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Kelly Miller's History of the World War for Human Rights By Kelly Miller Characters: 88399

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THE OLD ILLINOIS 8th REGIMENT

The Training Camp-The Black Devils-They Died That Our Republic May Live-The Last Soldiers To Cease Fighting-Taking The Bit Between Their Teeth-The Hindenburg Line Could Not Stop Them-They Cross the Ailette Canal-Desperate Deeds of Daring-One Man Routs a Machine Gun Crew-The Band Played On-Summary of Deeds of The Illinois Eighth.

At the beautiful city of Rockford, Illinois, was located Camp Grant where thousands of Negro recruits gathered from cities and factories, farms and plantations of our country, were given the needed intensive training to fit them to sustain the glorious traditions of the American soldiers. We take pride in all our soldiers-never once did they retreat but carried Old Glory ever onward until the armistice of November 11, 1918.

"THE BLACK DEVILS"

The old Illinois 8th Regiment was one of these colored units which henceforth will be referred to whenever the heroic deeds of this war are mentioned. The Prussian guards gave them a name which tells us of the respect and fear they inspired. They were "The Black Devils." The guards were seasoned veterans who had participated in the fiercest fighting of the war, yet these Negro heroes of the West did not falter before them. They were brigaded with the choicest troops of France and fought by their side through the final stages of the war. By them they were given a name indicative of the respect and confidence, their soldierly bearing and actions inspired. To the French they were the "Partridges," the proudest game bird of Europe, and when the decimated ranks of the regiment paraded before cheering thousands on their return, there marched in their ranks, twenty-two men wearing the American Distinguished Service Cross while sixty-eight others were decorated with the French "Croix de Guerre."

THEY DIED THAT OUR REPUBLIC MIGHT LIVE

The regiment went to France with approximately 2,500 men from Chicago and Illinois; they came back with 1,260. Those figures convey an eloquent story of suffering and death. Nearly a hundred were killed in battle. They were sleeping on the shell scarred fields of France. Many others are enrolled in the great army of maimed heroes, who however, are facing the future with calm courage, though many of them are deprived of arms or limbs, or possess bodies cruelly disfigured by shot and shell, with physical health wrecked as a result of hardship in trenches, or deadly gas inhaled.

THE LAST SOLDIERS TO CEASE FIGHTING

The old 8th probably made the last capture of the war. The morning of November 11, they were with their French comrades in Belgium. The objective given them to attain that day was not arduous and so, having achieved the same, the boys simply kept on going. The French division commander sent a messenger to the Colonel in command to cease firing at 11 A.M., but by the time the messenger caught up with the rushing troops it was ten minutes after the Huns had ceased firing on the Western front, and those colored boys were just putting the finishing touches on one of the neatest captures of the war-a German army train of fifty wagons.

TAKING THE BIT BETWEEN THEIR TEETH

Their commander had one criticism to make which, however, will not be a mark against the old 8th: "My greatest difficulty was in keeping my boys from going on after they had obtained their objective," he complains. The boys had formed the habit of "getting there" so strongly that inertia kept them going. Discipline in this respect seems to have been lacking among the American soldiers generally. We heard this same complaint at Chateau Thierry, at St. Mihiel and in the Argonne. These doughboys, like all genuine Americans, evidently believed it good policy while getting, to get enough.

FIRST AS WELL AS LAST

It will be noticed the 8th was among the last to quit doing things, but they were among the first to start things going. Laon is an important city of France about eighty miles northeast of Paris. For four long years it remained in German hands. Allied troops recaptured the town October 13, 1918. At the head of the column of troops entering the city was a colored sergeant of this regiment carrying a French flag while, not to be outdone in courtesy a French Sergeant walked beside him carrying the Stars and Stripes. The French people of Laon knelt by the roadside and kissed the hand of this colored sergeant of the 8th regiment. The torture of four years was over and they saw in this proud young soldier a representative of the Great Republic of the West rescuing France from the rapacious soldiers of Germany.

THE HINDENBURG LINE COULD NOT STOP THEM

The Hindenburg Line was the most celebrated battle line of history. It passed through Laon, LaFere, St. Quentin, Cambrai and Lille, a total distance of about ninety miles. Every foot of that distance was fortified with such massive trenches, supporting lines of trenches, and elaborate lines of wire entanglements that it was supposed to be impregnable. Nothing known to warfare ever equalled such strong defenses. Every avenue of approach was defended by machine guns and heavy artillery, and in the trenches and at easy supporting distances to the rear were massed the best soldiers of Germany, yet that line was crossed by the Allies September 29 and 30 and the Illinois Negro regiment was among those that accomplished that feat.

THEY CROSS THE AILETTE CANAL

To accomplish this they traversed an open ground through a German barrage fire. A barrage fire is such a focusing of shot and shell that it forms a veritable descending curtain of projectiles. Then when they crossed the open they came to the Ailette Canal, in which wire entanglements had been placed. Pontoon bridges were thrown across and so the Hindenburg Line was reached and crossed. The regiment had two hundred casualties as a result of that frightful but victorious advance. The smashing at that line was final notice to Germany that the end was at hand. Colored soldiers of this great republic with but a few months of training had forced their way up to and through the most strongly fortified military line in all history, against the desperate defense of veterans with years of experience, the supposed unconquerable soldiers of Germany.

DESPERATE DEEDS OF DARING

Where all with calm courage faced death it is almost out of place to mention individual cases, but some deeds of daring better illustrate the desperate chances taken when duty called. One regimental surgeon went out in No Man's Land amid a hail of machine gun bullets-it seemed sure death to face guns sending a spray of bullets searching the entire area-and calmly attended wounded men where they lay knowing that probably every minute would be his last. One D.S.C. was bestowed on a private whose life had been sacrificed in the vain attempt to get a message through the inferno of fire. He was off duty at the time, but that did not matter. That message ought to go through. He was blown to pieces in the attempt. But when he failed another volunteer stepped forward. He was a Negro lad only eighteen years old. You would not have noticed him among the workers of Chicago, but in his veins flowed the blood of heroes. He got the message through but was killed trying to return.

ONE MAN ROUTS A MACHINE GUN CREW

The entire regiment was being held up because a machine gun was so favorably located for defense that it could incapacitate all who attempted to cross its line of fire. Then one lone lieutenant concluded that gun had done enough mischief, anyway what would one more life amount to? So he charged it single handed, and kindly fate as if in admiration of his daring decreed his safety. The gun was put out of action, the advance continued. Victory came. But let it be understood these instances simply illustrate the spirit that enthused all. The officers were in the very thick of the fight, leading-not following-the men. In that battle twenty-seven officers were wounded the first two hours.

THE BAND PLAYED ON

The band of the "Black Devils" was justly celebrated. After the regiment returned to the state-after their part in the great victory was history-that band toured the United States, and delighted citizens bore testimony to the inspiring nature of its music. But the music amid the stern realities of war was no less helpful. The Colonel testified: "That band was everywhere. In the final pursuit when we had the Germans running back at the rate of thirty-five kilometers a day, that band with all its pack and instruments would keep right up with the troops." But if other duties seemed more pressing, the musicians were ready to do what they could. "Time and time again," continued the Colonel, "I asked its members to serve as stretcher bearers and every time they went right out where the fighting was the hottest and brought the wounded in." After all the true criterion of service is to do what ever seems necessary and right to do, at the moment, not counting self. It is not so much great occasions that prove men but faithfulness in duty.

BORROWING HIS ORDERLY'S EYES

One captain found that while trenches were real life saving inventions, it required a good deal of time to traverse their windings when it was necessary to inspect his command. So he got a bicycle and raced up and down in front of his trenches taking short cuts across No Man's Land. Of course, the Germans in the opposite line all went gunning for this daring rider. Ordinarily it was death to expose oneself on No Man's Land, but fate made another exception in his case and they "never touched him," though they did ruin his fine bicycle by shooting out the spokes of its wheels. However, a mustard gas shell "got him" one day. He was temporarily blinded in addition to suffering excruciating pains. Did he temporarily retire? No, on the contrary, he borrowed his orderly's eyes, in other words had him lead him around, report on what he saw while the disabled captain issued necessary orders. No wonder this regiment acquired appreciative names from friend and foe.

WHERE THE FATE OF CIVILIZATION WAS DECIDED

That part of France where the great battles of the World War were fought has been the scene of battles in the past that profoundly influenced civilization. In the valley of the Somme nearly fifteen centuries ago, Clovis laid the foundation of French history by defeating the Romans in a world deciding battle at Soissons, and ten years later near the same place the German forces were utterly defeated by the same king. More than five centuries ago the great Battle of Crecy, between the English and French was fought, ending in a great victory for the Black Prince. But none of the ancient battles equalled in importance the series of great victories won by the Allied force over those of Germany in 1918. Modern civilization and medieval conceptions of government then met in conflict. The point we wish all to notice is, that Negro soldiers from America had a part in these great battles and so are entitled to recognition as among those that saved the modern world when threatened with an eclipse akin to the Dark Ages that supervened on the culture of early centuries.

