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Through Palestine with the Twentieth Machine Gun Squadron By Unknown Characters: 57848

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Jan. 3-Inspection of Transport by Divisional Commander.

" 4-"No. 1" Sub-section proceeds to Aleppo with two troops "S.R.Y." to escort "C.-in-C." by train to Jerablus.

" 6-Return of party.

" 20-Short range practice.

" 25-Classes opened in Brigade for shorthand, engineering, lectures, etc.

" 27-Coalminers leave for "demob.".

" 28-G.O.C. Brigade inspects horses.

Feb. 1-Classification of horses: A.30, B.33, C.II.42, D.8.

" 3-Divisional Commander inspects animals and first line transport.

" 11-Orders to move to Aleppo. Dismounted party with surplus equipment proceeds by train.

" 12-Squadron moves to Aleppo.

" 14-Corps Commander visits lines during stables.

" 19-Sec.-Lieut. Arden appointed Brigade Educational Officer and promoted Captain whilst so employed.

" 20-Move to old 19th Squadron camp.

" 23-Twenty-two farmers proceed "homeward" ("demob." camp at Kantara).

" 26-Divisional Commander visits lines during stables.

" 27-Eleven O.R.'s to "Homeward".

" 28-An Armenian massacre; Squadron proceeds to centre of town, four guns in position, one sub-section ("D") to Brigade Headquarters for night.

Mar. 1-3-Fifteen O.R.'s "demob.".

" 6-Move to camp in the centre of Aleppo.

" 11-Twenty-seven horses evacuated to M.V.S.

" 17-Farewell parade to the G.O.C., Desert Mounted Corps, Lieut.-Gen. Sir H.G. Chauvel, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.

" 19-Fifteen reinforcements arrive from base.

" 20-Twenty horses and 26 mules to Corrals (paddocks formed by the Division to take the surplus animals resulting from demobilization).

" 27-One sub-section short-range practice.

" 29-Eleven horses and 32 mules to Corrals.

" 31-Squadron strength: four officers, 124 O.R.'s, 185 animals.

Apr. 1-G.O.C. Brigade inspects horses.

" 3-One sub-section short-range practice.

" 15-"Stand-to" 05.30-08.00, one sub-section mounted, six guns on limbers.

" 16-Ditto (as precaution against further massacre of the Armenians).

" 22-Practice scheme with Brigade.

" 23-Issue of summer clothing.

" 30-Divisional Horse Show.

May 1-2-Ditto. Squadron won Special Prize with pack mule "Pansy," and had one limber and G.S. wagon in final; Pte. Carruthers also qualified for jumping finals.

" 31-Squadron strength: four officers, 75 O.R.'s, 189 horses and mules.

June 18-Inspection of horses and transport by Divisional Commander.

" 30-Peace celebrations. The Squadron, reduced to the strength of one sub-section, took part in "march past". Strength: three officers, 48 O.R.'s, 30 horses, 23 mules.

The following, by a member of the Squadron, is typical of the life in the Armies of Occupation. He says:-

"Although these (the Armies of Occupation) officially have only existed since February 1st 1919, they have in reality, on certain fronts, been in operation since November 1918. The 5th Cavalry Division, pressing hard on the heels of the flying Turk, entered Aleppo on the evening of 26th October last. Trek-tired and weary, the Fighting Division under Major-Gen. H.J.M. MacAndrew, C.B., D.S.O., wound its lengthy column over the Kuwaik-Su Bridge and entered the ancient Turkish stronghold. Some of the units were at once stationed close to the town, taking over the barracks and vast stores and depots vacated by the enemy, whilst some of us, not so lucky, were pushed forward to Muslimie, the important junction of the Mesopotamian and Palestine Railways; and there formed a line of outpost defence, just 300 miles due north of the line held six weeks previously.

"Low Vitality of Troops.

"On the 4th November the Armistice with Turkey was signed, and shortly after several cavalry units were sent still further north to Killis, Jerablus (on the Euphrates), and Aintab, and the outpost line near Aleppo was thus no longer required. Now followed a period even more difficult to put up with than actual war itself. A trek of over 400 miles in a space of two months, following that nightmare of a sojourn in the Jordan Valley, had reduced the vitality of both man and horse to a very low ebb, and consequently the sick roll in both cases was large. Malignant malaria contracted in the valley took toll of many brave lives, and an outbreak of anthrax, coupled with debility, caused havoc among the horses.

"Life at Muslimie.

"Railway communication not being completed, and roads rendered unfit by heavy rains, delayed the passage of canteen stores, and the rations had perforce to consist chiefly of mutton caught, killed and eaten the same day. Shall we ever forget the taste of it? Of course, we did get goat sometimes as a variation. Xmas Day was on the horizon and no hope of any puddings, but most units were able to produce some kind of Xmas dinner, and a pudding concocted from local ingredients. Followed special trains to the 'Palmtrees' Concert Party in Aleppo, and a fox hunt on New Year's Day. Whist drives and 'sing-songs' helped to break the deadly monotony of the long winter evenings, and during the day there was plenty to occupy one; roads to make in the mud, stones to be carted, buildings and shelters erected, and more than all, the attempt to get a little of the dirt off one's animal, and a little more flesh on his bones. After the 130 degrees or so of heat (in the shade) in the Jordan Valley, the cold in Syria, during the winter, seemed intense, and ice had frequently to be broken before the morning wash. The snow on the Taurus Mountains was not reassuring either, and firewood and coal became almost unobtainable.

"Seeing the New Year in.

"The only beverages obtainable at this time were native wines and army rum, and as the former consisted chiefly of sweet Alicante, methylated cognac and Arak, one became quite a connoisseur of the latter and the different methods of making rum punch.

"One Quartermaster-Sergeant in particular made quite a reputation for himself as a punch mixer, and I know that among his favourite ingredients were oranges, lemons, figs, condensed milk, cloves, nutmeg, pepper, ginger, boiling water.

"New Year's Eve saw (and heard) an officers' dinner, and all those from far and near flocked to a small building near the station, and under the able Presidency of popular Lieut.-Col. Wigan, of the Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry, and the direction of a Yorkshire vet. and a Captain of the Deccan Horse, the Old Year (and in some cases two Old Years) was seen out amid a score of toasts, the fumes of aromatic punch, and the strain of a buckshee piano. Personally, I crossed eight sets of Bagdad railway track in three strides.

"The Brigade Race Meeting.

"In February the 14th Cavalry Brigade held a Race Meeting on a short grass track of two and a half furlongs, discovered hiding among the rocks. A 'totalisator' run by an Australian in the interest of the Brigade, was run on sound lines, and if your horse won you got your money back and a little over, which isn't the case with some totalisators that we know of! Several 'scurries' and mule races took place, and everyone enjoyed the fun thoroughly, especially the mules. The machine-gun element sprung a surprise on all by winning the Grand Prix, open to the 5th Cavalry Division, with 'Nobbler,' a horse which was to have run at Gaza in 1918, but was 'scratched' owing to lameness. 'Lion,' a mobilisation horse of the Sherwood Rangers, and a prime favourite, came in second, and both horses were ridden at 11-7.

Aleppo. Squadron camp in the town.

"The First Aleppo Meeting.

"In March the 14th Cavalry Brigade took over its Aleppo quarters from the 13th, and the latter were moved many miles to the north, where they also held a local meeting. Capt. Fraser of the R.H.A. was now given the task of turning a waste piece of ground on the western side of the town into a racecourse, and, by dint of much hard work and begging of materials, he completed a quite good course of four furlongs. The Royal Engineers erected a grand stand of sandbags, and a totalisator. The first Aleppo Race Meeting was held on March 8th, and a goodly representative gathering of the army and civilian inhabitants of Aleppo assembled. After this, race meetings were held regularly every alternate Saturday throughout the summer. The course was laid on fairly level ground, and at the start of the season had a thin covering of grass, which, unfortunately, soon was burnt up by the fierce sun and worn bare by frequent use, being replaced afterwards by litter. Though at first only a four furlong 'scurry,' the course has now been extended to eight furlongs, and laid much in the same fashion as Kempton Park with a 'straight' of four furlongs and the remainder an oval. One drawback to this course is that it crosses a high road in two places. On race days mounted military police are stationed outside the rails to keep order, and British troops are on duty in the enclosures keeping the gates, serving refreshments, and assisting in the totalisator. The latest attraction has been the admirable rendering of popular music by the Band of the Queen's Bays.

