see E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions of Discovery into Central Australia (London, 1845), ii. 325 sq.: in Sumatra, see W. Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 286; Baron van Ho?vell, "Iets over 't oorlogvoeren der Batta's," Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indi?, N.S. vii. (1878) p. 436, note; A. L. van Hasselt, Volksbeschrijving van Midden-Sumatra, p. 274: in Nias, see J. T. Nieuwenhuisen en H. C. B. von Rosenberg, Verslag omtrent het eiland Nias, p. 28 (Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxx. Batavia, 1863): in Java, see P. J. Veth, Java, i. (Haarlem, 1875) p. 642; J. H. F. Kohlbrugge, "Die Tenggeresen, ein alter Javanischen Volksstamm," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, liii. (1901) p. 121; in Borneo, see C. Hupe, "Korte Verhandeling over de Godsdienst, Zeden, enz. der Dajakkers," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indi?, 1846, dl. iii. p. 249; H. Low, Sarawak, p. 249; Spenser St. John, Life in the Forests of the Far East,2 i. 208; M. T. H. Perelaer, Ethnographische Beschrijving der Dajaks, p. 42; C. Hose, "The Natives of Borneo," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxiii. (1894) p. 170; W. H. Furness, Folk-lore in Borneo (Wallingford, Pennsylvania, 1899, privately printed), p. 26; id., Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters, pp. 17 sq., 55; A. W. Nieuwenhuis, Quer durch Borneo, i. 75: among the Mantras of Malacca, see W. W. Skeat and C. O. Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula, ii. 16 sq.: among the Negritos of Zambales in the Philippines, see W. A. Reed, Negritos of Zambales (Manilla, 1904), p. 55: in the islands between Celebes and New Guinea, see J. G. F. Riedel, De sluik- en kroesharige rassen tusschen Selebes en Papua, pp. 5, 137, 152 sq., 238, 260, 353, 392, 418, 450; J. H. W. van der Miesen, "Een en ander over Boeroe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 444; in Celebes and other parts of the Indian Archipelago, see J. H. F. Kohlbrugge, "Naamgeving in Insulinde," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, lii. (1901) pp. 160-170; G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, pp. 216 sqq.: in New Guinea, see P. W. Schmidt, "Ethnographisches von Berlinhafen, Deutsch-Neu-Guinea," Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxx. (1899) p. 28: among the Kasias of North-eastern India, see Col. H. Yule, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, ix. (1880) p. 298; L. A. Waddell, "The Tribes of the Brahmaputra Valley," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lxix. part iii. (Calcutta, 1901) p. 46: among some of the indigenous races of southern China, see P. Vial, "Les Gni ou Gnipa, tribu Lolote du Yun-Nan," Missions Catholiques, xxv. (1893) p. 270; La Mission lyonnaise d'exploration commerciale en Chine (Lyons, 1898), p. 369: in Corea, see Mrs. Bishop, Korea and her Neighbours (London, 1898), i. 136: among the Yukagirs of north-eastern Asia, see W. Jochelson, "Die Jukagiren im ?ussersten Nordosten Asiens," xvii. Jahresbericht der Geographischen Gesellschaft von Bern (Bern, 1900), pp. 26 sq.; P. von Stenin, "Jochelson's Forschungen unter den Jukagiren," Globus, lxxvi. (1899) p. 169: among the Masai, see M. Merker, Die Masai (Berlin, 1904), pp. 59, 235: among the Bechuanas, Basutos, and other Caffre tribes of South Africa, see D. Livingston, Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (London, 1857), p. 126; J. Shooter, The Kafirs of Natal (London, 1857), pp. 220 sq.; D. Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas2 (Edinburgh, 1875), pp. 171 sq.; G. M'Call Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore2 (London, 1886), p. 225; Father Porte, "Les reminiscences d'un missionaire du Basutoland," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 300: among the Hos of Togoland in West Africa, see J. Spieth, Die Ewe-Stāmme, p. 217: among the Patagonians, see G. C. Musters, At Home with the Patagonians (London, 1871), p. 177: among the Lengua Indians of the Gran Chaco, see G. Kurze, "Sitten und Gebr?uche der Lengua-Indianer," Mittheilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, xxiii. (1905) p. 28: among the Mayas of Guatemala, see H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, ii. 680: among the Haida Indians of Queen Charlotte Islands, see J. R. Swanton, "Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. v. part i. (Leyden and New York, 1905) p. 118: and among the Tinneh and occasionally the Thlinkeet Indians of north-west America, see E. Petitot, Monographie des Dènè-Dindjié (Paris, 1876), p. 61; H. J. Holmberg, "Ethnographische Skizzen über die V?lker des russischen Amerika," Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae, iv. (1856) p. 319.

1259.

J. Shooter, The Kafirs of Natal (London, 1857), p. 221.

1260.

Maclean, Compendium of Kafir Laws and Customs (Cape Town, 1866), pp. 92 sq.; D. Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas,2 pp. 141 sq., 172; M. Kranz, Natur- und Kulturleben der Zulus (Wiesbaden, 1880), pp. 114 sq.; G. M'Call Theal, Kaffir Folk-lore2 (London, 1886), p. 214; id., Records of South-Eastern Africa, vii. 435; Dudley Kidd, The Essential Kafir, pp. 236-243; Father Porte, "Les reminiscences d'un missionaire du Basutoland," Missions Catholiques, xxviii. (1896) p. 233.

1261.

Rev. Francis Fleming, Kaffraria and its Inhabitants (London, 1853), p. 97; id., Southern Africa (London, 1856), pp. 238 sq. This writer states that the women are forbidden to pronounce "any word which may happen to contain a sound similar to any one in the names of their nearest male relatives."

1262.

Maclean, op. cit. p. 93; D. Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas,2 pp. 46, 102, 172. The extensive system of taboos on personal names among the Caffres is known as Ukuhlonipa, or simply hlonipa. The fullest account of it with which I am acquainted is given by Leslie, op. cit. pp. 141 sq., 172-180. See further Miss A. Werner, "The Custom of Hlonipa in its Influence on Language," Journal of the African Society, No. 15 (April, 1905), pp. 346-356.

1263.

Sir H. H. Johnston, British Central Africa (London, 1897), p. 452.

1264.

A. Merensky, "Das Konde-volk im deutschen Gebiet am Nyassa-See," Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie, und Urgeschichte, 1893, p. (296).

1265.

W. Munzinger, Ostafrikanische Studien (Schaffhausen, 1864), p. 526; id., Sitten und Recht der Bogos (Winterthur, 1859), p. 95.

1266.

G. A. Krause, "Merkwürdige Sitten der Haussa," Globus, lxix. (1896) p. 375.

1267.

Herodotus, i. 146.

1268.

Servius, on Virgil, Aen. iv. 58.

1269.

K. Rhamm, "Der Verkehr der Geschlecter unter den Slaven in seinen gegens?tzlichen Erscheinungen," Globus, lxxxii. (1902) p. 192.

1270.

W. Radloff, Proben der Volkslitteratur der türkischen St?mme Süd-Sibiriens, iii. (St. Petersburg, 1870) p. 13, note 3.

1271.

J. Batchelor, The Ainu and their Folk-lore (London, 1901), pp. 226, 249 sq., 252.

1272.

Bringaud, "Les Karins de la Birmanie," Missions Catholiques, xx. (1888) p. 308.

1273.

W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas, p. 626.

1274.

E. Thurston, Ethnographic Notes in Southern India, p. 533.

1275.

Peter Jones, History of the Ojebway Indians, p. 162.

1276.

E. James, Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains (London, 1823), i. 232.

1277.

S. R. Riggs, Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography (Washington, 1893), p. 204.

1278.

S. Powers, Tribes of California, p. 315.

1279.

Willer, "Verzameling der Battasche Wetten en Instellingen in Mandheling en Pertibie," Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch-Indi?, 1846, dl. ii. 337 sq.

1280.

J. H. Meerwaldt, "Gebruiken der Bataks in het maatschappelijk leven," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlix. (1905) pp. 123, 125.

1281.

