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Manual of Egyptian Archaeology and Guide to the Study of Antiquities in Egypt By G. Maspero Characters: 185185

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:02

I have treated briefly of the Noble Arts; it remains to say something of the Industrial Arts. All classes of society in Egypt were, from an early period, imbued with the love of luxury, and with a taste for the beautiful. Living or dead, the Egyptian desired to have jewels and costly amulets upon his person, and to be surrounded by choice furniture and elegant utensils. The objects of his daily use must be distinguished, if not by richness of material, at least by grace of form; and in order to satisfy his requirements, the clay, the stone, the metals, the woods, and other products of distant lands were laid under contribution.


It is impossible to pass through a gallery of Egyptian antiquities without being surprised by the prodigious number of small objects in pietra dura which have survived till the present time. As yet we have found neither the diamond, the ruby, nor the sapphire; but with these exceptions, the domain of the lapidary was almost as extensive as at the present day. Fig 210.--The Ta, or girdle-buckle of Isis.

That domain included the amethyst, the emerald, the garnet, the aquamarine, the chrysoprase, the innumerable varieties of agate and jasper, lapis lazuli, felspar, obsidian; also various rocks, such as granite, serpentine, and porphyry; certain fossils, as yellow amber and some kinds of turquoise; organic remains, as coral, mother-of-pearl, and pearls; metallic ores and carbonates, such as hematite and malachite, and the calaite, or Oriental turquoise. These substances were for the most part cut in the shape of round, square, oval, spindle-shaped, pear-shaped, or lozenge-shaped beads. Strung and arranged row above row, these beads were made into necklaces, and are picked up by myriads in the sands of the great cemeteries at Memphis, Erment, Ekhm?m, and Abydos. Fig 211.--Frog amulet.

The perfection with which many are cut, the deftness with which they are pierced, and the beauty of the polish, do honour to the craftsmen who made them. But their skill did not end here. With the point, saw, drill, and grindstone, they fashioned these materials into an infinity of shapes-- hearts, human fingers, serpents, animals, images of divinities. Fig 212.--The ?at, or lotus-column amulet.

All these were amulets; and they were probably less valued for the charm of the workmanship than for the supernatural virtues which they were supposed to possess. The girdle-buckle in carnelian (fig. 210) symbolised the blood of Isis, and washed away the sins of the wearer. The frog (fig. 211) was emblematic of renewed birth. The little lotus-flower column in green felspar (fig. 212) typified the divine gift of eternal youth. The "?at," or sacred eye (fig. 213), tied to the wrist or the arm by a slender string, protected against the evil eye, against words spoken in envy or anger, and against the bites of serpents. Commerce dispersed these objects throughout all parts of the ancient world, and many of them, especially those which represented the sacred beetle, were imitated abroad by the Phoenicians and Syrians, and by the craftsmen of Greece, Asia Minor, Etruria, and Sardinia. Fig 213.--An ?ta, or sacred eye.

This insect was called kheper in Egyptian, and its name was supposed to be derived from the root khepra, "to become." By an obvious play upon words, the beetle was made the emblem of terrestrial life, and of the successive "becomings" or developments of man in the life to come. The scarabaeus amulet (fig. 214) is therefore a symbol of duration, present or future; and to wear one was to provide against annihilation. Fig 214.--A scarabaeus.

A thousand mystic meanings were evolved from this first idea, each in some subtle sense connected with one or other of the daily acts or usages of life, so that scarabaei were multiplied ad infinitum. They are found in all materials and sizes; some having hawks' heads, some with rams' heads, some with heads of men or bulls. Some are wrought or inscribed on the underside; others are left flat and plain underneath; and others again but vaguely recall the form of the insect, and are called scarabaeoids. These amulets are pierced longwise, the hole being large enough to admit the passage of a fine wire of bronze or silver, or of a thread, for suspension. The larger sort were regarded as images of the heart. These, having outspread wings attached, were fastened to the breast of the mummy, and are inscribed on the underside with a prayer adjuring the heart not to bear witness against the deceased at the day of judgment. In order to be still more efficacious, some scenes of adoration were occasionally added to the formula: e.g., the disc of the moon adorned by two apes upon the shoulder; two squatting figures of Amen upon the wing-sheaths; on the flat reverse, a representation of the boat of the Sun; and below the boat, Osiris mummified, squatting between Isis and Nephthys, who overshadow him with their wings. The small scarabs, having begun as phylacteries, ended by becoming mere ornaments without any kind of religious meaning, just as crosses are now worn without thought of significance by the women of our own day. They were set as rings, as necklace pendants, as earrings, and as bracelets. The underside is often plain, but is more commonly ornamented with incised designs which involve no kind of modelling. Relief-cutting, properly so called (as in cameo-cutting), was unknown to Egyptian lapidaries before the Greek period. Scarabaei and the subjects engraved on them have not as yet been fully classified and catalogued.[55] The subjects consist of simple combinations of lines; of scrolls; of interlacings without any precise signification; of symbols to which the owner attached a mysterious meaning, unknown to everyone but himself; of the names and titles of individuals; of royal ovals, which are historically interesting; of good wishes; of pious ejaculations; and of magic formulae. The earliest examples known date from the Fourth Dynasty, and are small and fine. Sometimes Sixth Dynasty scarabs are of obsidian and crystal, and early Middle Kingdom scarabs of amethyst, emerald, and even garnet. From the time of the Eighteenth Dynasty scarabs may be counted by millions, and the execution is more or less fine according to the hardness of the stone. This holds good for amulets of all kinds. The hippopotamus-heads, the hearts, the Ba birds (p. 111), which one picks up at Ta?d, to the south of Thebes, are barely roughed out, the amethyst and green felspar of which they are made having presented an almost unconquerable resistance to the point, saw, drill, and wheel. The belt-buckles, angles, and head-rests in red jasper, carnelian, and hematite, are, on the contrary, finished to the minutest details, notwithstanding that carnelian and red jasper are even harder than green felspar. Lapis lazuli is insufficiently homogeneous, almost as hard as felspar, and seems as if it were incapable of being finely worked. Yet the Egyptians have used it for images of certain goddesses--Isis, Nephthys, Neith, Sekhet,--which are marvels of delicate cutting. The modelling of the forms is carried out as boldly as if the material were more trustworthy, and the features lose none of their excellence if examined under a magnifying glass. For the most part, however, a different treatment was adopted. Instead of lavishing high finish upon the relief, it was obtained in a more summary way, the details of individual parts being sacrificed to the general effect. Those features of the face which project, and those which retire, are strongly accentuated. The thickness of the neck, the swell of the breast and shoulder, the slenderness of the waist, the fulness of the hips, are all exaggerated. The feet and hands are also slightly enlarged. This treatment is based upon a system, the results being boldly and yet judiciously calculated. When the object has to be sculptured in miniature, a mathematical reduction of the model is not so happy in its effect as might be supposed. The head loses character; the neck looks too weak; the bust is reduced to a cylinder with a slightly uneven surface; the feet do not look strong enough to support the weight of the body; the principal lines are not sufficiently distinct from the secondary lines. By suppressing most of the accessory forms and developing those most essential to the expression, the Egyptians steered clear of the danger of producing insignificant statuettes. The eye instinctively tones down whatever is too forcible, and supplies what is lacking. Thanks to these subtle devices of the ancient craftsman, a tiny statuette of this or that divinity measuring scarcely an inch and a quarter in height, has almost the breadth and dignity of a colossus.

The earthly goods of the gods and of the dead were mostly in solid stone. I have elsewhere described the little funerary obelisks, the altar bases, the statues, and the tables of offerings found in tombs of the ancient empire. These tables were made of alabaster and limestone during the Pyramid period, of granite or red sandstone under the Theban kings, and of basalt or serpentine from the time of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty. But the fashions were not canonical, all stones being found at all periods. Some offering-tables are mere flat discs, or discs very slightly hollowed. Others are rectangular, and are sculptured in relief with a service of loaves, vases, fruits, and quarters of beef and gazelle. In one instance-- the offering-table of Sit?--the libations, instead of running off, fell into a square basin which is marked off in divisions, showing the height of the Nile at the different seasons of the year in the reservoirs of Memphis; namely, twenty-five cubits in summer during the inundation, twenty-three in autumn and early winter, and twenty-two at the close of winter and in spring-time. In these various patterns there was little beauty; yet one offering-table, found at Sakkarah, is a real work of art. It is of alabaster. Two lions, standing side by side, support a sloping, rectangular tablet, whence the libation ran off by a small channel into a vase placed between the tails of the lions. The alabaster geese found at Lisht are not without artistic merit. They are cut length-wise down the middle, and hollowed out, in the fashion of a box. Those which I have seen elsewhere, and, generally speaking, all simulacra of offerings, as loaves, cakes, heads of oxen or gazelles, bunches of black grapes, and the like, in carved and painted limestone, are of doubtful taste and clumsy execution. They are not very common, and I have met with them only in tombs of the Fifth and Twelfth Dynasties. "Canopic" vases, on the contrary, were always carefully wrought. They were generally made in two kinds of stone, limestone and alabaster; but the heads which surmounted them were often of painted wood. Fig 215.--Perfume vase, alabaster.

The canopic vases of Pepi I. are of alabaster; and those of a king buried in the southernmost pyramid at Lisht are also of alabaster, as are the human heads upon the lids. One, indeed, is of such fine execution that I can only compare it with that of the statue of Khafra. Fig 216.--Perfume vase, alabaster.

The most ancient funerary statuettes yet found--those, namely, of the Eleventh Dynasty--are of alabaster, like the canopic vases; but from the time of the Thirteenth Dynasty, they were cut in compact limestone. The workmanship is very unequal in quality. Some are real chefs- d'oeuvre, and reproduce the physiognomy of the deceased as faithfully as a portrait statue. Lastly, there are the perfume vases, which complete the list of objects found in temples and tombs. Fig 217.--Perfume vase, alabaster.

The names of these vases are far from being satisfactorily established, and most of the special designations furnished in the texts remain as yet without equivalents in our language. The greater number were of alabaster, turned and polished. Some are heavy, and ugly (fig. 215), while others are distinguished by an elegance and diversity of form which do honour to the inventive talent of the craftsmen. Many are spindle-shaped and pointed at the end (fig. 216), or round in the body, narrow in the neck, and flat at the bottom (fig. 217).

They are unornamented, except perhaps by two lotus-bud handles, or two lions' heads, or perhaps a little female head just at the rise of the neck (fig. 218). The smallest of these vases were not intended for liquids, but for pomades, medicinal ointments, and salves made with honey. Fig 218.--Perfume vase, alabaster.

Some of the more important series comprise large-bodied flasks, with an upright cylindrical neck and a flat cover (fig. 219). In these, the Egyptians kept the antimony powder with which they darkened their eyes and eyebrows. The Kohl-pot was a universal toilet requisite; perhaps the only one commonly used by all classes of society. When designing it, the craftsman gave free play to his fancy, borrowing forms of men, plants, and animals for its adornment. Fig 219.--Vase for antimony powder.

Now it appears in the guise of a full-blown lotus; now it is a hedgehog; a hawk; a monkey clasping a column to his breast, or climbing up the side of a jar; a grotesque figure of the god Bes; a kneeling woman, whose scooped- out body contained the powder; a young girl carrying a wine-jar. Once started upon this path, the imagination of the artists knew no limits. As for materials, everything was made to serve in turn--granite, diorite, breccia, red jade, alabaster, and soft limestone, which lent itself more readily to caprices of form; finally, a still more plastic and facile substance--clay, painted and glazed.

It was not for want of material that the art of modelling and baking clays failed to be as fully developed in Egypt as in Greece, The valley of the Nile is rich in a fine and ductile potter's clay, with which the happiest results might have been achieved, had the native craftsman taken the trouble to prepare it with due care. Metals and hard stone were, however, always preferred for objects of luxury; the potter was fain, therefore, to be content with supplying only the commonest needs of household and daily life. He was wont to take whatever clay happened to be nearest to the place where he was working, and this clay was habitually badly washed, badly kneaded, and fashioned with the finger upon a primitive wheel worked by the hand. The firing was equally careless. Some pieces were barely heated at all, and melted it they came into contact with water, while others were as hard as tiles. All tombs of the ancient empire contain vases of a red or yellow ware, often mixed, like the clay of bricks, with finely-chopped straw or weeds. These are mostly large solid jars with oval bodies, short necks, and wide mouths, but having neither foot nor handles. With them are also found pipkins and pots, in which to store the dead man's provisions; bowls more or less shallow; and flat plates, such as are still used by the fellahin. The poorer folk sometimes buried miniature table and kitchen services with their dead, as being less costly than full-sized vessels. The surface is seldom glazed, seldom smooth and lustrous; but is ordinarily covered with a coat of whitish, unbaked paint, which scales off at a touch. Upon this surface there is neither incised design, nor ornament in relief, nor any kind of inscription, but merely some four or five parallel lines in red, black, or yellow, round the neck.

The pottery of the earliest Theban dynasties which I have collected at El Khozam and Gebeleyn is more carefully wrought than the pottery of the Memphite period. It may be classified under two heads. The first comprises plain, smooth-bodied vases, black below and dark red above. On examining this ware where broken, we see that the colour was mixed with the clay during the kneading, and that the two zones were separately prepared, roughly joined, and then uniformly glazed. The second class comprises vases of various and sometimes eccentric forms, moulded of red or tawny clay. Fig 220.

Some are large cylinders closed at one end; others are flat; others oblong and boat-shaped; others, like cruets, joined together two and two, yet with no channel of communication[56] (fig. 220). The ornamentation is carried over the whole surface, and generally consists of straight parallel lines, cross lines, zigzags, dotted lines, or small crosses and lines in geometrical combination; all these patterns being in white when the ground is red, or in reddish brown when the ground is yellow or whitish. Now and then we find figures of men and animals interspersed among the geometrical combinations. The drawing is rude, almost childish; and it is difficult to tell whether the subjects represent herds of antelopes or scenes of gazelle-hunting. The craftsmen who produced these rude attempts were nevertheless contemporary with the artists who decorated the rock-cut tombs at Beni Hasan. As regards the period of Egypt's great military conquests, the Theban tombs of that age have supplied objects enough to stock a museum of pottery; but unfortunately the types are very uninteresting. To begin with, we find hand-made sepulchral statuettes modelled in summary fashion from an oblong lump of clay. A pinch of the craftsman's fingers brought out the nose; two tiny knobs and two little stumps, separately modelled and stuck on, represented the eyes and arms. The better sort of figures were pressed in moulds of baked clay, of which several specimens have been found. They were generally moulded in one piece; then lightly touched up; then baked; and lastly, on coming out of the oven, were painted red, yellow, or white, and inscribed with the pen. Some are of very good style, and almost equal those made in limestone. The ?shabti? of the scribe Hori, and those of the priest Hor?ta (Sa?te) found at Hawara, show what the Egyptians could have achieved in this branch of the art if they had cared to cultivate it. Funerary cones were objects purely devotional, and the most consummate art could have done nothing to make them elegant. A funerary cone consists of a long, conical mass of clay, stamped at the larger end with a few rows of hieroglyphs stating the name, parentage, and titles of the deceased, the whole surface being coated with a whitish wash. These are simulacra of votive cakes intended for the eternal nourishment of the Double. Many of the vases buried in tombs of this period are painted to imitate alabaster, granite, basalt, bronze, and even gold; and were cheap substitutes for those vases made in precious materials which wealthy mourners were wont to lavish on their dead. Fig 221.

Among those especially intended to contain water or flowers, some are covered with designs drawn in red and black (fig. 221), such as concentric lines and circles (fig. 222), meanders, religious emblems (fig. 223), cross-lines resembling network, festoons of flowers and buds, and long leafy stems carried downward from the neck to the body of the vase, and upward from the body of the vase to the neck. Those in the tomb of Sennetm? were decorated on one side with a large necklace, or collar, like the collars found upon mummies, painted in very bright colours to simulate natural flowers or enamels. Fig 222.

Canopic vases in baked clay, though rarely met with under the Eighteenth Dynasty, became more and more common as the prosperity of Thebes declined. Fig 223.

The heads upon the lids are for the most part prettily turned, especially the human heads.[57] Modelled with the hand, scooped out to diminish the weight, and then slowly baked, each was finally painted with the colours especially pertaining to the genius whose head was represented. Towards the time of the Twentieth Dynasty, it became customary to enclose the bodies of sacred animals in vases of this type. Those found near Ekhm?m contain jackals and hawks; those of Sakkarah are devoted to serpents, eggs, and mummified rats; those of Abydos hold the sacred ibis. These last are by far the finest. On the body of the vase, the protecting goddess Kh?it is depicted with outspread wings, while Horus and Thoth are seen presenting the bandage and the unguent vase; the whole subject being painted in blue and red upon a white ground. From the time of the Greek domination, the national poverty being always on the increase, baked clay was much used for coffins as well as for canopic vases. In the Isthmus of Suez, at Ahnas el Medineh, in the Fay?m, at As?an, and in Nubia, we find whole cemeteries in which the sarcophagi are made of baked clay. Some are like oblong boxes rounded at each end, with a saddle-back lid. Some are in human form, but barbarous in style, the heads being surmounted by a pudding-shaped imitation of the ancient Egyptian head-dress, and the features indicated by two or three strokes of the modelling tool or the thumb. Two little lumps of clay stuck awkwardly upon the breast indicate the coffin of a woman. Even in these last days of Egyptian civilisation, it was only the coarsest objects which were left of the natural hue of the baked clay. As of old, the surfaces were, as a rule, overlaid with a coat of colour, or with a richly gilded glaze.

Glass was known to the Egyptians from the remotest period, and glass- blowing is represented in tombs which date from some thousands of years before our era (fig. 224). The craftsman, seated before the furnace, takes up a small quantity of the fused substance upon the end of his cane and blows it circumspectly, taking care to keep it in contact with the flame, so that it may not harden during the operation. Chemical analysis shows the constituent parts of Egyptian glass to have been nearly identical with our own; but it contains, besides silex, lime, alumina, and soda, a relatively large proportion of extraneous substances, as copper, oxide of iron, and oxide of manganese, which they apparently knew not how to eliminate. Hence Egyptian glass is scarcely ever colourless, but inclines to an uncertain shade of yellow or green. Some ill-made pieces are so utterly decomposed that they flake away, or fall to iridescent dust, at the lightest touch. Fig 224.--Glass-blowers from Twelfth Dynasty tomb.

Others have suffered little from time or damp, but are streaky and full of bubbles. A few are, however, perfectly homogenous and limpid. Colourless glass was not esteemed by the Egyptians as it is by ourselves; whether opaque or transparent, they preferred it coloured. The dyes were obtained by mixing metallic oxides with the ordinary ingredients; that is to say, copper and cobalt for the blues, copperas for the greens, manganese for the violets and browns, iron for the yellows, and lead or tin for the whites. One variety of red contains 30 per cent of bronze, and becomes coated with verdegris if exposed to damp. All this chemistry was empirical, and acquired by instinct. Finding the necessary elements at hand, or being supplied with them from a distance, they made use of them at hazard, and without being too certain of obtaining the effects they sought. Many of their most harmonious combinations were due to accident, and they could not reproduce them at will. The masses which they obtained by these unscientific means were nevertheless of very considerable dimensions. The classic authors tell of stelae, sarcophagi, and columns made in one piece. Ordinarily, however, glass was used only for small objects, and, above all, for counterfeiting precious stones. However cheaply they may have been sold in the Egyptian market, these small objects were not accessible to all the world. The glass-workers imitated the emerald, jasper, lapis lazuli, and carnelian to such perfection that even now we are sometimes embarrassed to distinguish the real stones from the false. The glass was pressed into moulds made of stone or limestone cut to the forms required, as beads, discs, rings, pendants, rods, and plaques covered with figures of men and animals, gods and goddesses. Eyes and eyebrows for the faces of statues in stone or bronze were likewise made of glass, as also bracelets. Glass was inserted into the hollows of incised hieroglyphs, and hieroglyphs were also cut out in glass. In this manner, whole inscriptions were composed, and let into wood, stone, or metal. The two mummy-cases which enclosed the body of Netemt, mother of the Pharaoh Herhor Seamen, are decorated in this style. Except the headdress of the effigy and some minor details, these cases are gilded all over; the texts and the principal part of the ornamentation being formed of glass enamels, which stand out in brilliant contrast with the dead gold ground. Many Fay?m mummies were coated with plaster or stucco, the texts and religious designs, which are generally painted, being formed of glass enamels incrusted upon the surface of the plaster. Some of the largest subjects are made of pieces of glass joined together and retouched with the chisel, in imitation of bas-relief. Thus the face, hands, and feet of the goddess Ma are done in turquoise blue, her headdress in dark blue, her feather in alternate stripes of blue and yellow, and her raiment in deep red. Upon a wooden shrine recently discovered in the neighbourhood of Daphnae,[58] and upon a fragment of mummy-case in the Museum of Turin, the hieroglyphic forms of many-coloured glass are inlaid upon the sombre ground of the wood, the general effect being inconceivably rich and brilliant. Glass filigrees, engraved glass, cut glass, soldered glass, glass imitations of wood, of straw, and of string, were all known to the Egyptians of old. I have under my hand at this present moment a square rod formed of innumerable threads of coloured glass fused into one solid body, which gives the royal oval of one of the Amenemhats at the part where it is cut through. The design is carried through the whole length of the rod, and wherever that rod may be cut, the royal oval reappears.[59] One glass case in the Gizeh Museum is entirely stocked with small objects in coloured glass. Here we see an ape on all fours, smelling some large fruit which lies upon the ground; yonder, a woman's head, front face, upon a white or green ground surrounded by a red border. Fig 225.--Parti-coloured glass vase, inscribed Thothmes III.

Most of the plaques represent only rosettes, stars, and single flowers or posies. One of the smallest represents a black-and-white Apis walking, the work being so delicate that it loses none of its effect under the magnifying glass. The greater number of these objects date from, and after, the first Sa?te dynasty; but excavations in Thebes and Tell el Amarna have proved that the manufacture of coloured glass prevailed in Egypt earlier than the tenth century before our era. Fig 226.--Parti-coloured glass vase.