FIELDS OF GLORY

It is well to bear in mind some of the crucial fields of glory where our Negro soldiers upheld the best traditions of our armies, such as Chateau Thierry, Belleau Woods, St. Mihiel and the Argonne. The Illinois 8th was conspicuous in many of these battles. In the Argonne against superior forces, amid a baptism of shell fire from hidden machine gunners, they advanced to victory. They can tell us of scenes where their comrades fell, torn by shrapnel, cruelly wounded, dying, yet with their last breath singing a snatch of the "Hymn of Freedom." They can tell of instances in which these dying heroes urged the survivors on. "Go, get them" was their parting words.

RETURN TO THE UNITED STATES

Following the armistice the regiment went to Brest, France, whence it sailed for the United States, February 2, 1919. Most of our cities had become accustomed to the enthusiastic greetings of returned soldiers. None were given a more enthusiastic welcome than the old 8th Illinois. Even New York, where most of returning soldiers land, grown so accustomed to marching soldiers just from Europe, stopped to pay signal respect to these Negro lads. On their arms were service stripes and in the passing ranks were many whom France had delighted to honor. In Chicago the entire city paused in its business to shout words of welcome to those who had earlier served them in many forms-but had dropped all and faced death that Chicago, New York and our galaxy of states might be among the great democracies which "made the world safe for democracy."

THIS REGIMENT A REPRESENTATIVE OF ALL

We have mentioned the 8th Illinois especially because this regiment was gathered principally from Chicago and the West. Let it be understood, however, that it is simply a representative regiment of Negro soldiers. They deserve well of our country. They too crossed the seas and faced death with a smile. Why? Because their country called them. In the peaceful days of progress ahead we are sure they will ever remember the experiences of war and by acts and words continue to labor for the good of our country.

SUMMARY OF DEEDS OF THE ILLINOIS 8th

Let us sum up in an easily remembered form the work of this regiment in France:

Suffered 50 per cent casualties; lost ninety-five men and one officer killed outright.

Lost only one prisoner to the Germans in all the months they fought.

Captured many German cannon and many German machine guns.

Participated in the final drive against the Germans on the French sector, advancing in the final stages of the war as far as thirty-five kilometers in one day.

Were the first Allied troops to enter the French fortress of Laon when it was wrested from the Germans after four years of war.

Won twenty-two American Distinguished Service Crosses and sixty-eight French War Crosses.

Fought the last battle of the war, capturing a German wagon train of fifty wagons and crews, a half hour after the armistice went into effect.

Refused to fraternize with the Germans even after the armistice was signed.

THE TERMS IMPOSED ON GERMANY

With the signing of the armistice terms, November 11, 1918, the actual fighting in the world war came to an end but the statesmen of the allied nations were faced by a task of extraordinary difficulty. We must remember that not until after the armistice was signed was any of German soil exposed to invasion. Her cities and villages were intact, her land had not been churned by exploding shells. Not only were her factories in good working condition, but they were packed with costly machinery stolen from French and Belgian factories. Her very churches were adorned with masterpieces of art from plundered cathedrals of Western Europe and innumerable private homes possessed articles of furniture and bric-a-brac stolen from wrecked homes in France and Belgium, before they were totally destroyed. War on the part of Germany in the invaded territories of the allies had degenerated into brigandage.

The task before the allied statesmen was to frame conditions of peace that would make it impossible for Germany to devote her energies to preparations for another war of conquest. That in itself was a most difficult thing to arrange. In addition, among the allied nations were many cross currents of national interests that had to be taken into consideration and compromises effected. Probably no gathering of statesmen ever had more momentous questions to consider. The allied nations sent their premiers and most influential statesmen to the congress in Paris. The president of the United States broke the customs that had prevailed from the time of Washington to the present and was one of the delegates from this country to the most important peace council that the world had ever seen.

THE PEACE CONGRESS

The peace congress began its formal sessions January 12, 1919. Mr. Clemenceau, premier of France, was elected chairman. The difficulties in the way of an agreement among themselves as to the terms to be imposed on Germany were so great that it was almost exactly four months before the terms of peace were laid before the delegates from Germany. A singular coincidence is to be noticed. It was almost four years to a day from the sinking of the Lusitania. That act of piracy was one of the acts that roused America and led to our intervention. The sinking of the ship was made the occasion for a school holiday in Germany. The fourth anniversary of the sinking was a day of gloom and despair for the fallen nation. That country stood arraigned before the highest tribunal in the world as the aggressor in the mightiest war of history and read the stern decrees of the allies that stripped her of lands and powers. History knows of no more startling changes in wealth and power than that experienced by Germany as a result of the worlds war.

The treaty is the most voluminous one ever drawn. It contains about 90,000 words, or sufficient to make a volume half as large as this one. That gives us an idea of the immense number of points that had to be considered. For our purpose it is only necessary to present an analysis of its principal provisions. No one except delegates of the nations expressly concerned care for the entire text, but all desire a general understanding of what the treaty sets forth. It re-draws the map of Central Europe, and contains stipulations that will profoundly affect the future of the nations composing the Teutonic Alliance.

WHY TERMS ARE SO SEVERE

Before considering the terms themselves, let us make a general observation. The terms are undoubtedly severe, perhaps the most drastic ever imposed on a conquered people. We do well to reflect that many wrongs in the past committed by Germany had to be righted. Not to mention her colonial empire Germany loses nearly one-third of her territory in Europe. The part restored to France is simply a return of territory wrongly taken from France in 1871. The larger part of her lost territory goes to Poland from whom it was taken two hundred years ago in the utterly unjust partition in the days of Frederick the Great. But what the treaty seeks to safeguard is the safety of the world. Germany's record since the days of Bismark is that of one continuous grasping after territory at the expense of surrounding nations. It was absolutely necessary to impose such terms as would render her powerless in this matter. It will be noticed that the terms imposed spell the end of German militarism. That menace to the peace and safety of the world is removed.

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS

An attempt is made in this treaty to constitute a League of Nations that will hence forth put an end to war. The curious student is reminded of these difficulties that confronted the Constitutional Convention of 1787 when it met to form our National Constitution. In that case, however, the separate nations that united to form the United States were one in blood and history and had been drawn together by common dangers. Those who would form a League of Nations seek to draw into one compact, of course with very loose restraining bonds, nations utterly adverse in blood and history. The mere effort to form such a league is a wonderful step in advance. It remains for the future to determine the success of the movement.

THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE

The covenant of the League of Nations constitutes Section 1 of the peace treaty, which places upon the league many specific, in addition to its general duties. It may question Germany at any time for a violation of the neutralized zone east of the Rhine as a threat against the world's peace. It will appoint three of the five members of the Saar commission, oversee its regime, and carry out the plebiscite. It will appoint the high commissioner of Danzig, guarantee the independence of the free city, and arrange for treaties between Danzig and Germany and Poland. It will work out the mandatory system to be applied to the former German colonies, and act as a final court in part of the plebiscites of the Belgian-German frontier, and in dispute as to the Kiel Canal, and decide certain of the economic and financial problems. An international conference on labor is to be held in October under its direction, and another on the international control of ports, waterways, and railways is foreshadowed.

MEMBERSHIP OF THE LEAGUE

The membership of the league will be the signatories of the covenant and other natures invited to accede, who must lodge a declaration of accession without reservation within two months. A new state, dominion, or colony may be admitted, provided its admission is agreed by two-thirds of the assembly. A nation may withdraw upon giving two years' notice, if it has fulfilled all its international obligations.

HOW THE LEAGUE WILL ADMINISTER ITS TRUST

A permanent secretariat will be established at the seat of the league which will be at Geneva. The assembly will consist of representatives of the members of the league and will meet at stated intervals. Voting will be by states. Each member will have one vote and not more than three representatives. This assembly may be considered as the House of Representatives of the league. The council may be considered as the senate. It will consist of representatives of the five great allied powers, together with representatives of four members selected by the assembly from time to time; it may co-operate with additional states and will meet at least once a year. Members not represented will be invited to send a representative when questions affecting their interests are discussed. Voting will be by nation. Each nation will have one vote and not more than one representative. Decision taken by the assembly and council must be unanimous except in regard to procedure, and in certain cases specified in the covenant and in the treaty, where decisions will be by a majority.

REDUCTION OF ARMAMENT

The council will formulate plans for a reduction of armaments for consideration and adoption. These plans will be revised every 10 years. Once they are adopted, no member must exceed the armament's text without the concurrence of the council. All members will exchange full information as to armaments and programs, and a permanent commission will advise the council on military and naval questions.

STEPS TAKEN TO PREVENT WAR

Upon any war, or threat of war, the council will meet to consider what common action shall be taken. Members are pledged to submit matters of dispute to arbitration or inquiry and not to resort to war until three months after the award. Members agree to carry out an arbitral award, and not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with it; if a member fails to carry out the award the council will propose the necessary measures. The council will formulate plans for the establishment of a permanent court of international justice to determine international disputes or to give advisory opinions. Members who do not submit their case to arbitration must accept the jurisdiction of the assembly. If the council, less the parties to the dispute, is unanimously agreed upon the rights of it, the members agree that they will not go to war with any party to the dispute which complies with its recommendations.

INTERNATIONAL PROVISIONS FOR LABOR

Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international convention existing or hereafter to be agreed upon, the members of the league will in general endeavor through the international organization established by the labor convention to secure and maintain fair conditions of labor for men, women, and children in their own countries and other countries, and undertake to secure just treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control; they will intrust the league with the general supervision over the execution of agreements for the suppression of traffic in women and children, etcetera, and in the control of the trade in arms and ammunition with countries in which control is necessary.