"Incidents at the Races.

"Of amateur jockeys and gentlemen riders there have been plenty; among the most successful being Lieut.-Col. Vincent, R.A.S.C., Major Walker, R.A., Capt. Sir Robin Paul, Lieut. Dowling. We much missed Lieut. Stanley Wooten, of the Sherwood Rangers Yeomanry, who has hitherto been such a popular rider in the E.E.F. Major-Gen. Sir Harry MacAndrew, C.B., D.S.O., Lieut.-Gen. Sir H.G. Chauvel, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., have all, in turn, shown much interest in the races, and Gen. Geaffar Pasha, the Military Governor of Aleppo, and successor to Gen. Shukri Pasha (generally known to us as 'Sugary Parsnips'), often enters one of his beautiful Arab chargers in the Arab class races, and is often successful. His jockey rides in the colours of the Hedjaz Army, red, white, black and green.

"But the horses are now paraded in the paddock, and we must go and inspect them. This is an Arab race, and all sorts of conditions of men and horses are in the ring, and a terrific hubbub is going on. Some of the ponies are well groomed, and fit, others thin and badly cared for. Some have long unkempt manes and tails, others are bedecked with beads and shells and long scarlet tassels. Saddle cloths of brilliant hue are numerous, while the riders are a curious and a motley assembly. Some bare-foot, some booted and spurred (and a spur is a spur with an Arab, something after the implement mother marks the pastry with). Others are in long flowing robes with the burnous and kafeia of the Bedouin flying in the wind, some with knives, some with swords, some with pistols, and some with sticks, and lastly two are dressed like real jockeys, and they know it, and show it too! Just now there is a little of chaos as half the competitors are evidently of the opinion that they should go round the paddock in one direction, while the other half wishes to go the reverse. Wherefore there is loud shouting and much gesticulating, with many 'Waheds' and 'Achmeds' and 'Macknoons'.

"All the World and his Wife there.

"But there, the bell goes, and the starters begin to file out of the gate as they struggle out of the seething mass. Away down the course to the starting point; and here the starter will no doubt have his work cut out. A variegated crowd is lining the rails on the opposite side of the track. Turbaned Abduls and Yussefs, boys and little girls, men and donkeys, fruit-sellers, arabiyehs, camels, all in brightest colours and a pandemonium of noise. Stray pi-dogs are continually being warned off the course, and venerable Arab Sheiks who don't understand, and start for a nice walk along the wide grass track. Yes, there is plenty for the smart military policemen to do, and their burnished swords and bright shoulder epaulets flash in the sun as they 'chivvy' the crowd out of danger. In the officers' enclosure there are many strange types. Abdul Achmed Yussef is there with a scimitar in one hand like the Sultan of Turkey, and a huge white umbrella in the other hand, and on his head he wears a red tarbush. Iskanderianabedian is there with his fat wife, and two fat daughters, all the latter in black silk gowns and white silk stockings, and if the girls' ankles aren't as thick as my calves, call me a liar, but this is the Turkish style of beauty you know. The better bred the fatter is their standard, and very nice too. Arab troops and Arab gendarmerie in their quaint spiked head-gear; while hundreds of British staff officers (where they come from, or what they do I don't know), with tabs of all colours (and as one officer remarked to me only the other day, 'When the blue and green tabs appear it's time to capture another town'!) And a sprinkling of combatant officers, English sisters, French attachés, and American Red Cross workers, represent the western world.

"The Racing.

"Now we go and place our solitary 10 pt. on a promising pony ridden by one of the two 'real' jockeys. It is all we can spare, as the Field Cashier happens to be away (as usual). Suddenly a bugle blows, and we hear the usual cry 'They're off!' But they aren't; at least two are and there's no stopping those two. No, they mean to carry on now; neck and neck they go, and soon they are round the distant corner, and thundering past the four furlong point. On they come shouting for Allah and Mohammed, and standing high in their stirrups they wave their sticks madly in the air, yelling at each other with all the frenzy of the faithful followers of El Islam! A dead heat they reach the post and gallop wildly on, to end up somewhere on the banks of the Kuwaik Su!

"Now, the bugle goes again, and the start has really begun this time, the field getting away something like a compact lump. But soon they string out, and we notice our two orthodox men well in rear. This time the race is even more exciting, and as the post is neared the yells of defiance, the flowing robes, the waving arms and the bump, bump, bump of the riders brings pictures to the mind of the fiery followers of Saladin, or an attack by the Arabs in the 'Tragedy of the Korosko'.

"Home Again!

"Well, it's over at last, and our 'choice' and the other smartly dressed jockey are miles behind. But that doesn't matter as I hear the winner is only paying out 5 pt. Oh! that 'Tote'! Six races are the usual number run; and then the sun sinks behind the Taurus Mountains, the shadows fall long and blue, and the high-up Citadel, flanked by mosques and minarets, becomes bathed in the orange light of the setting rays. As the last horse is led in, the crowd flows back towards the town, and then the arabiyehs crack their whips, the camels grunt, the staff start up their motor cars, and the combatant officers with light hearts and lighter pockets mount their chargers, and wend their way back to camp.

"Such is an Aleppo Race Meeting, and so do we attempt to pass the monotony of an enforced exile in a barren and a dreamy land.

"Very soon the rain will come, and then the mud, and then we shall look for the Christmas parcels, British books, local papers, and more than all-that long-promised holiday for the Army-of-Occupation-Volunteer!!".

* * *

PART VII.

Epilogue.

The following extract from a letter from an officer at Aleppo to a former "O.C." of the Squadron (now demobilized) will perhaps serve as a fitting close to the record of the service of the 20th Machine-Gun Squadron.

"Aleppo.

"4-10-19.

"Dear.....

"Just a line to let you know how we are getting on. The 14th B'de has been abolished and several Units disbanded. The Cadre of the Sherwoods also, who are now in the 13th Brigade, is going home, but there are only a few of them to go to U.K. The 20th M.G.S. is to be disbanded, and the personnel to go to the 19th Squadron. We got orders yesterday to wind up the '20th' and send the personnel to the '19th' and I have to report to the 10th Cav. Bde. at Homs. What for I don't know yet. One consolation, all the men but five are now eligible for U.K.!! Well, well, it can't be helped, and perhaps it is as well we were broken up now as the men will perhaps be home by Xmas if the Strike is over.

"Hope you are enjoying 'Civvy' life.

"Yours, &c.,

".....".

The following are extracts from The Times of the 24th July 1919 and the Daily Mail of 28th July 1919. They will not be read without sincere regret by all those members of the 20th "M.G.S." who had previously served in the 5th Cavalry Division.

General Sir Henry Macandrew.

Major-General Sir Henry John Milnes Macandrew, K.C.B., D.S.O., died from heart failure, resulting from burns, on the 16th inst. in Syria, where he was serving in command of the 5th (Indian) Cavalry Division.

A son of the late Sir Henry Macandrew, of Aisthorpe, Inverness, he was born on August 7th 1866, and joined the 2nd Batt. Cameron Highlanders in 1884, being transferred to the Lincoln Regiment two years later. Entering the Indian Army in 1888, he joined the 5th Cavalry, to which regiment he belonged until his promotion to major-general in 1917, and of which he was honorary colonel when he died.

He had extensive staff experience, being a graduate of the staff college and having spent about one-third of his service in the Indian Army on the staff. He went through the Tirah Campaign as brigade transport officer in 1897-98 (dispatches and frontier medal with two clasps), and he served through the South African War in various capacities, gaining the South African medal and four clasps, the King's medal and two clasps, and the D.S.O., and being twice mentioned in dispatches. He was brigade-major to the Inspector-General of Cavalry in India in 1903-5.