At K?rnet Murraee and Sheikh Abd el G?rneh, there have been found, not only amulets for the use of the dead, such as colonnettes, hearts, mystic eyes, hippopotami walking erect, and ducks in pairs, done in parti-coloured pastes, blue, red, and yellow, but also vases of a type which we have been accustomed to regard as of Phoenician and Cypriote manufacture.[60] Here, for example, is a little aenochoe, of a light blue semi-opaque glass (fig. 225); the inscription in the name of Thothmes III., the ovals on the neck, and the palm-fronds on the body of the vase being in yellow. Here again is a lenticular phial, three and a quarter inches in height (fig. 226), the ground colour of a deep ocean blue, admirably pure and intense, upon which a fern-leaf pattern in yellow stands out both boldly and delicately. Fig 227.--Parti-coloured glass vase.

A yellow thread runs round the rim, and two little handles of light green are attached to the neck. A miniature amphora of the same height (fig. 227) is of a dark, semi-transparent olive green. A zone of blue and yellow zigzags, bounded above and below by yellow bands, encircles the body of the vase at the part of its largest circumference. The handles are pale green, and the thread round the lip is pale blue. Princess Nesikhons? had beside her, in the vault at Deir el Bahar?, some glass goblets of similar work. Seven were in whole colours, light green and blue; four were of black glass spotted with white; one only was decorated with many-coloured fronds arranged in two rows (fig. 228). The national glass works were therefore in full operation during the time of the great Theban dynasties. Huge piles of scoriae mixed with slag yet mark the spot where their furnaces were stationed at Tell el Amarna, the Ramesseum, at El Kab, and at the Tell of Eshm?neyn.

Fig 228.--Parti-coloured glass goblets of Nesikhons?.

The Egyptians also enamelled stone. One half at least of the scarabaei, cylinders, and amulets contained in our museums are of limestone or schist, covered with a coloured glaze. Doubtless the common clay seemed to them inappropriate to this kind of decoration, for they substituted in its place various sorts of earth--some white and sandy; another sort brown and fine, which they obtained by the pulverisation of a particular kind of limestone found in the neighbourhood of Keneh, Luxor, and As?an; and a third sort, reddish in tone, and mixed with powdered sandstone and brick-dust. These various substances are known by the equally inexact names of Egyptian porcelain and Egyptian fa?ence. The oldest specimens, which are hardly glazed at all, are coated with an excessively thin slip. This vitreous matter has, however, generally settled into the hollows of the hieroglyphs or figures, where its lustre stands out in strong contrast with the dead surface of the surrounding parts. The colour most frequently in use under the ancient dynasties was green; but yellow, red, brown, violet, and blue were not disdained.[61] Blue predominated in the Theban factories from the earliest beginning of the Middle Empire. This blue was brilliant, yet tender, in imitation of turquoise or lapis lazuli. The Gizeh Museum formerly contained three hippopotamuses of this shade, discovered in the tomb of an Entef[62] at Drah Ab?'l Neggeh[63] One was lying down, the two others were standing in the marshes, their bodies being covered by the potter with pen-and-ink sketches of reeds and lotus plants, amid which hover birds and butterflies (fig. 229). This was his na?ve way of depicting the animal amid his natural surroundings. The blue is splendid, and we must overleap twenty centuries before we again find so pure a colour among the funerary statuettes of Deir el Bahar?. Fig 229.--Hippopotamus in blue glaze.

Green reappears under the Sa?te dynasties, but paler than that of more ancient times, and it prevailed in the north of Egypt, at Memphis, Bubastis, and Sais, without entirely banishing the blue. The other colours before mentioned were in current use for not more than four or five centuries; that is to say, from the time of Ahmes I. to the time of the Ramessides. It was then, and only then, that ?shabti? of white or red glaze, rosettes and lotus flowers in yellow, red, and violet, and parti-coloured kohl-pots abounded. The potters of the time of Amenhotep III. affected greys and violets. The olive-shaped amulets which are inscribed with the names of this Pharaoh and the princesses of his family are decorated with pale blue hieroglyphs upon a delicate mauve ground. The vase of Queen Tii in the Gizeh collection is of grey and blue, with ornaments in two colours round the neck. Fig 230.--Glazed ware from Thebes.

The fabrication of many-coloured enamels seems to have attained its greatest development under Kh?enaten; at all events, it was at Tell el Amarna that I found the brightest and most delicately fashioned specimens, such as yellow, green, and violet rings, blue and white fleurettes, fish, lutes, figs, and bunches of grapes.[64] One little statuette of Horus has a red face and a blue body; a ring bezel bears the name of a king in violet upon a ground of light blue. However restricted the space, the various colours are laid in with so sure a hand that they never run one into the other, but stand out separately and vividly. Fig 231.--Glazed ware from Thebes.

A vase to contain antimony powder, chased and mounted on a pierced stand, is glazed with reddish brown (fig. 230). Another, in the shape of a mitred hawk, is blue picked out with black spots. It belonged of old to Ahmes I. A third, hollowed out of the body of an energetic little hedgehog, is of a changeable green (fig. 231). A Pharaoh's head in dead blue wears a klaft[65] with dark-blue stripes. Fine as these pieces are, the chef- d'oeuvre of the series is a statuette of one Ptahmes, first Prophet of Amen, now in the Gizeh Museum. Fig 232.

Fig 233.--Interior decoration of cup, Eighteenth Dynasty.

The hieroglyphic inscriptions as well as the details of the mummy bandages are chased in relief upon a white ground of admirable smoothness afterwards filled in with enamel. The face and hands are of turquoise blue; the head- dress is yellow, with violet stripes; the hieroglyphic characters of the inscription, and the vulture with outspread wings upon the breast of the figure, are also violet. The whole is delicate, brilliant, and harmonious; not a flaw mars the purity of the contours or the clearness of the lines.

Fig 234.--Lenticular vase, glazed ware, Sa?te.

Glazed pottery was common from the earliest times. Cups with a foot (fig. 232), blue bowls, rounded at the bottom and decorated in black ink with mystic eyes, lotus flowers, fishes (fig. 233), and palm-leaves, date, as a rule, from the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, or Twentieth Dynasties. Lenticular ampullae coated with a greenish glaze, flanked by two crouching monkeys for handles, decorated along the edge with pearl or egg-shaped ornaments, and round the body with elaborate collars (fig. 234), belong almost without exception to the reigns of Apries and Amasis.[66] Sistrum handles, saucers, drinking-cups in the form of a half-blown lotus, plates, dishes--in short, all vessels in common use--were required to be not only easy to keep clean, but pleasant to look upon. Did they carry their taste for enamelled ware so far as to cover the walls of their houses with glazed tiles? Upon this point we can pronounce neither affirmatively nor negatively; the few examples of this kind of decoration which we possess being all from royal buildings. Fig 235.--Chamber decorated with tiles in step pyramid of Sakkarah.

Upon a yellow brick, we have the family name and Ka name of Pepi I.; upon a green brick, the name of Rameses III.; upon certain red and white fragments, the names of Seti I. and Sheshonk.

Fig 236.--Tile from step pyramid of Sakkarah.

Up to the beginning of the present century, one of the chambers in the step pyramid at Sakkarah yet retained its mural decoration of glazed ware (fig. 235). For three-fourths of the wall-surface it was covered with green tiles, oblong in shape, flat at the back, and slightly convex on the face (fig. 236). A square tenon, pierced through with a hole large enough to receive a wooden rod, served to fix them together in horizontal pyramid of rows.[67] The three rows which frame in the doorway are inscribed with the titles of an unclassed Pharaoh belonging to one of the first Memphite dynasties. Fig 237.--Tile inlay, Tell el Yah?deh.

The hieroglyphs are relieved in blue, red, green, and yellow, upon a tawny ground. Twenty centuries later, Rameses III. originated a new style at Tell el Yah?deh. This time the question of ornamentation concerned, not a single chamber, but a whole temple. The mass of the building was of limestone and alabaster; but the pictorial subjects, instead of being sculptured according to custom, were of a kind of mosaic made with almost equal parts of stone tesserae and glazed ware.

The most frequent item in the scheme of decoration was a roundel moulded of a sandy frit coated with blue or grey slip, upon which is a cream-coloured rosette (fig. 237). Some of these rosettes are framed in geometrical designs (fig. 238) or spider-web patterns; some represent open flowers. The central boss is in relief; the petals and tracery are encrusted in the mass. Fig 238.--Tile inlay, Tell el Yah?deh.

These roundels, which are of various diameters ranging from three-eighths of an inch to four inches, were fixed to the walls by means of a very fine cement. They were used to form many different designs, as scrolls, foliage, and parallel fillets, such as may be seen on the foot of an altar and the base of a column preserved in the Gizeh Museum. The royal ovals were mostly in one piece; so also were the figures. The details, either incised or modelled upon the clay before firing, were afterwards painted with such colours as might be suitable. Fig 239.--Inlaid tiles, Tell el Yah?deh.

The lotus flowers and leaves which were carried along the bottom of the walls or the length of the cornices, were, on the contrary, made up of independent pieces; each colour being a separate morsel cut to fit exactly into the pieces by which it was surrounded (fig. 239). This temple was rifled at the beginning of the present century, and some figures of prisoners brought thence have been in the Louvre collection ever since the time of Champollion. All that remained of the building and its decoration was demolished a few years ago by certain dealers in antiquities, and the débris are now dispersed in all directions. Fig 240.--Relief tile, Tell el Yah?deh.

Mariette, though with great difficulty, recovered some of the more important fragments, such as the name of Rameses III., which dates the building; some borderings of lotus flowers and birds with human hands (fig. 240); and some heads of Asiatics and negro prisoners (fig. 241).[68] Fig 241.--Relief tile, Tell el Yah?deh.

The destruction of this monument is the more grievous because the Egyptians cannot have constructed many after the same type. Glazed bricks, painted tiles, and enamelled mosaics are readily injured; and in the judgment of a people enamoured of stability and eternity, that would be the gravest of radical defects.


Objects in ivory, bone, and horn are among the rarities of our museums; but we must not for this reason conclude that the Egyptians did not make ample use of those substances. Horn is perishable, and is eagerly devoured by certain insects, which rapidly destroy it. Bone and ivory soon deteriorate and become friable. The elephant was known to the Egyptians from the remotest period. They may, perhaps, have found it inhabiting the Thebaid when first they established themselves in that part of the Nile Valley, for as early as the Fifth Dynasty we find the pictured form of the elephant in use as the hieroglyphic name of the island of Elephantine. Fig 242.--Spoon.

Ivory in tusks and half tusks was imported into Egypt from the regions of the Upper Nile. It was sometimes dyed green or red, but was more generally left of its natural colour. It was largely employed by cabinet makers for inlaying furniture, as chairs, bedsteads, and coffers. Combs, dice, hair- pins, toilette ornaments, delicately wrought spoons (fig. 242), Kohl bottles hollowed out of a miniature column surmounted by a capital, incense-burners in the shape of a hand supporting a bronze cup in which the perfumes were burned, and boomerangs engraved with figures of gods and fantastic animals, were also made of ivory. Some of these objects are works of fine art; as for instance at Gizeh, a poignard-handle in the form of a lion; the plaques in bas-relief which adorn the draught-box of one T?a?, who lived towards the end of the Seventeenth Dynasty; a Fifth Dynasty figure, unfortunately mutilated, which yet retains traces of rose colour; and a miniature statue of Abi, who died at the time of the Thirteenth Dynasty. This little personage, perched on the top of a lotus-flower column, looks straight before him with a majestic air which contrasts somewhat comically with the size and prominence of his ears. The modelling of the figure is broad and spirited, and will bear comparison with good Italian ivories of the Renaissance period.

Egypt produces few trees, and of these few the greater number are useless to the sculptor. The two which most abound--namely, the date palm and the d?m palm--are of too coarse a fibre for carving, and are too unequal in texture. Some varieties of the sycamore and acacia are the only trees of which the grain is sufficiently fine and manageable to be wrought with the chisel. Wood was, nevertheless, a favourite material for cheap and rapid work. It was even employed at times for subjects of importance, such as Ka statues; and the Wooden Man of Gizeh shows with what boldness and amplitude of style it could be treated. But the blocks and beams which the Egyptians had at command were seldom large enough for a statue. The Wooden Man himself, though but half life-size, consists of a number of pieces held together by square pegs. Hence, wood-carvers were wont to treat their subjects upon such a scale as admitted of their being cut in one block, and the statues of olden time became statuettes under the Theban dynasties. Art lost nothing by the reduction, and more than one of these little figures is comparable to the finest works of the ancient empire. The best, perhaps, is at the Turin Museum, and dates from the Twentieth Dynasty. It represents a young girl whose only garment is a slender girdle. She is of that indefinite age when the undeveloped form is almost as much like that of a boy as of a girl. The expression of the head is gentle, yet saucy. Fig 244.--Wooden statuette of priest, Eighteenth Dynasty.

It is, in fact, across thirty centuries of time, a portrait of one of those graceful little maidens of Elephantine, who, without immodesty or embarrassment, walk unclothed in sight of strangers. Fig 243.--Wooden statuette of officer, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Three little wooden men in the Gizeh Museum are probably contemporaries of the Turin figure. They wear full dress, as, indeed, they should, for one was a king's favourite named Hori, and surnamed Ra. They are walking with calm and measured tread, the bust thrown forward, and the head high. The expression upon their faces is knowing, and somewhat sly. An officer who has retired on half-pay at the Louvre (fig. 243) wears an undress uniform of the time of Amenhotep III.; that is to say, a small wig, a close-fitting vest with short sleeves, and a kilt drawn tightly over the hips, reaching scarcely half-way down the thigh, and trimmed in front with a piece of puffing plaited longwise. His companion is a priest (fig. 244), who wears his hair in rows of little curls one above the other, and is clad in a long petticoat falling below the calf of the leg and spreading out in front in a kind of plaited apron. He holds a sacred standard consisting of a stout staff surmounted by a ram's head crowned with the solar disc. Fig 245.--Wooden statuette of priest, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Both officer and priest are painted red brown, with the exception of the hair, which is black; the cornea of the eyes, which is white; and the standard, which is yellow. Curiously enough, the little lady Na?, who inhabits the same glass case, is also painted reddish brown, instead of buff, which was the canonical colour for women (fig. 245). She is taken in a close-fitting garment trimmed down the front with a band of white embroidery. Round her neck she wears a necklace consisting of a triple row of gold pendants. Two golden bracelets adorn her wrists, and on her head she carries a wig with long curls. The right arm hangs by her side, the hand holding some object now lost, which was probably a mirror. The left arm is raised, and with the left hand she presses a lotus lily to her breast. The body is easy and well formed, the figure indicates youth, the face is open, smiling, pleasant, and somewhat plebeian. To modify the unwieldy mass of the headdress was beyond the skill of the artist, but the bust is delicately and elegantly modelled, the clinging garment gives discreet emphasis to the shape, and the action of the hand which holds the flower is rendered with grace and naturalness. All these are portraits, and as the sitters were not persons of august rank, we may conclude that they did not employ the most fashionable artists. They, doubtless, had recourse to more unpretending craftsmen; but that such craftsmen were thus highly trained in knowledge of form and accuracy of execution, shows how strongly even the artisan was influenced by the great school of sculpture which then flourished at Thebes.

This influence becomes even more apparent when we study the knick-knacks of the toilet table, and such small objects as, properly speaking, come under the head of furniture. To pass in review the hundred and one little articles of female ornament or luxury to which the fancy of the designer gave all kinds of ingenious and novel forms, would be no light task. The handles of mirrors, for instance, generally represented a stem of lotus or papyrus surmounted by a full-blown flower, from the midst of which rose a disk of polished metal. For this design is sometimes substituted the figure of a young girl, either nude, or clad in a close-fitting garment, who holds the mirror on her head. The tops of hair-pins were carved in the semblance of a coiled serpent, or of the head of a jackal, a dog, or a hawk. The pin- cushion in which they are placed is a hedgehog or a tortoise, with holes pierced in a formal pattern upon the back. The head-rests, which served for pillows, were decorated with bas-reliefs of subjects derived from the myths of Bes and Sekhet, the grimacing features of the former deity being carved on the ends or on the base. Fig 246.--Spoon.

But it is in the carving of perfume-spoons and kohl-bottles that the inventive skill of the craftsman is most brilliantly displayed.

Not to soil their fingers the Egyptians made use of spoons for essences, pomades, and the variously-coloured preparations with which both men and women stained their cheeks, lips, eyelids, nails, and palms. Fig 247.--Spoon.

The designer generally borrowed his subjects from the fauna or flora of the Nile valley. A little case at Gizeh is carved in the shape of a couchant calf, the body being hollowed out, and the head and back forming a removable lid. Fig 248.--Spoon.

A spoon in the same collection represents a dog running away with an enormous fish in his mouth (fig. 246), the body of the fish forming the bowl of the spoon. Another shows a cartouche springing from a full-blown lotus; another, a lotus fruit laid upon a bouquet of flowers (fig. 247); and here is a simple triangular bowl, the handle decorated with a stem and two buds (fig. 248). The most elaborate specimens combine these subjects with the human figure. A young girl, clad in a mere girdle, is represented in the act of swimming (fig. 249). Her head is well lifted above the water, and her outstretched arms support a duck, the body of which is hollowed out, while the wings, being movable, serve as a cover. We have also a young girl in the Louvre collection, but she stands in a maze of lotus plants (fig. 250), and is in the act of gathering a bud. A bunch of stems, from which emerge two full-blown blossoms, unites the handle to the bowl of the spoon, which is in reverse position, the larger end being turned outwards and the point inwards.

Fig 249.--Spoon.

Elsewhere, a young girl (fig. 251) playing upon a long-necked lute as she trips along, is framed in by two flowering stems. Fig 250.--Spoon.

Sometimes the fair musician is standing upright in a tiny skiff (fig. 252); and sometimes a girl bearing offerings is substituted for the lute player. Fig 251. --Spoon.

Another example represents a slave toiling under the weight of an enormous sack. The age and physiognomy of each of these personages is clearly indicated. The lotus gatherer is of good birth, as may be seen by her carefully plaited hair and tunic. The Theban ladies wore long robes; but this damsel has gathered up her skirts that she may thread her way among the reeds without wetting her garments. The two musicians and the swimming girl belong, on the contrary, to an inferior, or servile, class. Two of them wear only a girdle, and the third has a short garment negligently fastened. The bearer of offerings (fig. 253) wears the long pendent tresses distinctive of childhood, and is one of those slender, growing girls of the fellah?n class whom one sees in such numbers on the banks of the Nile. Fig 253.--Spoon.

Her lack of clothing is, however, no evidence of want of birth, for not even the children of nobility were wont to put on the garments of their sex before the period of adolescence. Fig 252.--Spoon.

Lastly, the slave (fig. 254), with his thick lips, his high shoulders, his flat nose, his heavy, animal jaw, his low brow, and his bare, conical head, is evidently a caricature of some foreign prisoner. The dogged sullenness with which he trudges under his burden is admirably caught, while the angularities of the body, the type of the head, and the general arrangement of the parts, remind one of the terra-cotta grotesques of Asia Minor. In these subjects, all the minor details, the fruits, the flowers, the various kinds of birds, are rendered with much truth and cleverness. Of the three ducks which are tied by the feet and slung over the arms of the girl bearing offerings, two are resigned to their fate, and hang swinging with open eyes and outstretched necks; but the third flaps her wings and lifts her head protestingly. The two small water-fowl perched upon the lotus flowers listen placidly to the lute-player's music, their beaks resting on their crops. Fig 254.--Spoon.

They have learned by experience not to put themselves out of the way for a song, and they know that there is nothing to fear from a young girl, unless she is armed. They are put to flight in the bas-reliefs by the mere sight of a bow and arrows, just as a company of rooks is put to flight nowadays by the sight of a gun. The Egyptians were especially familiar with the ways of animals and birds, and reproduced them with marvellous exactness. The habit of minutely observing minor facts became instinctive, and it informed their most trifling works with that air of reality which strikes us so forcibly at the present day.

Household furniture was no more abundant in ancient Egypt than it is in the Egypt of to-day. In the time of the Twelfth Dynasty an ordinary house contained no bedsteads, but low frameworks like the Nubian angareb; or mats rolled up by day on which the owners lay down at night in their clothes, pillowing their heads on earthenware, stone, or wooden head-rests. Fig 255.--Fire-sticks, bow, and unfinished drill-stock, Twelfth Dynasty; Illah?n, Kahun, and Gurob, W.M.F. Petrie, Plate VII., p. 11.

There were also two or three simple stone seats, some wooden chairs or stools with carved legs, chests and boxes of various sizes for clothes and tools, and a few common vessels of pottery or bronze. For making fire there were fire- sticks, and the bow-drill for using them (figs. 255 and 181); children's toys were even then found in great variety though of somewhat quaint construction. Fig 256.--Remains of two Twelfth Dynasty dolls; Kahun, Gurob and Hawara, W.M.F. Petrie, Plate VIII. p. 30.

There were dolls with wigs and movable limbs, made in stone, pottery, and wood (fig. 256); figures of men, and animals, and terra-cotta boats, balls of wood and stuffed leather, whip-tops, and tip-cats (fig. 257).

The art of the cabinet-maker was nevertheless carried to a high degree of perfection, from the time of the ancient dynasties. Planks were dressed down with the adze, mortised, glued, joined together by means of pegs cut in hard wood, or acacia thorns (never by metal nails), polished, and finally covered with paintings.

Fig 257.--Tops, tip-cat, and a terra-cotta toy boat, Twelfth Dynasty; Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara, W.M.F. Petrie, Plates VIII., IX., p. 30.

Chests generally stand upon four straight legs, and are occasionally thus raised to some height from the ground. Fig 258.--Chest

The lid is flat, or rounded according to a special curvature (fig. 258) much in favour among the Egyptians of all periods. Sometimes, though rarely, it is gable-shaped, like our house-roofs (fig. 259). Fig 259.--Chest

Generally speaking, the lid lifts off bodily; but it often turns upon a peg inserted in one of the uprights. Sometimes, also, it turns upon wooden pivots (fig. 260). The panels, which are large and admirably suited for decorative art, are enriched with paintings, or inlaid with ivory, silver, precious woods, or enamelled plaques. It may be that we are scarcely in a position justly to appraise the skill of Egyptian cabinet-makers, or the variety of designs produced at various periods. Fig 260.--Chest

Nearly all the furniture which has come down to our day has been found in tombs, and, being destined for burial in the sepulchre, may either be of a character exclusively destined for the use of the mummy, or possibly a cheap imitation of a more precious class of goods.