LABOR CONFERENCE

In order to accomplish these ends, "Members of the league of nations agree to establish a permanent organization to promote international adjustment of labor conditions, to consist of an annual international labor conference and an international labor office."

"The former is composed of four representatives of each state, two from the government and one each from the employers and the employed; each of them may vote individually. It will be a deliberative, legislative body, its measures taking the form of draft conventions or recommendations for legislation, which, if passed by two-thirds vote, must be submitted to the lawmaking authority in every state participating."

THE FIRST MEETING OF THE CONFERENCE

The first meeting of the conference will take place in October, 1919, at Washington, to discuss the eight-hour day or 48-hour week; prevention of unemployment; extension and application of the international conventions adopted at Berne in 1906, prohibiting night work for women and use of white phosphorus in the manufacture of matches; employment of women and children at night or in unhealthy work, employment of women before and after child birth; maternity benefits and employment of children as regards to minimum age.

PRINCIPLES TO GUIDE THE CONFERENCE

Nine principles of labor conditions are recognized on the ground that "the well-being, physical and moral of the industrial wage-earners is of supreme international importance." Exceptions are necessitated by differences of climate, habits, and economic development. They include the guiding principle that labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce; right of association of employers and employees; a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life; the eight-hour day or 48-hour week; a weekly rest of at least 24 hours, which should include Sunday wherever practicable; abolition of child labor, and assurance of the continuation of the education and proper physical development of children; equal pay for equal work as between men and women; equal treatment of all workers lawfully resident therein, including foreigners; and a system of inspection in which women should take part.

NO MORE SECRET TREATIES

All treaties of international engagements concluded after the institution of the league will be registered with the secretariat and published. The assembly may from time to time advise members to reconsider treaties which have become inapplicable or involve danger of peace. The covenant abrogates all obligations between members inconsistent with its terms, but nothing in it shall affect the validity of international engagement such as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe Doctrine for securing the maintenance of peace. This last clause is of special interest to the United States.

NEW BOUNDARIES OF GERMANY

After thus providing for the League of Nations, the treaty takes up the provisions of special importance to the various belligerent nations. It is well to notice the new boundaries of Germany. That nation cedes to France, Alsace-Lorraine, 5600 square miles, and to Belgium two small districts between Luxembourg and Holland and totaling 382 square miles. She also cedes to Poland the southeastern tip of Silesia beyond and including Oppeln, most of Posen and West Prussia, 27,680 square miles. She loses sovereignty over the northeasternmost tip of East Prussia, 40 square miles north of the River Memel, and the internationalized areas about Danzig, 729 square miles, and the basin of the Saar, 738 square miles, between the western border of the Rhenish Palatinate of Bavaria and the southeast corner of Luxembourg.

The southeastern third of East Prussia and the area between East Prussia and the Vistula north of latitude 53 degrees 3 minutes is to have its nationality determined by popular vote, 5,785 square miles, as is to be the case in part of Schleswig, 2,787 square miles.

BETWEEN BELGIUM AND GERMANY

Germany is to consent to the abrogation of the treaties of 1839, by which Belgium was established as a neutral state, and to agree in advance to any convention with which the allied and associated powers may determine to replace them.

Germany is to recognize the full sovereignty of Belgium over the contested territory of Morenet and over part of Prussian Morenet, and to renounce in favor of Belgium all rights of the circles of Eupen and Malmedy, the inhabitants of which are to be entitled, within six months, to protest against this change of sovereignty, either in whole or in part, the final decision to be reserved to the league of nations.

A commission is to settle the details of the frontier, and various regulations for change of nationality are laid down.

LUXEMBOURG SET FREE

Germany renounces her various treaties and conventions with the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, recognizes that it ceased to be a part of the German zollverein from Jan. 1, last, renounces all right of exploitation of the railroads, adheres to the abrogation of its neutrality, and accepts in advance any international agreement as to it, reached by the allied and associated powers.

THE EAST BANK OF THE RHINE

Germany will not maintain any fortifications or armed forces less than 50 kilometers to the east of the Rhine, hold any maneuvers, nor maintain any works to facilitate mobilization. In case of violation, "she shall be regarded as committing a hostile act against the powers who sign the present treaty and as intending to disturb the peace of the world." "By virtue of the present treaty Germany shall be bound to respond to any request for an explanation which the council of the League of Nations may think it is necessary to address to her."

ALSACE-LORRAINE

After recognition of the moral obligation to repair the wrong done in 1871 by Germany to France and the people of Alsace-Lorraine, the territories ceded to Germany by the treaty of Frankfort are restored to France with their frontiers as before 1871 to date from the signing of the armistice, and to be free of all public debts.

Citizenship is regulated by detailed provisions distinguishing those who are immediately resorted to full French citizenship, those who have to make formal applications therefor, and those for whom naturalization is open after three years. The last named class includes German residents in Alsace-Lorraine, as distinguished from those who acquire the position of Alsace-Lorrainers as defined in the treaty. All public property and all private property of German ex-sovereigns passes to the French without payment or credit. France is substituted for Germany as regards ownership of the railroads and rights over concessions of tramways; the Rhine bridges pass to France with the obligation for their upkeep.

Several clauses now follow providing for trade between Alsace-Lorraine and Germany; the sanctity of existing contracts etc. French law replaces German law. A convention to be made between France and Germany is to settle many details.

THE VALLEY OF THE SAAR

In compensation for the destruction of coal mines in northern France and as payment on account of reparation, Germany cedes to France full ownership of the coal mines of the Saar Basin with their subsidiaries, accessories, and facilities. Their value will be estimated by the reparation commission and credited against that account. The French rights will be governed by German law in force at the armistice excepting war legislation, France replacing the present owners whom Germany undertakes to indemnify. France will continue to furnish the present proportion of coal for local needs and contribute in just proportion to local taxes. The basin extends from the frontier of Lorraine as reannexed to France north as far as St. Wendel, including on the west the valley of the Saar as far as Saarholzbach and on the east the town of Homburg.

A MIXED GOVERNMENT PROVIDED

In order to secure the rights and welfare of the population and guarantee to France entire freedom in working the mines, the territory will be governed by a commission appointed by the League of Nations and consisting of five members, one French, one a native inhabitant of the Saar, and three representing three different countries other than France and Germany. The league will appoint a member of the commission as chairman to act as executive of the commission. The commission will have all powers of government formerly belonging to the German Empire, Prussia, and Bavaria, will administer the railroads and other public services and have full power to interpret the treaty clauses. The local courts will continue, but subject to the commission. Existing German legislation will remain the basis of the law, but the commission may make modification after consulting a local representative assembly which it will organize.

THE PEOPLE'S RIGHTS SECURED

The people will preserve their local assemblies, religious liberties, schools, and languages, but may vote only for local assemblies. They will keep their present nationality except so far as individuals may change it. Those wishing to leave will have every facility with respect to their property. The territory will form part of the French customs system with no export tax on coal and metallurgical products going to Germany nor on German products entering the basin, and for five years no import duties on products of the basin going to Germany or German products coming into the basin for local consumption. French money may circulate without restriction.

POSSIBLE RETURN TO GERMANY

After 15 years a plebiscite will be held by communes to ascertain the desires of the population as to the continuance of the existing regime under the League of Nations, union with France or union with Germany. The right to vote will belong to all inhabitants over 20 resident therein at the signature of the treaty. Taking into account the opinions thus expressed, the league will decide the ultimate sovereignty in any portion restored to Germany. The German Government must buy out the French mines at an appraised valuation, if the price is not paid within six months thereafter this portion passes finally to France. If Germany buys back the mines the league will determine how much of the coal shall be annually sold to France.

GERMAN RELATIONS WITH FORMER AUSTRIAN STATES

"Germany recognizes the total independence of German Austria in the boundaries traced." Germany recognizes the entire independence of the Czecho-Slovak State including the autonomous territory of the Ruthenians south of the Carpathians, and accepts the frontiers of this State as to be determined, which in the case of the German frontier shall follow the frontier of Bohemia in 1914. The usual stipulations as to acquisition and change of nationality follow.

GERMAN RELATIONS WITH NEW POLAND

Germany cedes to Poland the greater part of upper Silesia, Posen, and the Province of West Prussia on the left bank of the Vistula. A field boundary commission of seven, five representing the allied and associated powers, and one each representing Poland and Germany, shall be constituted within 15 days of the signing of peace to delimit this boundary. Such special provisions as are necessary to protect racial, linguistic, or religious minorities, and to protect freedom of transit and equitable treatment of commerce of other nations shall be laid down in a subsequent treaty between the five allied and associated powers and Poland.

EAST PRUSSIA

East Prussia presents a peculiar problem since it is cut off from Germany proper. The boundaries between East Prussia and Poland are to be determined by a plebiscites or a referendum vote of the people, specifying what sections are affected, the treaty sets forth that in each case German troops and authorities will move out within 15 days of the peace and the territories will be placed under an international commission of five members appointed by the five allied and associated powers, with the particular duty of arranging for a free, fair and secret vote. The commission will report the results of the plebiscites to the five powers with a recommendation for the boundary and will terminate its work as soon as the boundary has been laid down and the new authorities set up.