J. E. Neumann, "Kemali, Pantang en R?boe bij de Karo-Bataks," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlviii. (1906) p. 510.

1282.

C. Hupe, "Korte Verhandeling over de Godsdienst, Zeden, enz. der Dajakkers," Tijdschrift voor Neêrlands Indie, 1846, dl. iii. pp. 249 sq.

1283.

"De Dajaks op Borneo," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xiii. (1869) p. 78; G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, p. 599.

1284.

R. Shelford, "Two Medicine-baskets from Sarawak," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiii. (1903) pp. 78 sq.

1285.

M. C. Schadee, "Bijdrage tot de kennis van den godsdienst der Dajaks van Landak en Tajan," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsche-Indi?, lvi. (1904) p. 536.

1286.

A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xl. (1896) pp. 273 sq. The word for taboo among these people is kapali. See further A. C. Kruijt, "Eenige ethnographische aanteekeningen omtrent de Toboengkoe en Tomori," op. cit. xliv. (1900) pp. 219, 237.

1287.

G. A. Wilken, Handleiding voor de vergelijkende Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, pp. 599 sq.

1288.

G. A. Wilken, "Bijdrage tot de Kennis der Alfoeren van het Eiland Boeroe," p. 26 (Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxxvi.). The words for taboo among these Alfoors are poto and koin; poto applies to actions, koin to things and places. The literal meaning of poto is "warm," "hot" (Wilken, op. cit. p. 25).

1289.

J. H. W. van der Miesen, "Een en ander over Boeroe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 455.

1290.

N. P. Wilken and J. A. Schwarz, "Allerlei over het Land en Volk van Bolaang Mongondou," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xi. (1867) p. 356.

1291.

C. F. H. Campen, "De godsdienstbegrippen der Halmaherasche Alfoeren," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvii. (1882) p. 450.

1292.

K. F. Holle, "Snippers van den Regent van Galoeh," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvii. (1882) pp. 101 sq. The precise consequence supposed to follow is that the oebi (?) plantations would have no bulbs (geen knollen). The names of several animals are also tabooed in Sunda. See below, p. 415.

1293.

Above, p. 332.

1294.

Th. J. F. van Hasselt, "Gebruik van vermomde Taal door de Nufooren," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlv. (1902) pp. 278 sq. The writer explains that "to eat well" is a phrase used in the sense of "to be decent, well-behaved," "to know what is customary."

1295.

M. Krieger, Neu-Guinea, pp. 171 sq.

1296.

K. Vetter, in Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 92. For more evidence of the observance of this custom in German New Guinea see O. Schellong, "über Familienleben und Gebr?uche der Papuas der Umgebung von Finschhafen," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxi. (1889) p. 12; M. J. Erdweg, "Die Bewohner der Insel Tumleo, Berlinhafen, Deutsch-Neu-Guinea," Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien, xxxii. (1902) pp. 379 sq.

1297.

B. A. Hely, "Notes on Totemism, etc., among the Western Tribes," British New Guinea, Annual Report for 1894-95, pp. 54 sq. Compare M. Krieger, Neu-Guinea, pp. 313 sq.

1298.

Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits, v. 142 sq.

1299.

Dr. Hahl, "über die Rechtsanschauungen der Eingeborenen eines Teiles der Blanchebucht und des Innern der Gazelle Halbinsel," Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 80; O. Schellong, in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxi. (1889) p. 12.

1300.

P. A. Kleintitschen, Die Küstenbewohner der Gazellehalbinsel, pp. 190, 238.

1301.

Rev. W. O'Ferrall, "Native Stories from Santa Cruz and Reef Islands," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxiv. (1904) pp. 223 sq.

1302.

Father Lambert, "M?urs et superstitions de la tribu Belep," Missions Catholiques, xii. (1880) pp. 30, 68; id., M?urs et superstitions des Néo-Calédoniens (Nouméa, 1900), pp. 94 sq.

1303.

R. H. Codrington, The Melanesians, pp. 43 sq.

1304.

E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions, ii. 339.

1305.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 29. Specimens of this peculiar form of speech are given by Mr. Dawson. For example, "It will be very warm by and by" was expressed in the ordinary language Baawan kulluun; in "turn tongue" it was Gnullewa gnatn?n tirambuul.

1306.

Joseph Parker, in Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, ii. 156.

1307.

J. Macgillivray, Narrative of the Voyage of H. M. S. Rattlesnake (London, 1852), ii. 10 sq. It is obvious that the example given by the writer does not illustrate his general statement. Apparently he means to say that Nuki is the son-in-law, not the son, of the woman in question, and that the prohibition to mention the names of persons standing in that relationship is mutual.

1308.

Mrs. James Smith, The Booandik Tribe, p. 5.

1309.

D. Stewart, in E. M. Curr's Australian Race, iii. 461.

1310.

C. W. Schürmann, in Native Tribes of South Australia (Adelaide, 1879), p. 249.

1311.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, pp. 27, 30 sq., 40. So among the Gowmditch-mara tribe of western Victoria the child spoke his father's language, and not his mother's, when she happened to be of another tribe (Fison and Howitt, Kamilaroi and Kurnai, p. 276). Compare A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, pp. 250 sq.

1312.

A. Hale, "On the Sakais," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xv. (1886) p. 291.

1313.

H. A. Coudreau, La France équinoxiale (Paris, 1887), ii. 178.

1314.

De Rochefort, Histoire naturelle et morale des Iles Antilles de l'Amerique2 (Rotterdam, 1665), pp. 349 sq.; De la Borde, "Relation de l'origine, etc., des Caraibs sauvages des Isles Antilles de l'Amerique," pp. 4, 39 (Recueil de divers voyages faits en Afrique et en Amerique, qui n'ont point esté encore publiez, Paris, 1684); Lafitau, M?urs des sauvages ameriquains, i. 55. On the language of the Carib women see also Jean Baptiste du Tertre, Histoire generale des Isles de S. Christophe, de la Guadeloupe, de la Martinique et autres dans l'Amerique (Paris, 1654), p. 462; Labat, Nouveau Voyage aux isles de l'Amerique (Paris, 1713), vi. 127 sq.; J. N. Rat, "The Carib Language," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxvii. (1898) pp. 311 sq.

1315.

See C. Sapper, "Mittelamericanische Caraiben," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, x. (1897) pp. 56 sqq.; and my article, "A Suggestion as to the Origin of Gender in Language," Fortnightly Review, January 1900, pp. 79-90; also Totemism and Exogamy, iv. 237 sq.

1316.

P. Ehrenreich, "Materialien zur Sprachenkunde Brasiliens," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xxvi. (1894) pp. 23-35.

1317.

Strabo, xi. 4. 8, p. 503.

1318.

G. Grey, Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North-West and Western Australia (London, 1841), ii. 232, 257. The writer is here speaking especially of western Australia, but his statement applies, with certain restrictions which will be mentioned presently, to all parts of the continent. For evidence see D. Collins, Account of the English Colony in New South Wales (London, 1804), p. 390; Hueber, "à travers l'Australie," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Vme Série, ix. (1865) p. 429; S. Gason, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 275; K. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, i. 120, ii. 297; A. L. P. Cameron, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiv. (1885) p. 363; E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, i. 88, 338, ii. 195, iii. 22, 29, 139, 166, 596; J. D. Lang, Queensland (London, 1861), pp. 367, 387, 388; C. Lumholtz, Among Cannibals (London, 1889), p. 279; Report on the Work of the Horn Scientific Expedition to Central Australia (London and Melbourne, 1896), pp. 137, 168. More evidence is adduced below.

1319.

On this latter motive see especially the remarks of A. W. Howitt, in Kamilaroi and Kurnai, p. 249. Compare also C. W. Schurmann, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 247; F. Bonney, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 127.

1320.

A. Oldfield, "The Aborigines of Australia," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., iii. (1865) p. 238.

1321.

A. Oldfield, op. cit. p. 240.

1322.

W. Stanbridge, "On the Aborigines of Victoria," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., i. (1861) p. 299.

1323.