The mummy was, in fact, the cabinet-maker's best customer. In other lands, man took but a few objects with him into the next world; but the defunct Egyptian required nothing short of a complete outfit. The mummy- case alone was an actual monument, in the construction of which a whole squad of workmen was employed (fig. 261).

Fig 261.--Construction of a mummy-case, wall scene, Eighteenth Dynasty.

The styles of mummy-cases varied from period to period. Under the Memphite and first Theban empires, we find only rectangular chests in sycamore wood, flat at top and bottom, and made of many pieces joined together by wooden pins. The pattern is not elegant, but the decoration is very curious. The lid has no cornice. Outside, it is inscribed down the middle with a long column of hieroglyphs, sometimes merely written in ink, sometimes laid on in colour, sometimes carved in hollowed-out signs filled in with some kind of bluish paste. The inscription records only the name and titles of the deceased, accompanied now and then by a short form of prayer in his favour. The inside is covered with a thick coat of stucco or whitewash.

Upon this surface, the seventeenth chapter of The Book of the Dead was generally written in red and black inks, and in fine cursive hieroglyphs. The body of the chest is made with three horizontal planks for the bottom, and eight vertical planks, placed two and two, for the four sides. The outside is sometimes decorated with long strips of various colours ending in interlaced lotus-leaves, such as are seen on stone sarcophagi. More frequently, it is ornamented on the left side with two wide-open eyes and two monumental doors, and on the right with three doors exactly like those seen in contemporary catacombs. The sarcophagus is in truth the house of the deceased; and, being his house, its four walls were bound to contain an epitome of the prayers and tableaux which covered the walls of his tomb. The necessary formulae and pictured scenes were, therefore, reproduced inside, nearly in the same order in which they appear in the mastabas. Each side is divided in three registers, each register containing a dedication in the name of the deceased, or representations of objects belonging to him, or such texts from the Ritual as need to be repeated for his benefit. Skilfully composed, and painted upon a background made to imitate some precious wood, the whole forms a boldly-designed and harmoniously-coloured picture. The cabinet-maker's share of the work was the lightest, and the long boxes in which the dead of the earliest period were buried made no great demand upon his skill. This, however, was not the case when in later times the sarcophagus came to be fashioned in the likeness of the human body. Of this style we have two leading types. In the most ancient, the mummy serves as the model for his case. His outstretched feet and legs are in one. The form of the knee, the swell of the calf, the contours of the thigh and the trunk, are summarily indicated, and are, as it were, vaguely modelled under the wood. The head, apparently the only living part of this inert body, is wrought out in the round. The dead man is in this wise imprisoned in a kind of statue of himself; and this statue is so well balanced that it can stand on its feet if required, as upon a pedestal. In the other type of sarcophagus, the deceased lies at full length upon his tomb, and his figure, sculptured in the round, serves as the lid of his mummy-case. On his head is seen the ponderous wig of the period. A white linen vest and a long petticoat cover his chest and legs. His feet are shod with elegant sandals. His arms lie straight along his sides, or are folded upon his breast, the hands grasping various emblems, as the Ankh, the girdle-buckle, the Tat;[69] or, as in the case of the wife of Sennetm? at Gizeh, a garland of ivy. This mummiform type of sarcophagus is rarely met with under the Memphite dynasties, though that of Menkara, the Mycerinus of the Greeks, affords a memorable example. Under the Eleventh Dynasty, the mummy-case is frequently but a hollowed tree- trunk, roughly sculptured outside, with a head at one end and feet at the other. The face is daubed with bright colours, yellow, red, and green; the wig and headdress are striped with black and blue, and an elaborate collar is depicted on the breast. The rest of the case is either covered with the long, gilded wings of Isis and Nephthys, or with a uniform tint of white or yellow, and sparsely decorated with symbolic figures, or columns of hieroglyphs painted blue and black.

Fig 262.--Mask of Twenty-first Dynasty coffin of Rameses II.

Among the sarcophagi belonging to kings of the Seventeenth Dynasty which I recovered from Deir el Bahar?, the most highly finished belonged to this type, and were only remarkable for the really extraordinary skill with which the craftsman had reproduced the features of the deceased sovereigns. The mask of Ahmes I., that of Amenhotep I., and that of Thothmes II., are masterpieces in their way. The mask of Rameses II. shows no sign of paint, except a black line which accentuates the form of the eye. Fig 263.--Mask of Twenty-first Dynasty coffin of Rameses II.

The face is doubtless modelled in the likeness of the Pharaoh Herhor, who restored the funerary outfit of his puissant ancestor, and it will almost bear comparison with the best works of contemporary sculpture (fig. 262). Two mummy-cases found in the same place--namely, those of Queen Ahmesnefertari and her daughter, Aahhotep II.--are of gigantic size, and measure more than ten and a half feet in height (fig. 263). Standing upright, they might almost be taken for two of the caryatid statues from the first court at Medinet Hab?, though on a smaller scale. The bodies are represented as bandaged, and but vaguely indicate the contours of the human form. The shoulders and bust of each are covered with a kind of network in relief, every mesh standing out in blue upon a yellow ground. The hands emerge from this mantle, are crossed upon the breast, and grasp the Ankh, or Tau-cross, symbolic of eternal life. The heads are portraits. The faces are round, the eyes large, the expression mild and characterless. Each is crowned with the flat-topped cap and lofty plumes of Amen or Maut. We cannot but wonder for what reason these huge receptacles were made. The two queens were small of stature, and their mummies--which were well-nigh lost in the cases--had to be packed round with an immense quantity of rags, to prevent them from shifting, and becoming injured. Apart from their abnormal size, these cases are characterised by the same simplicity which distinguishes other mummy-cases of royal or private persons of the same period. Towards the middle of the Nineteenth Dynasty, the fashion changed. The single mummy-case, soberly decorated, was superseded by two, three, and even four cases, fitting the one into the other, and covered with paintings and inscriptions. Sometimes the outer receptacle is a sarcophagus with convex lid and square ears, upon which the deceased is pictured over and over again upon a white ground, in adoration before the gods of the Osirian cycle. When, however, it is shaped in human form, it retains somewhat of the old simplicity. The face is painted; a collar is represented on the chest, a band of hieroglyphs extends down the whole length of the body to the feet, and the rest is in one uniform tone of black, brown, or dark yellow. The inner cases were extravagantly rich, the hands and faces being red, rose-coloured, or gilded; the jewellery painted, or sometimes imitated by means of small morsels of enamel encrusted in the wood-work; the surfaces frequently covered with many- coloured scenes and legends, and the whole heightened by means of the yellow varnish already mentioned. The lavish ornamentation of this period is in striking contrast with the sobriety of earlier times; but in order to grasp the reason of this change, one must go to Thebes, and visit the actual sepulchres of the dead. The kings and private persons of the great conquering dynasties[70] devoted their energies, and all the means at their disposal, to the excavation of catacombs. The walls of those catacombs were covered with sculptures and paintings. The sarcophagus was cut in one enormous block of granite or alabaster, and admirably wrought. It was therefore of little moment if the wooden coffin in which the mummy reposed were very simply decorated. But the Egyptians of the decadence, and their rulers, had not the wealth of Egypt and the spoils of neighbouring countries at command. They were poor; and the slenderness of their resources debarred them from great undertakings. They for the most part gave up the preparation of magnificent tombs, and employed such wealth as remained to them in the fabrication of fine mummy-cases carved in sycamore wood. The beauty of their coffins, therefore, but affords an additional proof of their weakness and poverty. When for a few centuries the Sa?te princes had succeeded in re-establishing the prosperity of the country, stone sarcophagi came once more into requisition, and the wooden coffin reverted to somewhat of the simplicity of the great period. But this Renaissance was not destined to last.

Fig 264.--Panel portrait from the Graeco-Roman Cemetery at Hawara, now in the National Gallery, London. (Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoe, W.M.F. Petrie, Plate X., page 10.)

The Macedonian conquest brought back the same revolution in funerary fashions which followed the fall of the Ramessides, and double and triple mummy cases, over-painted and over-gilded, were again in demand. If the craftsmen of Graeco-Roman time who attired the dead of Ekhm?m for their last resting places were less skilful than those of earlier date, their bad taste was, at all events, not surpassed by the Theban coffin-makers who lived and worked under the latest princes of the royal line of Rameses.

A series of Graeco-Roman examples from the Fay?m exhibit the stages by which portraiture in the flat there replaced the modelled mask, until towards the middle of the second century A.D. it became customary to bandage over the face of the mummy a panel-portrait of the dead, as he was in life (fig. 264).

The remainder of the funerary outfit supplied the cabinet-maker with as much work as the coffin-maker. Boxes of various shapes and sizes were required for the wardrobe of the mummy, for his viscera, and for his funerary statuettes. He must also have tables for his meals; stools, chairs, a bed to lie upon, a boat and sledge to convey him to the tomb, and sometimes even a war-chariot and a carriage in which to take the air.[71] The boxes for canopic vases, funerary statuettes, and libation-vases, are divided in several compartments. A couchant jackal is sometimes placed on the top, and serves for a handle by which to take off the lid. Each box was provided with its own little sledge, upon which it was drawn in the funeral procession on the day of burial. Beds are not very uncommon. Many are identical in structure with the Nubian angarebs, and consist merely of some coarse fabric, or of interlaced strips of leather, stretched on a plain wooden frame. Few exceed fifty-six inches in length; the sleeper, therefore, could never lie outstretched, but must perforce assume a doubled-up position. The frame is generally horizontal, but sometimes it slopes slightly downwards from the head to the foot. It was often raised to a considerable height above the level of the floor, and a stool, or a little portable set of steps, was used in mounting it. These details were known to us by the wall-paintings only until I myself discovered two perfect specimens in 1884 and 1885; one at Thebes, in a tomb of the Thirteenth Dynasty, and the other at Ekhm?m, in the Graeco-Roman necropolis. In the former, two accommodating lions have elongated their bodies to form the framework, their heads doing duty for the head of the bed, and their tails being curled up under the feet of the sleeper.

Fig 265.--Carved and painted mummy canopy.

The bed is surmounted by a kind of canopy, under which the mummy lay in state. Rhind had already found a similar canopy, which is now in the Museum of Edinburgh[72] (fig. 265). In shape it is a temple, the rounded roof being supported by elegant colonnettes of painted wood. A doorway guarded by serpents is supposed to give access to the miniature edifice. Three winged discs, each larger than the one below it, adorn three superimposed cornices above the door, the whole frontage being surmounted by a row of erect uraei, crowned with the solar disc. The canopy belonging to the Thirteenth Dynasty bed is much more simple, being a mere balustrade in cut and painted wood, in imitation of the water-plant pattern with which temple walls were decorated; the whole is crowned with an ordinary cornice. In the bed of Graeco-Roman date (fig. 266), carved and painted figures of the goddess Ma, sitting with her feather on her knee, are substituted for the customary balustrades.

Fig 266.--Canopied mummy-couch, Graeco-Roman.

Isis and Nephthys stand with their winged arms outstretched at the head and foot. The roof is open, save for a row of vultures hovering above the mummy, which is wept over by two kneeling statuettes of Isis and Nephthys, one at each end. Fig 267.--Mummy-sledge and canopy.

The sledges upon which mummies were dragged to the sepulchre were also furnished with canopies, but in a totally different style. The sledge canopy is a panelled shrine, like those which I discovered in 1886, in the tomb of Sennetm? at K?rnet Murraee. If light was admitted, it came through a square opening, showing the head of the mummy within. Fig 268.--Inlaid-chair, Eleventh Dynasty.

Wilkinson gives an illustration of a sledge canopy of this kind, from the wall paintings of a Theban tomb (fig. 267). The panels were always made to slide. As soon as the mummy was laid upon his sledge, the panels were closed, the corniced roof placed over all, and the whole closed in. With regard to chairs, many of those in the Louvre and the British Museum were made about the time of the Eleventh Dynasty. These are not the least beautiful specimens which have come down to us, one in particular (fig. 268) having preserved an extraordinary brilliancy of colour. The framework, formerly fitted with a seat of strong netting, was originally supported on four legs with lions' feet. The back is ornamented with two lotus flowers, and with a row of lozenges inlaid in ivory and ebony upon a red ground. Stools of similar workmanship (fig. 269), and folding stools, the feet of which are in the form of a goose's head, may be seen in all museums. Fig 269.--Inlaid stool, Eleventh Dynasty.

Pharaohs and persons of high rank affected more elaborate designs. Their seats were sometimes raised very high, the arms being carved to resemble running lions, and the lower supports being prisoners of war, bound back to back (fig. 270). A foot-board in front served as a step to mount by, and as a foot-stool for the sitter. Up to the present time, we have found no specimens of this kind of seat.[73]

Fig 270.--Royal throne-chair, wall-painting Rameses III.

We learn from the tomb paintings that netted or cane-bottomed chairs were covered with stuffed seats and richly worked cushions. These cushions and stuffed seats have perished, but it is to be concluded that they were covered with tapestry. Tapestry was undoubtedly known to the Egyptians, and a bas-relief subject at Beni Hasan (fig. 271)[74] shows the process of weaving. The frame, which is of the simplest structure, resembles that now in use among the weavers of Ekhm?m. It is horizontal, and is formed of two slender cylinders, or rather of two rods, about fifty-four inches apart, each held in place by two large pegs driven into the ground about three feet distant from each other. The warps of the chain were strongly fastened, then rolled round the top cylinder till they were stretched sufficiently tight. Mill sticks placed at certain distances facilitated the insertion of the needles which carried the thread. As in the Gobelins factory, the work was begun from the bottom. The texture was regulated and equalised by means of a coarse comb, and was rolled upon the lower cylinder as it increased in length. Hangings and carpets were woven in this manner; some with figures, others with geometrical designs, zigzags, and chequers (fig. 272).

Fig 271.--Women weaving. From wall-scene in tomb of Khn?mhotep, Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty.

A careful examination of the monuments has, however, convinced me that most of the subjects hitherto supposed to represent examples of tapestry represent, in fact, examples of cut and painted leather. The leather- worker's craft flourished in ancient Egypt. Few museums are without a pair of leather sandals, or a specimen of mummy braces with ends of stamped leather bearing the effigy of a god, a Pharaoh, a hieroglyphic legend, a rosette, or perhaps all combined.

Fig 272.--Man weaving hangings, or carpet. From Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty.

These little relics are not older than the time of the priest-kings, or the earlier Bubastites. It is to the same period that we must attribute the great cut-leather canopy in the Gizeh Museum. The catafalque upon which the mummy was laid when transported from the mortuary establishment to the tomb, was frequently adorned with a covering made of stuff or soft leather. Sometimes the sidepieces hung down, and sometimes they were drawn aside with bands, like curtains, and showed the coffin.

The canopy of Deir el Bahar? was made for the Princess Isiemkheb, daughter of the High Priest Masahirti, wife of the High Priest Menkheperra, and mother of the High Priest Pinotem III.

Fig 273.--Border pattern of cut leather canopy of Isiemkheb, Twenty-first Dynasty.

The centrepiece, in shape an oblong square, is divided into three bands of sky-blue leather, now faded to pearl-grey. The two side-pieces are sprinkled with yellow stars. Upon the middle piece are rows of vultures, whose outspread wings protect the mummy. Four other pieces covered with red and green chequers are attached to the ends and sides. The longer pieces which hung over the sides are united to the centre-piece by an ornamental bordering. On the right, scarabaei with extended wings alternate with the cartouches of King Pinotem II., and are surmounted by a lance-head frieze. On the left side, the pattern is more complicated (fig. 273). In the centre we see a bunch of lotus lilies flanked by royal cartouches. Next come two antelopes, each kneeling upon a basket; then two bouquets of papyrus; then two more scarabaei, similar to those upon the other border. The lance-head frieze finishes it above, as on the opposite side. The technical process is very curious. The hieroglyphs and figures were cut out from large pieces of leather; then, under the open spaces thus left, were sewn thongs of leather of whatever colour was required for those ornaments or hieroglyphs. Finally, in order to hide the patchwork effect presented at the back, the whole was lined with long strips of white, or light yellow, leather.

Fig 274.--Bark with cut leather sail; wall-painting tomb of Rameses III.

Despite the difficulties of treatment which this work presented, the result is most remarkable.[75] The outlines of the gazelles, scarabaei, and flowers are as clean-cut and as elegant as if drawn with the pen upon a wall- surface or a page of papyrus. The choice of subjects is happy, and the colours employed are both lively and harmonious.The craftsmen who designed and executed the canopy of Isiemkheb had profited by a long experience of this system of decoration, and of the kind of patterns suitable to the material. For my own part, I have not the slightest doubt that the cushions of chairs and royal couches, and the sails of funeral and sacred boats used for the transport of mummies and divine images, were most frequently made in leather-work.

Fig 275.--Bark with cut leather sail; wall-painting tomb of Rameses III.

The chequer-patterned sail represented in one of the boat subjects painted on the wall of a chamber in the tomb of Rameses III. (fig. 274), might be mistaken for one of the side pieces of the canopy at Gizeh. The vultures and fantastic birds depicted upon the sails of another boat (fig. 275) are neither more strange nor more difficult to make in cut leather than the vultures and gazelles of Isiemkheb.

We have it upon the authority of ancient writers that the Egyptians of olden time embroidered as skilfully as those of the Middle Ages. The surcoats given by Amasis, one to the Lacedaemonians, and the other to the temple of Athena at Lindos, were of linen embroidered with figures of animals in gold thread and purple, each thread consisting of three hundred and sixty-five distinct filaments. To go back to a still earlier period, the monumental tableaux show portraits of the Pharaohs wearing garments with borders, either woven or embroidered, or done in appliqué work. The most simple patterns consist of one or more stripes of brilliant colour parallel with the edge of the material. Elsewhere we see palm patterns, or rows of discs and points, leaf-patterns, meanders, and even, here and there, figures of men, gods, or animals, worked most probably with the needle. None of the textile materials yet found upon royal mummies are thus decorated; we are therefore unable to pronounce upon the quality of this work, or the method employed in its production. Once only, upon the body of one of the Deir el Bahar? princesses, did I find a royal cartouche embroidered in pale rose-colour. The Egyptians of the best periods seem to have attached special value to plain stuffs, and especially to white ones. These they wove with marvellous skill, and upon looms in every respect identical with those used in tapestry work. Those portions of the winding sheet of Thothmes III. which enfolded the royal hands and arms, are as fine as the finest India muslin, and as fairly merit the name of "woven air" as the gauzes of the island of Cos. This, of course, is a mere question of manufacture, apart from the domain of art. Embroideries and tapestries were not commonly used in Egypt till about the end of the Persian period, or the beginning of the period of Greek rule. Alexandria became partly peopled by Phoenician, Syrian, and Jewish colonists, who brought with them the methods of manufacture peculiar to their own countries, and founded workshops which soon developed into flourishing establishments. It is to the Alexandrians that Pliny ascribes the invention of weaving with several warps, thus producing the stuff called brocades (polymita); and in the time of the first Caesars, it was a recognised fact that "the needle of Babylon was henceforth surpassed by the comb of the Nile." The Alexandrian tapestries were not made after exclusively geometrical designs, like the products of the old Egyptian looms; but, according to the testimony of the ancients, were enriched with figures of animals, and even of men. Of the masterpieces which adorned the palaces of the Ptolemies no specimens remain. Many fragments which may be attributed to the later Roman time have, however, been found in Egypt, such as the piece with the boy and goose described by Wilkinson, and a piece representing marine divinities bought by myself at Coptos.[76] The numerous embroidered winding sheets with woven borders which have recently been discovered near Ekhm?m, and in the Fay?m, are nearly all from Coptic tombs, and are more nearly akin to Byzantine art than to the art of Egypt.


The Egyptians classified metals under two heads--namely, the noble metals, as gold, electrum, and silver; and the base metals, as copper, iron, lead, and, at a later period, tin. The two lists are divided by the mention of certain kinds of precious stones, such as lapis lazuli and malachite.

Iron was reserved for weapons of war, and tools, in use for hard substances, such as sculptors' and masons' chisels, axe and adze heads, knife-blades, and saws. Lead was comparatively useless, but was sometimes used for inlaying temple-doors, coffers, and furniture. Also small statuettes of gods were occasionally made in this metal, especially those of Osiris and Anubis. Copper was too yielding to be available for objects in current use; bronze, therefore, was the favourite metal of the Egyptians. Though often affirmed, it is not true that they succeeded in tempering bronze so that it became as hard as iron or steel; but by varying the constituents and their relative proportions, they were able to give it a variety of very different qualities. Most of the objects hitherto analysed have yielded precisely the same quantities of copper and tin commonly used by the bronze founders of the present day. Those analysed by Vauquelin in 1825 contained 84 per cent. of copper 14 per cent. of tin, and 1 per cent. of iron and other substances. A chisel brought from Egypt by Sir Gardner Wilkinson contained only from 5 to 9 per cent. of tin, 1 per cent. of iron, and 94 of copper. Certain fragments of statuettes and mirrors more recently subjected to analysis have yielded a notable quantity of gold and silver, thus corresponding with the bronzes of Corinth. Other specimens resemble brass, both in their colour and substance. Many of the best Egyptian bronzes offer a surprising resistance to damp, and oxidise with difficulty. While yet hot from the mould, they were rubbed with some kind of resinous varnish which filled up the pores and deposited an unalterable patina upon the surface. Each kind of bronze had its special use. The ordinary bronze was employed for weapons and common amulets; the brazen alloys served for household utensils; the bronzes mixed with gold and silver were destined only for mirrors, costly weapons, and statuettes of value. In none of the tomb-paintings which I have seen is there any representation of bronze-founding or bronze-working; but this omission is easily supplemented by the objects themselves. Tools, arms, rings, and cheap vases were sometimes forged, and sometimes cast whole in moulds of hard clay or stone. Works of art were cast in one or several pieces according to circumstances; the parts were then united, soldered, and retouched with the burin. The method most frequently employed was to prepare a core of mixed clay and charcoal, or sand, which roughly reproduced the modelling of the mould into which it was introduced. The layer of metal between this core and the mould was often so thin that it would have yielded to any moderate pressure, had they not taken the precaution to consolidate it by having the core for a support.