THE RIGHTS OF EAST PRUSSIA GUARDED

The five allied and associated powers will draw up regulations assuring East Prussia full and equitable access to and use of the Vistula. A subsequent convention, of which the terms will be fixed by the five allied and associated powers will be entered into between Poland, Germany and Danzig to assure suitable railroad communication across German territory on the right bank of the Vistula between Poland and Danzig, while Poland shall grant free passage from East Prussia to Germany.

The northeastern corner of East Prussia about Memel is to be ceded by Germany to the associated powers, the former agreeing to accept the settlement made, especially as regards the nationality of the inhabitants.

DANZIG MADE A FREE CITY

Danzig and the district immediately about it are to be constituted into the "free City of Danzig" under the guarantee of the League of Nations. A high commissioner appointed by the league and resident at Danzig shall draw up a constitution in agreement with the duly appointed representatives of the city and shall deal in the first instance with all differences arising between the city and Poland. The actual boundaries of the city shall be delimited by a commission appointed within six months from the signing of peace, and to include three representatives chosen by the allied and associated powers, and one each by Germany and Poland.

RELATIONS BETWEEN DANZIG AND POLAND

A convention, the terms of which shall be fixed by the five allied and associated powers, shall be concluded between Poland and Danzig, which shall include Danzig within the Polish customs frontiers though a free area in the port; insure to Poland the free use of all the city's waterways, docks, and other port facilities, the control and administration of the Vistula and the whole through railway system within the city, and postal, telegraphic, and telephonic communication between Poland and Danzig; provide against discrimination against Poles within the city and place its foreign relations and the diplomatic protection of its citizens abroad in charge of Poland.

GERMAN RELATIONS WITH DENMARK

The war with Denmark in the days of Bismark resulted in the loss of Schleswig and Holstein to Germany. This treaty provides for a conditional return to these provinces to Denmark, the country is divided into zones in each of which the people are to vote on the question of being returned to Denmark. The international commission will then draw a new frontier on the basis of these plebiscites and with due regard of geographical economic conditions. Germany will renounce all sovereignty over territories north of this line in favor of the associated governments, who will hand them over to Denmark.

HELIGOLAND TO BE DISMANTLED

Heligoland was a very strongly fortified island guarding the approaches to the Kiel Canal. The treaty sets forth that the fortifications, military establishment and harbors of the islands of Heligoland and Dune are to be destroyed under the supervision of the Allies by German labor and at Germany's expense. They may not be reconstructed for any similar fortifications built in the future.

STRIPPED OF HER COLONIAL EMPIRE

Germany's vast colonial empire-totaling more than 1,000,000 square miles in area-is now a thing of the past. Outside of Europe Germany renounces all rights, titles, and privileges as to her own or her allies' territories to all the allied and associated powers, and undertakes to accept whatever measures are taken by the five allied powers in relation thereto. In addition Germany surrenders all concessions she had wrung from other countries,-as China, Siam, Liberia, Morocco and Egypt.

GERMANY LOSES HER ARMY

The demobilization of the German Army must take place within two months of the peace. Its strength may not exceed 100,000, including 4,000 officers, with not over seven divisions of infantry and three of cavalry, and it is to be devoted exclusively to maintenance of internal order and control of frontiers. Divisions may not be grouped under more than two army corps headquarters staffs. The great German General Staff is abolished. The army administrative service, consisting of civilian personnel not included in the number of effectives, is reduced to one-tenth the total in the 1913 budget. Employees of the German states such as customs officers, first guards may not exceed the number in 1913. Gendarmes and local police may be increased only in accordance with the growth of population. None of these may be assembled for military training.

STRIPPED OF HER NAVY

The German Navy must be demobilized within a period of two months after the peace. She will be allowed six small battleships, six light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats, and no submarines, either military or commercial, with a personnel of 15,000 men, including officers, and no reserve force of any character. Conscription is abolished, only volunteer service being permitted, with a minimum period of 25 years' service for officers and 12 for men. No member of the German mercantile marine will be permitted any naval training.

Germany must surrender 42 modern destroyers, 50 modern torpedo boats, and all submarines with their salvage vessels. All war vessels under construction, including submarines, must be broken up. War vessels not otherwise provided for are to be placed in reserve or used for commercial purposes. Replacement of ships, except those lost, can take place only at the end of 20 years for battleships and 15 years for destroyers. The largest armored ship Germany will be permitted will be 10,000 tons.

CANNOT HAVE FIGHTING AIR CRAFT

For temporary purposes Germany may retain a small force of airplanes and a small force to operate them, but otherwise the entire air force is to be demobilized within two months. No aviation grounds or dirigible sheds are to be allowed within 150 kilometers of the Rhine or the eastern or southern frontiers, existing installations within these limits to be destroyed. The manufacture of aircraft and parts of aircraft is forbidden for six months. All military and naval aeronautical material under a most exhaustive definition must be surrendered within three months except for the 100 seaplanes already specified.

COMPULSORY MILITARY SERVICE ABANDONED

Conscription is abolished in Germany. The enlisted personnel must be maintained by voluntary enlistments for terms of 12 consecutive years, the number of discharges before the expiration of that term not in any year to exceed 5 per cent of the total effectives. Officers remaining in the service must agree to serve to the age of 45 years, and newly appointed officers must agree to serve actively for 25 years.

No military schools except those absolutely indispensable for the units allowed shall exist in Germany two months after the peace. No associations such as societies of discharged soldiers, shooting or touring clubs, educational establishments, or universities may occupy themselves with military matters. All measures of mobilization are forbidden.

MANUFACTURE OF GUNS AND AMMUNITION FORBIDDEN

All establishments for the manufacturing, preparation, storage, or design of arms and munitions of war, except those specifically excepted, must be closed within three months of the peace and their personnel dismissed. The exact amount of armament and munitions allowed Germany is laid down in detail by tables, all in excess to be surrendered or rendered useless. Th

e manufacture or importation of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases and all analogous liquids is forbidden, as well as the importation of arms, munitions and war material. Germany may not manufacture such material for foreign governments.

WILLIAM II INDICTED AND HIS TRIAL SOUGHT

"The allied and associated powers publicly arraign William II of Hohenzollern, formerly German Emperor, not for an offense against criminal law, but for a supreme offense against international morality and the sanctity of treaties."

The former Emperor's surrender is to be requested of Holland, and a special tribunal set up, composed of one judge from each of the five great powers, with full guarantees of the right of defense. It is to be guided "by the highest motives of international policy with a view of vindicating the solemn obligations of international undertakings and the validity of international morality," and will fix the punishment it feels should be imposed.

OFFICERS RESPONSIBLE FOR CRUELTIES TO BE TRIED

Persons accused of having committed acts in violation of the laws and customs of war are to be tried and punished by military tribunals of only one state. They will be tried before a tribunal of that state; if they affect nationals of several states they will be tried before joint tribunals of the states concerned. Germany shall hand over to the associated governments either jointly or severally all persons so accused, and all documents and information necessary to insure full knowledge of the incriminating acts, the discovery of the offenders and the just appreciation of the responsibility. The accused will be entitled to name his own counsel.

GERMANY MUST PAY ALL THE DAMAGES SHE CAN

While the allied and associated governments recognize that the resources of Germany are not adequate after taking into account permanent diminutions of such resources which will result from other treaty claims, to make complete reparation for all such loss and damage, they require her to make compensation for all damages caused to civilians under seven main categories:

These are now defined and the total obligation Germany is to pay is to be determined and notified to her after a fair hearing and not later than May 1, 1921, by an inter-allied reparation commission. At the same time a schedule of payments to discharge the obligation within 30 years shall be presented. These payments are subject to postponement in certain contingencies. Germany irrevocably recognizes the full authority of this commission, agrees to supply it with all the necessary information, and to pass legislation to effectuate its findings. She further agrees to restore to the Allies cash and certain articles which can be identified.

A PRESENT PAYMENT DEMANDED

As an immediate step forward restoration, Germany shall pay within two years 20,000,000,000 marks in either gold, goods, ships, or other specific forms of payment, with the understanding that certain expenses such as those of the armies of occupation and payments for food and raw materials may be deducted at the discretion of the Allies.

It is now provided that a commission shall have charge of future payments and the amounts of such payment is left to be decided by the commission.

MUST REPLACE SHIPS SUNK BY SUBMARINES

The German Government recognizes the right of the Allies to the replacement, ton for ton and class for class, of all merchant ships and fishing boats lost or damaged owing to the war, and agrees to cede to the Allies all German merchant ships of 1,600 tons gross and upward, one-half of her ships between 1,600 and 1,000 tons gross, and one-quarter of her steam trawlers and other fishing boats. These ships are to be delivered within two months to the reparation committee, together with documents of title evidencing the transfer of the ships free from incumbrance.

"As an additional part of reparation," the German Government further agrees to build merchant ships for the account of the Allies to the amount of not exceeding 200,000 tons gross annually during the next five years.

MUST RESTORE DEVASTATED AREAS

"Germany undertakes to devote her economic resources directly to the physical restoration of the invaded areas. The reparation commission is authorized to require Germany to replace the destroyed articles and to manufacture materials required for reconstruction purposes, all with due consideration for Germany's essential domestic requirements.