He served in France on the staff of the Indian Cavalry divisions from 1914 till 1917, when he was promoted major-general and received command of the 5th Cavalry Division. His services in France secured four mentions in dispatches and the K.C.B. He proceeded to Palestine with the Indian Cavalry Corps, and served under General Allenby in his successful advance from the Egyptian border to Aleppo. The division under his command was prominent in these operations, and the general was mentioned by Sir Edmund Allenby in dispatches for his excellent services.

General Macandrew was well known as a rider across country and on flat. He earned the reputation of being one of the best and most dashing of our cavalry leaders in the war, and his untimely death is a severe loss to the Indian Army. He married, in 1892, the youngest daughter of Mr. H.R. Cooper, J.P., of Ballindalloch, Stirlingshire, and leaves a young daughter.

From "The Times," July 24th 1919.

* * *

General Macandrew.

Killed by Petrol on Tunic.

Cairo, Friday.

Major-Gen. H.J. Macandrew, commander of the Fifth Division, stationed at Aleppo, died a tragic death last week. His tunic had been cleaned with petrol and was hanging in a room to dry when the general, wearing pyjamas, entered smoking a cigarette. The petrol vapours exploded, burning General Macandrew so severely that he died in hospital a week later.-Reuter.

It is possible that too much petrol was used or that the heat of the sun vaporised the petrol and thus rendered it so easily inflammable. An exactly similar accident is not recorded in our own climate.

From "Daily Mail," July 28th 1919.

French in Syria.

British Withdrawn.

Cairo, Dec. 10th 1919.

In accordance with arrangements with the Government concerned a change has been made in the military administration of Syria (north of Arabian Desert, including Palestine and Cilicia), the Valley of Adana, and Tarsus (which since the Allied occupation have been under the Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force). The administration of Cilicia and the area known as "occupied enemy territory (west)," including Lebanon, Beirut, Tripoli, and Alexandretta, has been handed over to General Gouraud, the French High Commissioner.

The British military posts in the Marash, Aintab, Urfa, and Jerablus areas, where the administration remains under the Turkish authorities, have also been relieved by the French.

The territory known as "occupied enemy territory (east)" including Damascus, Homs, Hamah, and Aleppo, has been handed over to the Arab administration under the Emir Feisul (whom the Syrians welcome).

All the British troops have been withdrawn from Syria, and the military administration of Syria by the British Commander-in-Chief has ceased.-Reuter.

* * *

Names and Addresses of the Members of the 20th Machine-Gun Squadron.

Note:-A copy of this list has been sent by post to the address of every member for verification before going to Press.-Author, 1st June 1920

Officers.

Major L.F. St. John Davies, M.C., Antringham Rectory, North Walsham, Norfolk (Died 10-11-18).

Major R.H. Fairbairns, M.C., 63 Alleyn Park, Dulwich, S.E.

Capt. E. Davies, c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., 16 Charing Cross, S.W.

Capt. D. Marshall, M.C., Margaret Place, Dollar, Fife.

Capt. J.B. Oakley, Grimston Hill, York.

Capt. F.A. Spencer, M.C., c/o Messrs. Sir C.R. McGrigor, Bart., & Co. Panton St., S.W.

Lieut. E.P. Cazalet, Brunswick Rd., Sutton, Surrey.

Lieut. E.B. Hibbert, "Babworth," Watson Ave., Mansfield, Notts.

Lieut. A.O.W. Kindell, Rolle Cottage, Bourne End, Bucks.

Lieut. G.M. King, York House, Headroomgate Rd., St. Annes-on-Sea, Lancs.

Lieut. C.D. Macmillan, Brackenhurst Hall, Southwell, Notts.

Lieut. A.G.P. Millman, Liskeard, Cornwall.

Lieut. H.A. Price, M.C., "Homewood," Branksome Ave., Bournemouth (killed).

Lieut. R. Raynor, Jingewick Rectory, Bucks.

Lieut. F.R. Wilgress, c/o The Bank of Montreal, Waterloo Place, London.

Second-Lieut. J.K.W. Arden, "Mayhills," nr. Petersfield, Hants.

Second-Lieut. J.W. Cummer, 1221 13 Avenue, West Calgary Alta, Canada.

Squadron Sergeant Majors.

Fisher, H., 65 Crosby Rd., West Bridgford, Notts.

Fleet, T., M.M., 32 Trinity St., Dorchester, Dorset.

Jackson, J.B., M.M., "Denstone," Rocester, Staffs.

Larwood, E., D.C.M., Thorpe Farm, Shadwell, Thetford.

Phillips, H., 21 Sutherland Rd., Bow, London, E.

Salter, E.G., 16 Grays Rd., Henley-on-Thames, Oxon.

Squadron Quartermaster Sergeants.

Crisp, J., 14 Spencer Rd., Mitcham, Surrey.

Fisher, H., See under S.S.M.'s.

Harrison, N.M., Pocklington, Yorks.

Staff Farrier Sergeant.

Robertson, T., 85 Bo'ness Rd., Grangemouth, Scotland.

Sergeants.

Anderson, W. (Farrier), Steetley Farm, Whitwell, nr. Mansfield, Notts.

Buckingham, T., Lower Hayford, nr. Weedon, Northants.

Collett, J.H., High Rd., Vange, Essex.

Conuel, T. (Transport), "Elmton," Chesterfield, Derby.

Duguid, L.W.J., 42 Blenheim Gardens, Reading.

Fell, R.O. (Transport), 14 King's Avenue, Rhyl, N. Wales.

Gage, L., Camden Stores, Lower Bristol Rd., Bath.

Grice, T., M.M., 70 Olbury Rd., Smethwick, Staffs.

Hawkins, E.W., M.M., 26 Springfield Rd., Gorleston-on-Sea, Suffolk.

Hazlehurst, C.E., Low St., Carlton, nr. Worksop, Notts.

Holt, F.F., 18 Sandhill St., Worksop, Notts.

Kirke, C. (Orderly Room), 6 Curzon St., Derby.

Keetley, H., S. Megby, nr. Mansfield, Notts.

Knowles, G., "Tredethy," Bodmin, Cornwall.

Lewis, R., "Craiglea," Penparke, Aberystwith, N. Wales.

Morden, W.H., 89 Ashburton Avenue, Addiscombe, nr. Croydon, Surrey (died at Havre, 4th March 1919, en route for home).

O'Neill, W., Barford Cottages, Churt, nr. Farnham, Surrey.

Parker, W.R. (Farrier), Hermitage St., Crewkerne, Somerset.

Peadon, S., 103 Nottingham Rd., Long Eaton, Derby.

Pearse, T., Kingham, Chipping Norton, Oxon.

Potts, C., 9 Castle Hill Square, Worksop, Notts.

Pountain, J., 79 Derby St., Derby.

Ramsay, G. (Orderly Room), 94 Highfields, Coalville, nr. Leicester.

Roberts, C, 319 Ropery Rd., Gainsborough, Lincs.

Rouse, F., Park Rd., Mansfield, Woodhouse, Notts.

Sneddon, H., West Calder, Midlothian.

Thompson, S.C. (Transport), 11 Canterbury Rd., West Croydon, Surrey.

Wright, W.J.P., 3 Beacon Hill Rd., Newark, Notts.

Corporals and Lance-Corporals.

Adcock, H., 34 York Terrace, Gainsborough, Lincs.

Baggs, F., Brook House, West Malling, Kent.

Barratt, J.G., Ashby Rd., Loughboro', Linc.

Barthorpe, F., 2 Ebenezer Place, Gainsboro', Lincs.

Bitchily, H., 37 Park Terrace East, Hors ham, Sussex.

Bilham J. (Signaller Corporal).

Binnington, C. (Signaller Corporal), "Beaconsfield," Anlaby Rd., Hull.

Bradley, W., 46 Healey St., Nottingham.

Carr, F., Doncaster (killed at El Tahta).

Chinnery, T.A. (Signaller Corporal), 7 Ashmead Rd., St. John's, Lewisham, S.E.

Clark, G.H., Syston, Leicester.

Fairley, J., 2 Brandfield St., Edinburgh.