A. W. Howitt, "On some Australian Beliefs," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xiii. (1884) p. 191; id., Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 440.

1324.

Id., Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 469.

1325.

G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), i. 94.

1326.

Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, p. 498.

1327.

Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 526.

1328.

E. Clement, "Ethnographical Notes on the Western Australian Aborigines," Internationales Archiv für Ethnographie, xvi. (1904) p. 9.

1329.

L. H. Morgan, League of the Iroquois (Rochester, U.S., 1851), p. 175.

1330.

A. S. Gatschett, The Klamath Indians of South-Western Oregon (Washington, 1890) (Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. ii. pt. 1), p. xli; Chase, quoted by H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, i. 357, note 76.

1331.

S. Powers, Tribes of California, p. 33; compare p. 68.

1332.

S. Powers, op. cit. p. 240.

1333.

F. A. Simons, "An Exploration of the Goajira Peninsula, U.S. of Colombia," Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, vii. (1885) p. 791.

1334.

M. Dobrizhoffer, Historia de Abiponibus, ii. 301, 498. For more evidence of the observance of this taboo among the American Indians see A. Woldt, Captain Jacobsen's Reise an der Nordwestküste Americas (Leipsic, 1884), p. 57 (as to the Indians of the north-west coast); W. Colquhoun Grant, "Description of Vancouver's Island," Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xxvii. (1857) p. 303 (as to Vancouver Island); Capt. Wilson, "Report on the Indian Tribes," Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, N.S., iv. (1866) p. 286 (as to Vancouver Island and neighbourhood); C. Hill Tout, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxv. (1905) p. 138; id., The Far West, the Land of the Salish and Déné, p. 201; A. Ross, Adventures on the Oregon or Columbia River, p. 322; H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iv. 226 (as to the Bonaks of California); Ch. N. Bell, "The Mosquito Territory," Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xxxii. (1862) p. 255; A. Pinart, "Les Indiens de l'Etat de Panama," Revue d'Ethnographie, vi. (1887) p. 56; G. C. Musters, in Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xli. (1871) p. 68 (as to Patagonia). More evidence is adduced below.

1335.

See P. S. Pallas, Reise durch verschiedene Provinzen des russischen Reichs, iii. 76 (Samoyeds); J. W. Breeks, Account of the Primitive Tribes and Monuments of the Nīlagiris (London, 1873), p. 19; W. E. Marshall, Travels amongst the Todas, p. 177; W. H. R. Rivers, The Todas, pp. 462, 496, 626; Plan de Carpin (de Plano Carpini), Relation des Mongols ou Tartares, ed. D'Avezac, cap. iii. § iii.; H. Duveyrier, Exploration du Sahara, les Touareg du nord (Paris, 1864), p. 415; Lieut. S. C. Holland, "The Ainos," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, iii. (1874) p. 238; J. Batchelor, The Ainu and their Folk-lore (London, 1901), pp. 252, 564; J. M. Hildebrandt, "Ethnographische Notizen über Wakamba und ihre Nachbarn," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, x. (1878) p. 405; A. C. Hollis, The Nandi, p. 71; F. Blumentritt, Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen (Gotha, 1882), p. 38 (Petermann's Mittheilungen, Erg?nzungsheft, No. 67); N. Fontana, "On the Nicobar Isles," Asiatick Researches, iii. (London, 1799) p. 154; W. H. Furness, Folk-lore in Borneo (Wallingford, Pennsylvania, 1899), p. 26; A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar, pp. 70 sq.; J. E. Calder, "Native Tribes of Tasmania," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, iii. (1874) p. 23; J. Bonwick, Daily Life of the Tasmanians, pp. 97, 145, 183.

1336.

H. Duveyrier, Exploration du Sahara, les Touareg du nord, p. 431.

1337.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 42.

1338.

K. Vetter, Komm herüber und hilf uns! iii. (Barmen, 1898) p. 24; id., in Nachrichten über Kaiser Wilhelms-Land und den Bismarck-Archipel, 1897, p. 92.

1339.

Dr. L. Loria, "Notes on the ancient War Customs of the Natives of Logea," British New Guinea, Annual Report for 1894-95, pp. 45, 46 sq. Compare M. Krieger, Neu-Guinea, p. 322.

1340.

Myron Eels, "The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam Indians of Washington Territory," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute for 1887, part i. p. 656.

1341.

Baron C. C. von der Decken, Reisen in Ost-Afrika (Leipsic, 1869-1871), ii. 25; R. Andree, Ethnographische Parallelen und Vergleiche, pp. 182 sq.

1342.

S. L. Hinde and H. Hinde, The last of the Masai (London, 1901), p. 50; Sir H. Johnston, The Uganda Protectorate, ii. 826.

1343.

W. Wyatt, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 165.

1344.

D. Collins, Account of the English Colony in New South Wales (London, 1804), p. 392.

1345.

P. Beveridge, "Notes on the Dialects, Habits, and Mythology of the Lower Murray Aborigines," Transactions of the Royal Society of Victoria, vi. 20 sq.

1346.

"Description of the Natives of King George's Sound (Swan River) and adjoining Country," Journal of the R. Geographical Society, i. (1832) pp. 46 sq.

1347.

W. E. Roth, North Queensland Ethnography, Bulletin No. 5 (Brisbane, 1903), § 72, p. 20.

1348.

G. F. Angas, Savage Life and Scenes in Australia and New Zealand (London, 1847), ii. 228.

1349.

J. F. Lafitau, M?urs des sauvages ameriquains, ii. 434; R. Southey, History of Brazil, iii. 894 (referring to Roger Williams).

1350.

Charlevoix, Histoire de la Nouvelle France, vi. 109.

1351.

S. Powers, Tribes of California, p. 349; Myron Eels, "The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam Indians of Washington Territory," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institute for 1887, p. 656.

1352.

S. L. Hinde and H. Hinde, The Last of the Masai, p. 50.

1353.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 42.

1354.

H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, i. 248. Compare K. F. v. Baer und Gr. v. Helmersen, Beitr?ge zur Kenntniss des russischen Reiches und der angr?nzenden L?nder Asiens, i. (St. Petersburg, 1839), p. 108 (as to the Kenayens of Cook's Inlet and the neighbourhood).

1355.

J. Mooney, "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians," Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1898) p. 231.

1356.

F. de Azara, Voyages dans l'Amérique Méridionale (Paris, 1808), ii. 153 sq.

1357.

P. Lozano, Descripcion chorographica, etc., del Gran Chaco (Cordova, 1733), p. 70.

1358.

E. H. Man, "Notes on the Nicobarese," Indian Antiquary, xxviii. (1899) p. 261. Elsewhere I have suggested that mourning costume in general may have been adopted with this intention. See Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xv. (1886) pp. 73, 98 sqq.

1359.

J. Enderli, "Zwei Jahre bei den Tchuktschen und Korjaken," Petermanns Mitteilungen, xlix. (1903) p. 257.

1360.

R. Brough Smyth, Aborigines of Victoria, ii. 266.

1361.

E. J. Eyre, Journals of Expeditions of Discovery, ii. 354 sq.

1362.

J. Macgillivray, Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Rattlesnake (London, 1852), ii. 10 sq.

1363.

J. Bulmer, in Brough Smyth's Aborigines of Victoria, ii. 94.

1364.

H. E. A. Meyer, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 199, compare p. xxix.

1365.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 43. Mr. Howitt mentions the case of a native who arbitrarily substituted the name nobler ("spirituous liquor") for yan ("water") because Yan was the name of a man who had recently died (Kamilaroi and Kurnai, p. 249).

1366.

M. Dobrizhoffer, Historia de Abiponibus (Vienna, 1784), ii. 199, 301.

1367.

H. Ten Kate, "Notes ethnographiques sur les Comanches," Revue d'Ethnographie, iv. (1885) p. 131.

1368.

J. Mooney, "Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians," Seventeenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1898) p. 231.

1369.

Rev. J. Roscoe in a letter to me dated Mengo, Uganda, 17th February 1904.

1370.