"The German Government is also to restore to the French Government certain papers taken by the German authorities in 1870 belonging then to M. Reuther, and to restore the French flags taken during the war of 1870 and 1871. As reparation for the destruction of the library of Louvain, Germany is to hand over manuscripts, early printed books, prints, etc., to be equivalent to those destroyed.

"In addition to the above Germany is to hand over to Belgium wings now at Berlin belonging to the altar piece of the 'Adoration of the Lamb,' by Hubert and Jan Van Eyck, the center of which is now in the church of St. Bavo at Ghent, and the wings now at Berlin and Munich, of the altar piece of 'Last Supper,' by Dirk Bouts, the center of which belongs to the church of St. Peter at Louvain.

MUST PAY COST OF ARMY OF OCCUPATION

"Germany is required to pay the total cost of the armies of occupation from the date of the armistice as long as they are maintained in German territory, this cost to be a first charge after making such provisions for payments for imports as the Allies may deem necessary. Germany is to deliver to the allied and associated powers all sums deposited in Germany by Turkey and Austria-Hungary in connection with the financial support extended by her to them during the war, and to transfer to the Allies all claims against Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, or Turkey in connection with agreements made during the war. Germany confirms the renunciation of the treaties of Bucharest and Brest-Litovsk.

TRADE AND COMMERCE REGULATED

"Customs-For a period of six months Germany shall impose no tariff duties higher than the lowest in force in 1914, and for certain agricultural products, wines, vegetables, oils, artificial silk, and washed or scoured wool this restriction obtains for two and a half years, or for five years unless further extended by the league of nations.

"Germany must give most favored nation treatment to the allied and associated powers. She shall impose no customs tariff for five years on goods originating in Alsace-Loraine and for three years on goods originating in former German territory ceded to Poland with the right of observation of a similar exception for Luxemburg.

"Ships of the allied and associated powers shall for five years, and thereafter under condition of reciprocity, unless the league of nations otherwise decides, enjoy the same rights in German ports as German vessels and have most favored nation treatment in fishing, coasting trade, and towage, even in territorial waters. Ships of a country having no sea coast may be registered at some one place within its territory.

FREEDOM OF TRANSIT

"Germany must grant freedom of transit through her territories by mail or water to persons, goods, ships, carriages and mails from or to any of the allied or associated powers without customs or transit duties, undue delays, restrictions or discriminations based on nationality, means of transport or place of entry or departure. Goods in transit shall be assured all possible speed of journey, especially perishable goods. Germany may not divert traffic from its normal course in favor of her own transport routes or maintain "control stations" in connection with transmigration traffic. She may not establish any tax discrimination against the ports of allied or associated powers, must grant the latter's seaports all factors and reduced tariffs granted her own or other nationals, and afford the allied and associated powers equal rights with those of her own nationals in her ports and waterways, save that she is free to open or close her maritime coasting trade.

GERMAN RIVERS INTERNATIONALIZED

"The Elbe from the junction of the Vltava, the Vitava from Prague, the Oder from Oppa, the Niemen from Grodno, and the Danube from Ulm are declared international, together with their connections. The riparian states must ensure good conditions of navigation within their territories unless a special organization exists therefor. Otherwise appeal may be had to a special tribunal of the league of nations, which also may arrange for a general international waterways convention.

"The Elbe and the Oder are to be placed under international commissions to meet within three months, that for the Elbe composed of four representatives of Germany, two from Czecho-Slovakia, and one each from Great Britain, France, Italy, and Belgium, and that for the Oder composed of one each from Poland, Russia, Czecho-Slovakia, Great Britain, France, Denmark, and Sweden.

"If any riparian state on the Niemen should so request of the league of nations a similar commission shall be established there. These commissions shall, upon request of any riparian state, meet within three months to revise existing international agreement.

CONTROL OF THE DANUBE

"The European Danube commission reassumes its pre-war powers, for the time being, with representatives of only Great Britain, Italy, and Roumania. The upper Danube is to be administered by a new international commission until a definitive state be drawn up at a conference of the powers nominated by the allied and associated governments within one year after the peace.

"The enemy governments shall make full reparations for all war damages caused to the European commission; shall cede their river facilities in surrendered territory, and give Czecho-Slovakia, Serbia, and Roumania any rights necessary on their shores for carrying out improvements in navigation.

FRANCE, BELGIUM AND THE RHINE

"The Rhine is placed under the central commission to meet at Strasbourg within six months after the peace and to be composed of four representatives of France, which shall in addition select the president; four of Germany, and two each of Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands.

"Belgium is to be permitted to build a deep draft Rhine-Meuse canal if she so desires within twenty-five years, in which case Germany must construct the part within her territory on plans drawn by Belgium; similarly, the interested allied governments may construct a Rhine-Meuse canal, both, if constructed, to come under the competent international commission.

"Germany must give France on the course of the Rhine included between the two extreme points of her frontiers all rights to take water to feed canals, while herself agreeing not to make canals on the right bank opposite France. She must also hand over to France all her drafts and designs for this part of the river.

THE KIEL CANAL INTERNATIONALIZED

"The Kiel canal is to remain free and open to war and merchant ships of all nations at peace with Germany. Goods and ships of all states are to be treated on terms of absolute equality, and no taxes to be imposed beyond those necessary for upkeep and improvement for which Germany is responsible.

"In case of violation of or disagreement as to these provisions, any state may appeal to the league of nations, and may demand the appointment of an international commission. For preliminary hearing of complaints Germany shall establish a local authority at Kiel.

THE TERMS NOT TO BE MODIFIED

"Germany agrees to recognize the full validity of the treaties of peace and additional conventions to be concluded by the allied and associated powers with the powers allied with Germany; to agree to the decisions to be taken as to the territories of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, and to recognize the new states in the frontiers to be fixed for them.

"Germany agrees not to put forward any pecuniary claims against any allied or associated power signing the present treaty based on events previous to the coming into force of the treaty.

"Germany accepts all decrees as to German ships and goods made by any allied or associated prize court. The allies reserve the right to examine all decisions of German prize courts. The present treaty, of which the French and British texts are both authentic, shall be ratified and the depositions of ratifications made in Paris as soon as possible. The treaty is to become effective in all respects for each power on the date of deposition of its ratification.

THE ALLIES TAKE NO RISKS

"As a guarantee for the execution of the treaty German territory to the west of the Rhine, together with the bridgeheads, will be occupied by allied and associated troops for 15 years. If the conditions are faithfully carried out by Germany, certain districts, including the bridgehead of Cologne, will be evacuated at the expiration of five years. Certain other districts, including the bridgehead of Coblenz and the territories nearest the Belgian frontier will be evacuated after ten years, and the remainder, including the bridgehead of Mainz, will be evacuated after 15 years. In case the inter-allied reparation commission finds that Germany has failed to observe the whole or part of her obligations, either during the occupation or after the 15 years have expired, the whole or part of the areas specified will be reoccupied immediately. If before the expiration of the 15 years Germany complies with all the treaty understandings, the occupying forces will be withdrawn immediately."

These are the essential features of the voluminous peace treaty presented to the German delegates at Versailles May 7, 1919. There was of course a storm of protest from all classes of German citizens at what they considered the excessive severity of the terms. Had the fortunes of war been different we would have seen far more stringent terms imposed on Great Britain and France and our own country would sooner or later have met equally hard terms. President Wilson justly summed up the treaty as "Severe but just."

After weeks of delay, the exchange of notes between the Allied statesmen and the German delegates, in a vain endeavor on the part of Germany to secure modification of the terms-efforts resulting in only trifling changes-the treaty was signed by delegates from all the Allied powers (except China) and Germany, June 28, 1919, five years to a day after the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand at Serajevo. The five years that had intervened constitute the most memorable period of time in history. Probably no equal term of years had been attended with such an appalling loss of life, had been more heavily freighted with woe, had witnessed such a tremendous outpouring of blood and treasure as the five years ended with the signing of the treaty.

The treaty was signed in the celebrated Hall of Mirrors in the wonderful palace of Versailles, France. This hall is intimately connected with great events in the history of France, of Germany, and now of the world. Here was signed the treaty putting an end to the Franco-German war, here the German empire was inaugurated and William I crowned emperor, here by this treaty was the work of Bismarck completely undone and the constitution of a proposed League of Nations set forth, one of the greatest events in the history of the world.

* * *

CONDENSED CHRONOLOGY OF THE WAR

1914.

June 28-Murder at Serajevo of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand.

July 23-Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia.

July 28-Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia.

July 31-General mobilization in Russia. "State of war" declared in Germany.

Aug. 1-Germany declared war on Russia and invaded Luxemburg.

Aug. 2-German ultimatum to Belgium, demanding free passage across Belgium.

Aug. 3-Germany declares war on France.

Aug. 4-War declared by Great Britain on Germany.

Aug. 4-President Wilson proclaimed neutrality of United States.

Aug. 4-26-Belgium overrun: Liege occupied (Aug. 9); Brussels (Aug. 20); Namur (Aug. 24).

Aug. 6-Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.

Aug. 10-France declares war on Austria-Hungary.

Aug. 12-Great Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary.

Aug. 16-British expeditionary force landed in France.