Foster, G. (Signaller Corporal), Sgt. 3rd M.G. Sqdn., Risalpur, N.W.F.P., India.

Fox, P.W., Rollerton Mill Farm, R.S.O., Notts.

Franklin, R.H., 13 Hyde Park Corner, Leeds.

Fuller, E.J., 2 Surrey St., Luton, Beds.

Galway, L., 54 Firgrove Rd., Freemantle, Southampton.

Gavagan, T., The Bazaar, Shrewton, Wilts.

Gill, H., 98 St. Anne's Well Rd., Nottingham.

Green, A., 16 Maria St., West Bromwich, Staffs.

Goring, A.C. (Signaller Corporal), 92 Coleridge St., Hove, Sussex.

Haley, J., 3 Queen Victoria St., Wakefield, Yorks.

Holmes, C. (S/Smith Corporal), 56 Mar Hill Rd., Carlton, Notts.

Hughes, J., Queens Walk, Nottingham.

Hutchings, F.G., "Maesgwyn," Ton Pentre, Glamorgan.

Ineson, C., 20 Primrose Lane, off Burton Rd., Leeds.

Ireland, C, "Bay Villa," Rosehill Rd., Ipswich.

James, J., 76 Llangyfelach St., Swansea, S. Wales.

Kidd, S., 18 Aviary Mount, Armley, Leeds.

Kings, E., 1 King Barton St., Gloucester.

Knight, T.N., 29 Millicent Rd., West Bridgford, Notts.

Lawson, A.P., 36 Castle Terrace, Nottingham.

Laycock, F.J., 34 Highcroft Terrace, Brighton.

Marriott, A., 65 Nottingham Rd., Stapleford, Notts, (killed).

Mellett, C.W. (Saddler Corporal), 1 Park Terrace, Hillingdon Rd., Uxbridge, Middlesex.

Moverley, S., 26 Wharncliffe St., Hull.

Neal, G., 16 Nova Scotia St., Failsworth, Lancs.

Palmer, C.P., 26 Drake St., Gainsborough, Lincs.

Patterson, W., 72 High St., Dumfries, Scotland.

Roe, A.E., 184 St. Paul's Rd., Canonbury, London, N.

Rogers, L.B., 122 Hillaries Rd., Gravelly Hill, Birmingham.

Rose, J.B., 44 Ball St., Wells Rd., Nottingham.

Seddon, H., 54 The Avenue, Leigh, Lancs.

Sharpe, H.E., 138 Sherrard Rd., Forest Gate, Essex.

Small, F., Earls Common, nr. Droitwich, Worcester.

Smith, C.C., West St., Oundle, Northants.

Stokes, H., Sir John Barleycorn Hotel, Cadnam, Southampton.

Uff, G., 28 St. James St., Walthamstow, London.

Waddlow, J. (S/Smith Corporal), Marylands, Dogsthorpe, Peterborough.

Wake, T., 14 Roxburgh Place, Heaton, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Walshaw, L.J., 56 Canon St., Belgrave, Leicester.

Willmore, A.C., 2b Lakefield Villas, Westbury Avenue, Wood Green, N.

Woodhouse, H., 11 Queen St., Whittingtonoor, Chesterfield, Derby.

Privates.

Ace, E., 7 Carlos St., Port Talbot, S. Wales.

Adams, C.W., Chapel Ash, Wolverhampton, Staffs.

Addison, A., High St., Navenby, Lines.

Allen, L., 20 Liddington St., Basford, Notts.

Amor, L.G., Road Common, Southwick, Tunbridge Wells, Kent.

Appley, T., Station Rd., Laughton Common, Yorks.

Arnell, F., 35 Fernie Avenue, Melton Mowbray, Leicester.

Arnold, H.T., 29 High St., Old Basford, Notts.

Ashall, R., 5 Bolton St., Park Rd., St. Helens, Lancs.

Ashe, A.E., 5 Barley Close, Chippenham, Wilts.

Attwater, L. (Signaller), 22 Dryburgh Rd., Putney, S.W.

Averill, R., Fox and Hounds Hotel, Brynmenyn, Bridgend, Glam.

Baker, A., The Row, Eltham, Kent.

Baker, C.E.

Ball, F., 1 Gladstone Terrace, Bunbury St., Nottingham.

Bartram, R., Froy Moor Farm, Briston, Melton Constable, Norfolk.

Beeston, T., The Green, Middleton, Winkworth, Derby

Boak, G., 3 St. Thomas' Place, Stockport, Cheshire (died at Aleppo).

Bohn, A.

Boyling, F., 1 Claughton Villas, Priory Rd., Dudley.

Brady, W., 7 Mill St., Kingston-on-Thames.

Bramall, T., "Broom Cottage," Carlton, Worksop, Notts.

Branton, F., 306 High St., Walton, Felixstowe.

Brett, J., Highland Cottages, Clavering Newport, Essex.

Browne, R.A., "Rosemoyne," Warwick Rd., Sutton, Surrey.

Butcher, P.F., 34 Nursery Rd., Chelmsford, Essex.

Cane, E.W., "The Hollies," Swallowfield, nr. Reading.

Capel, B., "Woodbine Cottage," Dysart, Fife (died 17th Oct. 1918).

Carder, W., Raynes Park, nr. Braintree, Essex.

Carruthers, W., Keppoch, Kardros, Dumbarton Scotland.

Cash, J., 17 Ard Lane, Kiverton Park, nr. Sheffield.

Chantry, P., 5 St. James' St., Grantham (died of wounds).

Charters, H.J., "Loch Lomond," Cheltenham Rd., Southend-on-Sea.

Chatterton (Transport), Flixton, nr. Manchester.

Childs, J.L. (S/Smith), "Holly Bank," Bourne End, Bucks.

Chi

ppendale, E., 30 Moore St., Nelson, Lancs.

Clarke, F.J., Post Office, Harpole, Northants.

Clarke, H., 450 Leeming St., Mansfield, Notts.

Clarke, S.H., 112 Aberdeen Rd., Winson Green, Birmingham.

Clarke, W.E., Middle St., Wickham Market, Suffolk.

Clarke, W.J., 88 Whitley Wood Lane, Reading, Berks.

Clay, T., 24 High St., Kimberley, Notts.

Clayton, H., 3 Rutland Terrace, Meadows, Nottingham.

Clutten, E.G., Church House, Wangford, Suffolk.

Coles, A.R. (S/Smith), The Forge, Epwell, Banbury.

Collier, A., 12 Rice St., New Basford, Notts.

Comrie, G.E.L., 15 Dixon Avenue, Crosshill, Glasgow.

Cook, J., 32 Glen St., Paisley, Scotland.

Cooke, H.S., 19 Rosina St., High St., Homerton, N.E.

Cooper, J.E., Easton Royal Farm, Pewsey, Wilts.

Cory, P.F.P., Morecombe Farm, Milton Damerell, Brandis Corner, Devon.

Cowell, E., 47 Earl St., Lower Broughton, Manchester.

Cox, A., 17 Belvedere St., Mansfield, Notts.

Cozens, C.F., 27 Acres St., Wandsworth, S.W.

Crane, W.R., 6 Seventh Row, Ashington, Northb.

Cranfield, F., 72 Farnley Rd., South Norwood, S.E.

Crossman, H., Bridgwater, Somerset.

Cundall, C.F., 12 Milton St., Middlesbrough, Yorks.

Curtis, J., 96 Merchant St., Bullwell, Nott.

Curtis, W., Royston House, Misterton, Doncaster, Yorks.

Dale, A.M., Crawford Gardens, North Down, Cliftonville, Margate.

Davies, C.L., 32 Carlton Rd., Sneinton Market, Notts.

Davies, H.C.P. (S/smith), 13 Artesian Rd., Bayswater, W.

Dewey, C., 192 Ealing Rd., South Ealing, W.

Diplock, P.H., 8 Everest Rd., Eltham, Kent.

Downs, A.F., Alnwick Villas, Gedling Rd., Carlton, Notts.

Dransfield, D.V., Newlands Farm, Mansfield, Notts.

Dransfield, S.A., Newlands Farm, Mansfield, Notts.