A. C. Hollis, The Masai (Oxford, 1905), pp. 304 sq. As to the Masai customs in this respect see also above, pp. 354 sq., 356.

1371.

J. H. W. van der Miesen, "Een en ander over Boeroe," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xlvi. (1902) p. 455.

1372.

Sir William Macgregor, British New Guinea (London, 1897), p. 79.

1373.

C. G. Seligmann, The Melanesians of British New Guinea (Cambridge, 1910), pp. 629-631.

1374.

F. W. Christian, The Caroline Islands (London, 1899), p. 366.

1375.

F. A. de Roepstorff, "Tiomberombi, a Nicobar Tale," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, liii. (1884) pt. i. pp. 24 sq. In some tribes apparently the names of the dead are only tabooed in the presence of their relations. See C. Hill-Tout, in "Report of the Committee on the Ethnological Survey of Canada," Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Bradford, 1900, p. 484; G. Brown, Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), p. 399. But in the great majority of the accounts which I have consulted no such limitation of the taboo is mentioned.

1376.

A. S. Gatschet, The Klamath Indians of South-Western Oregon (Washington, 1890), p. xli. (Contributions to North American Ethnology, vol. ii. pt. I).

1377.

P. Beveridge, "Of the Aborigines inhabiting the great Lacustrine and Riverine Depression of the Lower Murray," etc., Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1883, vol. xvii. p. 65. The custom of changing common words on the death of persons who bore them as their names seems also to have been observed by the Tasmanians. See J. Bonwick, Daily Life of the Tasmanians, p. 145.

1378.

G. Grey, Journals of two Expeditions of Discovery in North-West and Western Australia, ii. 231 sq.

1379.

J. Dawson, Australian Aborigines, p. 42.

1380.

C. W. Schürmann, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 247.

1381.

H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, iii. 156.

1382.

Myron Eels, "The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam Indians of Washington Territory," Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for 1887, p. 656.

1383.

S. R. M'Caw, "Mortuary Customs of the Puyallups," The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal, viii. (1886) p. 235.

1384.

J. F. Lafitau, M?urs des sauvages ameriquains (Paris, 1724), ii. 434. Charlevoix merely says that the taboo on the names of the dead lasted "a certain time" (Histoire de la Nouvelle France, vi. 109). "A good long while" is the phrase used by Captain J. G. Bourke in speaking of the same custom among the Apaches (On the Border with Crook, p. 132).

1385.

Gabriel Sagard, Le Grand Voyage du pays des Hurons, Nouvelle édition (Paris, 1865), p. 202. The original edition of Sagard's book was published at Paris in 1632.

1386.

Relations des Jésuites, 1636, p. 131; id., 1642, pp. 53, 85; id., 1644, pp. 66 sq. (Canadian reprint, Quebec, 1858).

1387.

Daniel W. Harmon, quoted by Rev. Jedidiah Morse, Report to the Secretary of War of the United States on Indian Affairs (New-Haven, 1822), Appendix, p. 345. The custom seems now to be extinct. It is not mentioned by Father A. G. Morice in his accounts of the tribe (in Proceedings of the Canadian Institute, Third Series, vol. vii. 1888-89; Transactions of the Canadian Institute, vol. iv. 1892-93; Annual Archaeological Report, Toronto, 1905).

1388.

Ch. Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (New York, 1851), iv. 453.

1389.

E. J. Jessen, De Finnorum Lapponumque Norwegicorum religione pagana, pp. 33 sq. (bound up with C. Leemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae eorumque lingua, vita, et religione pristina commentatio, Copenhagen, 1767).

1390.

Major S. C. Macpherson, Memorials of Service in India (London, 1865), pp. 72 sq.

1391.

C. Spiess, "Einiges über die Bedeutung der Personennamen der Evheer in Togo-Gebiete," Mittheilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, vi. (1903) Dritte Abtheilung, pp. 56 sq.

1392.

A. B. Ellis, The Yoruba-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, p. 152; id., The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, pp. 153 sq. In the former passage the writer says nothing about the child's name. In the latter he merely says that an ancestor is supposed to have sent the child, who accordingly commonly takes the name of that ancestor. But the analogy of other peoples makes it highly probable that, as Col. Ellis himself states in his later work (The Yoruba-speaking Peoples), the ancestor is believed to be incarnate in the child. That the Yoruba child takes the name of the ancestor who has come to life again in him is definitely stated by A. Dieterich in Archiv für Religionswissenschaft, viii. (1904) p. 20, referring to Zeitschrift für Missionskunde und Religionswissenschaft, xv. (1900) p. 17, a work to which I have not access. Dieterich's account of the subject of rebirth (op. cit. pp. 18-21) deserves to be consulted.

1393.

J. Roscoe, "Further Notes on the Manners and Customs of the Baganda," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 32.

1394.

C. Mauch, Reisen im Inneren von Süd-Afrika (Gotha, 1874), p. 43 (Petermann's Mittheilungen, Erg?nsungsheft, No. 37).

1395.

Sir R. C. Temple, in Census of India, 1901, vol. iii. 207, 212.

1396.

Plan de Carpin (de Plano Carpini), Relation des Mongols ou Tartares, ed. D'Avezac, cap. iii. § iii. The writer's statement ("nec nomen proprium ejus usque ad tertiam generationem audet aliquis nominare") is not very clear.

1397.

P. Labbé, Un Bagne russe, l'?le de Sakhaline (Paris, 1903), p. 166.

1398.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, part i. (Washington, 1899), pp. 363 sq., 365, 368, 371, 377, 379, 424 sq.

1399.

On the doctrine of the reincarnation of ancestors in their descendants see E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture,2 ii. 3-5, who observes with great probability that "among the lower races generally the renewal of old family names by giving them to new-born children may always be suspected of involving some such thought." See further Totemism and Exogamy, iii. 297-299.

1400.

H. H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States, i. 248.

1401.

G. Taplin, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 19.

1402.

H. E. A. Meyer, in Native Tribes of South Australia, p. 199.

1403.

Some of the Indians of Guiana bring food and drink to their dead so long as the flesh remains on the bones; when it has mouldered away, they conclude that the man himself has departed. See A. Biet, Voyage de la France équinoxiale en l'Isle de Cayenne (Paris, 1664), p. 392. The Alfoors or Toradjas of central Celebes believe that the souls of the dead cannot enter the spirit-land until all the flesh has been removed from their bones; till that has been done, the gods (lamoa) in the other world could not bear the stench of the corpse. Accordingly at a great festival the bodies of all who have died within a certain time are dug up and the decaying flesh scraped from the bones. See A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxix. (1895) pp. 26, 32 sqq.; id., "Het wezen van het Heidendom te Posso," ibid. xlvii. (1903) p. 32. The Matacos Indians of the Gran Chaco believe that the soul of a dead man does not pass down into the nether world until his body is decomposed or burnt. See J. Pelleschi, Los Indios Matacos (Buenos Ayres, 1897), p. 102. These ideas perhaps explain the widespread custom of disinterring the dead after a certain time and disposing of their bones otherwise.

1404.

Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 498-508.

1405.

A. B. Ellis, The Ewe-speaking Peoples of the Slave Coast, pp. 98 sq.

1406.

A. Cecchi, Da Zeila alle frontiere del Caffa, ii. (Rome, 1885) p. 551.

1407.

Rev. J. Roscoe, "The Bahima," Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, xxxvii. (1907) p. 96.

1408.

J. F. Cunningham, Uganda and its Peoples (London, 1905), pp. 14, 16.

1409.

De la Loubere, Du royaume de Siam (Amsterdam, 1691), i. 306; Pallegoix, Royaume Thai ou Siam, i. 260.

1410.

J. S. Polack, Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders (London, 1840), ii. 127, note 43.

1411.

A. Fytche, Burma Past and Present (London, 1878), i. 238.

1412.

J. Edkins, Religion in China2 (London, 1878), p. 35.

1413.

Ch. Dallet, Histoire de l'église de Corée, i. p. xxiv.; Mrs. Bishop, Korea and her Neighbours (London, 1898), i. 48. The custom is now obsolete (G. N. Curzon, Problems of the Far East, Westminster, 1896, p. 155 note).