Aug. 18-Russia completes mobilization and invades East Prussia.

Aug. 21-23-Battle of Mons-Charleroi. Dogged retreat of French and British in the face of the German invasion.

Aug. 23-Tsingtau bombarded by Japanese.

Aug. 25-Dec. 15-Russians overrun Galicia. Lemberg taken (Sept. 2); Przemysl first attacked (Sept. 16); siege broken (Oct. 12-Nov. 12). Fall of Przemysl (Mar. 17, 1915). Dec. 4, Russians 3-1/2 miles from Cracow.

Aug. 26-Germans destroy Louvain.

Aug. 26-Allies conquer Togoland, in Africa.

Aug. 26-Russians severely defeated at Battle of Tannenberg in East Prussia.

Aug. 28-British naval victory in Helgoland Bight.

Aug. 31-Allies' line along the Seine, Marne and Meuse rivers.

Aug. 31-Name St. Petersburg changed to Petrograd by Russian decree.

Sept. 3-French Government removed (temporarily) from Paris to Bordeaux.

Sept. 5-Great Britain, France and Russia sign a treaty not to make peace separately.

Sept. 6-10-First Battle of the Marne. Germans reach the extreme point of their advance; driven back by the French from the Marne to the River Aisne.

Sept. 7-Germans take Maubeuge.

Sept. 11-An Australian expedition captures New Guinea and the Bismark Archipelago Protectorate.

Sept. 16-Russians under Gen. Rennenkampf driven from East Prussia.

Sept. 22-Three British armored cruisers sunk by a submarine.

Sept. 27-Successful invasion of German Southwest Africa by Gen. Botha.

Oct. 9-Germans occupy Antwerp.

Oct. 13-Belgian Government withdraws to Le Havre, in France. Germans occupy Ghent.

Oct. 16-28-Battle of the Yser, in Flanders. Belgians and French halt German advance.

Oct. 17-Nov. 17-French, Belgians and British repulse German drive in first battle of Ypres, saving Channel ports (decisive day of battle, Oct. 31).

Oct. 21-28-German armies driven back in Poland.

Oct. 28-De Wet's Rebellion in South Africa.

Nov. 1-German naval victory in the Pacific off the coast of Chile.

Nov. 3-German naval raid into English waters.

Nov. 5-Great Britain declared war on Turkey; Cyprus annexed.

Nov. 7-Fall of Tsingtau to the Japanese.

Nov. 10-Dec. 14-Austrian invasion of Serbia (Belgrade taken Dec. 2, recaptured by Serbians Dec. 14).

Nov. 10-German cruiser "Emden" caught and destroyed at Cocos Island.

Nov. 21-Basra, on Persian Gulf, occupied by British.

Dec. 8-British naval victory off the Falkland Islands.

Dec. 8-South African rebellion collapses.

Dec. 9-French Government returned to Paris.

Dec. 16-German warships bombarded West Hartlepool, Scarborough and Whitby.

Dec. 17-Egypt proclaimed a British Protectorate, and a new ruler appointed with title of sultan.

Dec. 24-First German air raid on England.

1915.

Jan. 1-Feb. 15-Russians attempt to cross the Carpathians.

Jan. 24-British naval victory in North Sea off Dogger Bank.

Jan. 25-Second Russian invasion of East Prussia.

Jan. 28-American merchantman "William P. Frye" sunk by German cruiser "Prinz Eitel Friedrich."

Feb. 4-Germany's proclamation of "war zone" around the British Isles after February 18.

Feb. 10-United States note holding German Government to a "strict accountability" if any merchant vessel of the United States is destroyed or any American citizens lose their lives.

Feb. 16-Germany's reply stating "war zone" act is an act of self-defense against illegal methods employed by Great Britain in preventing commerce between Germany and neutral countries.

Feb. 18-German official "blockade" of Great Britain commenced. German submarines begin campaign of "piracy and pillage."

Feb. 19-Anglo-French squadron bombards Dardanelles.

Feb. 20-United States sends identic note to Great Britain and Germany suggesting an agreement between these two powers respecting the conduct of naval warfare.

Feb. 28-Germany's reply to identic note.

Mar. 1-Announcement of British "blockade": "Orders in Council" issued to prevent commodities of any kind from reaching or leaving Germany.

Mar. 10-British capture Neuve Chapelle.

Mar. 17-Russians captured Przemysl and strengthened their hold on the greater part of Galicia.

Mar. 28-British steamship "Falaba" attacked by submarine and sunk (111 lives lost; 1 American).

Apr. 2-Russians fighting in the Carpathians.

Apr. 8-Steamer "Harpalyce," in service of American commission for aid of Belgium, torpedoed; 15 lives lost.

Apr. 17-May 17-Second Battle of Ypres. British captured Hill 60 (April 19); (April 23); Germans advanced toward Yser Canal. Asphyxiating gas employed by the Germans. Failure of Germany to break through the British lines.

Apr. 22-German embassy sends out a warning against embarkation on vessels belonging to Great Britain.

Apr. 26-Allied troops land on the Gallipoli Peninsula.

Apr. 28-American vessel "Cushing" attacked by German aeroplane.

Apr. 30-Germans invade the Baltic Provinces of Russia.

May 1-American steamship "Gulflight" sunk by German submarine; two Americans lost. Warning of German embassy published in daily papers.

May 2-Russians forced by the combined Germans and Austrians to retire from their positions in the Carpathians (Battle of the Dunajec).

May 7-Cunard line steamship "Lusitania" sunk by German submarine (1,154 lives lost, 114 being Americans).

May 8-Germans occupy Libau, Russian port on the Baltic.

May 9-June-Battle of Artois, or Festubert (near La Bassee).

May 10-Message of sympathy from Germany on loss of American lives by sinking of "Lusitania."

May 12-South African troops under Gen. Botha occupy capital of German Southwest Africa.

May 13-American note protests against submarine policy culminating in the sinking of the "Lusitania."

May 23-Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary.

May 25-Coalition cabinet formed in Great Britain; Asquith continues to be Prime Minister.

May 25-American steamship "Nebraskan" attacked by submarine.

May 28-Germany's answer to American note of May 13.

June 1-Supplementary note from Germany in regard to the "Gulflight" and "Cushing."

June 3-Przemysl retaken by Germans and Austrians.

June 8-Resignation of William J. Bryan, Secretary of State.

June 9-Monfalcone occupied by Italians, severing one of two railway lines to Trieste.

June 9-United States sends second note on "Lusitania" case.

June 22-The Austro-Germans recapture Lemberg.

July 2-Naval action between Russian and German warships in the Baltic.

July 8-Germany sends reply to note of June 9 and pledges safety to United States vessels in war zone under specified conditions.

July 15-Germany sends memorandum acknowledging submarine attack on "Nebraskan" and expresses regret.

July 15-Conquest of German Southwest Africa completed.

July 21-Third American note on "Lusitania" case declares Germany's communication of July 8 "very unsatisfactory."

July 12-Sept. 18-German conquest of Russian Poland. Germans capture Lublin (July 31), Warsaw (Aug. 4), Ivangorod (Aug. 5), Kovno (Aug. 17), Novo-georgievsk (Aug. 19), Brest-Litovsk (Aug. 25), Vilna (Sept. 18).

July 25-American steamship "Leelanaw" sunk by submarines; carrying contraband; no lives lost.

Aug. 4-Capture of Warsaw by Germans.

Aug. 19-White Star liner "Arabic" sunk by submarine; 16 victims, 2 Americans.

Aug. 20-Italy declared war on Turkey.

Aug. 24-German ambassador sends note in regard to "Arabic." Loss of American lives contrary to intention of the German Government and is deeply regretted.

Sept. 1-Letter from Ambassador von Bernstorff to Secretary Lansing giving assurance that German submarines will sink no more liners without warning. Endorsed by the German Foreign Office (Sept. 14).

Sept. 4-Allan liner "Hesperian" sunk by German submarine; 26 lives lost, 1 American.

Sept. 7-German Government sends report on the sinking of the "Arabic."

Sept. 8-United States demands recall of Austro-Hungarian ambassador, Dr. Dumba.

Sept. 14-United States sends summary of evidence in regard to "Arabic."

Sept. 18-Fall of Vilna; end of Russian retreat.

Sept. 25-Oct.-French offensive in Champagne fails to break through German lines.

Sept. 27-British progress in the neighborhood of Loos.

Oct. 4-Russian ultimatum to Bulgaria.

Oct. 5-Allied forces land at Saloniki, at the invitation of the Greek Government.

Oct. 5-German Government regrets and disavows sinking of "Arabic" and is prepared to pay indemnities.

Oct. 6-Dec. 2-Austro-German-Bulgarian conquest of Serbia. Fall of Nish (Nov. 5), of Prizrend (Nov. 30), of Monastir (Dec. 2).

Oct. 14-Great Britain declared war against Bulgaria.

Nov. 10-Russian forces advance on Teheran as a result of pro-German activities in Persia.

Dec. 1-British under Gen. Townshend forced to retreat from Ctesiphon to Kut-el-Amara.

Dec. 4-United States Government demands recall of Capt. Karl Boy-Ed, German naval attache, and Capt. Franz von Papen, military attache.

Dec. 6-Germans captured Ipek (Montenegro).