Drew, T.C., 25 Hamilton Rd., Long Eaton, Notts.

Drouet, A.G.E., "Ajow House," Speedwell Rd., Egbaston, Birmingham.

Duncan, J.C., 1 Wellgate, Kirriemuir, Forfar.

Ealdon, E., 11 Railway Terrace, Sittingbourne, Kent.

Edgar, W.J., 73 Sugarfield St., Belfast.

Edwards, A., 44 Greaves Rd., Lancaster.

Edwards, A.E., 18 Prospect Terrace, King's Cross, N.

Ellams, G., Capenhurst, nr. Chester.

Elliott, G.W., 51 Shipstone St., New Basford, Notts.

Ellis, C.L. (S/smith), 4 King Edward Rd., Brentwood, Essex.

Elphick, J., 15 George St., Fishergate, Sussex.

Ewels, P., Preston-on-Severn, nr. Shrewsbury.

Fardell, A., 3 Hertford St., Colchester, Essex.

Farmer, J., 103 Newcombe Rd., Handsworth, Birmingham.

Fear, J., 1 Greenhill Cottages, Cwmtillery, Wales.

Fewell, H.P., 162 Upper Bridge Rd., Chelmsford, Essex.

Fletcher, W., 54 Cranmer St., Nottingham.

Flory, C., 7 Castle Rd., Colchester, Essex.

Foster, S., Wharncliffe Nurseries, Christchurch Rd., Boscombe.

Fox, W.H., 7 Nelson Terrace, Hutchinson St., Nottingham.

Francis, H., Broxhall Farm, Lower Hardis, Canterbury.

Francis, R.C., The Dairy, Woolaton, Notts.

Frost, E., c/o Mrs. Coleman, Forest View, Skegley, Notts.

Fryer, C.S., "A" Squadron, M.G.C. (Cav.) Depot Shorncliffe.

Gallagher, C. (Signaller), 47 Alderson Rd., Liverpool.

Gardner, S.J.M., Billingford, Scole, Norfolk.

Gent, A., Baggholme Rd., Lincoln.

Gill, J., 117 Gloucester Rd., Bootle, Liverpool.

Godfrey, W., 1 Gladstone St., Carlton, Notts.

Goldie, H.C., 12 Morpeth St., Spring Bank, Hull (died of wounds, 3-12-1917).

Goodwin, C.S., 24 Hawksley Rd., Nottingham.

Goodwin, G., Robine Cossall, nr. Nottingham.

Grant, R., 5 Gilburn Place, Bo'ness, Scotland.

Greenbaum, --, 94 Bridge St., Burdett Rd., London, E.

Greenbury, W.H., 73 Sleaford, Newark, Notts.

Gregory, R.H., "Pomona House," Furlong Avenue, Arnold, Notts.

Greig, L.C., Braunstone, Leicester.

Gresswell, W.F., 110 Percival Rd., Sherwood, Notts.

Griffiths, W., 43 East Side, Prendergast, Haverfordwest.

Gyte, J., Taylor Barn, Wessington, nr. Alfreton, Derby.

Hadden, W.E., 228 Sharland Rd., Maida Hill, London.

Hall, J.E., 10 Clark St., Leicester.

Hallam, F., 45 Labden St., Long Eaton, Derby.

Hardy, R.M., Cropwell Bishop, nr. Ratcliffe-on-Trent, Notts.

Harmsworth, A., "Dowend," Chatsworth Rd., Worthing, Sussex.

Harness, H., 66 Barnby Gate, Newark, Notts.

Harris, S.A., Lower Herne, Herne, Kent.

Harris, T., 5 Baranden St., Notting Hill, London.

Harrison, A.E., 123 Philip St., Patricroft, Manchester.

Harrison, F.W., 18 Seeley Rd., Lenton Sands, Notts.

Harry, R.R., 110 Nolton St., Bridgend, Glam.

Hart, E., 32 Church St., Sutton-in-Ashfield, Notts.

Hart, J., 5 Arundel Drive, Mansfield, Notts.

Hartill, E., Smyth Cottage, Maidstone, Kent.

Hayes, H., Belle Eau Park Farm, Kirklington, Notts.

Hayes, J.C., Belle Eau Park Farm, Kirklington, Notts.

Hayman, J.T., Foresters Arms, High St., Reynsham, Bristol.

Hayward, J. (Saddler), 33 Princess Rd., Lower Broughton, Manchester.

Hearn, G., 3 Westfield Rd., Edinburgh.

Heathcote, E., 16 Cromwell Rd., Nottingham (killed at Tahta).

Hemmingway, F., 21 High St., Batley Carr, Batley, Yorks.

Henderson, A., The Smithy, Carnoustie, Scotland.

Henson, T., 47 Chaplain St., Lincoln.

Herrington, R., South Carlton, nr. Worksop, Notts.

Hesketh, E., Newton Green, Alfreton, Derbyshire.

Heslop, W., 53 Heath St., Stepney, E.

Hicking, J.S., Chatham House, Munday St., Henor, Derby.

Holborow, J., Didmarton, Badminton, Glos.

Holder, J., 40 Braydon Rd., Clapton, N.

Hollingworth, T., 74 Westfield Rd., Caversham, nr. Reading.

Hoodless, J., Bridgend, Dalston.

Horstead, H., 23 Winterton Rd., Sunthorpe, Lincs.

Howlett, J., 119 Brookdale Rd., Catford, S.E.

Hudson, G.H., 5 Blackfriar St., Stamford.

Hudson, L., 84 Low St., Keighley, Yorks.

Hudson, --, Westgate Rd. Fire Station, Newcastle-on-Tyne.

Huggett, G., 19 Cornwall Rd., Brixton, S.W.

Hunt, B., 140 Armagh Rd., Bow, E.

Hunt, E., 5 Bartholomew Cottages, Gillingham, Kent.

Hunt, J., 68 St. Paul's Terrace, Holgate Rd., York.

Hunt, S.F.R., Box 53 P.O., Prince George, British Columbia.

Hutchins, G. (Saddle Cpl.), Orchard Lane, Alton, Hants.

Hyde, E.W., 141 Glyn Rd., London, N.E.

Ingram, F.A., 85 Broad St., Tottenham, London, N.

Inkley, E.A., 96 St. Anne's Well Rd., Nottingham.

Irvine, R.J., 140 Roebank St., Dennistoun, Glasgow.

Jacques, A., 3 Halls Cottages, Stapleford, Notts.

Jacques, J., " " "

James, C.F., 34 Newcastle Hill, Bridgend, Glam.

Jarvis, E., 75 Lyndhurst Rd., Sneinton Dale, Nottingham.

Jarvis, W.B., 70 Eldon St., Greenock, Scotland.

Jenkins, E., West Farm, Llantwith Major, Cardiff.

Johnston, J., 52 Hyde Park St., Anderston, Glasgow (died 15-10-18, Damascus).

Johnston, R., Charleston-by-Glamis, Forfar.

Joynce, C.

Kavanah, R., 14 Park Grove Rd., Leytonstone, Essex.

Kearn, G., Dean Farm, Willey Broseley, Salop.

Kemp, A., 13 Baumont St., Sneinton, Notts.

Kemsley, J., Breadgar, nr. Sittingbourne, Kent.

Kenny, R., Newton-on-Ouse, nr. York.

Kent. S.C., 28 Scaresdale St., Carr Vale, Bolsover, Derbyshire.

Kite, W.J., Witney Rd., Finstock, Charlbury, Oxon.

Knight, L.J., Hanescombe, nr. Brookthorpe, Gloucester.

Knott, E., Lord St., Mansfield, Notts.

Lake, J., 8 King St., Tibshelf, nr. Alfreton, Derby.

Lambden, E.J., Ivy Bridge, Bourne End, Bucks.

Lambie, J., 21 Shamrock St., New City Rd., Glasgow.

Land, F., Lynton Rd., Porlock, Somerset.

Larcombe, W., Chardstock, Chard, Somerset.

Laurie, W., 27 Margaret St., Hixbourne, Birmingham.

Leafe, F.F., 5 Birkland Avenue, Peel St., Nottingham (killed Tel el Quelfi).