Domestic utensils and small household instruments were mostly made in bronze. Fig 276.--Bronze jug.

Such objects are exhibited by thousands in our museums, and frequently figure in bas-reliefs and mural paintings. Art and trade were not incompatible in Egypt; and even the coppersmith sought to give elegance of form, and to add ornaments in a good style, to the humblest of his works. The saucepan in which the cook of Rameses III. concocted his masterpieces is supported on lions' feet. Here is a hot-water jug which looks as if it were precisely like its modern successors (fig. 276); but on a closer examination we shall find that the handle is a full-blown lotus, the petals, which are bent over at an angle to the stalk, resting against the edge of the neck (fig. 277). Fig 277.--Same jug seen from above.

The handles of knives and spoons are almost always in the form of a duck's or goose's neck, slightly curved. The bowl is sometimes fashioned like an animal--as, for instance, a gazelle ready bound for the sacrifice (fig. 278). On the hilt of a sabre we find a little crouching jackal; and the larger limb of a pair of scissors in the Gizeh Museum is made in the likeness of an Asiatic captive, his arms tied behind his back. A lotus leaf forms the disk of a mirror, and its stem is the handle. One perfume box is a fish, another is a bird, another is a grotesque deity. The lustration vases, or situlae, carried by priests and priestesses for the purpose of sprinkling either the faithful, or the ground traversed by religious processions, merit the special consideration of connoisseurs. Fig 278.--Spoon (or lamp?).

They are ovoid or pointed at the bottom, and decorated with subjects either chased or in relief. These sometimes represent deities, each in a separate frame, and sometimes scenes of worship. The work is generally very minute.

Bronze came into use for statuary purposes from a very early period; but time unfortunately has preserved none of those idols which peopled the temples of the ancient empire. Whatsoever may be said to the contrary, we possess no bronze statuettes of any period anterior to the expulsion of the Hyksos. Some Theban figures date quite certainly from the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties. The chased lion's head found with the jewels of Queen Aahhotep, the Harpocrates of Gizeh inscribed with the names of Kames and Ahmes I., and several statuettes of Amen, said to have been discovered at Medinet Hab? and Sheikh Abd el G?rneh, are of that period. Our most important bronzes belong, however, to the Twenty-second Dynasty, or, later still, to the time of the Sa?te Pharaohs. Many are not older than the first Ptolemies. A fragment found in the ruins of Tanis and now in the possession of Count Stroganoff, formed part of a votive statue dedicated by King Pisebkhan?. Fig 279.--Bronze statuette of the Lady Tak?shet.

It was originally two-thirds the size of life, and is the largest specimen known. A portrait statuette of the Lady Tak?shet, given to the Museum of Athens by M. Demetrio, the four statuettes from the Posno collection now at the Louvre, and the kneeling genius of Gizeh, are all from the site of Bubastis, and date probably from the years which immediately preceded the accession of Psammetichus I. The Lady Tak?shet is standing, the left foot advanced, the right arm hanging down, the left raised and brought close to the body (fig. 279). She wears a short robe embroidered with religious subjects, and has bracelets on her arms and wrists. Upon her head she has a wig with flat curls, row above row. The details both of her robe and jewels are engraved in incised lines upon the surface of the bronze, and inlaid with silver threads. The face is evidently a portrait, and represents a woman of mature age. Fig 280.--Bronze statuette of Horus.

The form, according to the traditions of Egyptian art, is that of a younger woman, slender, firm, and supple. The copper in this bronze is largely intermixed with gold, thus producing a chastened lustre which is admirably suited to the richness of the embroidered garment. The kneeling genius of Gizeh is as rude and repellent as the Lady Tak?shet is delicate and harmonious. He has a hawk's head, and he worships the sun, as is the duty of the Heliopolitan genii. His right arm is uplifted, his left is pressed to his breast. The style of the whole is dry, and the granulated surface of the skin adds to the hard effect of the figure. The action, however, is energetic and correct, and the bird's head is adjusted with surprising skill to the man's neck and shoulders. The same qualities and the same faults distinguish the Horus of the Posno collection (fig. 280). Standing, he uplifted a libation vase; now lost, and poured the contents upon a king who once stood face to face with him. This roughness of treatment is less apparent in the other three Posno figures; above all in that which bears the name of Mos? engraved over the place of the heart (fig. 281). Fig 281.--Bronze statuette of one Mos?.

Like the Horus, this Mos? stands upright, his left foot advanced, and his left arm pendent. His right hand is raised, as grasping the wand of office. The trunk is naked, and round his loins he wears a striped cloth with a squared end falling in front. His head is clad in a short wig covered with short curls piled one above the other. The ear is round and large. The eyes are well opened, and were originally of silver; but have been stolen by some Arab. The features have a remarkable expression of pride and dignity. After these, what can be said for the thousands of statuettes of Osiris, of Isis, of Nephthys, of Horus, of Nefert?m, which have been found in the sands and ruins of Sakkarah, Bubastis, and other cities of the Delta? Many are, without doubt, charming objects for glass-cases, and are to be admired for perfection of casting and delicacy of execution; but the greater number are mere articles of commerce, made upon the same pattern, and perhaps in the self-same moulds, century after century, for the delight of devotees and pilgrims. They are rounded, vulgar, destitute of originality, and have no more distinction than the thousands of coloured statuettes of saints and Virgins which stock the shelves of our modern dealers in pious wares. An exception must, however, be made in favour of the images of animals, such as rams, sphinxes, and lions, which to the last retained a more pronounced stamp of individuality. The Egyptians had a special predilection for the feline race. They have represented the lion in every attitude--giving chase to the antelope; springing upon the hunter; wounded, and turning to bite his wound; couchant, and disdainfully calm--and no people have depicted him with a more thorough knowledge of his habits, or with so intense a vitality. Several gods and goddesses, as Sh?, Anh?r, Bast, Sekhet, Tefn?t, have the form of the lion or of the cat; and inasmuch as the worship of these deities was more popular in the Delta than elsewhere, so there never passes a year when from amid the ruins of Bubastis, Tanis, Mendes, or some less famous city, there is not dug up a store of little figures of lions and lionesses, or of men and women with lions' heads, or cats' heads. The cats of Bubastis and the lions of Tell es Seba crowd our museums. The lions of Horbeit may be reckoned among the chefs-d'oeuvre of Egyptian statuary. Upon one of the largest among them is inscribed the name of Apries (fig. 282); but if even this evidence were lacking, the style of the piece would compel us to attribute it to the Sa?te period. It formed part of the ornamentation of a temple or naos door; and the other side was either built into a wall or imbedded in a piece of wood. The lion is caught in a trap, or, perhaps, lying down in an oblong cage, with only his head and fore feet outside. The lines of the body are simple and full of power; the expression of the face is calm and strong. In breadth and majesty he almost equals the fine limestone lions of Amenhotep III.

Fig 282.--Bronze lion from Horbeit, Sa?te.

The idea of inlaying gold and other precious metals upon the surface of bronze, stone, or wood was already ancient in Egypt in the time of Kh?f?. The gold is often amalgamated with pure silver. When amalgamated to the extent of 20 per cent, it changes its name, and is called electrum (asim?). This electrum is of a fine light-yellow colour. It pales as the proportion of silver becomes larger, and at 60 per cent. it is nearly white. The silver came chiefly from Asia, in rings, sheets, and bricks of standard weight. The gold and electrum came partly from Syria in bricks and rings; and partly from the Soudan in nuggets and gold-dust. The processes of refining and alloying are figured on certain monuments of the early dynasties. In a bas-relief at Sakkarah, we see the weighed gold entrusted to the craftsman for working; in another example (at Beni Hasan) the washing and melting down of the ore is represented; and again at Thebes, the goldsmith is depicted seated in front of his crucible, holding the blow-pipe to his lips with the left hand, and grasping his pincers with the right, thus fanning the flame and at the same time making ready to seize the ingot (fig. 283). The Egyptians struck neither coins nor medals. Fig 283.--Gold worker.

With these exceptions, they made the same use of the precious metals as we do ourselves. We gild the crosses and cupolas of our churches; they covered the doors of their temples, the lower part of their wall-surfaces, certain bas-reliefs, pyramidions of obelisks, and even whole obelisks, with plates of gold. The obelisks of Queen Hatsheps?t at Karnak were coated with electrum. "They were visible from both banks of the Nile, and when the sun rose between them as he came up from the heavenly horizon, they flooded the two Egypts with their dazzling rays."[77] These plates of metal were forged with hammer and anvil. For smaller objects, they made use of little pellets beaten flat between two pieces of parchment. In the Museum of the Louvre we have a gilder's book, and the gold-leaf which it contains is as thin as the gold-leaf used by the German goldsmiths of the past century. Gold was applied to bronze surfaces by means of an ammoniacal solvent. If the object to be gilt were a wooden statuette, the workman began by sticking a piece of fine linen all over the surface, or by covering it with a very thin coat of plaster; upon this he laid his gold or silver leaf. It was thus that wooden statuettes of Thoth, Horus, and Nefert?m were gilded, from the time of Kh?f?. The temple of Isis, the "Lady of the Pyramid," contained a dozen such images; and this temple was not one of the largest in the Memphite necropolis. There would seem to have been hundreds of gilded statues in the Theban temples, at all events in the time of the victorious dynasties of the new empire; and as regards wealth, the Ptolemaic sanctuaries were in no wise inferior to those of the Theban period.

Bronze and gilded wood were not always good enough for the gods of Egypt. They exacted pure gold, and their worshippers gave them as much of it as possible. Entire statues of the precious metals were dedicated by the kings of the ancient and middle empires; and the Pharaohs of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties, who drew at will upon the treasures of Asia, transcended all that had been done by their predecessors. Even in times of decadence, the feudal lords kept up the traditions of the past, and, like Prince Ment?emhat, replaced the images of gold and silver which had been carried off from Karnak by the generals of Sardanapalus at the time of the Assyrian invasions. The quantity of metal thus consecrated to the service of the gods must have been considerable, If many figures were less than an inch in height, many others measured three cubits, or more. Some were of gold, some of silver; others were part gold and part silver. There were even some which combined gold with sculptured ivory, ebony, and precious stones, thus closely resembling the chryselephantine statues of the Greeks. Aided by the bas-relief subjects of Karnak, Medinet Hab?, and De

nderah, as well as by the statues in wood and limestone which have come down to our day, we can tell exactly what they were like. However the material might vary, the style was always the same. Nothing is more perishable than works of this description. They are foredoomed to destruction by the mere value of the materials in which they are made. What civil war and foreign invasion had spared, and what had chanced to escape the rapacity of Roman princes and governors, fell a prey to Christian iconoclasm. A few tiny statuettes buried as amulets upon the bodies of mummies, a few domestic divinities buried in the ruins of private houses, a few ex-votos forgotten, perchance, in some dark corner of a fallen sanctuary, have escaped till the present day. The Ptah and Amen of Queen Aahhotep, another golden Amen also at Gizeh, and the silver vulture found in 1885 at Medinet Hab?, are the only pieces of this kind which can be attributed with certainty to the great period of Egyptian art. The remainder are of Sa?te or Ptolemaic work, and are remarkable only for the perfection with which they are wrought. Fig 284.--Golden cup of General Tah?ti, Eighteenth Dynasty.

The gold and silver vessels used in the service of the temples, and in the houses of private persons, shared the fate of the statues. At the beginning of the present century, the Louvre acquired some flat-bottomed cups which Thothmes III. presented as the reward of valour to one of his generals named Tah?ti. The silver cup is much mutilated, but the golden cup is intact and elegantly designed (fig. 284). The upright sides are adorned with a hieroglyphic legend. A central rosette is engraved at the bottom. Six fish are represented in the act of swimming round the rosette; and these again are surrounded by a border of lotus-bells united by a curved line. Fig 285.--Silver vase of Thm?is.

The five vases of Thm?is, in the Gizeh Museum, are of silver. They formed part of the treasure of the temple, and had been buried in a hiding-place, where they remained till our own day. We have no indication of their probable age; but whether they belong to the Greek or the Theban period, the workmanship is purely Egyptian. Of one vessel, only the cover is left, the handle being formed of two flowers upon one stem. The others are perfect, and are decorated in repoussé work with lotus-lilies in bud and blossom (fig. 285). The form is simple and elegant, the ornamentation sober and delicate; the relief low. Fig 286.--Silver vase of Thm?is.

One is, however, surrounded by a row of ovoid bosses (fig. 286), which project in high relief, and somewhat alter the shape of the body of the vase. These are interesting specimens; but they are so few in number that, were it not for the wall-paintings, we should have but a very imperfect idea of the skill of the Egyptian goldsmiths.

The Pharaohs had not our commercial resources, and could not circulate the gold and silver tribute-offerings of conquered nations in the form of coin. When the gods had received their share of the booty, there was no alternative but to melt the rest down into ingots, fashion it into personal ornaments, or convert it into gold and silver plate. Fig 287.--Ornamental basket in precious metal. From wall-painting, Twentieth Dynasty.

What was true of the kings held good also for their subjects. For the space of at least six or eight centuries, dating from the time of Ahmes I., the taste for plate was carried to excess. Every good house was not only stocked with all that was needful for the service of the table, such as cups, goblets, plates, ewers, and ornamental baskets chased with figures of fantastic animals (fig. 287); but also with large ornamental vases which were dressed with flowers, and displayed to visitors on gala days. Some of these vases were of extraordinary richness. Here, for instance, is a crater, the handles modelled as two papyrus buds, and the foot as a full-blown papyrus. Fig 288.--Crater of precious metal, borne by slaves. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Fig 289.--Enamelled cruet. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Two Asiatic slaves in sumptuous garments are represented in the act of upheaving it with all their strength (fig. 288). Here, again, is a kind of hydria with a lid in the form of an inverted lotus flanked by the heads of two gazelles (fig. 289). The heads and necks of two horses, bridled and fully caparisoned, stand back to back on either side of the foot of the vase. The body is divided into a series of horizontal zones, the middle zone being in the likeness of a marshland, with an antelope coursing at full speed among the reeds. Two enamelled cruets (fig. 290) have elaborately wrought lids, one fashioned as the head of a plumed eagle, and the other as the head of the god Bes flanked by two vipers (fig. 291). But foremost among them all is a golden centrepiece offered by a viceroy of Ethiopia to Amenhotep III. Fig 290.--Enamelled cruet. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Fig 291.--Enamelled cruet. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

The design reproduces one of the most popular subjects connected with the foreign conquests of Egypt (fig. 292). Men and apes are seen gathering fruits in a forest of d?m palms. Two natives, each with a single feather on his head and a striped kilt about his loins, lead tame giraffes with halters. Others, apparently of the same nationality, kneel with upraised hands, as if begging for quarter. Two negro prisoners lying face downwards upon the ground, lift their heads with difficulty. A large vase with a short foot and a lofty cone-shaped cover stands amid the trees.[78] The craftsmen who made this piece evidently valued elegance and beauty less than richness. They cared little for the heavy effect and bad taste of the whole, provided only that they were praised for their skill, and for the quantity of metal which they had succeeded in using. Fig 292.--Gold centre-piece of Amenhotep III. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

Other vases of the same type, pictured in a scene of presentations to Rameses II. in the great temple of Ab? Simbel, vary the subject by showing buffaloes running in and out among the trees, in place of led giraffes. These were costly playthings wrought in gold, such as the Byzantine emperors of the ninth century accumulated in their palace of Magnaura, and which they exhibited on state occasions in order to impress foreigners with a profound sense of their riches and power. Fig 293.--Crater of precious metal. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

When a victorious Pharaoh returned from a distant campaign, the vessels of gold and silver which formed part of his booty figured in the triumphal procession, together with his train of foreign captives. Vases in daily use were of slighter make and less encumbered with inconvenient ornaments. The two leopards which serve as handles to a crater of the time of Thothmes III. (fig. 293) are not well proportioned, neither do they combine agreeably with the curves of the vase; Fig 294.--Cup of precious metal. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

but the accompanying cup (fig. 294), and a cruet belonging to the same service (fig. 295), are very happily conceived, and have much purity of form. Fig 295.--Cruet of precious metal. Wall-painting, Eighteenth Dynasty.

These vessels of engraved and repoussé gold and silver, some representing hunting scenes and incidents of battle, were imitated by Phoenician craftsmen, and, being exported to Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, carried Egyptian patterns and subjects into distant lands. The passion for precious metals was pushed to such extremes under the reigns of the Ramessides that it was no longer enough to use them only at table. Rameses II. and Rameses III. had thrones of gold--not merely of wood plated with gold, but made of the solid metal and set with precious stones. These things were too valuable to escape destruction, and were the first to disappear. Their artistic value, however, by no means equalled their intrinsic value, and the loss is not one for which we need be inconsolable.

Orientals, men and women alike, are great lovers of jewellery. The Egyptians were no exception to this rule. Not satisfied to adorn themselves when living with a profusion of trinkets, they loaded the arms, the fingers, the neck, the ears, the brow, and the ankles of their dead with more or less costly ornaments. Fig 296.--Bezel signet-ring.

The quantity thus buried in tombs was so considerable that even now, after thirty centuries of active search, we find from time to time mummies which are, so to say, cuirassed in gold. Much of this funerary jewellery was made merely for show on the day of the funeral, and betrays its purpose by the slightness of the workmanship. The favourite jewels of the deceased person were, nevertheless, frequently buried with him, and the style and finish of these leave nothing to be desired. Chains and rings have come down to us in large numbers, as indeed might be expected. The ring, in fact, was not a simple ornament, but an actual necessary. Official documents were not signed, but sealed; and the seal was good in law. Every Egyptian, therefore, had his seal, which he kept about his person, ready for use if required. The poor man's seal was a simple copper or silver ring; the ring of the rich man was a more or less elaborate jewel covered with chasing and relief work. The bezel was movable, and turned upon a pivot. It was frequently set with some kind of stone engraved with the owner's emblem or device; as, for example, a scorpion (fig. 296), a lion, a hawk, or a cynocephalous ape. As in the eyes of her husband his ring was the one essential ornament, so was her necklace in the estimation of the Egyptian lady. I have seen a chain in silver which measured sixty-three inches in length. Others, on the contrary, do not exceed two, or two and a half inches. They are of all sizes and patterns, some consisting of two or three twists, some of large links, some of small links, some massive and heavy, others as light and flexible as the finest Venetian filigree. The humblest peasant girl, as well as the lady of highest rank, might have her necklet; and the woman must be poor indeed whose little store comprised no other ornament. No mere catalogue of bracelets, diadems, collarettes, or insignia of nobility could give an idea of the number and variety of jewels known to us by pictured representations or existing specimens. Pectorals of gold cloisonné work inlaid with vitreous paste or precious stones, and which bear the cartouches of Amenemhat II., ?sertesen II., and ?sertesen III. (fig. 297), exhibit a marvellous precision of taste, lightness of touch, and dexterity of fine workmanship. So fresh and delicate are they we forget that the royal ladies to whom they belonged have been dead, and their bodies stiffened and disfigured into mummies, for nearly five thousand years. At Berlin may be seen the parure of an Ethiopian Candace; at the Louvre we have the jewels of Prince Psar; at Gizeh are preserved the ornaments of Queen Aahhotep. Aahhotep was the wife of Kames, a king of the Seventeenth Dynasty, and she was probably the mother of Ahmes I., first king of the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her mummy had been stolen by one of the robber bands which infested the Theban necropolis towards the close of the Twentieth Dynasty.

Fig 297.--Gold cloisonné pectoral bearing cartouche of ?sertesen III. From Dahsh?r, found 1894, and now in the Gizeh Museum.

They buried the royal corpse till such time as they might have leisure to despoil it in safety; and they were most likely seized and executed before they could carry that pretty little project into effect. The secret of their hiding-place perished with them, till discovered in 1860 by some Arab diggers. Fig 298.--Mirror of Queen Aahhotep.

Most of the objects which this queen took with her into the next world were exclusively women's gear; as a fan-handle plated with gold, a bronze-gilt mirror mounted upon an ebony handle enriched with a lotus in chased gold (fig. 298). Her bracelets are of various types. Some are anklets and armlets, and consist merely of plain gold rings, both solid and hollow, bordered with plaited chainwork in imitation of filigree. Others are for wearing on the wrist, like the bracelets of modern ladies, and are made of small beads in gold, lapis lazuli, carnelian, and green felspar. These are strung on gold wire in a chequer pattern, each square divided diagonally in halves of different colours. Two gold plates, very lightly engraved with the cartouches of Ahmes I., are connected by means of a gold pin, and form the fastening. A fine bracelet in the form of two semicircles joined by a hinge (fig. 299), also bears the name of Ahmes I.

Fig 299.--Bracelet of Queen Aahhotep, bearing cartouche of King Ahmes I.

The make of this jewel reminds us of cloisonné enamels. Ahmes kneels in the presence of the god Seb and his acolytes, the genii of Sop and Khon?.

The figures and hieroglyphs are cut out in solid gold, delicately engraved with the burin, and stand in relief upon a ground-surface filled in with pieces of blue paste and lapis lazuli artistically cut. Fig 300.--Bracelet of Queen Aahhotep.

A bracelet of more complicated workmanship, though of inferior execution, was found on the wrist of the queen (fig. 300). It is of massive gold, and consists of three parallel bands set with turquoises. On the front a vulture is represented with outspread wings, the feathers composed of green enamel, lapis lazuli, and carnelian, set in "cloisons" of gold. The hair of the mummy was drawn through a massive gold diadem, scarcely as large as a bracelet. Fig 301.--Diadem of Queen Aahhotep.

The name of Ahmes is incrusted in blue paste upon an oblong plaque in the centre, flanked at each side by two little sphinxes which seem as if in the act of keeping watch over the inscription (fig. 301). Round her neck was a large flexible gold chain, finished at each end by a goose's head reversed. These heads could be linked one in the other, when the chain needed to be fastened. The scarabaeus pendant to this chain is incrusted upon the shoulder and wing-sheaths with blue glass paste rayed with gold, the legs and body being in massive gold. The royal parure was completed by a large collar of the kind known as the ?sekh (fig. 302).

Fig 302.--Gold "?sekh" of Queen Aahhotep.