Dec. 13-British defeat Arabs on western frontier of Egypt.

Dec. 15-Sir John French retired from command of the army in France and Flanders, and is succeeded by Sir Douglas Haig.

Dec. 17-Russians occupied Hamadan (Persia).

Dec. 19-The British forces withdrawn from Anzac and Sulva Bay (Gallipoli Peninsula).

Dec. 26-Russian forces in Persia occupied Kashan.

Dec. 30-British passenger steamer "Persia" sunk in Mediterranean, presumably by submarine.

1916.

Jan. 8-Complete evacuation of Gallipoli.

Jan. 13-Fall of Cettinje, capital of Montenegro.

Jan. 18-United States Government sets forth a declaration of principles regarding submarine attacks and asks whether the governments of the Allies would subscribe to such an agreement.

Jan. 28-Austrians occupy San Giovanni de Medici (Albania).

Feb. 10-Germany sends memorandum to neutral powers that armed merchant ships will be treated as warships and will be sunk without warning.

Feb. 15-Secretary Lansing makes statement that by international law commercial vessels have right to carry arms in self-defense.

Feb. 16-Germany sends note acknowledging her liability in the "Lusitania" affair.

Feb. 16-Kamerun (Africa) conquered.

Feb. 21-July-Battle of Verdun. Germans take Ft. Douaumont (Feb. 25). Great losses of Germans with little results. Practically all the ground lost was slowly regained by the French in the autumn.

Feb. 24-President Wilson in letter to Senator Stone refuses to advise American citizens not to travel on armed merchant ships.

Feb. 27-Russians captured Kerman-shah (Persia).

Mar. 8-German ambassador communicates memorandum regarding U-boat question, stating it is a new weapon not yet regulated by international law.

Mar. 8-Germany declares war on Portugal.

Mar. 19-Russians entered Ispahan (Persia).

Mar. 24-French steamer "Sussex" is torpedoed without warning; about 80 passengers, including American citizens, are killed or wounded.

Mar. 25-Department of State issues memorandum in regard to armed merchant vessels in neutral ports and on the high seas.

Mar. 27-29-United States Government instructs American ambassador in Berlin to inquire into sinking of "Sussex" and other vessels.

Apr. 10-German Government replies to United States notes of March 27, 28, 29, on the sinking of "Sussex" and other vessels.

Apr. 17-Russians capture Trebizond.

Apr. 18-United States delivers what is considered an ultimatum that unless Germany abandons present methods of submarine warfare United States will sever diplomatic relations.

Apr. 19-President addressed Congress on relations with Germany.

Apr. 24-May 1-Insurrection in Ireland.

Apr. 29-Gen. Townshend surrendered to the Turks before Kut-el-Amara.

May 4-Reply of Germany acknowledges sinking of the "Sussex" and in the main meets demands of the United States.

May 8-United States Government accepts German position as outlined in note of May 4, but makes it clear that the fulfillment of these conditions can not depend upon the negotiations between the United States and any other belligerent Government.

May 16-June 3-Great Austrian attack on the Italians through the Trentino.

May 19-Russians join British on the Tigris.

May 27-President in address before League to Enforce Peace says United States is ready to join any practical league for preserving peace and guaranteeing political and territorial integrity of nations.

May 31-Naval battle off Jutland.

June 4-30-Russian offensive in Volhynia and Bukovina. Czernovitz taken (June 17); all Bukovina overrun.

June 5-Lord Kitchener drowned.

June 21-United States demands apology and reparation from Austria-Hungary for sinking by Austrian submarine of "Petrolite," an American vessel.

July 1-Nov.-Battle of the Somme. Combles taken (Sept. 26). Failure of the Allies to break the German lines.

Aug. 6-Sept.-New Italian offensive drives out Austrians and wins Gorizia (Aug. 9).

Aug. 27-Italy declares war on Germany.

Aug. 27-Jan. 15, 1917-Roumania enters war on the side of the Allies and is crushed. (Fall of Bucharest, Dec. 6; Dobrudja conquered, Jan. 2; Focsani captured, Jan. 8).

Oct. 8-German submarine appears off American coast and sinks British passenger steamer "Stephano."

Oct. 28-British steamer "Marina" sunk without warning (6 Americans lost).

Nov. 6-British liner "Arabia" torpedoed and sunk without warning in Mediterranean.

Nov. 29-United States protests against Belgian deportations.

Dec. 12-German peace offer. Refused (Dec. 30) by Allies as "empty and insincere."

Dec. 14-British horse-transport ship "Russian" sunk in Mediterranean by submarine (17 Americans lost).

Dec. 20-President Wilson's peace note (dated Dec. 18). Germany replies (Dec. 26). Entente Allies' reply (Jan. 10) demands "restorations, reparation, indemnities."

1917.

Jan. 10-The Allied Governments state their terms of peace; a separate note from Belgium included.

Jan. 11-Supplemental German note on views as to settlement of war.

Jan. 13-Great Britain amplifies reply to President's note of Dec. 18. Favors co-operation to preserve peace.

Jan. 22-President Wilson addresses the Senate, giving his ideas of steps necessary for world peace.

Jan. 31-Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare in specified zones.

Feb. 3-United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany; Bernstorff dismissed.

Feb. 12-United States replies to Swiss Minister that it will not negotiate with Germany until submarine order is withdrawn.

Feb. 18-Italians and French join in Albania, cutting off Greece from the Central Powers.

Feb. 24-Kut-el-Amara taken by British under Gen. Maude (campaign begun Dec. 13).

Feb. 26-President Wilson asks authority to arm merchant ships.

Feb. 28-"Zimmerman note" revealed.

Mar. 4-Announced that the British had taken over from the French the entire Somme front; British held on west front 100 miles, French 175 miles, Belgians 25 miles.

Mar. 11-Bagdad captured by British under Gen. Maude.

Mar. 11-15-Revolution in Russia, leading to abdication of Czar Nicholas II (Mar. 15). Provisional Government formed by Constitutional Democrats under Prince Lvov and M. Milyukov.

Mar. 12-United States announced that an armed guard would be placed on all American merchant vessels sailing through the war zone.

Mar. 17-19-Retirement of Germans to "Hindenburg line." Evacuation of 1,300 square miles of French territory, on front of 100 miles, from Arras to Soissons.

Mar. 22-United States formally recognized the new government of Russia set up as a result of the revolution.

Mar. 26-The United States refused the proposal of Germany to interpret and supplement the Prussian Treaty of 1799.

Mar. 27-Minister Brand Whitlock and American Relief Commission withdrawn from Belgium.

Apr. 2-President Wilson asks Congress to declare the existence of a state of war with Germany.

Apr. 6-United States declares war on Germany.

Apr. 8-Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with the United States.

Apr. 9-May 14-British successes in Battle of Arras; (Vimy Ridge taken Apr. 9).

Apr. 16-May 6-French successes in Battle of the Aisne between Soissons and Rheims.

Apr. 20-Turkey severs relations with United States.

May 4-American destroyers begin co-operation with British navy in war zone.

May 15-Sept. 15-Great Italian offensive on Isonzo front (Carso Plateau). Capture of Gorizia, Aug. 9. Monte Santo taken Aug. 24. Monte San Gabrielle, Sept. 14.

May 15-Gen. Petain succeeds Gen. Nivelle as commander in chief of the French armies.

May 17-Russian Provisional Government reconstructed. Kerensky (formerly minister of justice) becomes minister of war.

May 18-President Wilson signs selective service act.

June 3-American mission to Russia lands at Vladivostok ("Root Mission"). Returns to America Aug. 3.

June 7-British blow up Messines Ridge, south of Ypres, and capture 7,500 German prisoners.

June 10-Italian offensive on Trentino.

June 12-King Constantino of Greece forced to abdicate.

June 15-Subscriptions close for first Liberty Loan ($2,000,000,000 offered; $3,035,226,850 subscribed).

June 26-First American troops reach France.

June 29-Greece enters war with Germany and her allies.

July 1-Russian army led in person by Kerensky begins a short-line offensive in Galicia, ending in disastrous retreat (July 19-Aug. 3).

July 4-Resignation of Bethmann Hollweg as German chancellor. Dr. George Michaelis, chancellor (July 14).

July 20-Drawing at Washington of names for first army under selective service.

July 20-Kerensky becomes premier on resignation of Prince Lvov.

July 30-Mutiny in German fleet at Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. Second mutiny Sept. 2.

July 31-Nov.-Battle of Flanders (Passchendaele Ridge); British successes.

Aug. 10-Food and fuel control bill passed.

Aug. 15-Peace proposals of Pope Benedict revealed (dated Aug. 1). United States replies Aug. 27; Germany and Austria, Sept. 21; supplementary German reply, Sept. 26.

Aug. 15-Canadians capture Hill 70, dominating Lens.

Aug. 19-New Italian drive on the Isonz front (Carso Plateau). Monte Santo captured (Aug. 24).

Aug. 20-24-French attacks at Verdun recapture high ground lost in 1916.

Sept. 3-Riga captured by Germans.

Sept. 8-Luxburg dispatches ("Spurlos versenkt") revealed by United States.

Sept. 10-13-Attempted coup d'etat of Gen. Kornilov.

Sept. 15-Russia proclaimed a republic.