Lee, P., 7 Strawberry Terrace, Newtown, Retford, Notts.

Leedale, J.B., Victoria House, Bourne, Lincs.

Leslie, C., 145 Princess St., Dundee.

Leverton, C., Abbott St., Asworth, Notts.

Lines, A.J., 66 Church St., Oldbury, Staffs.

Lowe, W.H., Cuckney, Mansfield, Notts.

Loy, P.A., "St. Malo," Mildmay Rd., Romford, Essex.

Lumb, P.J., 2 Upper Oxford St., Doncaster.

Macintosh, A., 157 Ewart Rd., Forest Fields, Nottingham.

MacKenzie, W., The Cottage, Balfour Place, Kirkcaldy.

Mann, J., Seafield St., Cullen, Banffshire.

Mapletoft, L., The Cottage, Great Gonerby, Grantham.

Marriott, J., 63 Nottingham Rd., Stapleford, Notts.

Marshall, F., 19 Lawrence St., York.

Marshall, J.L., 257 Sherwood St., Nottingham.

Mathews, W.H., 39 Eperns Rd., Fulham, S.W.

Mattocks, W.J., 122 Lower Addiscombe Rd., East Croydon, Surrey.

McDonald, M., Sabbell Village, Carradale, Argyleshire.

McLellan, E.R., 110 Leddard Rd., Langside, Glasgow.

McLennan, J., 80 Culdrethal Rd., Inverness.

Mellows, S., 12 Whyburn St., Hucknall, Nott. (died).

Miles, A.H., 25 Rutland St., Pimlico, S.W.

Miles, A.H. (Wheeler), 49 Greet Rd., Brentford, Middlesex.

Millan, T., West Bank Place, Falkirk, Scotland.

Milnthorpe, H., 28 South Parade, Doncaster.

Mitchell, J.P., 99 Whitfield St., Fitzroy Square, London.

Morris, S., 64 Darrel Rd., Retford, Notts.

Moyes, A.E., 6 West Lane, Sittingbourne, Kent.

Murray, J.J., Porters Well, Uddingston, Lanark.

Musson, J., 176 Foxhill Rd., Carlton, Notts. (killed in action, Damascus, 30-9-18).

Nix, T.V., Cherry House, Red Hill Rd., Arnold, Notts.

Oldham, J.J., Carleton-on-Trent, Newark.

Olivant, G., Nettleham Lodge, Nr. Lincoln.

Ordish, E.A., 17 Sketchley St., Bluebell Hill, Nottingham.

Osborne, A.W., 32 New St., Chelmsford, Essex.

Pampling, W., 193 Newmarket Rd., Cambridge (died).

Parkin, F.W., The Lodge, Scrooby, Bawtry, Yorks.

Parkin, S., 31 Kilbourne St., Nottingham.

Patterson, W., Monaltrie Rd., Ballater.

Peach, L., Eccleston, Amersham, Bucks.

Pearson, H., 32 Hope St., Brampton, Chesterfield.

Pearson, T., 20 Bloomsgrove St., Radford, Notts.

Peel, A., Newport, Lincoln.

Perry, A., Sturtingale Cottage, Rush Hill, Bath.

Phillips, C., 29 Thorn St., Derby.

Pitts, J., 10 South Parade, Bath.

Price, E., The Turfs, Norton Canes, Camrock, Staffs.

Price, M., Quinton, Pennfields, Wolverhampton.

Price, W.A.C.H., 8 Camden Rd., Stamford.

Pritchard, S., Rosemount, Ponkey, Wrexham.

Quested, R., Park Gate Farm, Elham, nr. Canterbury, Kent.

Ratcliffe, J., 17 Old Paradise St., Lambeth, S.E.

Reed, H., 33 Church Terrace, Tower Rd., Erith.

Reekmans, W. (Saddler), 20 Ducie St., Brixton, S.W.

Richmond, E.J., Moorgate Hill, Retford, Notts.

Ridgway, A., "Goat's Head," Lillingstone, Daysell, Bucks.

Riley, E.A., 31 Weston St., Nechells, Birmingham (taken prisoner 1-11-17, supposed wounded, not since heard of, presumed dead by W.O.).

Rippin, F., 10 King's Head Place, Market Harboro', Leics.

Roberts, W., 82 Brunswick St., The Mount, York.

Robertson, A., 192 New City Rd., Glasgow.

Robinson, H. (Signaller), 120 Nottingham Rd., Mansfield, Notts.

Ruark, A.C., 8 Wanlip Rd., Plaistow, E.

Rush, E., Co-Operative Yard, Worksop, Notts.

Savory, S.W., St. Peter's Rd., Cleethorpes, Lincs.

Scott, W., 20 Thames St., Retford, Notts.

Seaman, C.W., 60 Lee St., Holderness Rd., Hull.

Sears (S/Smith), 9 Back Cottages, Commercial Rd., Bullwell, Notts.

Sharpe, C.A., 51 Gedling Rd., Carlton, Notts.

Sharpe, W.F., 119 Ryland Rd., Edgbaston, Birmingham.

Shepherd, J., 37 Plantation St., Wallsend-on-Tyne.

Sherratt, C., 4 Crown Terrace, Basford, Notts.

Short, P.C., North Aston, nr. Deddington, Oxon.

Siddall, J.C., 11 Sedd St., Ratcliffe, nr. Manchester.

Sinclair, J., 42 Stewart Terrace, Edinburgh.

Sisson, A., 41 Hempshill Lane, Bulwell, Notts.

Sissons, E., 3 Honey Place, Main St., Bulwell, Notts.

Sleightholme, A., Atworth, Melksham, Wilts.

Smith, C., Kneeton Rd., East Bridgford, Notts.

Smith, C.W., 37 Bishopbridge Rd., Norwich.

Smith, E.C., 1 Fern Cottages, St. Osyth Rd., Clacton-on-Sea.

Smith, H., 4 Dulwich Rd., Radford, Notts.

Smith, W., 94 Blackstone St., Nottingham.

Smith, W.J., The Barracks, Westcott, nr. Dorking, Surrey.

Soper, W., 36 Brandon Buildings, Clifton, Bristol.

Southey, G.E., 46 Brownlow Rd., Putney, S.W.

Spencer, F., 80 Laughton Rd., Dennington, nr. Rotherham.

Spencer, G., 37 Ortzen St., Radford, Notts.

Spencer, G., 37 Padiham Rd., Burnley, Lancs. (died).

Spinks, W.K., West End, Ely, Cambs.

Spratt, B., 13 Methley St., Meadow Rd., Leeds.

Springett, A.J., Avon's Dale, Colchester.

Staniland, A., 6 Howard Rd., Mansfield, Notts. (killed Damascus).

Stanley, A.B. (Signaller), 16 New Rd., Ridgwood, Uckfield, Sussex.

Stapleton, H., Bulcot Lodge Farm, Burton Joyce, Notts.

Stranks, T.H., 43 Quarry St., Milverton, Leamington.

Straw, A., 2 Tennyson Terrace, Hawksley Rd., Nottingham.

Stross, G., 40 Brighton Rd., Birkdale, Southport.

Talbott, F.C., 134 Church Square, Newport, Salop.

Tanner, H.G., Police Station, Amesbury, Wilts.

Taylor, E.E., "Brim Cottage," Griffiths Crossing, Carnarvon.

Teggin, H., "The Pentre," St. Martins, Oswestry, Salop.

Thomas, J.E., Pillford, Milford Haven.

Thompson, A., Whitwell, Mansfield, Notts.

Thompson, A.M., Greenhead Gate, Lanark.

Thompson, D.J., 61 Henderson St., Glasgow.

Thornhill, H., 48 Park Rd., Lenton, Nottingham.

Thorpe, C., 18 Gordon Hill, Enfield, Middx.

Tivey, A., 5 Gedling Rd., Carlton, Notts.

Tointon, J., Elmsford House, Spalding, Lincs.

Tolhurst, W.G., 9 Marden Lane, London.

Tooke, R., "Horseshoes," Scottow, Norwich.

Tooley, H.A.