It is finished at each end with a golden hawk's head inlaid with blue enamel, and consists of rows of scrolls, four-petalled fleurettes, hawks, vultures, winged uraei, crouching jackals, and figures of antelopes pursued by tigers. Fig 303.--Pectoral of Queen Aahhotep, bearing cartouche of King Ahmes I.

The whole of these ornaments are of gold repoussé work, and they were sewn upon the royal winding sheet by means of a small ring soldered to the back of each. Upon the breast, below this collar, hung a square jewel of the kind known as "pectoral ornaments" (fig. 303). The general form is that of a naos, or shrine. Ahmes stands upright in a papyrus-bark, between Amen and Ra, who pour the water of purification upon his head and body. Fig 304.--Poignard of Queen Aahhotep, bearing cartouche of King Ahmes.

Two hawks hover to right and left of the king, above the heads of the gods. The figures are outlined in cloisons of gold, and these were filled in with little plaques of precious stones and enamel, many of which have fallen out. The effect of this piece is somewhat heavy, and if considered apart from the rest of the parure, its purpose might seem somewhat obscure. In order to form a correct judgment, we have, however, to remember in what fashion the women of ancient Egypt were clad. They wore a kind of smock of semi-transparent material, which came very little higher than the waist. The chest and bosom, neck and shoulders, were bare; and the one garment was kept in place by only a slender pair of braces. The rich clothed these uncovered parts with jewellery. The ?sekh collar half hid the shoulders and chest. The pectoral masked the hollow between the breasts. Sometimes even the breasts were covered with two golden cups, either painted or enamelled. Besides the jewels found upon the mummy of Queen Aahhotep, a number of arms and amulets were heaped inside her coffin; namely, three massive gold flies hanging from a slender chain; nine small hatchets, three of gold and six of silver; a golden lion's head of very minute workmanship; a wooden sceptre set in gold spirals; two anklets; and two poignards. One of these poignards (fig. 304) has a golden sheath and a wooden hilt inlaid with triangular mosaics of carnelian, lapis lazuli, felspar, and gold. Fig 305.--Poignard of Queen Aahhotep, bearing cartouche of King Ahmes.

Four female heads in gold repoussé form the pommel; and a bull's head reversed covers the junction of blade and hilt. The edges of the blade are of massive gold; the centre of black bronze damascened with gold. On one side is the solar cartouche of Ahmes, below which a lion pursues a bull, the remaining space being filled in with four grasshoppers in a row. On the other side we have the family name of Ahmes and a series of full- blown flowers issuing one from another and diminishing towards the point. A poignard found at Mycenae by Dr. Schliemann is similarly decorated; the Phoenicians, who were industrious copyists of Egyptian models, probably introduced this pattern into Greece. The second poignard is of a make not uncommon to this day in Persia and India (fig. 305). The blade is of yellowish bronze fixed into a disk-shaped hilt of silver. When wielded, this lenticular[79] disk fits to the hollow of the hand, the blade coming between the first and second fingers. Of what use, it may be asked, were all these weapons to a woman--and a dead woman? To this we may reply that the other world was peopled with foes--Typhonian genii, serpents, gigantic scorpions, tortoises, monsters of every description--against which it was incessantly needful to do battle. Fig 306.--Funerary battle-axe of Queen Aahhotep, bearing cartouche of King Ahmes I.

The poignards placed inside the coffin for the self-defence of the soul were useful only for fighting at close quarters; certain weapons of a projectile kind were therefore added, such as bows and arrows, boomerangs made in hard wood, and a battle-axe. The handle of this axe is fashioned of cedar-wood covered with sheet gold (fig. 306). The legend of Ahmes is inlaid thereon in characters of lapis lazuli, carnelian, turquoise, and green felspar. The blade is fixed in a cleft of the wood, and held in place by a plait-work of gold wire. It is of black bronze, formerly gilt. On one side, it is ornamented with lotus flowers upon a gold ground; on the other, Ahmes is represented in the act of slaying a barbarian, whom he grasps by the hair of the head. Beneath this group, Ment?, the Egyptian war-god, is symbolised by a griffin with the head of an eagle. In addition to all these objects, there were two small boats, one in gold and one in silver, emblematic of the bark in which the mummy must cross the river to her last home, and of that other bark in which she would ultimately navigate the waters of the West, in company with the immortal gods. When found, the silver boat rested upon a wooden truck with four bronze wheels; but as it was in a very dilapidated state, it has been dismounted and replaced by the golden boat (fig. 307). The hull is long and slight, the prow and stem are elevated, and terminate in gracefully-curved papyrus blossoms. Two little platforms surrounded by balustrades on a panelled ground are at the prow and on the poop, like quarter-decks. The pilot stands upon the one, and the steersman before the other, with a large oar in his hand.

Fig 307.--Funerary bark of Queen Aahhotep.

This oar takes the place of the modern helm. Twelve boatmen in solid silver are rowing under the orders of these two officers; Kames himself being seated in the centre, hatchet and sceptre in hand. Such were some of the objects buried with one single mummy; and I have even now enumerated only the most remarkable among them. The technical processes throughout are irreproachable, and the correct taste of the craftsman is in no wise inferior to his dexterity of hand. Having arrived at the perfection displayed in the parure of Aahhotep, the goldsmith's art did not long maintain so high a level. The fashions changed, and jewellery became heavier in design. The ring of Rameses II., with his horses standing upon the bezel (fig. 308), and the bracelet of Prince Psar, with his griffins and lotus flowers in cloisonné enamel (fig. 309), both in the Louvre, are less happily conceived than the bracelets of Ahmes. Fig 308.--Ring of Rameses II.

The craftsmen who made these ornaments were doubtless as skilful as the craftsmen of the time of Queen Aahhotep, but they had less taste and less invention. Rameses II. was condemned either to forego the pleasure of wearing his ring, or to see his little horses damaged and broken off by the least accident. Already noticeable in the time of the Nineteenth Dynasty, this decadence becomes more marked as we approach the Christian era.

Fig 309.--Bracelet of Prince Psar.

The earrings of Rameses IX. in the Gizeh Museum are an ungraceful assemblage of filigree disks, short chains, and pendent uraei, such as no human ear could have carried without being torn, or pulled out of shape. They were attached to each side of the wig upon the head of the mummy. The bracelets of the High Priest Pinotem III., found upon his mummy, are mere round rings of gold incrusted with pieces of coloured glass and carnelian, like those still made by the Soudanese blacks. The Greek invasion began by modifying the style of Egyptian gold-work, and ended by gradually substituting Greek types for native types. The jewels of an Ethiopian queen, purchased from Ferlini by the Berlin Museum, contained not only some ornaments which might readily have been attributed to Pharaonic times, but others of a mixed style in which Hellenic influences are distinctly traceable. The treasure discovered at Zagazig in 1878, at Keneh in 1881, and at Damanh?r in 1882, consisted of objects having nothing whatever in common with Egyptian traditions. They comprise hairpins supporting statuettes of Venus, zone-buckles, agraffes for fastening the peplum, rings and bracelets set with cameos, and caskets ornamented at the four corners with little Ionic columns. The old patterns, however, were still in request in remote provincial places, and village goldsmiths adhered "indifferent well" to the antique traditions of their craft. Their city brethren had meanwhile no skill to do aught but make clumsy copies of Greek and Roman originals.

In this rapid sketch of the industrial arts there are many lacunae. When referring to examples, I have perforce limited myself to such as are contained in the best-known collections. How many more might not be discovered if one had leisure to visit provincial museums, and trace what the hazard of sales may have dispersed through private collections! The variety of small monuments due to the industry of ancient Egypt is infinite, and a methodical study of those monuments has yet to be made. It is a task which promises many surprises to whomsoever shall undertake it.


For the following notes, to which reference numbers will be found in the text, I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. W.M. Flinders Petrie, author of "The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" (Field & Tuer), "Tanis" (Egypt Exploration Fund), "Naukratis" (Egypt Exploration Fund), etc., etc.


(1) More striking than these are the towns of Tell Atrib, Kom Baglieh, Kom Ab? Bill?, and Tell Nebesheh, the houses of which may be traced without any special excavations.

(2) There is much skill needed in mixing the mud and sand in such proportions as to dry properly; when rightly adjusted there is no cracking in drying, and the grains of sand prevent the mud from being washed away in the rains.

(3) In the Delta, at least, the sizes of bricks from the Twenty-first Dynasty down to Arab times decrease very regularly; under the Twenty-first Dynasty they are about 18 x 9 x 5 inches; early in the Twenty-sixth, 16-1/2 x 8-1/4 x 5; later 15 x 7- 1/2; in early Ptolemaic times, 14 x 7; in Roman times, 12 x 6, in Byzantine times, 10 x 5; and Arab bricks are 8 x 4, and continue so very generally to our times. The thickness is always least certain, as it depends on the amount placed in the mould, but the length and breadth may in most cases be accepted as a very useful chronological scale.

(4) They are found of Ramesside age at Nebesheh and Defenneh; even there they are rare, and these are the only cases I have yet seen in Egypt earlier than about the third century A.D.

(5) This system was sometimes used to raise a fort above the plain, as at Defenneh; or the chambers formed store-rooms, as at the fort at Naukratis.

(6) In the fine early work at Gizeh they sawed the paving blocks of basalt, and then ground only just the edges flat, while all the inside of the joint was picked rough to hold the mortar.

(7) A usual plan in early times was to dress the joint faces of the block in the quarry, leaving its outer face with a rough excess of a few inches; the excess still remains on the granite casing of the pyramid of Menkara, and the result of dressing it away may be seen in the corners of the granite temple at Gizeh.

(8) Otherwise called the Granite Temple of Gizeh, or Temple of Khafra, as its connection with the Sphinx is much disputed, while it is in direct communication with the temple of the pyramid of Khafra, by a causeway in line with the entrance passage.

(9) The casing of the open air court on the top of it was of fine limestone; only a few blocks of this remain. For full plan and measurements see Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh.

(10) One of the air slits, or ventilators, remains complete, opening to the upper court, from the top of the niche chamber.

(11) Below these lines, there is often a scene of offering at the bottom of the Obelisk.

(12) Mastaba is the Arabic name for a bench or platform, and was applied by the natives to such tombs on account of the resemblance in shape.

(13) In the few cases where the top remains perfect at Gizeh, the side ends in a parabolic curve which turns over into the top surface without any cornice or moulding; the tops of walls in the courts of mastabas are similar.

(14) Another view is that they are derived from the cumulative mastabas, such as the so-called step pyramid of Sakkarah.

(15) In the later pyramids; but the Gizeh pyramids are entirely built of T?rah limestone.

(16) Still more conclusive is the fact that in the greatest of the pyramids the passages are such that it would have been impossible to build it by successive coats of enlargement.

(17) In only one case (that of Menkara) has a pyramid been clearly enlarged, and that was done at one step and not by many stages.

(18) The earliest-- at Gizeh--are very accurate.

(19) These slabs of pavement do not extend beneath the pyramid, but only around it.

(20) Only fragments of the finest limestone casing have been found; the variety of colour was probably due to weathering.

(21) This would be impossible with the exquisitely fine joints of the masonry; a temporary staging of stone built up over part of the finished face would easily allow of raising the stones.

(22) There is no evidence that the facing block which covered the granite plugs was of granite; it was more probably of limestone.

(23) The entrance to the upper passages was never forced from the entrance passage, but was accidentally found by the Arabs, after they had forced a long tunnel in the masonry, being in ignorance of the real entrance, which was probably concealed by a hinging block of stone.

(24) Or rather it rose at an angle of 23-1/2°, like the descent of the entrance passage, thus making angles of 47° and 133° with it.

(25) This gallery has obtained a great reputation for the fineness of its joints, perhaps because they are coarse enough to be easily seen; but some joints of the entrance passage, and the joints in the queen's chamber, are hardly visible with the closest inspection.

(26) The only signs of portcullises are those in the vestibule or antechamber.

(27) No traces of three of the portcullises remain, if they ever existed, and the other never could reach the floor or interrupt the passage, so its use is enigmatical.

(28) There is some evidence that the pyramid was opened in the early days, perhaps before the middle kingdom.

(29) Two rows of beams which rest on the side wall as corbels or cantilevers, only touching at the top, without necessarily any thrust. Such at least is the case in the queen's chamber, and in the pyramid of Pepi, where such a roof is used.

(30) The end walls have sunk throughout a considerable amount, and the side walls have separated; thus all the beams of the upper chambers have been dragged, and every beam of the roof of the chamber is broken through. This is probably the result of earthquakes.

(31) This only covered the lower sixteen courses; the larger part above it was of limestone.

(32) Similar finished faces may be seen as far in as near the middle of the mass. This is not a true pyramid in form, but a cumulative mastaba, the faces of which are at the mastaba angle (75°), and the successive enlargements of which are shown by numerous finished facings now within the masonry. The step form is the result of carrying upwards the mastaba form, at the same time that it was enlarged outwards.

(33) Not in all cases apparently, for the hieroglyphs on the passage of Pepi's pyramid are not injured, as they would be if plugs had been withdrawn.

(34) Pepi's roof is formed by a row of large beams which rested independently on the side walls as corbels or cantilevers (see Note 29).

(35) The mastaba angle is 75°, and the pyramid angle 50° to 55°.

(36) Its present appearance is an accident of its demolition; it was originally, like the "step-pyramid" of Sakkarah, a cumulative mastaba, as is shown by the remains of the lower steps still in the mounds at its base, and by the mediaeval description of it.


[1] Many of the rooms at Kahun had vaulted ceilings.

[2] Seventeenth to Twentieth Dynasties.

[3] At Medinet Hab?.

[4] The bas-relief sculpture from which the illustration, fig. 42, is taken (outer wall of Hypostyle Hall, Karnak, north end) represents Seti I. returning in triumph from one of his Syrian campaigns. He is met at Zar? by the great officers of his court, who bring bouquets of lotus-blossoms in their hands. Pithom and other frontier forts are depicted in this tableau, and Pithom is apparently not very far from Zar?. Zar?, Zalu, is the Selle of the Roman Itineraries.--A.B.E.

[5] See The Store City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus, by Ed. Naville, with 13 Plates and 2 Maps; published by the Egypt Exploration Fund. First edition 1885, second edition 1885. Trübner & Co., London. --A.B.E.

[6] For an account of the explorations at Daphnae (the "Tahpanhes" of the Bible, the Tell Defenneh of the present day) see Mr. Petrie's memoir, entitled Tanis, Part II, (including Nebesheh, Gemayemi, Defenneh, etc.), published by the Egypt Exploration Fund.--A.B.E.

[7] The remains of this gigantic work may yet be seen about two hours' distance to the southward of Med?m. See Herodotus, book II.; chap. 99.--A.B.E.

[8] See The Fay?m and Lake Moeris. Major R.H. Brown, R.E.

[9] Officially, this temple is attributed to Thothmes III., and the dedicatory inscription dates from the first year of his reign; but the work was really that of his aunt and predecessor, Queen Hatsheps?t.

[10] See also an exact reduction of this design, to scale, in Mr. Petrie's work A Season in Egypt, 1887, Plate XXV.

[11] Chenoboscion.-- A.B.E.

[12] For an account of the excavations at Bubastis, see Eighth and Tenth Memoirs of the Egypt Exploration Fund, by M.E. Naville.

[13] French "Promenoir"; this is perhaps best expressed by "Processional Hall," in accordance with the description of its purpose on p. 67. --A.B.E.

[14] Hor- shes?, "followers," or "servants of Horus," are mentioned in the Turin papyrus as the predecessors of Mena, and are referred to in monumental inscriptions as representing the pre-historic people of Egypt. It is to the Hor-shes? that Professors Maspero and Mariette attribute the making of the Great Sphinx.--A.B.E.

[15] For a full description of the oldest funerary chapel known, that of King Snefer?, see W.M.F. Petrie's Medum.

[16] Conf. Mr. Petrie's plan of this temple in Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, Plate VI.--A.B.E.

[17] That is to say, the wall is vertical on the inside; but is built much thicker at the bottom than at the top, so that on the outside it presents a sloping surface, retiring with the height of the wall.--A.B.E.

[18] "Hatsheps?t," more commonly known as "Hatas?;" the new reading is, however, more correct. Professor Maspero thinks that it was pronounced "Hatshopsit?."--A.B.E.

[19] For full illustrated account of the complete excavation of this temple, see the Deir el Bahar? publications of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

[20] Temenos, i.e., the enclosure wall of the Temple, within which all was holy ground.--A.B.E.

[21] That is, the spirits of the North, represented by On (Heliopolis), and of the South (Khon?).--A.B.E.

[22] At Tanis there seems to have been a close succession of obelisks and statues along the main avenue leading to the Temple, without the usual corresponding pylons. These were ranged in pairs; i.e., a pair of obelisks, a pair of statues; a pair of obelisks, a pair of shrines; and then a third pair of obelisks. See Tanis, Part I., by W.M.F. Petrie, published by the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1884.--A.B.E.

[23] This fact is recorded in the hieroglyphic inscription upon the obelisks.--A.B.E.

[24] This celebrated tablet, preserved in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, has been frequently translated, and is the subject of a valuable treatise by the late Vicomte de Rougé. It was considered authentic till Dr. Erman, in an admirable paper contributed to the Zeitschrift, 1883, showed it to have been a forgery concocted by the priests of Khons? during the period of the Persian rule in Egypt, or in early Ptolemaic times. (See Maspero's Hist. Ancienne des Peuples de l'Orient, chap, vi., pp. 287, 288. Fourth Edition.)--A.B.E.

[25] The Land of Incense, called also in the inscriptions "The Land of Punt," was the country from which the Egyptians imported spices, precious woods, gums, etc. It is supposed to represent the southern coasts of the Red Sea, on either side the Bab el Mandeb. Queen Hatsheps?t's famous expedition is represented in a series of coloured bas-relief sculptures on the walls of her great temple at Deir el Bahar?, reproduced in Dr. Dümichen's work, The Fleet of an Egyptian Queen, and in Mariette's De?r el Bahar?. For a full account of this temple, its decoration, and the expedition of Hatsheps?t, see the Deir el Bahar? publications of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

[26] These three parts are (l) the chapel, (2) the passage, or shaft, (3) the sepulchral vault. If the latter was below the level of the chapel, as in the time of the Ancient Empire, the communication was by a sloping or vertical shaft.-- A.B.E.

[27] For an account of the necropolis of Med?m, see W.M.F. Petrie's Medum.

[28] The sarcophagus of Menkara, unfortunately lost at sea when on its way to England, was of this type. See illustration No. 19, Chapter III., in Sir E. Wilson's Egypt of the Past.--A.B.E.

[29] This wall scene is from the tomb of Nenka, near Sakkarah. For a coloured facsimile on a large scale, see Professor Maspero's article entitled "Trois Années de Fouilles," in Mémoires de la Mission Archéologique Fran?aise du Caire, Pl. 2. 1884.--A.B.E.

[30] This section is reproduced, by permission of Mr. W.M.F. Petrie, from Plate VII. of his "Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh." The vertical shaft sunk by Perring is shown going down from the floor of the subterranean unfinished chamber. The lettering along the base of the pyramid, though not bearing upon the work of Professor Maspero, has been preserved for the convenience of readers who may wish to consult Mr. Petrie's work for more minute details and measurements. This lettering refers to that part of Mr. Petrie's argument which disproves the "accretion theory" of previous writers (see "Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh" chap, xviii., p. 165).--A.B.E.

[31] For a full account of the Twelfth Dynasty tombs at Beni Hasan and El Bersheh see the first memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of the Egypt Exploration Fund.

[32] The steps are shown in fig. 150. They were discovered by General Sir F. Grenfell in 1885. Noting the remains of two parallel walls running up from the water's edge to a part of the cliff which had evidently been escarped and presented a vertical face, General Grenfell caused the sand to be cleared, thus disclosing the entrances to several rock-cut tombs dating from the Sixth and Twelfth Dynasties, as well as two flights of steps on either side of an inclined plane leading from the Nile bank to the door of one of the tombs. The distance between the two walls is ten feet. The steps are eighteen inches deep, and 250 in number. The steps were for the haulers, the mummies and sarcophagi being dragged up the inclined plane. (See p. 209.)-- A.B.E.

[33] M. Léfébure has lately produced a superb and elaborate volume on this tomb, with the whole of the texts and the wall decorations faithfully reproduced: Mémoires publiés par les Membres de la Mission du Caire, Vol. II., fasc. I.-- A.B.E.

[34] We have in this country two very fine specimens of inscribed sarcophagi; namely, that of Seti I., of beautiful alabaster, in the Soane collection (xixth Dyn.), and that of Queen Ankhnesraneferab (xxvith Dyn.) in the British Museum.-- A.B.E.

[35] The late T. Deveria ingeniously conjectured that "Ba-en-pet" (iron of heaven) might mean the ferruginous substance of meteoric stones. See Mélanges d'Archéologie Egyptienne et Assyrienne, vol. i.--A.B.E.

[36] The traces of tools upon the masonry show the use of bronze and jewel-points.--A.B.E.

[37] Many such trial- pieces were found by Petrie in the ruins of a sculptor's house at Tell el Amarna.

[38] A similar collection was found by Mr. F. Ll. Griffith at Tell Gemayemi, in 1886, during his excavations for the Egypt Exploration Fund. See Mr. Petrie's Tanis. Part II., Egypt Exploration Fund.--A.B.E.

[39] Mr. Loftie's collection contains, however, an interesting piece of trial-work consisting of the head of a Ptolemaic queen in red granite.--A.B.E.

[40] For pigments used at the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty, see Petrie's Medum.

[41] The rose- coloured, or rather crimson, flesh-tints are also to be seen at El Kab, and in the famous speos at Beit el Wally, both tempo Nineteenth Dynasty.--A.B.E.

[42] The classic Syene, from all time the southernmost portion of Egypt proper. The Sixth Dynasty is called the Elephantine, from the island immediately facing Syene which was the traditional seat of the Dynasty, and on which the temples stood. The tombs of Elephantine were discovered by General Sir F. Grenfell, K.C.B., in 1885, in the neighbouring cliffs of the Libyan Desert: see foot- note p. 149.--A.B.E.

[43] For an explanation of the nature of the Double, see Chapter III., pp. 111-112, 121 et seq.

[44] Known as the "Scribe accroupi," literally the "Squatting Scribe"; but in English, squatting, as applied to Egyptian art, is taken to mean the attitude of sitting with the knees nearly touching the chin. --A.B.E.

