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Canada under British Rule 1760-1900 By John George Bourinot Characters: 116641

Updated: 2017-12-01 00:02

I have deemed it most convenient to reserve for the conclusion of this history a short review of the relations that have existed for more than a century between the provinces of the Dominion and the United States, whose diplomacy and legislation have had, and must always have, a considerable influence on the material and social conditions of the people of Canada.-an influence only subordinate to that exercised by the imperial state. I shall show that during the years when there was no confederation of Canada-when there were to the north and north-east of the United States only a number of isolated provinces, having few common sympathies or interests except their attachment to the crown and empire-the United States had too often its own way in controversial questions affecting the colonies which arose between England and the ambitious federal republic. On the other hand, with the territorial expansion of the provinces under one Dominion, with their political development, which has assumed even national attributes, with the steady growth of an imperial sentiment in the parent state, the old condition of things that too often made the provinces the shuttlecock of skilful American diplomacy has passed away. The statesmen of the Canadian federation are now consulted, and exercise almost as much influence as if they were members of the imperial councils in London.

I shall naturally commence this review with a reference to the treaty of 1783, which acknowledged the independence of the United States, fixed the boundaries between that country and British North America, and led to serious international disputes which lasted until the middle of the following century. Three of the ablest men in the United States-Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay-succeeded by their astuteness and persistency in extending their country's limits to the eastern bank of the Mississippi, despite the insidious efforts of Vergennes on the part of France to hem in the new nation between the Atlantic and the Appalachian Range. The comparative value set upon Canada during the preliminary negotiations may be easily deduced from the fact that Oswald, the English plenipotentiary, proposed to give up to the United States the south-western and most valuable part of the present province of Ontario, and to carry the north-eastern boundary up to the River St. John. The commissioners of the United States did not accept this suggestion. Their ultimate object-an object actually attained-was to make the St. Lawrence the common boundary between the two countries by following the centre of the river and the great lakes as far as the head of Lake Superior. The issue of negotiations so stupidly conducted by the British commissioner, was a treaty which gave an extremely vague definition of the boundary in the north-east between Maine and Nova Scotia-which until 1784 included New Brunswick-and displayed at the same time a striking example of geographical ignorance as to the north-west. The treaty specified that the boundary should pass from the head of Lake Superior through Long Lake to the north-west angle of the Lake of the Woods, and thence to the Mississippi, when, as a matter of fact there was no Long Lake, and the source of the Mississippi was actually a hundred miles or so to the south of the Lake of the Woods. This curious blunder in the north-west was only rectified in 1842, when Lord Ashburton settled the difficulty by conceding to the United States an invaluable corner of British territory in the east (see below, p 299).



The only practical advantage that the people of the provinces gained from the Treaty of Ghent, which closed the war of 1812-15, was an acknowledgment of the undoubted fishery rights of Great Britain and her dependencies in the territorial waters of British North America. In the treaty of 1783 the people of the United States obtained the "right" to fish on the Grand and other banks of Newfoundland, and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and at "all other places in the sea, where the inhabitants of both countries used at any time heretofore to fish", but they were to have only "the liberty" of taking fish on the coasts of Newfoundland and also of "all other of his Britannic Majesty's dominions in America; and also of drying and curing fish in any of the unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks of Nova Scotia (then including New Brunswick), Magdalen Islands, and Labrador, so long as the same shall remain unsettled." In the one case, it will be seen, there was a recognised right, but in the other only a mere "liberty" or privilege extended to the fishermen of the United States. At the close of the war of 1812 the British government would not consent to renew the merely temporary liberties of 1783, and the United States authorities acknowledged the soundness of the principle that any privileges extended to the republic in British territorial waters could only rest on "conventional stipulation." The convention of 1818 forms the legal basis of the rights, which Canadians have always maintained in the case of disputes between themselves and the United States as to the fisheries on their own coasts, bays, and harbours of Canada. It provides that the inhabitants of the United States shall have for ever the liberty to take, dry, and cure fish on certain parts of the coast of Newfoundland, on the Magdalen Islands and on the southern shores of Labrador, but they "renounce for ever any liberty, heretofore enjoyed" by them to take, dry, and cure fish, "on or within three marine miles of any of the coasts, bays or creeks or harbours of his Britannic Majesty's other dominions in America"; provided, however, that the American fishermen shall be admitted to enter such bays and harbours, for the purpose of shelter, and of repairing damages therein, of purchasing wood, and of obtaining water, and "for no other purpose whatever."

In April, 1817, the governments of Great Britain and the United States came to an important agreement which ensured the neutrality of the great lakes. It was agreed that the naval forces to be maintained upon these inland waters should be confined to the following vessels: on Lakes Champlain and Ontario to one vessel, on the Upper Lakes to two vessels, not exceeding in each case a hundred tons burden and armed with only one small cannon. Either nation had the right to bring the convention to a termination by a previous notice of six months. This agreement is still regarded by Great Britain and the United States to be in existence, since Mr. Secretary Seward formally withdrew the notice which was given for its abrogation in 1864, when the civil war was in progress and the relations between the two nations were considerably strained at times.

The next international complication arose out of the seizure of the steamer Caroline, which was engaged in 1837 in carrying munitions of war between the United States and Navy Island, then occupied by a number of persons in the service of Mr. Mackenzie and other Canadian rebels. In 1840 the authorities of New York arrested one Macleod on the charge of having murdered a man who was employed on the Caroline. The Washington government for some time evaded the whole question by throwing the responsibility on the state authorities and declaring that they could not interfere with a matter which was then within the jurisdiction of the state courts. The matter gave rise to much correspondence between the two governments, but happily for the peace of the two countries the American courts acquitted Macleod, as the evidence was clear that he had had nothing to do with the actual seizing of the Caroline; and the authorities at Washington soon afterwards acknowledged their responsibility in such affairs by passing an act directing that subjects of foreign powers, if taken into custody for acts done or committed under the authority of their own government, "the validity or effect whereof depends upon the law of nations, should be discharged." The dissatisfaction that had arisen in the United States on account of the cutting out of the Caroline was removed in 1842, when Sir Robert Peel expressed regret that "some explanation and apology for the occurrence had not been previously made," and declared that it was "the opinion of candid and honourable men that the British officers who executed this transaction, and their government who approved it, intended no insult or disrespect to the sovereign authority of the United States[9]."