1414.

E. Aymonier, Notice sur le Cambodge (Paris, 1875), p. 22; id., Le Cambodge, i. (Paris, 1900) p. 58.

1415.

K. F. Holle, "Snippers van den Regent van Galoeh," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvii. (1882) p. 101.

1416.

N. P. Wilken en J. A. Schwarz, "Allerlei over het land en volk van Bolaang Mongondou," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xi. (1867) p. 356.

1417.

S. Roos, "Bijdrage tot de Kennis van Taal, Land, en Volk op het eiland Soemba," p. 70, Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxxvi. Compare J. H. F. Kohlbrugge, "Naamgeving in Insulinde," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsche-Indi?, ii. (1900) p. 173.

1418.

Above, pp. 335 sq.

1419.

J. Shooter, The Kafirs of Natal and the Zulu Country, pp. 221 sq.; David Leslie, Among the Zulus and Amatongas2 (Edinburgh, 1875), pp. 172-179; J. Macdonald, "Manners, Customs, Superstitions, and Religions of South African Tribes," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xx. (1891) p. 131. The account in the text is based mainly on Leslie's description, which is by far the fullest.

1420.

D. Tyerman and G. Bennet, Journal of Voyages and Travels (London, 1831), ii. 525 sq.; J. Sibree, The Great African Island (London, 1880), pp. 150 sq.; id., "Curiosities of Words connected with Royalty and Chieftainship," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, No. xi. (Christmas, 1887) pp. 308 sq.; id., in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxi. (1887) pp. 226 sqq. On the custom of tabooing royal or chiefly names in Madagascar, see A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar (Paris, 1904), pp. 104 sqq.

1421.

V. Noel, "?le de Madagascar, recherches sur les Sakkalava," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), IIme Série, xx. (1843) pp. 303-306. Compare A. Grandidier, "Les Rites funéraires chez les Malgaches," Revue d'Ethnographie, v. (1886) p. 224; A. Walen, "The Sakalava," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, vol. ii., Reprint of the Second Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1896), p. 242; A. van Gennep, Tabou et totémisme à Madagascar, pp. 110 sq. Amongst the Sakalavas it is forbidden to mention the name of any dead person. See A. Voeltzkow, "Vom Morondava zum Mangoky, Reiseskizzen aus West-Madagascar," Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin, xxxi. (1896) p. 118.

1422.

R. Baron, "The Bara," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, vol. ii., Reprint of the Second Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1896), p. 83.

1423.

A. Grandidier, "Madagascar," Bulletin de la Société de Géographie (Paris), Vme Série, xvii. (1869) pp. 401 sq. The writer is here speaking specially of the Sakalavas, though his remarks appear to be of general application.

1424.

J. S. Polack, Manners and Customs of the New Zealanders, i. 37 sq., ii. 126 sq. Compare E. Tregear, "The Maoris of New Zealand," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xix. (1890) p. 123.

1425.

Captain J. Cook, Voyages (London, 1809), vi. 155 (Third Voyage). Compare Captain James Wilson, Missionary Voyage to the Southern Pacific Ocean (London, 1799), p. 366; W. Ellis, Polynesian Researches,2 iii. 101.

1426.

Vancouver, Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the World (London, 1798), i. 135.

1427.

United States Exploring Expedition, Ethnography and Philology, by Horatio Hale (Philadelphia, 1846), pp. 288 sq.

1428.

G. Brown, D.D., Melanesians and Polynesians (London, 1910), p. 280.

1429.

Lucian, Lexiphanes, 10. The inscriptional and other evidence of this Greek superstition was first brought to the notice of anthropologists by Mr. W. R. Paton in an interesting article, "The Holy Names of the Eleusinian Priests," International Folk-lore Congress, 1891, Papers and Transactions, pp. 202-214. Compare E. Maass, Orpheus (Munich, 1895), p. 70; Aug. Mommsen, Feste der Stadt Athen im Altertum (Leipsic, 1898), pp. 253-255; P. Foucart, Les Grands Mystères d'Eleusis (Paris, 1900), pp. 28-31. The two last writers shew that, contrary to what we might have expected, the custom appears not to have been very ancient.

1430.

G. Kaibel, Epigrammata Graeca ex lapidibus conlecta, No. 863; ?φημερ?? ?ρχαιολογικ?, 1883, col. 79 sq. From the latter of these inscriptions we learn that the name might be made public after the priest's death. Further, a reference of Eunapius (Vitae sophistarum, p. 475 of the Didot edition) shews that the name was revealed to the initiated. In the essay cited in the preceding note Mr. W. R. Paton assumes that it was the new and sacred name which was kept secret and committed to the sea. The case is not clear, but both the evidence and the probability seem to me in favour of the view that it was rather the old everyday name of the priest or priestess which was put away at his or her consecration. If, as is not improbable, these sacred personages had to act the parts of gods and goddesses at the mysteries, it might well be deemed indecorous and even blasphemous to recall the vulgar names by which they had been known in the familiar intercourse of daily life. If our clergy, to suppose an analogous case, had to personate the most exalted beings of sacred history, it would surely be grossly irreverent to address them by their ordinary names during the performance of their solemn functions.

1431.

H. Seidel, "Der Yew'e Dienst im Togolande," Zeitschrift für afrikanische und oceanische Sprachen, iii. (1897) pp. 161-173; H. Klose, Togo unter deutscher Flagge (Berlin, 1899), pp. 197-205. Compare Lieut. Herold, "Bericht betreffend religi?se Anschauungen und Gebr?uche der deutschen Ewe-Neger," Mittheilungen aus den deutschen Schutzgebieten, v. (1892) p. 146; J. Spieth, "Der Jehve Dienst der Evhe-Neger," Mittheilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, xii. (1893) pp. 83-88; C. Spiess, "Religionsbegriffe der Evheer in Westafrika," Mittheilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen zu Berlin, vi. (1903) Dritte Abtheilung, p. 126.

1432.

Spencer and Gillen, Northern Tribes of Central Australia, p. 227.

1433.

G. Timkowski, Travels of the Russian Mission through Mongolia to China (London, 1827), ii. 348.

1434.

J. Campbell, Travels in South Africa, Second Journey (London, 1822), ii. 204 sq.

1435.

P. Rascher, "Die Sulka, ein Beitrag zur Ethnographie Neu-Pommern," Archiv für Anthropologie, xxix. (1904) p. 216. Compare R. Parkinson, Dreissig Jahre in der Südsee, p. 198.

1436.

Washington Matthews, "The Mountain Chant, a Navajo Ceremony," Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1887), pp. 386 sq.

1437.

L. H. Morgan, League of the Iroquois (Rochester, U.S., 1851), pp. 167 sq. The writer derives the prohibition to tell tales of wonder in summer "from a vague and indefinable dread."

1438.

H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, iii. 314, 492.

1439.

K. Vetter, in Mittheilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft zu Jena, xii. (1893) p. 95; id., Komm herüber und hilf uns! ii. (Barmen, 1898) p. 26; B. Hagen, Unter den Papuas (Wiesbaden, 1898), p. 270. On myths or magical tales told as spells to produce the effects which they describe, compare F. Kauffmann, Balder (Strasburg, 1902), pp. 299 sqq.; C. Fossey, La Magie assyrienne (Paris, 1902), pp. 95-97.

1440.

Fr. Boas, "The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians," Report of the U.S. National Museum for 1895, pp. 396, 418 sq., 503, 504. Compare Totemism and Exogamy, iii. 333 sq., 517 sq.

1441.

Xenophanes, quoted by Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelii, xiii. 13, pp. 269 sq., ed. Heinichen, and by Clement of Alexandria, Strom. vii. 4, pp. 840 sq., ed. Potter; H. Diels, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker2 (Berlin, 1906-1910), i. 49.

1442.