[45] "The Sheikh of the Village." This statue was best known in England as the "Wooden Man of B?lak."--A.B.E.

[46] The Greek Chephren.

[47] I venture to think that the heads of Rahotep and Nefert, engraved from a brilliant photograph in A Thousand Miles up the Nile, give a truer and more spirited idea of the originals than the present illustrations,--A.B.E.

[48] That is, the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties. --A.B.E.

[49] According to the measurements given by Mr. Petrie, who discovered the remains of the Tanite colossus, it must have stood ninety feet high without, and one hundred and twenty feet high with, its pedestal. See Tanis, Part I., by W.M.F. Petrie, published by the Egypt Exploration Fund, 1885.--A.B.E.

[50] Ameniritis, daughter of an Ethiopian king named Kashta, was the sister and successor of her brother Shabaka, and wife of Piankhi II., Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The statue is in alabaster.--A.B.E.

[51] A Memphite scribe of the Thirtieth Dynasty.--A.B.E.

[52] In Egyptian Ta-?rt, or "the Great;" also called Apet. This goddess is always represented as a hippopotamus walking. She carries in each hand the emblem of protection, called "Sa." The statuette of the illustration is in green serpentine.--A.B.E.

[53] Sebakh, signifying "salt," or "saltpetre," is the general term for that saline dust which accumulates wherever there are mounds of brick or limestone ruins. This dust is much valued as a manure, or "top-dressing," and is so constantly dug out and carried away by the natives, that the mounds of ancient towns and villages are rapidly undergoing destruction in all parts of Egypt.--A.B.E.

[54] For an example of Graeco-Egyptian portrait painting, tempo Hadrian, see p. 291.

[55] Works on scarabaei are the Palin collection, published in 1828; Mr. Loftie's charming Essay of Scarabs, which is in fact a catalogue of his own specimens, admirably illustrated from drawings by Mr. W.M.F. Petrie; and Mr. Petrie's Historical Scarabs, published 1889.--A.B.E.

[56] These twin vases are still made at As?an. I bought a small specimen there in 1874.-- A.B.E.

[57] The sepulchral vases commonly called "canopic" were four in number, and contained the embalmed viscera of the mummy. The lids of these vases were fashioned to represent the heads of the four genii of Amenti, Hapi, T?atm?tf, Kebhsennef, and Amset; i.e, the Ape-head, the Jackal-head, the Hawk- head, and the human head.--A.B.E.

[58] The remains of this shrine, together with many hundreds of beautiful glass hieroglyphs, figures, emblems, etc., for inlaying, besides moulds and other items of the glassworker's stock, were discovered by Mr. F. Ll. Griffith at Tell Gemayemi, about equidistant from the mounds of Tanis and Daphnae (San and Defenneh) in March 1886. For a fuller account see Mr. Griffith's report, "The Antiquities of Tell el Yahud?yeh," in Seventh Memoir of the Egypt Exploration Fund. --A.B.E.

[59] Some of these beautiful rods were also found at Tell Gemayemi by Mr. F. Ll. Griffith, and in such sound condition that it was possible to cut them in thin slices, for distribution among various museums.--A.B.E.

[60] That is, of the kind known as the "false murrhine."--A.B.E.

[61] The yellows and browns are frequently altered greens.--A.B.E.

[62] One of the Eleventh Dynasty kings.

[63] There is a fine specimen at the Louvre, and another in the museum at Leydeu.--A.B.E.

[64] For an account of every stage and detail in the glass and glaze manufactures of Tell el Amarna, see W.M.F. Petrie's Tell el Amarna.

[65] Klaft, i.e., a headdress of folded linen. The beautiful little head here referred to is in the Gizeh Museum, and is a portrait of the Pharaoh Necho.--A.B.E.

[66] Apries, in Egyptian "Uahabra," the biblical "Hophra;" Amasis, Ahmes II.; both of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty.--A.B.E.

[67] Some specimens of these tiles may be seen in the Egyptian department at the British Museum.--A.B.E.

[68] We have a considerable number of specimens of these borderings, cartouches, and painted tiles representing foreign prisoners, in the British Museum; but the finest examples of the latter are in the Ambras Collection, Vienna. For a highly interesting and scholarly description of the remains found at Tell el Yah?deh in 1870, see Professor Hayter Lewis's paper in vol. iii. of the Transactions of the Biblical Archaeological Society.--A.B.E.

[69] The Tat amulet was the emblem of stability.--A.B.E.

[70] That is, the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties.

[71] There is a fine specimen of one of these sledges in the Leyden Museum, and the Florentine Museum contains a celebrated Egyptian war-chariot in fine preservation.-- A.B.E.

[72] See the coloured frontispiece to Thebes; its Tombs and their Tenants, by A.H. Rhind. 1862.--A.B.E.

[73] Since the publication of this work in the original French, a very splendid specimen of a royal Egyptian chair of state, the property of Jesse Haworth, Esq., was placed on view at the Manchester Jubilee Exhibition. It is made of dark wood, apparently rosewood; the legs being shaped like bull's legs, having silver hoofs, and a solid gold cobra snake twining round each leg. The arm- pieces are of lightwood with cobra snakes carved upon the flat in low relief, each snake covered with hundreds of small silver annulets, to represent the markings of the reptile. This chair, dated by a fragment of a royal cartouche, belonged to Queen Hatsheps?t, of the Eighteenth Dynasty. It is now in the British Museum.--A.B.E.

[74] In this cut, as well as in the next, the loom is represented as if upright; but it is supposed to be extended on the ground.--A.B.E.

[75] For a chromolithographic reproduction of this work as a whole, with drawings of the separate parts, facsimiles of the inscriptions, etc., see The Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen, by H. Villiers Stuart.--A.B.E.

[76] An unusually fine specimen of carpet, or tapestry work from Ekhm?m, representing Cupids rowing in papyrus skiffs, landscapes, etc., has recently been presented to the British Museum by the Rev. G.J. Chester. The tapestry found at Ekhm?m is, however, mostly of the Christian period, and this specimen probably dates from about A.D. 700 or A.D. 600.--A.B.E.

[77] From the inscription upon the obelisk of Hatsheps?t which is still erect at Karnak. For a translation in full see Records of the Past, vol. xii., p. 131, et seqq.--A.B.E.

[78] Mr. Petrie suggests that this curious central object may be a royal umbrella with flaps of ox-hide and tiger-skin.--A.B.E.

[79] That is, lentil- shaped, or a double convex.--A.B.E.


Aahhotep, 157, 323-330.

Aahhotep II., 288-289.

Aal?, fields of, 163-164, 167.

Abacus, 52-54, 58, 61, 116.

Abi, 273.

Ab? Roash, 113, 134.

Ab? Simbel (See TEMPLES, etc.).

Ab?s?r, 114, 131, 134, 138, 140.


Acacia, 203, 274.

Adze, of iron, 283, 304.

Affi (See TOMB).

Agate, 247.

Ahmes I., 267, 307, 317, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329.

Ahmes II., 269 and note. (See AMASIS).

Ahmesnefertari, 288-289.

Ahnas el Medineh, 259.

A?, 15, 155, 158.

Aimad?a (See TOMB).

Akhon?ti, 16.

Alabaster, 6, 42, 47, 65, 128, 141, 166, 169, 180, 252, 253-254.

Albumen, 203.

Alexander, his tomb, 242.

Alexander II., colossus of, 241.

Alexandria, 52, 241, 243, 303.

Alumina, 260.

Amasis, 269 and note, 302 (See AHMES II. II.).

Amber, 247.

Ambras Collection, in Vienna, 272 (note).

Amen (See GODS).

Amen Ra (See GODS).

Amenemhat II., 76, 322.

Amenemhat III., 76, 143, 228 (See MOERIS).

Amenhotep I., 157, 229, 287.

Amenhotep II., 53.

Amenhotep III., 67, 69, 76, 77, 80, 103, 147, 158, 179, 226, 229, 230, 266, 275, 312, 318. (See MEMNON).

Ameni (See TOMB).

Ameni Entef Amenemhat, 107.

Ameniritis, 235 and note.

Amethyst, 246, 250.

Amphorae, 35, 36, 127, 264.

Ampullae, 269.

Amset, genius, 258 (note).

Amulets, materials and forms of, 100, 167, 246-250, 259, 265, 286.

Ancient Empire,-- art of (See BAS-RELIEF, SCULPTURE, and STATUE).

domestic architecture of, 19.

fortress of, 27.

tombs of (See MASTABAS and PYRAMIDS).

Andro-sphinx, 89, 228-229.

Angareb, or Nubian bed, 281, 292.

Anh?r (See GODS).

Ankh, 286, 288.

Ankhnesraneferab, sarcophagus of, 165 (note).

Anklets, 321.

Anna (See TOMB).

Antelopes, 176, 299, 326.

Antimony, 254, 267 (See KOHL).

Antonines, 244, 245.

Antoninus Pius, his chapel at Philae, 100.

Anubis (See GODS).

Anvil, 313.

Apapi, the serpent, 164.

Ape, 171, 176, 199, 254, 269, 322.

Apepi, King of Avaris, 228.


Apis (See GODS).

Apries, 269 and note, 311 (See HOPHRA and ?AHABRA).

Aquamarine, the, 246.

Arabs,-- their destructive conquest, 134.

their name for table of offerings, 107.

Archers, 29, 184.

Architecture,-- military, 24-34.

of private dwellings, 1-20.

of public works, 34-45.

temples, 46-110.

tombs, 111-168. (See MASTABAS, PYRAMIDS, etc.).

Architraves, 46, 52, 53, 54, 63, 65, 93.

Argo, colossi of, 227.

Arms, 157, 166. battle-axe, 329.

boomerangs, 273, 329.

bows and arrows, 184, 329.

bronze, 305.

lance, 232.

poignards, 273, 327-328.

Arsenic, sulphuret of, orpiment, 203.

Ascalon, 31.

Asia, 91, 312.

Asia Minor, 248, 280, 320.

Asim? (See ELECTRUM).

Ass, in drawings, 171, 175.

Assyria, invasion of Egypt by, 314.

Astronomical tables, 92-94, 164.

As?an, 45, 53, 67, 148-150, 209 and note, 226, 228, 256 (note), 259, 265. (See SYENE and TOMBS).

Athena, 302.

Athens, bronze of the Lady Tak?shet at, 308.

Ati, pyramid of, 142.

Avaris, 228.

Avenue of Sphinxes, 67. at Karnak, 87, 88-89, 230.

Axe,-- battle, 327, 329.

iron, 304.

stone, 201.

Ax?m, obelisk at, 106.

Ba, or Bi, the soul, 111, 112. abode of the, 128.

abode of the, its decoration, 142, 156-157, 162-165.

following the sun at night, 159.

statuettes to serve as body for, 167.

transmigration of, 164.

Bab el Mandeb, 109 (note).

Ba-en-pet, 196 and note. (See IRON).

Bakenrenf (See TOMB).

Bakhtan, stela of, 109 and note.

Bari, or boat of the Sun, 108.

Barks, sacred and funerary, 66, 77, 95, 108, 159, 164, 166, 249, 301, 329-330.

Basalt, 42, 127, 169, 196, 236, 237, 252.

Basilisk, 201 (See URAEUS.)

Bas-relief,-- Ab? Simbel, 229.

Egyptian forms of, 197-199.

gems, 249.

gilded, 313.

ivory, 273.

models for study of, 197.

New Empire, 228-229.

painting of, 205-206.

preparation of walls for, 192-193.

Roman period, 245.

sketches for, 193-195.

speos of Horemheb, 232.

Tell el Amarna, 231.

Temple of Abydos, 232.

Tomb of Seti I., 232. (See PAINTING, SCULPTURE, and WALL-SCENES.)


Bastions, 28, 29, 32.

Battlements, 14, 24, 25, 32, 50.

Beads, 168, 247, 261, 324.

Beams, 6, 30. of stone, 140.

Beard,-- false, of statue of Horemheb, 233.

of sphinx, 208.

Bedaw?n, 20, 42, 101.

Beds, 281, 292. funerary, 292-294.

Beer, at funerary feast, 180.

Beetles (See SCARABAEI).

Begig, obelisk of, 105.

Beit el Wally (See TEMPLES and HEMI-SPEOS).

Beni Hasan (See TOMBS).

Beni S?ef, 38.

Berlin Museum, parure of jewels at, 322.

Bersheh (See TOMBS).

Bes (See GODS).

Bezel, of rings, 321-322, 331.

Bi (See BA ).

Bird, human-handed, 91.

Birket el K?r?n, lake of, 38, 39.

Blocks, building,-- dressing, 47, Notes 6 and 7.

in pyramids, 132, Note15, 139, Note 33.

raising, 49.

sizes, 49.

working, 49, Note 7.

Boats, toy, 282. transport by, 45, 132. (See BARKS.)

Bonding, 48-49.

Bone, work in, 272-273.

Book of Knowing that which is in Hades, 172.

Book of Ritual of Burial, 157.

Book of Ritual of Embalmment, 157.

Book of the Dead, 129, 157, 165, 172-175, 205, 284-285.

Book of the Opening of the Mouth, 165.

Bowls, of blue glazed pottery, 268.

Bracelets, 249, 276, 308, 324-325, 331, 332.

Braces, 298, 327.

Bread,-- making of, depicted in tombs, etc., 124, 127, 224.

offerings of, 166.

Breccia, 42, 236, 254.

Bricks,-- baked, 4.

for pyramids, 132.

glazed, 4, 270, Note 4.

in civil and military architecture, 46.

making of, 3-4, Notes 2 and 3.

of mud and straw, 3, 114.

sun-dried, 3, 21, 113-114, 145.

without straw, 113, 145.

Brickwork,-- civil and military architecture, 46.

dikes, 38.

domestic architecture, 3, 5, 6.

enclosure walls of temples, 67, 87.

foundations, 48.

mastabas, 113, 114.

panels, 22.

pyramid-mastabas, 145-146.

undulating courses, 22, 27.

Bridge of Zar?, 35.

Bridges, rarity of, 35.

British Museum, 171, 270 (note), 272 (note), 295, 303.

Brocade (polymita), 303.

Bronze, 105, 195, 196, 248, 260, 261, 304 et seq., 328.

Bronzes, 307-312.

Brush, hair, 203. reed, 170, 171.

Bubastis, 1, 52, 58, 88, 266, 308, 310 (See TELL BASTA).

Bubastites (See DYNASTY XXII.).

"B?lak, Wooden Man of, "214 (note). (See RAEMKA and SHEIKH EL BELED).

Bull, 199. (See GODS, APIS).

Burin, 305, 325.

Cabinet-making, 124. 273. 282 et seq.

Caesars (See ROMAN PERIOD).

Calaite, 247.

Caligula, 245.

Cameos, 332.

Canaanites, 31.

Canal of Zar?, 35.

Canals, 37, 45.

Canopic vases, 167, 252-253, 258-259, 292.

Canopy, funerary, 293-295, 299-301.

Capitals (See COLUMNS and PILLARS).

Caricatures, 171-172.

Carnelian, 247, 250, 324, 325, 328.

Cartonnage, 167.

Cartouches, 4, 48, 61, 250, 262, 271, 278, 299, 302, 322, 323, 324, 326, 328, 329.

Caryatid statues, 288.

Casing stones, 47, 65, Notes 7 and 9, 132, Note 15, 134, Note 20, 138, Note 32.

Cat, 171, 172, 311.

Cattle, 13, 25, 155.

Cedar wood, 329.

Ceiling decoration, 18-19, 92, 94, 141, 163-164.

Cella, 58.

Cellars, 35, 36.

Cement, 52, 192, 194.

Census, 155.

Ceremonies, religious, performed by king, 95-97, 101-103.

Chains, 155, 325-326. measuring, 155.

Chairs, 179, 281, 295-296.

Champollion, 26, 55, 271.

Chapel,-- furniture of, 166.

of mastabas, 116 et pas.

of pyramids, 131 et pas., 144.

painting and sculpture in, 121 et seq., 141- 142.


Chariots, 183, 292.

Chenoboscion, 45 (note). (See KASR ES SA?D).

Cheops (See KH?F?).

Chephren (See KHAFRA).

Chester, the Rev. G.J., 303 (note).

Chests, 281, 283.

Chisels, 45, 195, 214, 304.

Chlamys, 242.

Chrysoprase, 246.

Cinnabar, 203.

Cisterns, 41.

Claudius, 245.

Clay, potter's, of Nile valley, 254-255. (See BRICKS, POTTERY).

Clerestory, 71.

Coffins, 157, 259 (See MUMMY-CASES and SARCOPHAGI).

Coins and medals, no Egyptian, 313.

Collar, Order of the Golden, 155.

Colonnade, 17, 48, 67-68, 75, 79.

Colossi, 83, 103, 106, 202, 226-230, 232, 241.

Columns, monolithic, and built in courses, 52. campaniform, 56-59.

Hathor-headed, 61-62.

lotus-bud, 59-61.

types of, 55.

Concrete, 128.

Cones, funerary, 166, 257.

Contra Esneh, 57.

Contra Latopolis, 61 (See EL KAB).

Copper, 35, 105, 203, 304, 305, 321.

Coptic embroidery, 303 and note.

Coptos (Koft), 1, 243, 245, 303.

Coral, 247.

"Corbelling," 51, 52.

Corn, 36-37, 97.

Cornice, 9, 15, 24, 50, 53, 61, 148.

Cos, 302.

Courtyard,-- of houses, 9, 16.

of temples, 67, 144.

Covering walls, 25, 29, 30, 32.

Cramps, metal, 48.

Crane, machine, 49,

Crio-sphinx, 88, 89.

Crocodile, 171, 189.

Cruets, 318, 320.

Crypts, of temples, 75, 84.

Crystals, 250.

Cups,-- of glazed pottery, 268.

of gold and silver, 316-317.

Curtain wall, 30.

Curve, favourite ancient Egyptian, 283.

Cylinders, of enamelled stone, 265.

Cynocephali, 164, 167, 199, 322.

Cyprus, supposed glass of, 263.

Dahsh?r, 113, 114, 131, 134, 142, 323.

Dakkeh, 2.

Damanh?r, 332.

Dams,-- embanked, 38.

of stone, 40-41.

Dancers, 177, 178.

Daphnae, 36 and note (See TAHPANHES and TELL DEFENNEH).

Dap?r, 30, 31.

Date palms, 15, 274.

Decani, 93.

Decoration, subjects of, 11, 12, 18-20, 21-22. geometrical, 19, 256, 258, 295, 298. (See COLUMNS, PAINTING, SCULPTURE.)

Deir el Bahar?, 51, 53, 61, 83, 85 and note, 109 (note), 180, 229, 264, 266, 287, 299, 302.

Deir el Gebraw? (See TOMBS).

Deirel Medineh (See TEMPLES).

Delta, the, 4, 31, 37, 209, 235, 241, 243, 310, 311.

Denderah (See TEMPLES).

Derr, 84.

Deveria, T., 196 (note).

Dice, of ivory, 273.

Die, of column, 57.

Dike,-- of Kosheish, 38.

Wady Garraweh, 40.

Wady Genneh, 41.

Diorite, 42, 169, 196, 224, 254.

Disc, winged, 294.

Dolls, 282.

D?m palms, 15, 274, 318.

Door, 9, 25, 68, 104, 135, 150, 151, 160, 285. false, for KA, 115, 119-121, 125, 130, 141,

Door-jambs, 26, 46, 47, 116, 119, 151.

Double, the (See KA).

Dovetails, 48.

Drah Ab?'l Neggeh, 147, 158, 266.

Draught-box, 273.

Drawing, 169-170. conventional system of, 175-179.

teaching of, 169-170.

want of perspective in, 182-191. (See PAINTING and SCULPTURE.)

Dress, 219, 274-276, 327. articles of,--

braces, 298, 327.

girdle, 178, 274, 278.

head-dress, 241, 276, 286.

kilt, 201, 275.

klaft, 227, 267.

petticoat, 276, 286.

robe, embroidered, 308.

sandals, 168, 286, 298.

surcoat, 302.

tunic, 225, 279.

vest, 275, 286.

wig, 236, 275, 286, 308, 310.

Drill, 195, 247, 250, 282.

Duality, 96-97.

Ducks, 15, 20, 306.

Dümichen, 109 (note).

Dwarf, statue of, 224-226.

Dynasty III. (Memphite),-- possible wood panels of, 210.

Dynasty IV. (Memphite),-- decoration, 89-90.

funerary temples, 64 and note, 66.

mastabas of, 117, 118, 124, 125, 126, 128,

obelisks, 104.

pigments, 202 (note).

pyramids, 134-137, 140.

sarcophagus, 19, 20, 21.

scarabaei, 250.

statuary, 214.

Dynasty V. (Memphite),-- Abydos, 22.

elephants, 273.

flesh tints, 204.

ivory statuette, 273.

mastabas, 117, 119, 120, 122.

models of offerings, 252.

monuments, 208-209.

painters' palettes, 202.

panels, carved wood, 210.

pyramids, 139-140.

tables of offerings, 107.

Dynasty VI. (Elephantine),-- in Abydos, As?an, the Delta, Hermopolis, Thebes, 209 and note.

bricks, 113.

flesh tints, 204.

fortress, 2.

mastabas, 157.

pyramids, 140, 142.

scarabaei, 250.

tomb-paintings, 21.

tombs, 128, 129, 130, 149 (note), 155, 204, 209 (note).

Dynasty XI. (Theban),-- blue glaze, 265-266.

canopic vases, 167.

chairs, 295.

fortress, 23.

funerary statuettes, 253.

mummy-cases, 286.

statuary, 226.

tombs, 147.

Dynasty XII. (Theban),-- blue glaze, 266.

fortress, 23, 28.

houses, 7, 8, 12, 281-282.

jewellery322, 323 (See KAH?N).

Karnak, 76.

models of offerings, 252.

pyramids132, 142, 143.

statuary, 228, 229.

temples, 66.

tombs149 (note), 156 (See BENI HASAN).

Dynasty XIII. (Theban),-- funerary couch, 293-294.

Karnak, 76.

statuary, 226-227, 229, 273-274.

statuettes, 233, 273.

Dynasty XIV. (Xo?te),-- Karnak, 76.

statuary, 226-227.

Dynasty XVII. (Theban),-- draught-box, 273.

jewellery, 323 et seq.

sarcophagi, 287.