[9: Hall's Treatise on International Law (3rd ed.), pp. 311-313]

In the course of time the question of the disputed boundary between Maine and New Brunswick assumed grave proportions. By the treaty of 1783, the boundary was to be a line drawn from the source of the St. Croix, directly north to the highlands "which divide the rivers which fall into the Atlantic ocean from those which fall into the river St. Lawrence;" thence along the said highlands to the north-easternmost head of the Connecticut River; and the point at which the due north line was to cut the highlands was also designated as the north-west angle of Nova Scotia. The whole question was the subject of several commissions, and of one arbitration, from 1783 until 1842, when it was finally settled. Its history appears to be that of a series of blunders on the part of England from the beginning to the end. The first blunder occurred in 1796 when the commissioners appointed to inquire into the question, declared that the Schoodic was the River St. Croix mentioned in the treaty. Instead, however, of following the main, or western, branch of the Schoodic to its source in the Schoodic Lakes, they went beyond their instructions and chose a northern tributary of the river, the Chiputnaticook, as the boundary, and actually placed a monument at its head as a basis for any future proceeding on the part of the two governments. The British government appear to have been very anxious at this time to settle the question, for they did not take exception to the arrangement made by the commissioners, but in 1798 declared the decision binding on both countries.

Still this mistake might have been rectified had the British government in 1835 been sufficiently alive to British interests in America to have accepted a proposal made to them by President Jackson to ascertain the true north-western angle of Nova Scotia, or the exact position of the highlands, in accordance with certain well-understood rules in practical surveying which have been always considered obligatory in that continent. It was proposed by the United States to discard the due north line, to seek to the west of that line the undisputed highlands that divide the rivers which empty themselves into the River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to find the point in the 'watershed' of these highlands nearest to the north line, and to trace a direct course from it to the monument already established. "If this principle had been adopted," says Sir Sandford Fleming, the eminent Canadian engineer, "a straight line would have been drawn from the monument at the head of the Chiputnaticook to a point which could have been established with precision in the 'watershed' of the highlands which separate the sources of the Chaudière from those of the Penobscot,-this being the most easterly point in the only highlands agreeing beyond dispute with the treaty. The point is found a little to the north and west of the intersection of the 70th meridian west longitude and the 46th parallel of north latitude." Had this proposal been accepted England would have obtained without further difficulty eleven thousand square miles, or the combined areas of Massachusetts and Connecticut.


For several years after this settlement was suggested a most serious conflict went on between New Brunswick and the state of Maine. The authorities of Maine paid no respect whatever to the negotiations that were still in progress between the governments of Great Britain and the United States, but actually took possession of the disputed territory, gave titles for lands and constructed forts and roads within its limits. Collisions occurred between the settlers and the intruders, and considerable property was destroyed. The legislature of Maine voted $800,000 for the defence of the state, and the legislature of Nova Scotia amid great enthusiasm made a grant of $100,000 to assist New Brunswick in support of her rights. Happily the efforts of the United States and British governments prevented the quarrel between the province and the state from assuming international proportions; and in 1842 Mr. Alexander Baring, afterwards Lord Ashburton, was authorised by the ministry of the Earl of Aberdeen to negotiate with Mr. Daniel Webster, then secretary of state in the American cabinet, for the settlement of matters in dispute between the two nations. The result was the Ashburton Treaty, which, in fixing the north-eastern boundary between British North America and the United States, started due north from the monument incorrectly placed at the head of the Chiputnaticook instead of the source of the true St. Croix, and consequently at the very outset gave up a strip of land extending over some two degrees of latitude, and embracing some 3000 square miles of British territory. By consenting to carry the line due north from the misplaced monument Lord Ashburton ignored the other natural landmark set forth in the treaty: "the line of headlands which divide the waters flowing into the Atlantic from those which flow into the St. Lawrence." A most erratic boundary was established along the St. John, which flows neither into the St. Lawrence nor the Atlantic, but into the Bay of Fundy, far east of the St. Croix. In later years the historian Sparks found in Paris a map on which Franklin himself had marked in December, 1782, with a heavy red line, what was then considered the true natural boundary between the two countries. Mr. Sparks admitted in sending the map that it conceded more than Great Britain actually claimed, and that "the line from the St. Croix to the Canadian highlands is intended to exclude [from the territory of the United States] all the waters running into the St. John." Canadians have always believed with reason that that portion of the present state of Maine, through which the Aroostook and other tributaries of the St. John flow, is actually British territory. If we look at the map of Canada we see that the state of Maine now presses like a huge wedge into the provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec as a sequence of the unfortunate mistakes of 1796, 1835, and 1842, on the part of England and her agents. In these later times a "Canadian short line" railway has been forced to go through Maine in order to connect Montreal with St. John, and other places in the maritime provinces. Had the true St. Croix been chosen in 1796, or President Jackson's offer accepted in 1835, this line could go continuously through Canadian territory, and be entirely controlled by Canadian legislation.