Oct. 12-Germans occupy Oesel and Dago Islands (Gulf of Riga).

Oct. 17-Russians defeated in a naval engagement in the Gulf of Riga.

Oct. 24-Dec.-Great German-Austrian counterdrive into Italy. Italian line shifted to Piave River, Asiago Plateau and Brenta River.

Oct. 23-26-French drive north of the Aisne wins important positions including Malmaison Fort.

Oct. 26-Brazil declares war on Germany.

Oct. 27-Second Liberty loan closed ($3,000,000,000 offered; $4,617,532,300 subscribed).

Oct. 30-Count von Hertling succeeds Michaelis as German chancellor.

Nov. 2-Germans retreat from the Chemin des Dames, north of the Aisne.

Nov. 3-First clash of American with German soldiers.

Nov. 7-Overthrow of Kerensky and Provisional Government of Russia by the Bolsheviki.

Nov. 13-Clemenceau succeeds Ribot as French premier.

Nov. 18-British forces in Palestine take Jaffa.

Nov. 22-Dec. 13-Battle of Cambrai. Successful surprise attack near Cambrai by British under Gen. Byng on Nov. 22 (employs "tanks" to break down wire entanglements in place of the usual artillery preparations). Bourlon Wood, dominating Cambrai, taken Nov. 26. Surprise counter-attack by Germans, Dec. 2, compels British to give up fourth of ground gained. German attacks on Dec. 13 partly successful.

Nov. 29-First plenary session of the Inter-allied Conference in Paris. Sixteen nations represented. Col. E.M. House, chairman of American delegation.

Dec. 5-President Wilson, in message to Congress, advises war on Austria.

Dec. 6-United States destroyer "Jacob Jones" sunk by submarine, with loss of over 40 American men.

Dec. 6-Explosion of munitions vessel wrecks Halifax.

Dec. 6-9-Armed revolt overthrows pro-Ally administration in Portugal.

Dec. 7-United States declares war on Austria-Hungary.

Dec. 9-Jerusalem captured by British force advancing from Egypt.

Dec. 10-Gens. Kaledines and Kornilov declared by the Bolsheviki Government to be leading a Cossack revolt.

Dec. 15-Armistice signed between Germany and the Bolsheviki Government at Brest-Litovsk.

Dec. 23-Peace negotiations opened at Brest-Litovsk between Bolsheviki Government and Central Powers, under Presidency of the German foreign minister.

Dec. 26-President Wilson issues proclamation taking over railroads and appointing W.G. McAdoo, director-general. Proclamation takes effect at noon, December 28.

Dec. 29-British national labor conference approves continuation of war for aims similar to those defined by President Wilson.

1918.

Jan. 19-American troops take over sector northwest of Toul.

Feb. 6-"Tuscania," American transport, torpedoed off coast of Ireland; 101 lost.

Feb. 22-American troops in Chemin des Dames sector.

Mar. 3-Peace treaty between Bolshevik Government of Russia and the Central Powers signed at Brest-Litovsk.

Mar. 4-Treaty signed between Germany and Finland.

Mar. 5-Rumania signs preliminary treaty of peace with Central Powers.

Mar. 20-President Wilson orders all Holland ships in American ports taken over.

Mar. 21-Germans begin great drive on 50-mile front from Arras to La Fere. Bombardment of Paris by German long-range gun from a distance of 76 miles.

Mar. 29-General Foch chosen commander-in-chief of all Allied forces.

Apr. 9-Second German drive begun in Flanders.

Apr. 10-First German drive halted before Amiens after maximum advance of 35 miles.

Apr. 15-Second German drive halted before Ypres, after maximum advance of 10 miles.

Apr. 23-British naval forces raid Zeebrugge in Belgium, German submarine base, and block channel.

May 27-Third German drive begins on Aisne-Marne front of 30 miles between Soissons and Rheims.

May 28-Germans sweep on beyond the Chemin des Dames and cross the Vesle at Fismes.

May 28-Cantigny taken by Americans in local attack.

May 29-Soissons evacuated by French.

May 31-Maine River crossed by Germans, who reach Chateau Thierry, 40 miles from Paris.

May 31-"President Lincoln," American transport, sunk.

June 2-Schooner "Edward H. Cole" torpedoed by submarine off American coast.

June 3-6-American marines and regulars check advance of Germans at Chateau Thierry and Neuilly after maximum advance of Germans of 32 miles. Beginning of American co-operation on major scale.

June 9-14-German drive on Noyon-Montdidier front. Maximum advance, 5 miles.

June 15-24-Austrian drive on Italian front ends in complete failure.

July 12-Berat, Austrian base in Albania, captured by Italians.

July 15-Stonewall defense of Chateau Thierry blocks new German drive on Paris.

July 16-Nicholas Romanoff, ex-Czar of Russia, executed at Yekaterinburg.

July 18-French and Americans begin counter offensive on Marne-Aisne front.

July 19-"San Diego," United States cruiser, sunk off Fire Island.

July 21-German submarine sinks three barges off Cape Cod.

Aug. 3-Allies sweep on between Soissons and Rheims, driving the enemy from his base at Fismes and capturing the entire Aisne-Vesle front.

Aug. 7-Franco-American troops cross the Vesle.

Aug. 8-New Allied drive begun by Field-Marshal Haig in Picardy, penetrating enemy front 14 miles.

Aug. 10-Montdidier recaptured.

Aug. 29-Noyon and Bapaume fall in new Allied advance.

Sept. 1-Australians take Peronne.

Sept. 1-Americans fight for the first time on Belgian soil and capture Voormezeele.

Sept. 11-Germans are driven back to the Hindenburg line which they held in November, 1917.

Sept. 14-St. Mihiel recaptured from Germans. General Pershing announces entire St. Mihiel salient erased, liberating more than 150 square miles of French territory which had been in German hands since 1914.

Sept. 20-Nazareth occupied by British forces in Palestine under Gen. Allenby.

Sept. 23-Bulgarian armies flee before combined attacks of British, Greek, Serbian, Italian and French.

Sept. 26-Strumnitza, Bulgaria, occupied by Allies.

Sept. 27-Franco-Americans in drive from Rheims to Verdun take 30,000 prisoners.

Sept. 28-Belgians attack enemy from Ypres to North Sea, gaining four miles.

Sept. 29-Bulgaria surrenders to Gen. d'Esperey, the Allied commander.

Oct. 1-St. Quentin, cornerstone of Hindenburg line, captured.

Oct. 1-Damascus occupied by British in Palestine campaign.

Oct. 3-Albania cleared of Austrians by Italians.

Oct. 4-Ferdinand, king of Bulgaria, abdicates; Boris succeeds.

Oct. 5-Prince Maximilian, new German Chancellor, pleads with President Wilson to ask Allies for armistice.

Oct. 9-Cambrai in Allied hands.

Oct. 10-"Leinster," passenger steamer, sunk in Irish Channel by submarine; 480 lives lost; final German atrocity at sea.

Oct. 11-- Americans advance through Argonne forest.

Oct. 12-German foreign secretary, Solf, says plea for armistice is made in name of German people; agrees to evacuate all foreign soil.

Oct. 13-Laon and La Fere abandoned by Germans.

Oct. 13-Grandpre captured by Americans after four days' battle.

Oct. 14-President Wilson refers Germans to General Foch for armistice terms.

Oct. 17-Ostend, German submarine base, taken by land and sea forces.

Oct. 19-Bruges and Zeebrugge taken by Belgians and British.

Oct. 25-Beginning of terrific Italian drive which nets 50,000 prisoners in five days.

Oct. 31-Turkey surrenders; armistice takes effect at noon; conditions include free passage of Dardanelles.

Nov. 3-Austria surrenders, signing armistice with Italy at 3 P.M. after 500,000 prisoners had been taken.

Nov. 11-Germany surrenders; armistice takes effect at 11 A.M. American flag hoisted on Sedan front.

Nov. 21-The German high seas fleet, 74 vessels in all, surrendered to the Allied fleet to be interned at Scapa Flow.

Dec. 4-President Wilson sailed from New York for Europe, to attend conference on the larger phases of the treaty of peace.

Dec. 15-The Allied force complete the occupation of the left bank of the Rhine.

1919.

Jan. 10-A republic is proclaimed in Luxemburg.

Jan. 18-The peace congress (without delegates from the defeated powers and Russia) met at Paris. Premier Clemenceau made permanent chairman.

Jan. 21-Germany by the terms of its new constitution divided into eight federated republics.

Jan. 25-Discussion of the covenants of the League of Nations begun in the peace congress.

Feb. 11-Friedrick Ebert elected first president of the German State.

Feb. 14-The draft of a constitution for a League of Nations adopted by the peace congress.

Feb. 19-Attempted assassination of Premier Clemenceau.

April 23-Montenegro becomes a part of Jugo-Slavia.

May 7-The treaty of peace framed by representatives of the twenty-seven allied and associated powers, handed to the German delegates at Versailles.

June 21-The German high sea fleet interned at Scapa Flow sunk at its anchorage by the officers and men left in charge.

June 28-The treaty of peace signed in the Hall of Mirrors, palace of Versailles, by all the representatives of the Allied powers (except China) and the German delegates, officially closing the World War. Just five years after the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand at Serajevo.

June 29-President Wilson left Europe for the United States.

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