Dynasty XVIII. (Theban),-- in Abydos, 22.

blue glaze, 268.

Book of the Dead, 173.

bronzes, 307.

canopic vases, 258.

chair, 296-297 (note).

colossi, 229-230.

domestic architecture, 14 et seq.

gold and silver plate, 316, 318, 319, 320,

gold and silver statues, 314-315.

jewellery, 323 et seq.

Karnak, 76-77.

in Memphis, 88.

mummy-cases, 288-289.

painters' palettes, 202.

scarabaei, 250.

sculpture, 229-231.

Speos-sanctuaries, 82, 83, 85.

stelae, 45.

in Thebes, 88-89.

tomb-paintings, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17.

tombs, 155 et seq.

wars, 31.

Dynasty XIX. (Theban),-- blue glaze of, 268.

bronzes, 307.

colossi, 234.

domestic architecture, 19.

flesh tints, 205.

fortifications, 31, 34.

gold and silver plate, 317, 321.

gold and silver statues, 314.

jewellery, 331.

Karnak, 78.

mummy-cases, 289.

tombs, 158 et pas.

Dynasty XX. (Theban),-- blue glaze, 268.

canopic vases, 258.

domestic architecture, 19.

fortresses, 33 (See MEDINET HAB?).

gold and silver plate, 317.

jewellery, 332.

leather-work, 300, 301.

sketches, 171.

stela of Bakhtan, 109 (note).

temple of Khons?, 70-72.

tiles (Tell el Yah?deh), 270-272.

tomb-paintings, 20.

tomb-robberies, 323.

tombs, 158 et pas..

varnish, 203-204.

wood-carving, 235, 274.

Dynasty XXI. (Priest-kings),-- papyri, 174.

sculpture, 228.

tomb158 (tomb of Herhor).

Dynasty XXII. (Bubastite),-- bronzes, 307.

leather-work, 299, 300.

Karnak, 79.

Dynasty XXV. (Ethiopian),-- art, 235.

Karnak, 79.

Dynasty XXVI. (Sa?te),-- ampullae, 268, 269.

bronzes, 307, 311-312.

glass, 263.

gold statuettes, 315.

Renaissance, 235 et seq.

sculpture, 236 et seq.

table of offerings, 252.

tombs, 165.

Dynasty XXXI. (Persian),-- tapestry, 303.

Earrings, 331, 332.

Earthquake,-- building to resist, 22.

of B.C.27, at Karnak, 79.

of B.C.22, at Thebes, 244.

Ebony, 295, 323.

Edf? (See TEMPLES).

Edinburgh Museum, funerary canopy in, 293-294.

Eggs, 259.

Egypt Exploration Fund,-- at Bersheh, 148 (note).

at Bubastis, 52 (note).

at Daphnae, 36 (note).

at Deir el Bahar?, 83, 85.

at Pithom, 36 (note).

at Tanis, 104 (note).

at Tell Gemayemi, 200 (note), 262 (note).

Ekhm?m, 14, 247, 259, 291, 293, 297, 303 and note.

El Agandiyeh, 1.

El Hibeh, 2, 33. at Beni Hasan, 148 (note).

El Kab, 2, 20, 26, 27, 54, 69, 88, 228, 265 (See CONTRA LATOPOLIS).

El Khozam, 256.

Electrum, 304, 312, 313.

Elephant, 273.

Elephantine, 148, 209 (note), 273, 275. (See TEMPLES).

Embroidery, 276, 302, 303, 308.

Emerald, 41, 246, 250.

Enamel, 265-272. in jewellery, 289, 322, 325, 327.

Erman, on Stela of Bakhtan, 109 (note).

Erment, 247.

Esneh, 92, 144, 245.

Ethiopia, 106, 318.

Ethiopian Dynasty (See DYNASTY XXV.).

Etruria, imitated scarabs of, 248.

Eye,-- as amulet, 247-248.

in decoration, 268.

on sarcophagi, 285.

sacred, 168. (See ?TA).

Eyes of statues, 261, 310.

Fan, 323.

Fay?m, the, 19, 38, 39, 66, 105, 134, 243, 259, 261, 304.

Feast,-- funerary, 118, 123, 125, 166.

funerary of Horemheb, 179-180.

Feasts, 118.

Felspar, 247, 250, 324, 328, 329.

Ferry, 34.

Feshn, 33.

Figs, 267.

Fires, 2, 12.

Fire-sticks, 282.

Fish,-- in decoration, 268, 278, 316.

in enamel, 267.

offerings of, 228.

Florence Museum, Egyptian war-chariot in, 292 (note).

Flowers (See LOTUS),

in temples, 67.

offerings of, 180, 228.

Fords, 34.

Fortresses, 20-34. of Abydos, 20-26.

of El Kab, 20, 27.

of Kom el Ahmar, 25, 26.

of K?mmeh, 28-29.

of Semneh, 28-30.

Foundations, 47, 48.

Frieze, 97.

Frog, as amulet, 247.

Frontier, 28, 31, 36-37.

Furnaces, glass, 259, 260.

Furniture, 281-284. ancient Egyptian love of beautiful, 246.

funerary, 128, 166-168, 251 et seq., 292 et seq.

funerary, of poor, 167-168, 255.

Galleries,-- in houses, 17.

Garden, of private house, 13, 14, 15.

Garnet, 246. scarabaei of, 250.

Gazelle, 123, 128, 153, 171, 176, 180, 252.

Gebel Ab?feydeh, 44, 45.

Gebel Barkal (See TEMPLES).

Gebel Sheikh Herideh, 45.

Gebel Silsileh (See TEMPLES).

Gebeleyn, 33, 256.

Geese, 15, 19, 166, 171, 177, 296, 306.

Genii, 159, 164, 258 (note). of On, Sop, and Khon?, 96, 324.

Gerf Husein, 85.

Girgeh, 14, 38.


Gizeh, Museum, 4, 106, 107, 171, 174, 195, 214, 216-226, 227, 229, 232-233 237, 239, 241, 242, 244, 262, 265, 267, 268, 271, 273, 274, 275, 278, 286, 298, 301, 306, 307, 308, 309, 315, 316, 323-330, 331.

Glass, 259-265. factories, at El Kab, the Ramesseum, Tell el Amarna, Tell Eshm?neyn, 265.

factory at Tell Gemayemi, 262 (note).

Glazed stone and ware, 165-172 (See POTTERY).

Goat, 176.

Gods,-- Amen, 33, 97, 101, 104, 105, 109, 171, 231, 232, 249, 268, 289, 307, 315, 327.

Amen Ra, 96.

Anh?r, 311.

Anubis, 168, 304.

Apis, 147, 263.

Bes, 53, 57, 254, 277, 318.

Harpocrates, 307.

Hor (Horus), 96, 105.

Horus (Hor), 64, 96, 105, 207, 259, 267, 309-310, 314

Khons?, 60, 64, 70, 72, 74, 75, 97, 109 and note, 235.

Ment?, 97, 329.

Min, 118.

Nefert?m, 310, 314.

Osiris, 20, 53, 54, 95, 142, 168, 189, 237, 249, 304,

Ptah, 168, 315.

Ra, 208, 327.

Ra Harmakhis, 105.

Seb, 324.

Set (Typhon), 96, 196.

Sh?, 311.

Thoth, 96, 118, 167, 259, 314.

T?m, 105.

Goddesses,-- Apet, 237 (note).

Bast, 168, 311.

Hathor, 53, 54, 55, 61, 62, 69, 70, 82, 83, 97, 168, 237.

Isis, 95, 241, 247, 249, 250, 287, 294, 310, 314.

Kh?it, 259.

Ma, 262, 294.

Maut, 97, 289.

Neith, 250.

Nekheb, 92.

Nephthys, 237, 249, 250, 287, 294, 310.

Pakhet, 42, 82.

Sekhet, 250, 277, 311.

Sothis, 118.

Ta?rt, 237 (note).

Tefn?t, 311.

Th?eris, 237.

?ati, 92.

Gold, 11, 304, 312-321.

Goldsmith, 313.

Golenischeff, 228.

Gouge, 195.

Granaries, 1, 10, 36.

Granite, 6, 47, 66, 76, 103, 132, 136, 137, 169, 196, 197, 199, 214, 247, 254, 290. black, 42, 165, 233.

grey, 41, 236, 244.

red, 42, 52, 65, 77, 107, 127, 165, 232, 236,

Grapes, models, 166, 267.

Greeks,-- Egyptian fortification in time of, 34.

Egyptian patterns among, 320.

their imitation scarabs, 248.

their influence on astronomical tables, 93

their influence on columns, 56.

their influence on jewellery, 332.

their influence on sculpture, 241-24.

their peripteral temples, 69.

their similar system of building construction, 48.

their theory of mounds, 5. (See PTOLEMAIC PERIOD.)

Grenfell, Major-General Sir F., 149 (note), and 209 (note).

Greyhound, in drawings, 176.

Griffith, F. Ll., 200 (note), 262 (note).

Grindstone, 247.

Gum tragacanth, 203.

G?rneh, 60.

Gypsum, 203.

Hadrian, 243, 245 (note).

Hairpins, 277.

Hammamat, valley of, 41.

Hammer, 195, 313.

Hapi, genius, 258 (note).

Hapizefa (See TOMB).

Harpocrates (See GODS).

Hatas? (See HATSHEPS?T).

Hathor (See GODDESSES).

Hatsheps?t (Hatas?), 42, 77, 85, 104, 105, 109 and note, 296 (note), 313 and note.

Hawara, 257, 291.

Hawk, 254, 259, 267, 322, 326.

Haworth, Mr. Jesse, 296 (note).

Headrest, 128, 166, 277.

Hedgehog, 254, 267.

Hekalli, 144.

Heliopolis, 26, 32, 103, 104, 309.

Helwan, dam at baths of, 40.

Hematite, 247, 250.

Hemi-speos,-- Beit el Wally, 84, 205 (note), 235.

Deir el Bahar?, 83, 85.

Derr, 84.

Gerf Husein, 85.

Wady Sab?ah, 85.

Herhor, 158, 261, 288.

Hermopolis, 209.

Herodotus, 38, 39-40, 88, 195.

Hes?, 210.

Hieroglyphs, 55, 60, 180, 236, 257, 261-262 and note, 268, 270, 284, 285, 289, 300, 316, 325.

Hippopotamus, 189, 236.

Hittites, 31, 185. (See KHETA).

Honey, 203, 254.

Hophra, the biblical, 269.

Hor Horus (See GODS).

Hor, portrait statue of one, 242.

Horbeit, 311, 312.

Horemheb, 50, 52, 53, 82, 155, 158, 179-180, 205, 231, 232, 233.

Horhotep (See TOMB).

Hori Ra, wooden statuette of, 275.

Hori, scribe, ?shabti? of, 257.

Horn, objects in, 272.

Horse, date of introduction of, 153-154.

Horshes?, 64 and note.207.

Horus (See GODS).

Hor?ta, 257.

Houses, 1-20.

H?i (See TOMB).

H?nefer, his papyrus, 173-174.

Huts, 20, 8.

Hyksos sphinxes (See PERIOD).

Hypostyle hall, 72, 74, 76, 89, 92, 102, 106. Ab? Simbel, 84.

Abydos, 60, 85-86.

G?rneh, 60.

Kalaat Addah, 82.

Karnak, 34 (note), 46, 57, 60, 62-63, 76, 78, 79, 100.

temple of Khons?, 71.

Medinet Hab?, 60.

Ramesseum, 57, 60.

Ibis, 259.

Ibrahim, Prince, 240.

Illah?n, 39, 143.

Incense, 95, 126, 273.

Ink, black, 4, 170, 193, 285. red, 44, 170, 171, 193, 285.

Inscriptions, absence of in Temple of Sphinx, 66. obelisk, 313 and note.

pyramid of ?nas, 163.

sarcophagi, 127, 157, 165.

tombs, 141-142, 151, 155-156. (See HIEROGLYPHS).

Iron, 195-197, 304.

Irrigation, 35, 37-41.

Isiemkheb, 180, 299-300.


Italy, Egyptian patterns in, 320.

Ivory, 272, 273-274, 283.

Jade, 254.

Jasper, 247, 250.

Jewellery, 249, 321-333.

Jews, 303.

Jomard, 55.

Kaapir (See TOMB).

Kadesh (Qodsh?), 31, 101, 185, 187.

Kah?n, Twelfth Dynasty Town, 1, 6 (note), 7, 282.

Kalaat Addah (See TEMPLES).

Kalabsheh (See TEMPLES).

Kames, 323, 330.

Ka, or Double, 111, 112, 118, 130, 141-142, 156-157, 162, 163, 165-167, 212, 214, 257.

Ka-name of Pepi I, 270.

Karnak (See TEMPLES).

Kashta, 235 (note).

Kasr es Sa?d (See CHENOBOSCION).

Kebhsennef, 258 (note).

Keneh, 265, 332.

Khabi?sokari (See TOMB).

Khafra (Chephren), 89, 133, 137, 134, 214, 217-218, 224, 253.

Khamha (See TOMB).

Kheper, or Khepra (See SCARABAEI).

Kheta, 101, 185, 187-188.

Khet? (See TOMB).

Khm?n?, 148.

Khn?mhotep (See TOMB).

Khons? (See GODS).

Khon?, 96, 324.

Kh?, the, 111, 112.

Kh?enaten (Amenhotep IV.), 15, 155, 230.

Kh?f? (Cheops), 133, 134-137, 206, 312, 314.

Kh?f? Poskh?, 20, 22.

Kh?it (See GODDESSES).

Klaft, 227, 306.

Knives, 304, 306.

Koft, I (See COPTOS).

Kohl (antimony, collyrium), 254, 266, 273.

Kom ed Damas, 242.

Kom el Ahmar, 2, 25, 26.

Kom es Sultan, 21, 23, 27.

Kom Ombo (See OMBOS and TEMPLES).

Kosheish, 38.

K?mmeh, 28.

K?rnet Murraee, 263, 294.

Labyrinth, the, 59.

Lake Moeris, 38-40.

Lakes, sacred, 77.

Lamp, 19, 307.

Lapis-lazuli, 203, 247, 250, 304, 324, 325, 328, 329.

Lasso, 95.

Lattice, 11.

Lead, 304.

Leather, 292, 298-301.

Léfébure, M, 161.

Leopard, 176.

Lewis, Prof. Hayter, 272 (note).

Leyden Museum, 266 (note), 292 (note).

Libations (See OFFERINGS).

Libyan cliffs and plateau, 39, 113, 207, 209 (note).

Libyans, 21, 207, 209 (note).

Limestone, 42, 47, 65, 76, 107, 113, 127, 132, 135, 138, 139, 140, 147, 148, 166, 169, 192, 195, 200, 224, 232, 236, 252, 253, 254, 265, 312.

Linant, M, 39.

Lindos, 302.

Linen, 130, 286, 302, 314.

Lintels, 9, 26, 46, 47, 150, 151.

Lion, 171, 176, 199, 293, 295, 322.

Lisht, 89, 134, 252.

Loftie, the Rev. W.J., 201 (note).249 (note).

Looms, 297, 298.

Lotus, 34 (note), 57, 58, 60-61, 62, 64, 116, 180, 247, 254, 266, 268, 269. 271, 273, 277, 278, 279, 281, 299, 316.

Louvre Museum, 208, 214, 215, 224, 226, 227, 239, 240, 266 (note), 271, 275, 278, 295, 308, 313, 316, 322, 331.

Luxor (See TEMPLES).


Magdil?, (See MIGDOLS).

Magnaura, 320.

Maillet, M., 64.

Malachite, 247, 304.

Mallet, 45, 197, 202.

Manfal?t, 144.

Manna (See TOMB).

Mariette, 64 (note), 129, 210, 227, 271.

Masahirti, 299.

Masonry, 48, 49.

Massarah, 43.

Mastabas, 113-131, Notes 12-14. (See TOMB and TOMBS).

Masts, 72, 103.


Mechanical appliances,-- crane, 49.

pivots, 283.

rollers, 45.

wedges, 45.

Medamot (See TEMPLES).

Medinet el Fay?m, 39.

Medinet Hab? (See TEMPLES).

Med?m, 38 (note), 131, 143, 144, 202 (note).

Memnon, 103, 230, 245. (See AMENHOTEP III.).

Memphis, 1, 6, 32, 38, 43, 47, 52, 58, 88, 113, 132, 147, 156, 157, 162, 165, 209, 226, 228, 235, 241, 252.

Mena, 38, 64, 206.

Mendes, 311.

Menkara (Mycerinus), 128 (note), 134, 137, 286 (Notes 7, 17, 31).

Menka?hor, 224.

Menkheperra, 299.

Mensh?yeh, 107.

Ment? (See GODS).

Ment?emhat, 314.

Merenptah, 235.

Merenra, 133, 140.

Meresankh?, 144.

Mermashi?, 227.

Mero?, 144, 244.

Merom, 31.

Merr?ka, stela of, 120.

Mesheikh, 69, 229.

Metals, ancient Egyptian classification of, 304.

Migdols, 31-33 (See MAGDIL?).

Milk, offerings of, 95.

Min (Khem) (See GODS).

Minieh, 148.

Mining, 35, 41.

Mirrors, 277, 306, 323, 324.

Moats of Canaanite cities, 31.

Moeris, 38-39 (See AMENEMHAT III.).

Moeris, Lake, 38-40.

Mohammeriyeh, 144.

Mokattam, 136.

Mortar, 48, 114.

Mos?, 310.

Mounds, 1, 5-6.

Mummies,-- animals and eggs, 259.

beds and canopies for, 292-295.

boats for transport of, 301.

burial of, 112, 127-128, 153, 154, 167-168, 173.

"eternal house" of, 112.

furniture for, 284, 292 et seq. (See FURNITURE).

jewellery for, 321. (See JEWELLERY).

models of, 166.

panoply of, 167 (See AMULETS).

sledges for, 292.

Mummy,-- Aahhotep, 157, 323.

Amenhotep I., 157.

Menkara, 137.

Pinotem III., 332.

Sekenenra, 157.

Thothmes III., 157.

Mummy-cases, 259, 261-262, 284-292.

Murrhine, false, 263 (note)

Musical instruments, 166. lute, 180, 267, 279.

sistrum, 95.

tambourine, 95.

trumpet, 182.

Mycerinus, 286 (See MENKARA).

Naga, group from, 244.

Na?, 276.

Naos, 61, 108, 312, 326. (See SHRINE).

Napata, 144.

Naville, M., 36 and note, 52 (note).

Necho, 267 and note.

Necklace, 249, 276, 322, 325. (See ?SEKH).

Nectenebo, 62.

Neferhotep (See TOMB).

Nefert, 219-220.

Nefertari, 84.

Nefert?m (See GODS).

Negadeh (See TOMBS).

Negroes, 41, 91.

Neith (See GODDESSES).

Nekheb (See GODDESSES).

Nemhotep, dwarf, 225.

Nenka (See TOMB).

Nephthys (See GODDESSES).

Nesikhons?, 264.

Net, 95.

Netemt, 261.

New York Museum, 172.

Niche of tombs, origin of, 152 (See DOOR, SERDAB, and STELA).

Nile, 34, 38, 39, 45, 48, 252, 254, 273.

Niles, the (deities), 91, 92, 228.

Nitocris, daughter of Psammetichus I., 237.

Nomes, represented, 91-92.

Nubia, 28, 47, 66, 82, 259.

N?rri (See PYRAMIDS).

Oasis, the, 20.

Obelisk, 45, 67, 103-106, 313. Ax?m, 106.

Begig, 105.

Fourth Dynasty, 104.

Hatsheps?t, 104, 106, 313 and note.

Heliopolis, 104.

Luxor, 104.

Tanis, 104.

Obsidian, 247, 250.

Ocean, celestial, 93.

Ochre, 203.

OEnochoe, glass, 263.

Offerings,-- corn, 97.

milk, 95.

oil, 95.


Oil, 95.

Ombos, 26, 36, 58, 88, 92, 245, (See KOM OMBO and TEMPLES).

On, genius of, 96.

Osiris (See GODS).

Ostraka, 36.

Ostrakon, caricature, 172.

Oxen, 123, 128, 153, 175, 182.

Pah?rnefer, 214.

Painting, 192-193, 202-206, 292-293. (See DRAWING, PERSPECTIVE, WALL-SCENES).

Pakhet (See GODDESSES).

Palestrina, mosaic, 189-192.

Palette,-- painter's, 202.

scribe's, 128, 166, 170.

Palm capital, 58.

Palms, for roofing, 2, 11 (See DATE and D?M PALMS).

Papyri, 64 (note), 160, 167, 170, 171, 172-175, 205. (See BOOK).

Papyrus, 57, 190, 327.

Pavilion,-- of private house, 17.

of Medinet Hab?, 32.

of Nectenebo, Philae, 62.

Pearl, mother-of-, 247.

Pearls, 247.

Pectoral, 322, 323, 326, 327.

Pedishashi, 239, 240.

Pegs, 283.

Pen, 175, 215.

Pepi I., 140, 253, 270.

Pepi II., 133, 140, 142.

Perfumes, 67, 128, 157, 180.

Period,-- Hyksos, 227-228, 307.

Persian, 174, 303.

Ptolemaic, 56, 58, 61, 66, 69-70, 72, 79, 90, 93, 98. 175, 208, 241-243, 249, 290, 303, 315, 332.

Roman, 58, 66, 90, 98, 173, 208, 243-245.

Theban, second, 19 and note.

Peristyle, 67, 74, 83, 84, 106 (See PROCESSIONAL HALL).

Perspective, 177-192.

Pestle and mortar, 170.

Petamenoph (See TOMB).

Petrie, W.M.F., 7, 10, 12, 45, 64-65, 104, 113, 131, 197, 200, 202, 249, 267, 282, 291, 334 et seq.

Pharaoh, 66, 67, 95-97, 98, 101-103.

Philae (See TEMPLES).

Phoenicians, 248, 263, 303, 320.

Piankhi I., 34.

Piankhi II., 235 (note).

Pibesa, 237.

Pigments, 202-203.

Pillars, 52, 53-55, 65, 68, 116, 149, 151.

Pincushion, 277.

Pinotem II., 299.

Pinotem III., 299, 332.

Pisebkhan?, 228.

Pithom, I, 36 and note.