Another boundary question was the subject of much heated controversy between England and the United States for more than a quarter of a century, and in 1845 brought the two countries very close to war. In 1819 the United States obtained from Spain a cession of all her rights and claims north of latitude forty-two, or the southern boundary of the present state of Oregon. By that time the ambition of the United States was not content with the Mississippi valley, of which she had obtained full control by the cession of the Spanish claims and by the Louisiana purchase of 1803, but looked to the Pacific coast, where she made pretensions to a territory stretching from 42° to 54° 40' north latitude, or a territory four times the area of Great Britain and Ireland, or of the present province of Ontario. The claims of the two nations to this vast region rested on very contradictory statements with respect to priority of discovery, and that occupation and settlement which should, within reasonable limits, follow discovery; and as the whole question was one of great perplexity, it should have been settled, as suggested by England, on principles of compromise. But the people of the United States, conscious at last of the importance of the territory, began to bring their influence to bear on the politicians, until by 1845 the Democratic party declared 'for 54° 40' or fight,' Mr. Crittenden announced that "war might now be looked upon as almost inevitable." Happily President Polk and congress came to more pacific conclusions after a good deal of warlike talk; and the result was a treaty (1846) by which England accepted the line 49 degrees to the Pacific coast, and obtained the whole of Vancouver Island, which for a while seemed likely to be divided with the United States. But Vancouver Island was by no means a compensation for what England gave up, for, on the continent, she yielded all she had contended for since 1824, when she first proposed the Columbia River as a basis of division.

But even then the question of boundary was not finally settled by this great victory which had been won for the United States by the persistency of her statesmen. The treaty of 1846 continued the line of boundary westward along "the 49th parallel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca's straits to the Pacific Ocean" Anyone reading this clause for the first time, without reference to the contentions that were raised afterwards, would certainly interpret it to mean the whole body of water that separates the continent from Vancouver,-such a channel, in fact, as divides England from France; but it appears there are a number of small channels separating the islands which lie in the great channel in question, and the clever diplomatists at Washington immediately claimed the Canal de Haro, the widest and deepest, as the canal of the treaty. Instead of at once taking the ground that the whole body of water was really in question, the English government claimed another channel, Rosario Strait, inferior in some respects, but the one most generally, and indeed only, used at the time by their vessels. The importance of this difference of opinion lay chiefly in the fact, that the Haro gave San Juan and other small islands, valuable for defensive purposes, to the United States, while the Rosario left them to England. Then, after much correspondence, the British government, as a compromise, offered the middle channel, or Douglas, which would still retain San Juan. If they had always adhered to the Douglas-which appears to answer the conditions of the treaty, since it lies practically in the middle of the great channel-their position would have been much stronger than it was when they came back to the Rosario. The British representatives at the Washington conference of 1871 suggested the reference of the question to arbitration, but the United States' commissioners, aware of their vantage ground, would consent to no other arrangement than to leave to the decision of the Emperor of Germany the question whether the Haro or the Rosario channel best accorded with the treaty; and the Emperor decided in favour of the United States. However, with the possession of Vancouver in its entirety, Canada can still be grateful; and San Juan is now only remembered as an episode of skilful American diplomacy. The same may be said of another acquisition of the republic-insignificant from the point of view of territorial area, but still illustrative of the methods which have won all the great districts we have named -Rouse's Point at the outlet of Lake Champlain, "of which an exact survey would have deprived" the United States, according to Mr. Schouler in his excellent history.

During this period the fishery question again assumed considerable importance. The government at Washington raised the contention that the three miles' limit, to which their fishermen could be confined by the convention of 1818, should follow the sinuosities of the coasts, including the bays, the object being to obtain access to the valuable mackerel fisheries of the Bay of Chaleurs and other waters claimed to be exclusively within the territorial jurisdiction of the maritime provinces. The imperial government sustained the contention of the provinces-a contention practically supported by American authorities in the case of the Delaware, Chesapeake, and other bays on the coast of the United States-that the three miles' limit should be measured from a line drawn from headlands of all bays, harbours and creeks. In the case of the Bay of Fundy, however, the imperial government allowed a departure from this general principle, when it was urged by the Washington government that one of its headlands was in the territory of the United States, and that it was an arm of the sea rather than a bay. The result was that foreign fishing vessels were only shut out from the bays on the coasts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick within the Bay of Fundy. All these questions were, however, placed in abeyance by the reciprocity treaty of 1854 (see p. 96), which lasted until 1866, when it was repealed by the action of the United States, in accordance with the provision bringing it to a conclusion after one year's notice from one of the parties interested.

The causes which led in 1866 to the repeal of a treaty so advantageous to the United States have been long well understood. The commercial classes in the eastern and western states were, on the whole, favourable to an enlargement of the treaty; but the real cause of its repeal was the prejudice in the northern states against Canada on account of its supposed sympathy for the confederate states during the Secession war. A large body of men in the north believed that the repeal of the treaty would sooner or later force Canada to join the republic; and a bill was actually introduced in the house of representatives providing for her admission-a mere political straw, it is true, but showing the current of opinion in some quarters in those days. When we review the history of those times, and consider the difficult position in which Canada was placed, it is remarkable how honourably her government discharged its duties of a neutral between the belligerents. In the case of the raid of some confederate refugees in Canada on the St. Alban's bank in Vermont, the Canadian authorities brought the culprits to trial and even paid a large sum of money in acknowledgment of an alleged responsibility when some of the stolen notes were returned to the robbers on their release on technical grounds by a Montreal magistrate. It is well, too, to remember how large a number of Canadians fought in the union armies-twenty against one who served in the south. No doubt the position of Canada was made more difficult at that critical time by the fact that she was a colony of Great Britain, against whom both north and south entertained bitter feelings by the close of the war; the former mainly on account of the escape of confederate cruisers from English ports, and the latter because she did not receive active support from England. The north had also been much excited by the promptness with which Lord Palmerston had sent troops to Canada when Mason and Slidell were seized on an English packet on the high seas, and by the bold tone held by some Canadian papers when it was doubtful if the prisoners would be released.

Before and since the union, the government of Canada has made repeated efforts to renew a commercial treaty with the government at Washington. In 1865 and 1866, Canadian delegates were prepared to make large concessions, but were reluctantly brought to the conclusion that the committee of ways and means in congress "no longer desired trade between the two countries to be carried on upon the principle of reciprocity." In 1866 Sir John Rose, while minister of finance, made an effort in the same direction, but he was met by the obstinate refusal of the republican party, then as always, highly protective.