Tripp, S.H., 116 Nag's Head Hill, St. George, Bristol.

Tubbs, H.C., 7 Warwick Villas, Homerton, N.E.

Turnbull, J., 16 Lothian St., Hawick.

Turner, G.

Turner, W.E., "The Admiral Napier," Weedington Rd., Kentish Town, N.W.

Tyler, B.H. School House, Ironville, Derby.

Vaughan, T.G., Rock House, nr. Bewley, Worcester.

Veitch, J. (S/Smith), 86 Scott St., Galashiels, Scotland.

Walker, A., 150 Moorbottom Rd., Crosland Moor, Huddersfield.

Wallace, G., 828 Argyle St., Glasgow.

Walpole, A.N., Anthills Farm, Redhall, Harleston, Norfolk.

Walshaw, L.J., 56 Cannon St., Belgrave, Leicester.

Wanstall, P.N.

Ward, B.V., "Sankta Koro," Vallance Rd., Muswell Hill, N.

Waterson, A., 16 North Junction St., Leith, Scotland.

Watson, B.E., Rose Cottage, Girton, Cambridge.

Watson, J., 2 Lightfoot Buildings, Cinque Ports St., Rye, Sussex.

Watts, C.P., 7 Brown's Rd., Plaistow, E.

Weatherley, E.J., 120 Lovatt St., Grimsby.

Webb, C.J., 21 Lower Addiscombe Rd., Croydon, Surrey.

Weighill, A., 70 Oxford St., Barnsley.

Whitby, J., 26 Lower Brook St., Long Eaton, Notts.

White, C.F., 21 Pelham St., Brighton, Sussex.

White, S., Frilsham, Yattendon, Newbury, Berks.

Whitlock, G.H., 44 Bushy Park, Tottendown, Bristol.

Wick, S., 13 Golden Dog's Lane, Norwich.

Wilbraham, --, Barton, Malpas, Cheshire.

Williams, G., Collets Green, Porwick, Worcester.

Wilson, A., 21 Chisholm Rd., Croydon, Surrey.

Winfield, R.J., Checkendon, nr. Reading, Oxon.

Wood, F., 6 Barfields, Bletchingley, Surrey.

Worthington, J.W., 41 The Hill, Kirby-in-Ashfield.

Wright, T., "Ivy House," Aixley, Corringham Gainsboro', Lincs.

Wroot, B., High St., Misterton, Notts.

As a result of the circular letter dated 3-6-20, referred to on page 172, the following names have been received of those Members of the 20th Machine-Gun Squadron who have made the Supreme Sacrifice in their Country's service:-

Major L.F. St. John Davies, M.C.

Lieut. H.A. Price, M.C.

Sergt. W.H. Morden.

Lce. Corpls. F. Carr. A. Marriott.

Privates G. Boak. B. Capel.

P. Chantry.

H.C. Goldie.

E. Heathcote.

J. Johnston.

F.F. Leafe.

S. Mellows.

J. Musson.

W. Pampling.

E.A. Riley.

G. Spencer.

A. Staniland.

(N.B.-The above, it is feared, does not include all the names in spite of every effort that has been made to obtain a complete list.)

* * *

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Note: (Lieut. Macmillan returned to Alexandria on 21st November 1918 from Smyrna, as a repatriated prisoner of war.)

[2] Beersheba-"Well of the oath": See Genesis, chaps. xxi and xxvi, v. 23 and 32.

[3] The enemy by this time probably thought that a wide out-flanking movement was to be undertaken at Khuweilfeh, and accordingly hastily brought up still more reserves. After fighting day and night against superior numbers, the 53rd Division was, finally, able to capture the position on November 6th. The drawing of the Turkish reserves to this part of the line contributed to the success elsewhere.

[4] At Latron was a castle of the Knights of St. John. It was destroyed by Saladin in A.D. 1191.

[5] Ramleh was a city of the Crusaders, and suffered in the wars between the Franks and Saladin. During the French invasion Napoleon made this town his headquarters.

[6] Naane; Naamah, see Joshua xv, 41.

[7] Akir = Ekron, see Joshua xv, 11, 45, xix, 43; I Sam. vi; III Kings i; Jer. xxv, 20; Amos i, 8; Zeph. ii, 4; Zech. iv, 5.

[8] Jimzu = Gimzo, see II Chron. xxviii, 18.

[9] Esdud = Ashdod of the Bible, one of the Philistine cities: See Joshua xiii, 3; I Samuel v; II Chron. xxvi, 6; Isaiah xx, 1; Neh. xiii, 23; Jeremiah xxv, 20; Amos i, 8, iii, 9; Zeph. ii, 4; Zech. ix, 6. In New Testament called Azotus, Acts viii, 40.

[10] Gaza, see Judges xvi and l, 18; Genesis x, 19; Deut. ii, 23; Jer. xxv, 20, xlvii, 1, 5; Josh. xi, 22, xv, 47; I Kings iv, 24 (Azzah); Amos i, 7; Jeph. ii, 4; Zech. ix, 5; Acts viii, 26.

[11] Yebna = Jabneh of the Bible, see Josh xv, 11; II Chron. xxvi, 6. There are ruins of a Crusaders' Church here.

[12] River Auja, the Mejarkon of Joshua xix, 46, one of the boundaries of the tribe of Dan.

[13] Jaffa, stated to be the scene of the Legend of Perseus and Andromeda, is the Joppa and Japho of Scripture, see Josh. xix, 46; II Chron. ii, 16; Ezra iii, 7; Jonah i, 3; Matt. xii, 40; Acts ix, 36, x, 9. A house said to be that of Simon the Tanner can be seen in the town. In A.D. 1799 when Napoleon invaded Palestine, he marched 10,000 men across the desert from Egypt, took El Arish and Gaza easily, but met with great resistance at Jaffa. Finally, the town was taken, and then 4,000 prisoners were murdered in cold blood after life had been promised them.

[14] Ludd was the birthplace of St. George, the Patron Saint of England. A church built here, after his martyrdom, was destroyed on the approach of the First Crusaders. It was re-built, however, but was destroyed again by order of Saladin in A.D. 1191. Of this church, two apses, two bays and the crypt still remain, and to-day the eastern end has been restored by the Greeks, while the western end is used as a mosque! In the crypt (belonging to the Greeks) is shown the Tomb of St. George.

Ludd = Lod of the Scriptures, a city of Benjamin, see I Chron. viii, 12; Neh. xi, 35; Ezra ii, 33; Acts ix, 32.

[15] The site of the present Jericho has only been occupied since medi?val times. The ancient Jericho lay near the spring Ain-es-Sultan and the City of Roman times was more to the south-west. The Biblical references to Jericho are as follows: Deut. xxxiv; Josh. vi, 26; I Kings xvi, 34; II Kings ii, 4, 5, 11. Only a mound exists now, to mark the position of the ancient city, but excavations here have brought to light some interesting relics.

[16] See St. John, chap. xi.

[17] See II Kings v, 10.

[18] The River Jordan is rich in historical associations, right from its source on Mt. Hermon to the Dead Sea, into which it flows. The Israelites crossed the Jordan on dry ground (Josh. iii, 14); our Lord was baptized there (St. John i, 28 and St. Matt. iii, 13). See also II Kings ii, 8, x, 14; Matt. iii, 5; St. John x, 40.

[19] See Isa. xv, 6.

[20] The Plain of Esdraelon stretches across Central Palestine, and has an average width of about 10 miles. It forms a wide break between the Mountains of Galilee on the north and those of Samaria on the south. It has always been a great battlefield; in the Bible it is called the Plain of Jezreel; see Judges iv, 3, v, 21, vi, 1; I Sam. xxix, xxxi; I Kings xx, 25; Josh. xvii, 16.

[21] Mount Tabor rather resembles a sugar-loaf in shape, flattened at the top; its height from the plain is about 1,500 feet. It was here that Deborah commanded Barak to muster his army: "So Barak went down from Mount Tabor, and ten thousand men after him. And the Lord discomfited Sisera and all his chariots and all his host, with the edge of the sword before Barak". (Judges iv, 14, 15). See also Judges viii, 18; Psalms xxxix, 12; Jer. xlvi, 18. The Crusaders built a church and a monastery on Mount Tabor; they were destroyed in 1187 and the ruins still remain. In 1255 the Knights of St. John held it but lost it in 1263 to Bibars.