A. Erman, ?gypten und ?gyptisches Leben im Altertum, pp. 359-362; A. Wiedemann, Die Religion der alten ?gypter, pp. 29-32; G. Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de l'Orient classique: les origines, pp. 162-164; R. V. Lanzone, Dizionario di mitologia egizia (Turin, 1881-1884), pp. 818-822; E. A. Wallis Budge, The Book of the Dead (London, 1895), pp. lxxxix.-xci.; id., Egyptian Magic, pp. 136 sqq.; id., The Gods of the Egyptians (London, 1904), i. 360 sq. The abridged form of the story given in the text is based on a comparison of these various versions, of which Erman's is slightly, and Maspero's much curtailed. Mr. Budge's version is reproduced by Mr. E. Clodd (Tom Tit Tot, pp. 180 sqq.).

1443.

G. Maspero, études de mythologie et d'archéologie égyptienne (Paris, 1893), ii. 297 sq.

1444.

E. Lefébure, "La Vertu et la vie du nom en égypte," Mélusine, viii. (1897) coll. 227 sq. Compare A. Erman, ?gypten und ?gyptisches Leben im Altertum, pp. 472 sq.; E. A. Wallis Budge, Egyptian Magic, pp. 157 sqq.

1445.

Lucan, Pharsalia, vi. 730 sqq.

1446.

E. W. Lane, Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians (Paisley and London, 1895), ch. xii. p. 273.

1447.

E. Doutté, Magie et religion dans l'Afrique du nord, p. 130.

1448.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, vi. (Leyden, 1910) p. 1126.

1449.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 18; Macrobius, Saturn. iii. 9; Servius on Virgil, Aen. ii. 351; Plutarch, Quaest. Rom. 61. According to Servius (l.c.) it was forbidden by the pontifical law to mention any Roman god by his proper name, lest it should be profaned. Compare Festus, p. 106, ed. C. O. Müller: "Indigetes dii quorum nomina vulgari non licet." On the other hand the Romans were careful, for the sake of good omen, to choose men with lucky names, like Valerius, Salvius, Statorius, to open any enterprise of moment, such as to lead the sacrificial victims in a religious procession or to be the first to answer to their names in a levy or a census. See Cicero, De divinatione, i. 45. 102 sq.; Festus, s.v. "Lacus Lucrinus," p. 121, ed. C. O. Müller; Pliny, Nat. Hist. xxviii. 22; Tacitus, Histor. iv. 53.

1450.

Pliny, Nat. Hist. iii. 65; Solinus, i. 4 sq.; Macrobius, Sat. iii. 9, 3, and 5; Servius, on Virgil, Aen. i. 277; Joannes Lydus, De mensibus, iv. 50.

1451.

F. Fossey, La Magie assyrienne (Paris, 1902), pp. 58, 95.

1452.

T. de Pauly, Description ethnographique des peuples de la Russie (St. Petersburg, 1862), Peuples ouralo-alta?ques, p. 24.

1453.

M. Martin, "Description of the Western Islands of Scotland," in Pinkerton's Voyages and Travels, iii. 579 sq. As to the Flannan Islands see also Sir J. Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland, xix. (Edinburgh, 1797), p. 283.

1454.

J. G. Campbell, Superstitions of the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1900), p. 239.

1455.

Miss Morag Cameron, "Highland Fisher-folk and their Superstitions," Folk-lore, xiv. (1903) p. 304.

1456.

A. Edmonston, Zetland Islands (Edinburgh, 1809), ii. 74.

1457.

Ch. Rogers, Social Life in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1884-1886), iii. 218.

1458.

W. Gregor, Folk-lore of the North-East of Scotland, pp. 199-201.

1459.

"Traditions, Customs, and Superstitions of the Lewis," Folk-lore, vi. (1895) p. 170; Miss A. Goodrich-Freer, "The Powers of Evil in the Outer Hebrides," Folk-lore, x. (1899) p. 265.

1460.

J. Mackenzie, Ten Years north of the Orange River (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 151, note 1.

1461.

J. G. Campbell, Witchcraft and Second Sight in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland (Glasgow, 1902), pp. 184 sq.

1462.

J. Rhys, "Manx Folk-lore and Superstitions," Folk-lore, iii. (1892) p. 84.

1463.

A. Bosquet, La Normandie romanesque et merveilleuse (Paris and Rouen, 1845), p. 308.

1464.

J. G. Gmelin, Reise durch Sibirien, ii. (G?ttingen, 1752), p. 277

1465.

Bavaria, Landes- und Volkskunde des K?nigreichs Bayern, ii. (Munich, 1863), p. 304.

1466.

Tettau und Temme, Die Volkssagen Ostpreussens, Litthauens und Westpreussens (Berlin, 1837), p. 281.

1467.

W. Witzschel, Sagen, Sitten, und Gebr?uche aus Thüringen, p. 175, § 30.

1468.

K. Bartsch, Sagen, M?rchen, und Gebr?uche aus Meklenburg, ii. p. 246, §§ 1273, 1274.

1469.

A. Kuhn, M?rkische Sagen und M?rchen, p. 378, § 14.

1470.

B. Thorpe, Northern Mythology, ii. 83 sq.; L. Lloyd, Peasant Life in Sweden (London, 1870), p. 251.

1471.

R. F. Kaindl, Die Huzulen (Vienna, 1894), p. 103; id., "Viehzucht und Viehzauber in den Ostkarpaten," Globus, lxix. (1896) p. 387.

1472.

Id., "Neue Beitr?ge zur Ethnologie und Volkskunde der Huzulen," Globus, lxix. (1896) p. 73.

1473.

C. Leemius, De Lapponibus Finmarchiae eorumque lingua, vita, et religione pristina commentatio (Copenhagen, 1767), pp. 502 sq.

1474.

M. A. Castren, Vorlesungen über die finnische Mythologie (St. Petersburg, 1853), p. 201.

1475.

Varonen, reported by Hon. J. Abercromby in Folk-lore, ii. (1891) pp. 245 sq.

1476.

Boecler-Kreutzwald, Der Ehsten abergl?ubische Gebr?uche, Weisen und Gewohnheiten, p. 120.

1477.

P. Labbé, Un Bagne russe, l'?le de Sakhaline (Paris, 1903), p. 231.

1478.

G. W. Steller, Beschreibung von dem Lande Kamtschatka (Frankfort and Leipsic, 1774), p. 276.

1479.

G. W. Steller, op. cit. p. 91; compare ib. pp. 129, 130.

1480.

J. Mooney, "Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees," Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1892), p. 352. Compare id., "Myths of the Cherokee," Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Part i. (Washington, 1900) p. 295.

1481.

E. W. Nelson, "The Eskimo about Bering Strait," Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Part i. (Washington, 1899) p. 438.

1482.

F. Boas, "The Eskimo of Baffin Land and Hudson Bay," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, xv. (1901) p. 148.

1483.

J. Teit, "The Thompson Indians of British Columbia," Memoir of the American Museum of Natural History, The Jesup North Pacific Expedition, vol. i. part iv. (April 1900) p. 374.

1484.

J. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums2 (Berlin, 1897), p. 199.

1485.

A. Certeux et E. H. Carnoy, L'Algérie traditionnelle (Paris and Algiers, 1884), pp. 172, 175.

1486.

Father Picarda, "Autour de Mandéra," Missions Catholiques, xviii. (1886) p. 227.

1487.

J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo (London, 1875), ii. 116.

1488.

J. Mackenzie, Ten Years north of the Orange River (Edinburgh, 1871), p. 151; C. R. Conder, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xvi. (1887) p. 84.

1489.

H. B. Johnstone, "Notes on the Customs of the Tribes occupying Mombasa Sub-district, British East Africa," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 268.

1490.

J. J. M. de Groot, The Religious System of China, v. (Leyden, 1907) p. 691.

1491.

A. F. Mockler-Ferryman, British Nigeria (London, 1902), p. 285.

1492.

J. Irle, Die Herero (Gütersloh, 1906), p. 133.

1493.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi (Oxford, 1909), p. 43.

1494.

H. F. Standing, "Malagasy fady," Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, vol. ii., Reprint of the Second Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1896), p. 258.

1495.

H. F. Standing, op. cit. p. 263.

1496.

J. Sibree, The Great African Island, pp. 307 sq.

1497.