All this while the fishery question was assuming year by year a form increasingly irritating to the two countries. The headland question was the principal difficulty, and the British government, in order to conciliate the United States at a time when the Alabama question was a subject of anxiety, induced the Canadian government to agree, very reluctantly it must be admitted, to shut out foreign fishing vessels only from bays less than six miles in width at their entrances. In this, however, as in all other matters, the Canadian authorities acknowledged their duty to yield to the considerations of imperial interests, and acceded to the wishes of the imperial government in almost every respect, except actually surrendering their territorial rights in the fisheries. They issued licenses to fish, at low rates, for several years, only to find eventually that American fishermen did not think it worth while to buy these permits when they could evade the regulations with little difficulty. The correspondence went on for several years, and eventually led to the Washington conference or commission of 1871, which was primarily intended to settle the fishery question, but which actually gave the precedence to the Alabama difficulty-then of most concern in the opinion of the London and Washington governments. The representatives of the United States would not consider a proposition for another reciprocity treaty on the basis of that of 1854. The questions arising out of the convention of 1818 were not settled by the commission, but were practically laid aside for ten years by an arrangement providing for the free admission of salt-water fish to the United States, on the condition of allowing the fishing vessels of that country free access to the Canadian fisheries. The free navigation of the St. Lawrence was conceded to the United States in return for the free use of Lake Michigan and of certain rivers in Alaska. The question of giving to the vessels of the Canadian provinces the privilege of trading on the coast of the United States-a privilege persistently demanded for years by Nova Scotia-was not considered; and while the canals of Canada were opened up to the United States on the most liberal terms, the Washington government contented itself with a barren promise in the treaty to use its influence with the authorities of the states to open up their artificial waterways to Canadians. The Fenian claims were abruptly laid aside, although, if the principle of "due diligence," which was laid down in the new rules for the settlement of the Alabama difficulty had been applied to this question, the government of the United States would have been mulcted in heavy damages. In this case it would be difficult to find a more typical instance of responsibility assumed by a state through the permission of open and notorious acts, and by way of complicity after the acts; however, as in many other negotiations with the United States, Canada felt she must make sacrifices for the empire, whose government wished all causes of irritation between England and the United States removed as far as possible by the treaty. One important feature of this commission was the presence, for the first time in the history of treaties, of a Canadian statesman. The astute prime minister of the Dominion, Sir John Macdonald, was chosen as one of the English high commissioners: and though he was necessarily tied down by the instructions of the imperial state, his knowledge of Canadian questions was of great service to Canada during the conference. If the treaty finally proved more favourable to the Dominion than it at first appeared to be, it was owing largely to the clause which provided for a reference to a later commission of the question, whether the United States would not have to pay the Canadians a sum of money, as the value of their fisheries over and above any concessions made them in the treaty. The result of this commission was a payment of five millions and a half of dollars to Canada and Newfoundland, to the infinite disappointment of the politicians of the United States, who had been long accustomed to have the best in all the bargains with their neighbours. Nothing shows more clearly the measure of the local self-government at last won by Canada and the importance of her position in the empire, than the fact that the English government recognised the right of the Dominion government to name the commissioner who represented Canada on an arbitration which decided a question of such deep importance to her interests.

The clauses of the Washington treaty relating to the fisheries and to trade with Canada lasted for fourteen years, and then were repealed by the action of the United States government. In the year 1874 the Mackenzie ministry attempted, through Mr. George Brown, to negotiate a new reciprocity treaty, but met with a persistent hostility from leading men in congress. The relations between Canada and the United States again assumed a phase of great uncertainty. Canada from 1885 adhered to the letter of the convention of 1818, and allowed no fishing vessels to fish within the three miles limit, to transship cargoes of fish in her ports, or to enter them for any purpose except for shelter, wood, water, and repairs. For the infractions of the treaty several vessels were seized, and more than one of them condemned. A clamour was raised in the United States on the ground that the Canadians were wanting in that spirit of friendly intercourse which should characterise the relations of neighbouring peoples. The fact is, the Canadians were bound to adhere to their legal rights-rights which had always been maintained before 1854; which had remained in abeyance between 1854 and 1866; which naturally revived after the repeal of the reciprocity treaty of 1854; which again remained in abeyance between 1871 and 1885; and were revived when the United States themselves chose to go back to the terms of the convention of 1818.

In 1887 President Cleveland and Mr. Secretary Bayard, acting in a statesmanlike spirit, obtained the consent of England to a special commission to consider the fishery question. Sir Sackville West, Mr. Joseph Chamberlain, and Sir Charles Tupper represented England; Mr. Bayard, then secretary of state, Mr. Putnam of Maine, and Mr. Angell of Michigan University, represented the United States. Sir Charles Tupper could not induce the American commissioners to consider a mutual arrangement providing for greater freedom of commercial intercourse between Canada and the United States. Eventually the commission agreed unanimously to a treaty which was essentially a compromise. Foreign fishermen were to be at liberty to go into any waters where the bay was more than ten miles wide at the mouth, but certain bays, including the Bay of Chaleurs, were expressly excepted in the interests of Canada from the operation of this provision. The United States did not attempt to acquire the right to fish on the inshore fishing-grounds of Canada-that is, within three miles of the coasts-but these fisheries were to be left for the exclusive use of the Canadian fishermen. More satisfactory arrangements were made for vessels obliged to resort to the Canadian ports in distress; and a provision was made for allowing American fishing-vessels to obtain supplies and other privileges in the harbours of the Dominion whenever congress allowed the fish of that country to enter free into the market of the United States, President Cleveland in his message, submitting the treaty to the senate, acknowledged that it "supplied a satisfactory, practical and final adjustment, upon a basis honourable and just to both parties, of the difficult and vexed questions to which it relates." The republican party, however, at that important juncture-just before a presidential election-had a majority in the senate, and the result was the failure in that body of a measure, which, although by no means too favourable to Canadian interests, was framed in a spirit of judicious statesmanship.