[22] About a mile south of the site of the present station at El Fule was the scene of a great battle between the French and the Turks, on April 16th 1799, called the Battle of Mount Tabor. Kleber with about 1,500 men kept 25,000 Syrians at bay; he was almost defeated when Napoleon with 600 men arrived. The Turks, thinking a large army was upon them, fled. Here also are ruins of a church of the Crusaders, destroyed by Saladin.

[23] Josh xix, 21, xxi, 29.

[24] In the days of the Romans Sheikh Abreik was the headquarters of a Tribune.

[25] Mount Carmel extends from the sea coast at Haifa, inland 15 miles, in a south-easterly direction, thus forming a separating ridge between the Plains of Sharon and Esdraelon. Its height is about 500 feet at the sea, and 1,800 feet at its inland extremity. The mountain has always been associated with the name of the Prophet Elijah. It was here that he was said to have sought shelter when Ahab was seeking his life. A monastery stands over what is thought was the spot, and was used as a hospital for the wounded when Napoleon was besieging Acre. After his withdrawal it was destroyed by the Turks and afterwards re-built through the energy of a monk who travelled and begged for 14 years to obtain funds for the present building. The Biblical references to the mountain are: Josh. xix, 26; Deut. xiv, 5; I Kings iv, 23, xviii, 13; Isa. xxxv, 2, lv, 12, xxxiii, 9; Amos i, 2; Song of Solomon vii, 5; Micah vii, 14.

[26] See Judges iv, 13, and v, 21.

[27] Haifa is notorious on account of its associations with Mount Carmel. The Latin Carmelites reached Haifa in A.D. 1170 and St. Simon Stock, from Kent, was their general in A.D. 1245. They were massacred by the Egyptians in 1291 but regained power in the middle of the Sixteenth Century.

[28] There is only one reference to Acre in the Old Testament (Judges i, 31), and one in the New Testament (Acts xxi, 7), under the name of Ptolemais. It was taken by the Crusaders in A.D. 1102, and held till 1187, as a port of the Kings of Jerusalem. After a siege it was re-taken from Saladin in 1191, and held for a century. It was here that the Knights of St. John, after they had been driven from every other part of Palestine, prolonged for forty-three days their gallant resistance to the Sultan of Egypt and his immense host; 60,000 Christians were on that occasion slain or sold as slaves. Napoleon besieged Acre in 1799, but was prevented from taking it by the British under Sir William Sidney Smith. It was bombarded in 1840, by British and Turkish Fleets, when an explosion of a magazine destroyed the town.

[29] Damascus is a very ancient city, and existed even in the time of Abraham. The story that it was here that Cain killed Abel is alluded to by Shakespeare (I King Henry VI, I, 3). While other cities of the East, which were at one time of equal importance, now mostly exist as mounds in the desert, Damascus is still what it was-the capital of Syria.

The following are some of the numerous Biblical references to Damascus: Gen. xiv, 15; II Sam. viii, 5 ("David slew of the Syrians two and twenty thousand men"); II Kings vi, vii, viii, xiii, xiv, xv, xvi; I Chron. xviii, 5 (accounts of battles between the Kings of Judah and Israel and the Kings of Damascus); Isa. xvii; Amos i, 3; Jer. xlix, 23 (prophetical).

St. Paul was converted on his way to Damascus (Acts ix) in which connection see also II Cor. xi, 32 and Acts ix.

In A.D. 1860 a frightful massacre of Christians took place here. By nightfall on July 9th of that year the whole of the Christian Quarter was in flames, the water supply cut off and the inhabitants hemmed in by a circle of steel. As night advanced fresh marauders entered the city and joined the furious mob of fanatics, who now, tired of plunder, began to cry out for blood. All through that awful night and the whole of the following day, the pitiless massacre went on. It is probable that not a Christian would have remained alive but for the untiring energy of Abd-el-Kader (himself a Mohammedan of great renown, but a just man) with his faithful Algerines, who, in 1847, mustering only 2,500 men had completely defeated the army of the Emperor of Morocco 60,000 strong.

Abd-el-Kader at once set to work rescuing the Christians. Hundreds were escorted to his house, fed, comforted and forwarded to the castle, where, finally, nearly 12,000 were collected. Many also reached the British Consulate. The Mohammedans, furious at being baulked of their prey, turned their attentions to Abd-el-Kader, who, however, charged into their midst and said: "Wretches! is this the way you honour the Prophet!... You think you may do as you please with the Christians, but the day of retribution will come. Not a Christian will I give up, they are my brothers. Stand back or I will give my men the order to fire". Not a man among them dared to raise a voice against the renowned champion of Islam, and the crowd dispersed. British and French intervention prevented a general massacre throughout Syria, and as a result of European pressure an enquiry was held on the Damascus outrage, with the result that the Military Governor of that city, three Turkish officers and 117 individuals were shot. In addition about 400 of the lower class and 11 notables were condemned to imprisonment or exile and £200,000 was proposed to be levied on the city. This was all that could be obtained to the Christian community for a loss of 6,000 of their lives, 20,000 rendered homeless, and damage to their property of at least £2,000,000.

[30] See John ii, 1; also iv, 46, i, 47 and xxi, 2.

[31] Tiberias was built by the Romans in A.D. 20. It is only once mentioned in the Bible (John vi, 23). The modern town is much smaller than was the ancient one. In 1837, half the population perished by a great earthquake.

[32] Lake Tiberias in the Old Testament was called the "Sea of Chinnereth," and the "Sea of Chinneroth" (Numb. xxxiv, 11; Deut. iii, 17; Josh. xii, 3, xix, 35).

In the New Testament, in addition to the names in the text above, it is called the "Lake of Gennesaret" from the plains of that name on its north-western shore.

In the vicinity of the lake our Lord spent the larger portion of his life, thus we find it continually mentioned throughout the four Gospels. Some of the references are: Matt. iv, 13, viii, 24, 28, xiii, 1, xiv, 25, xvii, 27; John vi, 1, xxi; Luke v, 1. At that time other towns stood upon its shores, including Capernaum and Bethsaida.

The lake is nearly seven miles across at its greatest width and its extreme length is just over 12 miles.

[33] It is a strange coincidence that a stream close to Jedeide is called "El Maut," which means "Death".

[34] "Lebanon" means "White," probably employed because of the snow which can be seen most of the year on the Lebanon range of mountains, on the western side of the valley (see Jer. xviii, 14). Lebanon is stated in the Bible to be on the northern border of the Promised Land (Deut. i, 7, iii, 25, xi, 24; Josh. i, 4, ix, 1). King Solomon's palace and temple were built of cedars and firs from Lebanon (I Kings ix, 19), also the second temple (Ezra iii, 7). Other references to Lebanon are Josh. xi, 17, xiii, 2; Judges iii, 1; Deut. iii, 25; II Chron. ii, 2; Psalms xxix, 5, xcii, 12; Isa. xiv, 8, xxxv, 17, xl, 16; Solomon's Song iv, 8, 11, 15.

[35] After the massacre of 1860, Lebanon was made an independent province, governed by a Christian Pasha, nominated by the Sultan of Turkey and approved by the European Powers.

[36] Rayak is the junction of the railway from Beirut to Damascus and Aleppo to Damascus.

[37] Zahle is the largest town in Lebanon, and has a population of about 16,000, nearly all of whom are Christians. During the massacre of 1860, it suffered terribly, being captured and burnt to the ground.

[38] There are ruins of three temples at Baalbek-The Great Temple of the Sun, Temple of Bacchus, and the Circular Temple, built about A.D. 220.

[39] The Crusaders captured Homs in A.D. 1099. It is the ancient Zobah, see II Sam. viii, 3, 5. The population is estimated at 65,000.

[40] Hama (population about 80,000) is the Ancient Hamath, see I Kings xviii, 34, xix, 13.

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