Plate, 315-320 (See GOLD and SILVER).

Pliny, 303.

Poh?nika (See TOMB).

Poignards, 327, 328.

Point, 47 (note), 6, 195, 197, 201, 247, 250.

Polymita, 303.

Ponds, 8, 15, 186.

Porch, 13 (See PORTICO).

Porphyry, 42, 247.

Portcullis, in pyramids, 136, Notes 26, 27, 137, 139.

Portico, 13, 16, 51, 54, 57, 60, 67, 116, 149, 150, 152, 206.

Portrait, panel-painting, 291-292. (See BAS-RELIEF, MUMMY-CASES, and STATUES).

Posno collection, 308.

Pottery, 166, 254-259. (See GLAZED WARE and VASES).

Priests (See PHARAOH and others).

Prisse, M., 193.

Processional Hall (promenoir), 53, 58 and note, 60, 77 (See PERISTYLE).

Pronaos, 70, 74-75.

Psammetichus I., 236.

Psammetichus, scribe, 237 and note.

Psar, 322, 331.

Ptah (See GODS).

Ptahhotep (See TOMB).

Ptahmes, 208.

P?nt, Land of, 109 and note.

Pylons, 13, 16, 49, 50, 67, 77, 78, 79, 80, 85, 87, 100-101, 186-188, 189 232.

Pyramid of,-- Amenemhat III. (Hawara), 143.

Ati, 142.

Khafra (Second Pyramid of Gizeh), 133, 134, 137.

Kh?f? (Great Pyramid of Gizeh), 133, 134- 137.

Menkara (Third Pyramid of Gizeh), 134, 137,

Merenra, 133, 140.

Pepi I., 140.

Pepi II., 133, 140, 142.

Sakkarah, Step, or Great, 138-139, Note 32.

Snefer? (Med?m), 132, 143, 144.

Teti, 140.

?nas, 133, 138, 139-140.

?sertesen I., 143.

?sertesen II. (Illah?n), 143.

Pyramidion, 105, 147.

Pyramid-mastaba tombs, 145-148,

Pyramids, 131-145, and Notes, pp, 334-337. Ab?s?r, 131, 134, 138, 140.

Abydos (Hekalli), 144.

Dahsh?r, 131, 134, 142.

Esneh (Mohammeriyeh), 144.

Ethiopia (Mero?, Napata, N?rri), 144.

Fay?m (Hawara and Illah?n), 134, 143.

Gizeh, 131, 133-137, 140.

Lisht, 134, 142.

Manfal?t, 144.

Sakkarah, 133, 134, 137, 138-142.

Qodsh?, 31. (See KADESH).

Quarries, 35, 41-45, 132.

Ra (See GODS).

Ra Harmakhis (See GODS).

Raemka, 220 (See SHEIKH EL BELED).

Rahotep, 214, 219.

Ram, 88, 89, 199.

Rameses I., 78, 158.

Rameses II. (Sesostris), 47, 52, 78, 80, 84, 86, 101, 103, 158, 188, 202, 226, 231, 232, 234, 235, 287-288, 321, 331.

Rameses III., 4, 32-33, 87, 101, 184, 194, 195, 270, 272, 301, 306, 321.

Rameses IV., 160.

Rameses IX., 331.

Ramesseum, the, 36, 37, 47, 57, 60, 62, 72, 92, 100, 103, 159, 187, 234, 265.

Ramessides, the, 1, 23, 109, 153, 168, 235, 266, 290, 320.

Ramparts, 24, 30, 33, 87.

Ranefer, 214, 218.

Rats, 171, 259.

Red Sea, emerald mines, 41.

Redes?yeh, 229.

Reed brush, 171.

Reeds, 180, 266.

Rekhmara (See TOMB).

Renaissance, 175, 235-240, 290.

Repoussé work (See GOLD, JEWELLERY, SILVER).

Reservoir, 38-41, 252 (See DAMS, DIKES, IRRIGATION).

Rhind, A.H., 293 and note.

Rings, 267, 305, 321-322, 331.

Roads, 30, 34, 35, 41.

Rock-cut temples and tombs (See SPEOS and TOMBS).

Roofs, 2, 9, 10, 11, 32, 51, 90.

Rougé, M. le Vicomte de, 109 (note).

Sa, amulet, 237 (note).

Sab?ah, Wady (See TEMPLES).

Sacrifices, 95, 97. (See FEAST and OFFERINGS).

Sails of leather-work, 301.

Sais, 26, 266.

Sakkarah, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 126, 129, 130 (note), 133, 134, 137, 138, 140, 144, 158, 189, 197, 204, 217, 221, 226, 252, 259, 269, 270, 310, 313. (See PYRAMIDS and TOMBS).

San, 1, 26. (See TANIS).

Sanctuaries (See SPEOS and TEMPLES).

Sanctuary, the essential part of a temple, 66-67.

Sandals, 168, 286, 298.

Sandstone, 6, 43, 47, 67, 76, 87, 103, 169, 199, 202, 230, 252.

Sapping, 23, 25.

Sarcophagi, 42, 127, 129, 132, 137, 140, 157, 160. (See MUMMY-CASES).

Sarcophagus of,-- Aahhotep II., 288-289.

Ahmes I., 287.

Ahmesnefertari, 288-289.

Amenhotep I., 287.

Kh?f?, 136.

Kh?f? Poskh?, 20, 22.

Menkara, 128 (note), 137.

Rameses II., 287, 288.

Seti I., 161, 165 (note).

Thothmes II., 287. (See MUMMY-CASES.)

Sardanapalus, 314.

Sardinia, 248.

Saucepan of Rameses III., 306.

Saw, 247, 250.

Scaling, as a mode of attack, 23, 25.

Scarabaei, 248-250. funerary, 168, 265, 325-326.

Scarabaeoids, 248.

Schist, 265.

Schliemann, Dr., 328.

Schweinfurth, Dr., 40.

Scissors, of bronze, 306.

Scorpion, 322, 329.

Scribe,-- cross-legged, 214-217.

kneeling, 214, 222-223, 239.

Sculpture,-- absence of, in chapel of Pyramid of Med?m, 144.

absence of, in Temple of Sphinx, 66.

Greek influence on, 240-243.

Hyksos, school of, 227-228.

mastabas, 119 et seq., 130.

Memphite school of, 209-225.

methods of, 200-202.

New Empire school of, 228, 235.

provincial schools of, 228.

pylons, 186-188.

pyramids, 137.

Renaissance school of, 235-240.

Theban (first) school of, 226.

XIII. and XIV. dynasties, 226-227. (See BAS-RELIEF and STATUES.)

Seals, 321-322.

Seb (See GODS).

Sebakh diggers, 237 and note.

Sebekemsaf, 202, 227.

Sebekhotep III., 227.

Sekenenra, 157.

Sekhet (See GODDESSES).

Selle (See ZAR?).

Semneh, 20, 28-29, 50.

Sennetm?, mummy-case of wife of, 286. (See TOMB).

Sepa, 208.

Serdab, 126-127, 129, 139, 152, 166, 167.

Serpentine, 169, 195, 236, 247, 252.

Serpents, 141, 159, 164, 259, 329. (See APAPI).

Sesebeh (See TEMPLES).

Sesostris, 5. (See RAMESES II.).

Set (See GODS).

Seti I., King, 34 (note), 42, 47, 48, 49, 51, 78, 85, 101, 107, 158, 161, 162, 163, 195, 231, 232, 235, 270.

Shabaka, 235 (note).

Sharonah (See TEMPLES).

Sheikh Abd el G?rneh,-- bronzes from, 307.

enamels from, 263.

Sheikh el Beled, statue of, 214 and note, 220-221, 224, 226 (See RAEMKA).

Sheikh Sa?d, 148.

Sheshonk, 33, 235, 270.

Shrines, 66, 108 (See NAOS).

Sh? (See GODS).

Silsilis, 38, 43-45, 232.

Silver,-- bark of, 329-330.

chain of, 322.

eyes of, 310.

hatchets of, 327.

nuggets of, 11.

poignard hilt of, 328.

repoussé work of, 316-317.

rings of, 321.

sources of, 312.

statues of, 314-315.

vases and vessels of, 316 et seq.

wire of, 248.

Sinai, 41, 66, 101.

Sistrum, 53, 61, 95, 260.

Sit?, 252.

Situlae, bronze, 307.

Si?t, 114, 148, 226, 242.

Skemka, 214.

Sky, Egyptian idea of, 90.

Sledges,-- for transport of stone, 45.

funerary, 292, 294.

Sneferu, 132, 144, 209.

Soane collection, 165 (note).

Soil of Egypt, 2, 4, 48.

Soleb (See TEMPLES).

Sop, genius, 324.

Sothis, feast of, 118.

Soudan, gold from, 313.

Soul, the, (See BA ).

Speos, the, 42, 81-85. Ab? Simbel, 53, 82-84.

Kalaat Addah, 81, 82.

Silsilis, 82, 232. (See HEMI-SPEOS.)

Speos Artemidos (See TEMPLES).

Sphinx, the, 64 (note), 65, 206-208.

Sphinxes, 325. andro-, 89, 230.

avenues of, 67, 88-89, 230.

crio-, 88, 89.

Hyksos, 227-228.

New Empire, 229.

Spinners, 124.

Spoons, 273, 278-281, 306.

Stabling, 13, 35, 87.

Staircase,-- fortress, 24.

house, 11, 16.

temple, 70, 71, 85.

temple pylons, 50.

Statue of,-- Alexandrian Isis, 241.

portrait of Amenhotep I., 229.

baker, 224.

cross-legged scribe of Gizeh, 217.

cross-legged scribe of the Louvre, 214-215.

Hor, 242.

Horemheb, 232-233.

Khafra, 214, 217-218, 253.

kneeling scribe, 214, 223.

Mermashi?, 227.

Nefert, 219-220.

Nemhotep (dwarf), 225-226.

Pah?rnefer, 214.

Prince of Si?t, 241-242.

a queen, 232.

Rahotep, 219.

Sebekemsaf, 202, 227.

Sebekhotep III., 227.

Sheikh el Beled (Raemka), 214, 220-221, 224.

Sheikh el Beled's wife, 221-222.

Skemka, 214.

Thothmes I., 229.

Thothmes II., 229.

Statues,-- in houses, 13.

in temples, 106, 108-110.

Ka, 126-127, 152, 163, 166, 211-214.

Statuette of,-- Amen, gold, 315.

a girl, 274-275.

Hori Ra, wood, 275.

Horus, bronze, 309-310.

Horus, enamelled, 267.

kneeling genius, bronze, 309.

Mos?, bronze, 310.

Na?, wood, 276.

officer, wood, 275-276.

priest, wood, 275, 276.

Ptah, gold, 315.

Ptahmes, enamelled, 268.

Tak?shet, bronze, 308-309.

Statuettes,-- alabaster, 253.

bronze, 307-310.

clay, 257.

Deir el Bahar?, 266.

gilt, 314.

gold, 314-315.

ivory, 273-274.

limestone, 253.

period XVIII. and XIX. dynasties, 307.

XXII dynasty, 307.

XXVI dynasty, 307.

wood, Ptolemaic, 307. (See ?SHABTI?.)

Stela, of Bakhtan, 109 and note. of Merr?ka, 120.

Stelae, 24, 104. of mastabas, 115, 120-121, 125.

pyramid-mastabas, 146.

rock-cut tombs, 152, 157.

Step Pyramid (See PYRAMIDS).

Stone, 46. dikes, 38.

grating, 71. (See ALABASTER, etc.)

Storage, 16, 35, 36, 87, 132.

Stroganoff, Count, 308.

Stuart, Villiers, 300 (note).

Stucco, 50, 170, 261, 284, 314.

S?it, mother of Horemheb, 179.

Swine,-- alleged impurity of, 195-196.

transmigration into, 164.

Sycamores, 8, 15. wood of, 205, 274, 284, 290.

Syene, 45, 77, 196, 209 (note), 243. (See AS?AN).

Syenite, 139.

Syria, 31, 34 (note), 87, 187, 248, 303, 312.

Ta, amulet, 247, 286.

Tabernacle, 66.

Tables of offerings, 106-107, 115, 119, 130, 157, 166, 237, 251-252.

Taharka, 52, 79.

Tahpanhes, 36 (note). (See TELL DEFENNEH and DAPHNAE).

Tah?ti, general, 316.

Tak?shet, 308-309.

Tambourine, 95.

Tanis, 1, 47, 103, 104 (note), 197, 200 (note), 227, 228, 234, 235, 307, 311. (See SN and TEMPLES).

Tanks, of houses, 16.

Tapestry, 296-298, 303 and note.

Tat, amulet, 286 and note.

Tau-cross (See ANKH).

Ta?d, 250.

Ta?rt (See APET and TH?ERIS).

Taxation, system of, 35.

Tefn?t (See GODDESSES).

Tehneh, 45.

Tell Basta, I (See BUBASTIS).

Tell Defenneh, 36 (note), (See TAHPANHES and DAPHNAE).

Tell el Amarna, 13, 155, 197 (note), 231-233, 263.

Tell el Mask?tah, I (See PITHOM and TH?K?).

Tell el Yah?deh, tiles of, 270-272.

Tell es Seba, 311.

Tell Eshm?neyn, 265.

Tell Gemayemi, 200, 262 (note).

Temenos, 87-89.

Temples, 46-110. Ab? Simbel, 53, 82-84, 319.

Abydos, 20, 47, 49, 51, 60, 64, 85-86, 90, 194, 232.

Beit el Wally, 84, 205 (note), 235.

Bubastis, 52 and note, 58, 88.

Coptos, 245.

Deir el Bahar?, 51, 53, 61, 83, 85 and note, 229

Deir el Medineh, 69-70.

Derr, 84.

Denderah, 53, 57, 61, 72, 73, 88, 91, 92, 94, 100, 245.

Edf?, 56, 57, 58, 64, 72, 74, 75, 88, 92, 100.

El Kab, 56, 69, 88.

Elephantine, 67-69.

Esneh, 92, 245.

Gebel Barkal, 53.

Gebel Silsileh, 81, 82, 232.

Gerf Husein, 85.

Gizeh, 64-66, 85.

G?rneh, 60, 159.

Kalaat Addah, 81, 82.

Kalabsheh, 54, 56.

Karnak, 1, 34, 35, 46, 47, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 58, 59, 60, 62, 63-64, 70-72, 76-79, 87, 88, 89, 92, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 107, 194, 229, 230, 232, 235, 313, 314, 315.

Luxor, 47, 52, 57, 60, 62, 72, 79, 80, 89, 100, 104, 106, 187, 202, 230, 234.

Medamot, 56, 59, 60, 64.

Medinet Hab?, 32-33, 50, 53, 60, 63, 72, 87, 101, 159, 184, 194, 199, 288, 315.

Mesheikh, 69.

Nubia, 47, 82.

Ombos, 26, 58, 88, 92-93, 245.

Philae, 58-59, 62, 80-81, 92, 100, 245.

Semneh, 50.

Sesebeh, 58.

Sharonah, 69.

Soleb, 58.

Tanis, 47, 104 (note).

Wady Sab?ah, 85, 88.

Amenhotep II, 53.

Amenhotep III, 53, 67-68.

Antoninus Pius, 100.

Caesars, 66.

Dynasty IV, 64.

Dynasty XII, 66.


Horemheb (See GEBEL SILSILEH).

Khons?, at Karnak, 60, 70-72, 74, 235.

Ptolemies, 66.

Rameses III. (See MEDINET HAB?).


Terraces, 16, 36, 74.

Terra-cotta, vases of, 114, 166.

Teti, King, pyramid of, 140.

Textiles, 67, 296-298, 302-304.

Alexandrian, 303.

brocaded, 303.

Ekhm?m, 303-304 and note.

Roman, 303.

Thebaid, the, 243, 273.

Thebes, 1, 2, 6, 26, 32, 33, 36, 66, 79, 85, 88, 89, 103, 131, 147, 148, 153, 154, 155, 157-165, 168, 174, 177, 186, 193, 197, 205, 209, 226, 229, 235, 237, 244, 250, 277, 290, 293, 313. (See KARNAK, LUXOR.)

Thm?is, silver vases of, 316-317.

Thoth (See GODS).

Thothmes I, 76-77, 229.

Thothmes II, 77, 287.

Thothmes III, 26, 42, 53, 58-59, 60, 77, 92, 157, 229, 263, 302, 326.

Thothmes IV, 205.

Th?eris (See GODDESSES, APET, and TA?RT).

Th?k?, 36 and note. (See PITHOM and TELL EL MASKH?TAH).

Ti (See TOMB).

Tiberius, at Denderah and Ombos, 245.

Tibur, Egyptian rooms in Hadrian's villa at, 243.

Tii, Oueen, vase of, 267.

Tiles,-- for mural decoration, 269-272.

in pyramid of Sakkarah, 270.

of Tell el Yah?deh, 270-272.

Tipcat, 282.

Tin, 304.

Toilet, articles of, 166, 259, 266-267, 273, 277, 281, 306.

Tomb of,-- Affi, 117.

A?, 16, 17, 155, 158.

Aimad?a, 20.

Amenhotep III, 158.

Ameni, 149, 151.

Anna, 12, 229.

Bakenrenf, 165.

an Entef, 265-266.

Hapizefa, 150.

Hes?, 210.

Horemheb, 179-180, 183.

Horhotep, 156-157.

H?i, 229,

Ka?pir, 115,

Khabi?sokari, 117, 208.

Khamha, 229.

Khet?, 155.

Khn?mhotep, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 177, 297.

Manna, 154.

Merr?ka, 120.

Neferhotep, 115, 116, 155.

Nenka, 130 and note.

Petamenoph, 165.

Poh?nika, 116.

Ptahhotep, 118, 119, 122, 124, 188.

Rahotep, 126.

Rameses I., 158.

Rameses II., 158.

Rameses III., 161-163, 301.

Rameses IV., 160.

Red Scribe, 118.

Rekhmara, 3, 186, 187, 229.

Seti I., 158, 161-163, 232.

Sennetm?, 258, 294.

Shepsesptah, 117.

Thenti, 118, 126.

Ti, 116, 117, 127, 155.

?na, 155.

?rkh??, 124. (See PYRAMID.)

Tombs, 111-168. Egyptian idea of, 111-112.

mastaba-pyramids, 145-148.

mastabas, 113-131.

pyramids, 131-145.

rock-cut tombs, 146-168.

Abydos, 22, 145-147.

Ahnas el Medineh, 259.

As?an, 53, 148, 149, 150, 259.

Beni Hasan, 24, 53, 148 and note, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 155, 177, 256-257.

Bersheh, 148 and note.

Coptic period, 303-304.

Deir el Gebraw?, 204.

El Amarna, 13, 15, 16, 17.

Fay?m, 259, 291-292, 303-304.

Gizeh, 148.

Greek period, 175.

Kasr es Sa?d, 148.

K?rnet Murraee, 294.

Negadeh, 148.

Sheikh Sa?d, 148.

Si?t, 148, 150.

Tools, etc.,-- adze, 283, 304.

anvil, 313.

axe, 201, 304.

burin, 305, 325.

chains, measuring, 155.

chisel, 45, 214, 304.

drill, 195, 214, 247, 250, 282.

gouge, 195.

grindstone, 247.

hammer, 195, 313.

knives, 304, 306.

mallet, 45, 197, 202.

pegs, 283.

point, 47, 195 (note), 197, 201, 202, 247, 250.

saw, 247, 250, 304.

wedges, 45.

wheel, 250 (See WHEEL, POTTER'S).

Tops, 284.

Torus, 50.

Towns, 1-2, Note 1, 7-8, 87-88. Coptic, 8.

Pharaonic, 1, 7, 8.

Ptolemaic, 1.

Roman, 8.

Sa?tic, 1.

Twelfth Dynasty, 1, 7.

walled, 20, 26.

Toys, 182, 282.

Trees, 274.

Trellis, 182, 189.

T?a?, 273.

T?atm?tf, genius, 258 (note).

T?m (See GODS).

Turin Museum, 160, 171, 229, 231, 232, 235, 262, 274, 275.

Turquoise, 247, 325, 329.

Typhon (Set) (See GODS).

?aga, feast of, 118.

?ahabra, 269 (note). (See APRIES and HOPHRA).

?ati (See GODDESSES).

?na (See TOMB).

?nas, 133, 138, 139, 163.

Uraeus (basilisk), 61, 201, 294.

?sekh, 326-327.

?sertesen I, 76, 143.

?sertesen II., 7, 143, 322.

?sertesen III., 28, 226, 322, 323.

?shabti?, 167, 253, 257, 266.

?ta, amulet, 247-248.

Varnish, 203-204, 305.

Vases,-- Ancient Empire, 255, 256.

bronze, 305.

canopic, 167, 252-253, 258, 292.

decoration of, 256, 257, 258, 259.

libation, 292, 310.

silver and gold, 316-320.

situlae, 307.

terra-cotta, 114, 166.


Vaulting, 6 and note, 36, 51, 145, 146, 150, 151.

Vauquelin, M., 304.

Venus, 243.

Vermilion, 203.

Vienna Museum, 272.

Vulture, 92, 299, 301, 315, 325.

Vyse, Col. Howard., 137

Wady Gerraweh, 40. Genneh, 41.

Sab?ah (See HEMI-SPEOS).

Wages, 35.

Wall-scenes, 3, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 30, 31, 35, 36, 91, 92, 97, 99, 120, 122, 124, 130, 152-156, 162, 165, 177, 178, 179, 192, 193, 194, 195, 260, 284, 295, 296, 297, 298, 300, 301, 313, 318, 319, 320. (See BAS-RELIEF and PAINTING).

Washhouse, 12.

Weavers, 124, 297-298.

Wheel, potter's, 255.

Wig, 236, 275, 276, 286, 308, 310, 332.

Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, 295, 303, 305.

Wilson, Sir E., 128 (note).

Windows, 9, 11, 50, 65, 70, 144.

Wine, 35, 36, 97, 180.

Wood, 25, 50, 66, 169, 205, 210-211, 214 and note, 224, 235, 274-277. (See CABINET-MAKING, MUMMY-CASES, STATUETTES, STATUES).

Zagazig, 332.

Zar? (Selle), 34 and note.

Zodiacal circle of Denderah, 93, 94.

Zowyet el Aryan, 134.

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