As a sequel of the acquisition of British Columbia, the Canadian government was called upon in 1886 to urge the interests of the Dominion in an international question that had arisen in Bering Sea. A United States cutter seized in the open sea, at a distance of more than sixty miles from the nearest land, certain Canadian schooners, fitted out in British Columbia, and lawfully engaged in the capture of seals in the North Pacific Ocean, adjacent to Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, and Alaska-a portion of the territory of the United States acquired in 1867 from Russia. These vessels were taken into a port of Alaska, where they were subjected to forfeiture, and the masters and mates fined and imprisoned. Great Britain at once resisted the claim of the United States to the sole sovereignty of that part of Bering Sea lying beyond the westerly boundary of Alaska-a stretch of sea extending in its widest part some 600 or 700 miles beyond the mainland of Alaska, and clearly under the law of nations a part of the great sea and open to all nations. Lord Salisbury's government, from the beginning to the end of the controversy, sustained the rights of Canada as a portion of the British empire. After very protracted and troublesome negotiations it was agreed to refer the international question in dispute to a court of arbitration, in which Sir John Thompson, prime minister of Canada, was one of the British arbitrators. The arbitrators decided in favour of the British contention that the United States had no jurisdiction in Bering Sea outside of the three miles limit, and at the same time made certain regulations to restrict the wholesale slaughter of fur-bearing seals in the North Pacific Ocean. In 1897 two commissioners, appointed by the governments of the United States and Canada, awarded the sum of $463,454 as compensation to Canada for the damages sustained by the fishermen of British Columbia, while engaged in the lawful prosecution of their industry on that portion of the Bering Sea declared to be open to all nations. This sum was paid in the summer of 1898 by the United States.

In 1897 the Canadian government succeeded in obtaining the consent of the governments of Great Britain and the United States to the appointment of a joint high commission to settle various questions in dispute between Canada and the United States. Canada was represented on this commission by Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Sir Richard Cartwright, Sir Louis Davies, and Mr. John Charlton, M.P., Newfoundland by Sir James Winter; the United States by Messieurs C.W. Fairbanks, George Gray, J.W. Foster, Nelson Dingley Jr., J.A. Kasson, and T. Jefferson Coolidge. The eminent jurist, Baron Herschell, who had been lord chancellor in the last Gladstone ministry, was chosen chairman of this commission, which met in the historic city of Quebec on several occasions from the 23rd August until the 10th October, 1898, and subsequently at Washington from November until the 20th February, 1899, when it adjourned. Mr. Dingley died in January and was replaced by Mr. Payne, and Lord Herschell also unhappily succumbed to the effects of an accident soon after the close of the sittings of the commission. In an eulogy of this eminent man in the Canadian house of commons, the Canadian prime minister stated that during the sittings of the commission "he fought for Canada not only with enthusiasm, but with conviction and devotion." England happily in these modern times has felt the necessity of giving to the consideration of Canadian interests the services of her most astute and learned statesmen and diplomatists.

This commission was called upon to consider a number of international questions-the Atlantic and inland fisheries, the Alaska boundary, the alien labour law, the bonding privilege, the seal fishery in the Bering Sea, reciprocity of trade in certain products of the two countries, and other minor issues. For the reasons given in a previous part of this chapter (page 269), when referring to the commercial policy of the Laurier government, reciprocity was no longer the all-important question to be discussed, though the commissioners were desirous of making fiscal arrangements with respect to lumber, coal, and some other Canadian products for which there is an increasing demand in the markets of the United States. The long and earnest discussions of the commission on the various questions before them were, however, abruptly terminated by the impossibility of reaching a satisfactory conclusion with respect to the best means of adjusting the vexed question of the Alaska boundary, which had become of great international import in consequence of the discovery of gold in the territory of Alaska and the district of Yukon in Canada.

The dispute between Great Britain and the United States has arisen as to the interpretation to be given to the Anglo-Russian treaty of 1825, which was made forty-two years before Russia sold her territorial rights in Alaska to the United States, that sale being subject of course to the conditions of the treaty in question. Under the third article of this treaty[10]-the governing clause of the contract between England and Russia-boundary line between Canada and Alaska commences at the south end of Prince of Wales Island, thence runs north through Portland Channel to the fifty-sixth degree of north latitude, thence follows the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast of the continent, to one hundred and forty-one west longitude and thence to the frozen ocean. That part of the line between fifty-six north latitude and one hundred and forty-one west longitude is where the main dispute arises. Great Britain on behalf of Canada contends that, by following the summits of the mountains between these two points, the true boundary would cross Lynn Canal, about half way between the headlands and tide-water at the head of the canal, and leave both Skagway and Dyea-towns built up chiefly by United States citizens-within British territory. The contention of Great Britain always has been that the boundary should follow the general contour of the coast line and not the inlets to their head waters. On the other hand the United States contend that the whole of Lynn Canal up to the very top, to the extent of tide-water, is a part of the ocean, and that the territory of the United States goes back for ten leagues from the head of the canal and consequently includes Skagway and Dyea. In other words the United States claim that the boundary should not follow the coast line but pass around the head of this important inlet, which controls access to the interior of the gold-bearing region.