R. H. Nassau, Fetichism in West Africa (London, 1904), pp. 381 sqq.

1498.

Panjab Notes and Queries, i. p. 15, § 122.

1499.

North Indian Notes and Queries, i. p. 104, § 690.

1500.

Id. v. p. 133, § 372.

1501.

W. Crooke, Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), ii. 142 sq.

1502.

S. Mateer, Native Life in Travancore, pp. 320 sq.

1503.

North Indian Notes and Queries, v. p. 133, § 372.

1504.

W. Crooke, op. cit. ii. 212.

1505.

W. Crooke in North Indian Notes and Queries, i. p. 70, § 579; id., Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, iii. 249; id., Popular Religion and Folk-lore of Northern India (Westminster, 1896), ii. 54.

1506.

W. Crooke, Tribes and Castes of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh, iii. 314.

1507.

D. Sunder, "Exorcism of Wild Animals in the Sundarbans," Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, lxxii. part iii. (Calcutta, 1904) pp. 45 sqq., 51.

1508.

H. Mouhot, Travels in the Central Parts of Indo-China (London, 1864), i. 263 sq.

1509.

Mgr Masson, in Annales de la Propagation de la Foi, xxiv. (1852) p. 323. Compare Le R. P. Cadière, "Croyances et dictons populaires de la vallée du Ngu?n-son," Bulletin de l'école Fran?aise d'Extrême-Orient, i. (1901) p. 134.

1510.

E. Young, The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe (Westminster, 1898), p. 61.

1511.

N. Annandale, "Primitive Beliefs and Customs of the Patani Fishermen," Fasciculi Malayenses, Anthropology, part i. (April 1903) p. 104.

1512.

E. Aymonier, Notes sur le Laos, p. 113; id., Voyage dans le Laos, i. (Paris, 1895) p. 311. In the latter passage the writer observes that the custom of giving conventional names to common objects is very generally observed in Indo-China during the prosecution of long and perilous journeys undertaken periodically.

1513.

Id., "Les Tchames et leurs religions," Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, xxiv. (1891) p. 278. Compare A. Cabaton, Nouvelles Recherches sur les Chams (Paris, 1901), p. 53.

1514.

D. F. A. Hervey, in Indian Notes and Queries (December 1886), p. 45, § 154.

1515.

Pantang is equivalent to taboo. In this sense it is used also by the Dyaks. See S. W. Tromp, "Een Dajaksch Feest," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) pp. 31 sq.

1516.

J. R. Logan, "The Orang Binua of Johore," Journal of the Eastern Archipelago and Eastern Asia, i. (1847) pp. 249, 263-265; A. Bastian, Die V?lker des ?stlichen Asien, v. 37; H. Lake and H. J. Kelsall, "The Camphor Tree and Camphor Language of Johore," Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 26 (January 1894), pp. 39 sq.; W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, pp. 212-214; W. W. Skeat and C. O. Blagden, Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula (London, 1906), ii. 414-431.

1517.

C. M. Pleyte, "Herinneringen uit Oost-Indi?," Tijdschrift van het koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, II Serie, xvii. (1900) pp. 27 sq.

1518.

W. H. Furness, Folk-lore in Borneo (Wallingford, Pennsylvania, 1899; privately printed), p. 27; id., Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters (Philadelphia, 1902), p. 17. A special language is also used in the search for camphor by some of the natives of Sumatra. See Th. A. L. Heyting, "Beschrijving der onder-afdeeling Groot-Mandeling en Batang-Natal," Tijdschrift van het Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Tweede Serie, xiv. (1897) p. 276.

1519.

W. H. Furness, Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters, pp. 168 sq.

1520.

W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, pp. 250, 253-260. In like manner the people of Sikhim intensely dread all mining operations, believing that the ores and veins of metals are the stored treasures of the earth-spirits, who are enraged by the removal of these treasures and visit the robbers with sickness, failure of crops, and other calamities. Hence the Sikhimese leave the copper mines to be worked by Nepaulese. See L. A. Waddell, Among the Himalayas (Westminster, 1899), p. 101.

1521.

W. W. Skeat, op. cit. pp. 139 sq.

1522.

W. W. Skeat, op. cit. pp. 192 sq.

1523.

N. Annandale, "Primitive Beliefs and Customs of the Patani Fishermen," Fasciculi Malayenses, Anthropology, part i. (April 1903) pp. 84-86.

1524.

C. Snouck Hurgronje, De Atjèhers (Batavia and Leyden, 1893-1894), i. 303.

1525.

J. L. van der Toorn, "Het animisme bij den Minangkabauer der Padangsche Bovenlanden," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xxxix. (1890) p. 100. As to the superstitions of gold-washers among the Gayos of Sumatra, see C. Snouck Hurgronje, Het Gajoland en zijne Bewoners (Batavia, 1903), pp. 361 sq.

1526.

M. T. H. Perelaer, Ethnographische Beschrijving der Dajaks (Zalt-Bommel, 1870), p. 215.

1527.

J. T. Nieuwenhuisen en H. C. B. von Rosenberg, "Verslag omtrent het eiland Nias," Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, xxx. (1863) p. 115. Compare W. Marsden, History of Sumatra, p. 292; T. J. Newbold, Account of the British Settlements in the Straits of Malacca, ii. 192 sq.

1528.

J. E. Neumann, "Kemali, Pantang en Rèboe bij de Karo-Bataks," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlviii. (1906) pp. 511 sq.

1529.

C. Snouck Hurgronje, Het Gajoland en zijne Bewoners (Batavia, 1903), pp. 311 sq.

1530.

J. W. Thomas, "De jacht op het eiland Nias," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvi. (1880) p. 275.

1531.

L. N. H. A. Chatelin, "Godsdienst en bijgeloof der Niassers," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvi. (1880) p. 165; H. Sundermann, "Die Insel Nias und die Mission daselbst," Allgemeine Missions-Zeitschrift, xi. (1884) p. 349; E. Modigliani, Un Viaggio a Nias (Milan, 1890), p. 593.

1532.

A. L. van Hasselt, "Nota, betreffende de rijstcultuur in de Residentie Tapanoeli," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxvi. (1893) pp. 525 sq. The Singhalese also call things by strange names when they are in the rice-fields. See A. A. Perera, "Glimpses of Singhalese Social Life," Indian Antiquary, xxxii. (1903) p. 437.

1533.

G. A. J. Hazeu, "Kleine Bijdragen tot de Ethnografie en de Folk-lore van Java," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlvii. (1903) pp. 291 sq.

1534.

A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxix. (1895) pp. 146-148; id., "Eenige ethnografische aanteekeningen omtrent de Toboengkoe en de Tomori," ibid. xliv. (1900) pp. 228 sq.

1535.

N. Adriani und A. C. Kruijt, "Van Posso naar Mori," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xliv. (1900) pp. 145 sq.

1536.

A. C. Kruijt, "Regen lokken en regen verdrijven bij de Toradja's van Midden Celebes," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xliv. (1901) p. 8; id., "Het rijk Mori," Tijdschrift van het Koniklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, II. Serie, xvii. (1900) p. 464, note.

1537.

B. F. Matthes, Bijdragen tot de Ethnologie van Zuid-Celebes (The Hague, 1875), p. 107; id., "Over de adá's of gewoonten der Makassaren en Boegineezen," Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Letterkunde, III. Reeks, ii. (Amsterdam, 1885) pp. 164 sq.

1538.

H. E. D. Engelhard, "Mededeelingen over het eiland Saleijer," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Neêrlandsch-Indi?, Vierde Volgreeks, viii. (1884) p. 369.

1539.

E. F. Jochim, "Beschrijving van den Sapoedi Archipel," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxxvi. (1893) p. 361.

1540.

M. J. van Baarda, "Fabelen, Verhalen en Overleveringen der Galelareezen," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlv. (1895) p. 508.

1541.

S. D. van de Velde van Cappellan, "Verslag eener Bezoekreis naar de Sangi-eilanden," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, i. (1857) pp. 33, 35.

1542.