[10: The following is the article in full: "The line of demarcation between the possessions of the high contracting parties upon the coast of the continent and the islands of America to the north-west, shall be drawn in the following manner: commencing from the southernmost point of the island called Prince of Wales Island, which point lies in the parallel of fifty-four degrees forty minutes north latitude, and between the one hundred and thirty-first and the one hundred and thirty-third degree of west longitude, the said line shall ascend to the north along the channel called Portland Channel as far as the point of the continent where it strikes the fifty-sixth degree of north latitude. From this last-mentioned point the line of demarcation shall follow the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast as far as the point of intersection of the one hundred and forty-first degree of west longitude (of the same meridian), and finally from the said point of intersection of the one hundred and forty-first degree in its prolongation as far as the frozen ocean, shall form the limit between the Russian and British possessions, on the continent of America to the north-west"]



The Canadian commissioners first offered as a compromise to leave Dyea and Skagway in the possession of the United States if the commissioners of that country would agree that Canada should retain Pyramid Harbour, which would give to Canadians a highway into the Yukon district. The acceptance of this compromise would have made a common water of the Lynn Canal, and at the same time left to the United States the greater portion of the territory in dispute. When the commissioners of the United States refused this fair compromise, the Canadians offered to refer the whole question to arbitration in order to ascertain the true boundary under the Anglo-Russian treaty. They proposed that the arbitrators should be three jurists of repute: one chosen for Great Britain by the judicial committee of the privy council, one appointed by the president of the United States, and the third a high international authority to act as an umpire. The commissioners of the United States positively refused to agree to this proposition and suggested the appointment of six jurists, three to be appointed by Great Britain, and the others by the United States. The Canadian representatives were unable to agree to the amendment suggested by their American colleagues, on the ground that it did not "provide a tribunal which would necessarily, and in the possible event of differences of opinion, finally dispose of the question," They also refused to agree to other propositions of the United States as "a marked and important departure from the rules of the Venezuelan boundary reference." The commissioners of the United States were not only unwilling to agree to the selection of an impartial European umpire, but were desirous of the appointment of an American umpire-from the South American Republics-over whom the United States would have more or less influence. Under these circumstances the Canadian commissioners were unwilling to proceed to the determination of other questions (on which a conclusion had been nearly reached) "until the boundary question had been disposed of either by agreement or reference to arbitration." The commission adjourned until August in the same year, but the negotiations that took place in the interval between the governments of Great Britain and the United States on the question at issue were not sufficiently advanced to enable a meeting at the proposed date. In these circumstances a modus vivendi was arranged between the United States and Canada, whose interests have been carefully guarded throughout the controversy by the government of the imperial state.

This review of Canada's relations with the United States and England for more than a century illustrates at once her weakness and her strength-her weakness in the days of provincial isolation and imperial indifference; her strength under the inspiring influences of federal union and of an imperial spirit which gives her due recognition in the councils of the empire. It may now be said that, in a limited sense, there is already a loose system of federation between Great Britain and her dependencies. The central government of Great Britain, as the guardian of the welfare of the whole empire, cooperates with the several governments of her colonial dependencies, and, by common consultation and arrangement, endeavours to come to such a determination as will be to the advantage of all the interests at stake. In other words, the conditions of the relations between Great Britain and Canada are such as to insure unity of policy so long as each government considers the interests of Great Britain and the dependency as identical, and keeps in view the obligations, welfare, and unity of the empire at large. Full consultation in all negotiations affecting Canada, representation in every arbitration and commission that may be the result of such negotiations, are the principles which, of late years, have been admitted by Great Britain in acknowledgement of the development of Canada and of her present position in the empire; and any departure from so sound a doctrine would be a serious injury to the imperial connection, and an insult to the ability of Canadians to take a part in the great councils of the world. The same mysterious Providence that has already divided the continent of North America, as far as Mexico, between Canada and the United States, and that in the past prevented their political fortunes from becoming one, still forces the Canadian communities with an irresistible power to press onward until they realise those high conceptions which some statesmen already imagine for them in a not very distant future. These conceptions are of a still closer union with the parent state, which shall increase their national responsibilities, and at the same time give the Dominion a recognised position in the central councils of the empire.




Name. Name

The Dominion of Canada The Commonwealth of Australia.

How Constituted. How Constituted

Of provinces. Of states.

Seat of Government. Seat of Government

At Ottawa until the Queen Within federal territory in

otherwise directs. New South Wales, at least 100

miles from Sydney

Executive Power. Executive Power Vested in the Queen. Vested in the Queen. Queen's representative, a Queen's representative, a governor-general, appointed by governor-general, appointed by the Queen in council. the Queen in council.

Salary of governor-general Not less than £10,000 paid £10,000 sterling, paid by Dominion by the commonwealth, fixed by government, alterable by parliament from time to time, the parliament of Canada, but not diminished during tenure of subject to the disallowance of a governor-general. the crown, as in 1868, when parliament passed a bill to reduce this salary.

CANADA. AUSTRALIA. Ministers called by governor-general Same-only for "privy to form a cabinet, first councillors" read "executive sworn in as privy councillors, councillors" hold office while they have the confidence of the popular house of parliament, in accordance with the conventions, understandings, and maxims of responsible or parliamentary government.

Privy councillors hold, as the Executive councillors administer crown may designate, certain such departments as departments of state, not limited governor-general from time to in name or number, but left to time establishes. Until other the discretionary action of provision is made by parliament, parliament. Such heads of number of such officers, who departments must seek a new may sit in parliament, shall not election on accepting these exceed seven. office of emolument.

_Command of Military and Command of Military and

Naval Forces Naval Forces_

Vested in the Queen. In the Queen's representative.

Parliament Parliament

The Queen. The Queen.

Senate. Senate.

House of commons. House of representatives.

Session once at least every The same.


Privileges, immunities and Such as declared by the parliament

powers held by senate and house of the commonwealth,

of commons, such as are defined and, until declared, such as are

by act of the parliament of held by the commons' house of

Canada, but not to exceed those parliament of Great Britain at

enjoyed at the passing of such the date of the establishment of

act by the commons' house of the commonwealth.

parliament of Great Britain.


Senate composed of twenty-four Senate composed of six

members for each of the senators for each state, directly

three following divisions (1) chosen for six years by the

Ontario, (2) Quebec, and (3) people of the state voting as

maritime provinces of Nova one electorate; half the number

Scotia, New Brunswick, and shall retire every three years,

Prince Edward Island. Other but shall be eligible for

provinces can be represented re-election. No property

under the constitution, but the qualification is required, but the

total number of senators shall senators must be British subjects

not at any time exceed of the full age of twenty-one years.

seventy-eight, except in the In Queensland the people can

case of the admission of vote in divisions, instead of in

Newfoundland, when the maximum one electorate.

may be eighty-two. Senators

appointed by the crown for life,

but removable for certain

disabilities. They must have

a property qualification and be

of the full age of thirty years.

Speaker of the senate appointed President of the senate elected

by the governor-general by that body.

(in council).

Fifteen senators form a quorum One-third of whole number of

until parliament of Canada senators form a quorum until

otherwise provides. parliament of commonwealth

otherwise provides.

Non-attendance for two whole Non-attendance for two consecutive

sessions vacates a senator's seat. months of any session

vacates a senator's seat.

Members of house of commons Every three years.

elected every five years,

or whenever parliament is dissolved

by the governor-general.

No property qualification, but The same. must be British subjects of full age of twenty-one years.

CANADA. AUSTRALIA The electors for the Dominion Qualification of electors for commons are the electors of the members of the house of several provinces, under the representatives is that limitations of a statute passed prescribed by the law of each by the Dominion parliament in state for the electors of the 1878. Qualifications vary, but more numerous house of the universal suffrage, qualified by parlianment of the state. residence, generally prevails.

A fresh apportionment of The same. representatives to be made after each census, or not longer than intervals of ten years.

Speaker of house of commons The same. elected by the members of the house.

Quorum of house of commons Quorum of house of representatives

-twenty members, of whom the -one-third of the

speaker counts one. whole number of members

until otherwise provided by


No such provision. Member vacates his seat

when absent, without permission,

for two months of a


No such provision. Parliament to be called together

not later than thirty days

after that appointment for return

of writs.

Allowance to each member of Allowance of £400 to members senate and commons $1,000 for of both houses until other a session of thirty days, and provision is made by parliament. mileage expenses, 10 cents a mile going and returning. Not expressly provided for by constitution but by statute of parliament from time to time.

CANADA. AUSTRALIA. Canadian statutes disqualify Same classes disqualified in contractors and certain persons the constitution. holding office on receiving emoluments or fees from the crown while sitting in parliament.

Each house determines the The constitution has a special rules, and orders necessary for provision on the subject. the regulation of its own proceedings; not in the constitution.

Money And Tax Bills Money and Tax Bills

The same. Money and tax bills can only

originate in the house of


|Same by practice. The senate can reject, but not amend, taxation or appropriation bills.

Not in Canadian constitution. The senate may return money and appropriation bills to the house of representatives, requesting the omission or amendment of any provision therein, but it is optional for the house to make such omissions or amendments.

No such provision. If bills, other than money bills, have twice been passed by the house of representatives and twice been rejected by the senate or passed by that body with amendments to which the house of representatives will not agree, the governor-general may dissolve the two houses simultaneously; and if, after the new election they continue to disagree, the governor-general may convene a joint sitting of the members of the two houses, who shall deliberate and vote upon the bill, which can only become law if passed by an absolute majority of the members sitting and voting.

_Legislative Powers of the Legislative Powers of the

Parliament of the Dominion. Parliament of the


Respective powers of the federal The Legislative powers of the parliament and provincial federal parliament are alone legislatures are enumerated and enumerated, and the states defined in the constitution; the expressly retain all the powers residuum of power rests with the vested in them by their central government in relation respective constitutions at the to all matters not coming within establishment of the the classes of subjects by the commonwealth as to matters not British North America act of specified as being within the 1867 assigned exclusively to the exclusive jurisdiction of the legislatures. federal parliament.

The Provinces. The States.

Legislatures may alter provincial Constitutions may be altered constitutions except as under the authority of the regards the office of lieutenant parliaments thereof. -governor.

Lieutenant-governors are appointed The constitution of each state

by the governor-general-in-council, continues (subject to the

and removable by constitution) as at the

him within five years only for establishment of the

cause assigned and communicated commonwealth, or as at the

by message to the two admission or establishment

houses of parliament. of the states, as the case

may be, until altered in

accordance with the

constitution of the

states. In other words,

the powers of the states

over their own constitutions

are preserved.

Acts of the provincial When a law of the state is

legislatures may be disallowed inconsistent with one of the

by the governor-general-in-council commonwealth, the latter shall,

one year after their receipt. to the extent of such

inconsistency, be invalid.

Education is within exclusive No special provisions in the jurisdiction of the provinces, constitution; education being but with conditions for the one of the subjects exclusively maintenance and protection of within the powers of the state rights and privileges of parliaments, under the clause religious bodies in a province leaving them in possession of with respect to denominational all powers not expressly given schools. to the federal parliament.

The federal parliament can A state shall not impose any

alone impose duties or taxes on taxes or duties upon imports

imports. except such as are necessary

for executing the inspection

laws of a state, but the net

produce of all charges so

levied shall be for use of the,

commonwealth, and such

inspection laws may be annulled

by the parliament of the


Similar power. The parliament of the commonwealth may from time to time admit new states, and make laws for the provisional administration and government of any territory surrendered by any state to the commonwealth, or of any territory placed by the Queen under the commonwealth, or otherwise acquired by the same.


The Judiciary. The Judiciary.

The same. The parliament of the

commonwealth can establish a

federal supreme court, called

the High Court of Australia,

and other federal courts for

the commonwealth; the judges

to be appointed by the

governor-general, to hold

office during good behaviour,

No such provision with respect not to be removed except upon

to diminution of salary during an address of both houses of

tenure of office. parliament, but so that the

salary paid to any judge shall

not be diminished during his

continuance in office.

Similar provisions by statutory The high court can adjudicate

enactments of Dominion in cases arising out of the

parliament. constitution, or controversies

between states, or in which the

commonwealth is a party.