A. C. Kruijt, "Een en ander aangaande het geestelijk en maatschappelijk leven van den Poso-Alfoer," Mededeelingen van wege het Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, xxxix. (1895) p. 148.

1543.

Th. J. F. van Hasselt, "Gebruik van vermomde Taal door de Nufooren," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xlv. (1902) pp. 279 sq.

1544.

K. F. Holle, "Snippers van den Regent van Galoeh," Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde, xxvii. (1882) pp. 101 sq.

1545.

Ch. Hose and W. McDougall, "The Relations between Men and Animals in Sarawak," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxi. (1902) p. 205; W. H. Furness, Home-life of Borneo Head-hunters (Philadelphia, 1902), pp. 17, 186 sq.

1546.

Ch. Hose and W. McDougall, op. cit. p. 186.

1547.

Ch. Brooke, Ten Years in Sarawak (London, 1866), i. 208; Spenser St. John, Life in the Forests of the Far East,2 i. 71 sq.

1548.

Juan de la Concepcion, Historia general de Philipinas, i. (Manilla, 1788), p. 20. Compare J. Mallat, Les Philippines (Paris, 1846), i. 64.

1549.

On this subject Mr. R. J. Wilkinson's account of the Malay's attitude to nature (Malay Beliefs, London and Leyden, 1906, pp. 67 sq.) deserves to be quoted: "The practice of magic arts enters into every department of Malay life. If (as the people of the Peninsula believe) all nature is teeming with spiritual life, some spiritual weapon is necessary to protect man against possible ghostly foes. Now the chief and most characteristic weapon of the Malay in his fight against the invisible world is courtesy. The peasant will speak no evil of a tiger in the jungle or of an evil spirit within the limits of that spirit's authority.... The tiger is the symbol of kingly oppression; still, he is royal and must not be insulted; he is the 'shaggy-haired father' or 'grandfather' of the traveller in the woods. Even the birds, the fish and the fruits that serve as human food are entitled to a certain consideration: the deer is addressed as a 'prince,' the coco-nut tree as a 'princess,' the chevrotin as 'emperor of the jungle' (shah alam di-rimba). In all this respect paid to unseen powers-for it is the soul of the animal or plant that is feared-there is no contemptible adulation or cringeing; the Malay believes that courtesy honours the speaker more than the person addressed."

1550.

The character of King Solomon appears to be a favourite one with the Malay sorcerer when he desires to ingratiate himself with or lord it over the powers of nature. Thus, for example, in addressing silver ore the sage observes:-

"If you do not come hither at this very moment

You shall be a rebel unto God,

And a rebel unto God's Prophet Solomon,

For I am God's Prophet Solomon."-

See W. W. Skeat, Malay Magic, p. 273. No doubt the fame of his wisdom has earned for the Hebrew monarch this distinction among the dusky wizards of the East.

1551.

"The mind of the savage is not a blank; and when one becomes familiar with his beliefs and superstitions, and the complicated nature of his laws and customs, preconceived notions of his simplicity of thought go to the winds. I have yet to find that most apocryphal of beings described as the 'unsophisticated African.' We laugh at and ridicule his fetishes and superstitions, but we fail to follow the succession of ideas and effort of mind which have created these things. After most careful observations extending over nineteen years, I have come to the conclusion that there is nothing in the customs and fetishes of the African which does not represent a definite course of reasoning" (Rev. Thomas Lewis, "The Ancient Kingdom of Kongo," The Geographical Journal, xix. (1902) p. 554). "The study of primitive peoples is extremely curious and full of surprises. It is twenty years since I undertook it among the Thonga and Pedi tribes of South Africa, and the further I advance, the more I am astonished at the great number, the complexity, and the profundity of the rites of these so-called savages. Only a superficial observer could accuse their individual or tribal life of superficiality. If we take the trouble to seek the reason of these strange customs, we perceive that at their base there are secret, obscure reasons, principles hard to grasp, even though the most fervent adepts of the rite can give no account of it. To discover these principles, and so to give a true explanation of the rites, is the supreme task of the ethnographer,-a task in the highest degree delicate, for it is impossible to perform it if we do not lay aside our personal ideas to saturate ourselves with those of primitive peoples" (Rev. H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains et leurs tabous," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 126). These weighty words, the fruit of ripe experience, deserve to be pondered by those who fancy that the elaborate system of savage custom can have grown up instinctively without a correspondingly elaborate process of reasoning in the minds of its founders. We may not, indeed, always be able to discover the reason for which a particular custom or rite was instituted, for we are only beginning to understand the mind of uncivilised man; but all that we know of him tends to shew that his practice, however absurd it may seem to us, originated in a definite train of thought and for a definite and very practical purpose.

1552.

See above, pp. 159 sq.

1553.

M. J. van Baarda, "Fabelen, Verhalen en Overleveringen der Galelareezen," Bijdragen tot de Taal- Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indi?, xlv. (1895) p. 513.

1554.

John Ramsay, Scotland and Scotsmen in the Eighteenth Century (Edinburgh, 1888), ii. 456.

1555.

H. R. Schoolcraft, Indian Tribes, ii. 175.

1556.

J. Macdonald, Light in Africa (London, 1890), p. 209.

1557.

Rev. J. Roscoe, in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, xxxii. (1902) p. 59.

1558.

A. C. Hollis, The Nandi, pp. 24 sq., 36. In these cases the harm is thought to fall on the person who steps over, not on the thing which is stepped over.

1559.

Rev. J. H. Weeks, "Customs of the Lower Congo People," Folk-lore, xx. (1909) p. 474.

1560.

B. Gutmann, "Trauer und Begr?bnissitten der Wadschagga," Globus, lxxxix. (1906) p. 199.

1561.

E. Aymonier, Voyage dans le Laos, i. (Paris, 1895) p. 144.

1562.

C. Lumholtz, Unknown Mexico (London, 1903), i. 435.

1563.

E. M. Curr, The Australian Race, i. 50.

1564.

A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, p. 402.

1565.

Father Lambert, M?urs et superstitions des Néo-Calédoniens, pp. 192 sq.

1566.

P. von Stenin, "Das Gewohnheitsrecht der Samojeden," Globus, lx. (1891) p. 173.

1567.

J. Richardson, in Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine, Reprint of the First Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1885), p. 529; id., Reprint of the Second Four Numbers (Antananarivo, 1896), p. 296; J. Sibree, The Great African Island, p. 288; compare De Flacourt, Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar (Paris, 1658), p. 99.

1568.

J. Mooney, "Myths of the Cherokee," Nineteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, pt. i. (Washington, 1900) p. 424.

1569.

H. A. Junod, "Les Conceptions physiologiques des Bantou sud-africains," Revue d'Ethnographie et de Sociologie, i. (1910) p. 138, note 3.

1570.

F. S. Krauss, Volksglaube und religi?ser Brauch der Südslaven, p. 52.

1571.

See L. F. Sauvé, Folk-lore des Hautes-Vosges, p. 226, compare pp. 219 sq.; E. Monseur, Le Folk-lore Wallon, p. 39; A. Wuttke, Der deutsche Volksaberglaube,2 § 603; J. W. Wolf, Beitr?ge zur deutschen Mythologie, i. p. 208, § 42; J. A. E. K?hler, Volksbrauch, etc., im Voigtlande, p. 423; A. Kuhn und W. Schwartz, Norddeutsche Sagen, M?rchen und Gebr?uche, p. 462, § 461; E. Krause, "Abergl?ubische Kuren und sonstiger Aberglaube in Berlin," Zeitschrift für Ethnologie, xv. (1883) p. 85; R. H. Kaindl, Die Huzulen, p. 5; J. V. Grohmann, Aberglauben und Gebr?uche aus B?hmen und M?hren, p. 109, §§ 798, 799; Eijüb Abêla, "Beitr?ge zur Kenntniss abergl?ubischer Gebr?uche in Syrien," Zeitschrift des deutschen Pal?stina-Vereins, vii. (1884) p. 81; compare B. Chemali, "Naissance et premier age au Liban," Anthropos, v. (1910) p. 741.

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