No such stringent provision Appeals only allowed to exists in the Canadian Queen-in-council from high court constitution, but appeals in all on constitutional issues between civil-though not in commonwealth and any state, criminal-cases are allowed, by or between two or more states, virtue of the exercise of the when high court gives leave to royal prerogative, from appeal. Otherwise, the royal provincial courts as well as prerogative to grant appeals is from the supreme court of Canada not impaired. Parliament may, to the Queen-in-council; however, make laws limiting i.e., in practice, to the such appeals, but they must judicial committee of the privy be reserved for her Majesty's council. pleasure.


Judges of the superior and Judges in the states are appointed

county courts in the provinces and removable under existing state

(except those of probate in New constitutions, which the state

Brunswick, Nova Scotia and parliaments can change at will.

Prince Edward Island) are appointed

by the governor-general-in-council,

and removable only

by the same on the address of

the two houses of parliament.

Their salaries and allowances

are fixed by the parliament of


The provinces have jurisdiction Similar powers in the states. over the administration of justice in a province, including the constitution, maintenance, and organisation of provincial courts, both of civil and criminal jurisdiction, and including the procedure in civil matters in those courts.

The enactment and amendment With the states. of the criminal law rest with the Dominion parliament.

The enactment and amendment With the states. of all laws relating to property and civil rights rest with the provinces.

Trade and Finance. Tr

ade and Finance.

Customs and excise, trade and The parliament of the commonwealth

commerce, are within exclusive has sole power to

jurisdiction of Dominion parliament. impose uniform duties of customs

and excise, and to grant bounties

upon goods when it thinks it

expedient. As soon as

such duties or customs

are imposed, trade and

intercourse throughout the

commonwealth, whether by

internal carriageor ocean

navigation, is to be free.

The Dominion government The parliament of the commonwealth

can veto any such unconstitutional may annul any state

law. law interfering with the freedom

of trade or commerce between

the different parts of the

commonwealth, or giving preference

to the ports of one part over

those of another.

The power of direct taxation Direct taxation may be imposed

is within the jurisdiction of both by the commonwealth

Dominion parliament and provincial and by each state within its own

legislatures, the one for limits-but taxation, when

Dominion and the other solely exercised by the commonwealth,

for provincial purposes. must be uniform.

Both Dominion and provincial Same is true of commonwealth governments have unlimited and states. borrowing power under the authority of parliament and legislatures.

Certain money subsidies are Of the net revenue of the

paid annually to the provinces commonwealth from duties of

towards the support of their customs and excise, not more

governments and legislatures. than one-fourth shall be applied

annually by the commonwealth

towards its expenditure. The

balance shall, in accordance

with certain conditions of the

constitution, be paid to the

several states, or applied

towards the payment of

interest on debts of the

several states. This arrangement

is limited to ten years. Financial

aid may be granted to any state

upon such terms as the federal

parliament may deem expedient.

Western Australia may, subject

to certain restrictions, impose

duties on goods imported from

other parts of the commonwealth.

No such provision; but the For the administration of the

Dominion parliament and provincial laws relating to interstate trade

legislatures could by the governor-general-in-council

legislation arrange a similar may appoint an interstate

commission. commission.

Canada is liable for amount of The parliament of the commonwealth

the debts and liabilities of the may consolidate or

provinces existing at the time of take over state debts by general

the union, under the conditions consent, but a state shall

and terms laid down in the indemnify the commonwealth, and

constitution. the amount of interest payable in

respect to a debt shall be

deducted from its share of the

surplus revenue of the


Imperial Control over Imperial Control over Dominion Legislation. Australian Legislation. Bills may be reserved by the The same. governor-general for the Queen's pleasure, and her Majesty in As the old state constitutions council may within two years continue in force until amended after receipt of any Dominion by the state, state legislation is act disallow the same. still subject to power of disallowance by Queen in council.

No such provision. The governor-general may return any "law" presented to him for the Queen's assent and suggest amendments therein, and the houses may deal with them as they think fit.

The recommendation of the The same. crown is required before initiation of a money vote in parliament.

_Amendments to the Amendments to the

Constitution. Constitution._

By the imperial parliament on Any proposed amendment to

an address of the houses of the the constitution must be first

Dominion parliament to the passed by an absolute majority

Queen. of each house of parliament,

and submitted in each state to

the electors qualified to vote for

members of the house of

representatives. If in majority of

the states a majority of the

electors voting approve the

proposed law, and if a majority

of all the electors

voting also approve the

proposed law, it shall be

presented to the governor-general

for the royal assent.



I confine these notes to the most accurate and available books and essays on the history of Canada.

For the French régime consult.-Jacques Cartier's Voyages, by Joseph Pope (Ottawa, 1889), Charlevoix's History and General Description of New France, translated by J. Gilmary Shea (New York, 1868); Cours d'histoire du Canada, by Abbé Ferland (Quebec, 1861); Histoire du Canada, by F.X. Garneau (4th ed., Montreal, 1882); F. Parkman's series of admirable histories of the French régime (Boston, 1865-1884), The Story of Canada (Nations' Series, London, New York and Toronto, 1896), by J.G. Bourinot, necessarily written in a light vein, is largely devoted to the days of French rule, and may profitably be read on that account in connection with this later book, chiefly devoted to British dominion.

For the history of Acadia, consult.-Acadia, by James Hannay (St. John, N.B., 1879); History of Nova Scotia, by Thomas C. Haliburton (Halifax, N.S., 1829). A valuable compilation of annals is A History of Nova Scotia or Acadie, by Beamish Murdoch (Halifax, 1867). Builders of Nova Scotia, by J.G. Bourinot (Toronto, and "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," 1900), contains many portraits of famous Nova Scotians down to confederation, and appendices of valuable historical documents.

Cape Breton and its Memorials of the French Régime ("Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," vol. IX, and in separate form, Montreal, 1891) by J.G. Bourinot, gives a full bibliography of voyages of Northmen, the Cabots, Carrier, and Champlain, and of the Histories of the Seven Years' War. The same remarks apply to Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston, 1886-89). The "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," since 1894, have several important papers by Archbishop O'Brien, Dr. S.E. Dawson, and others on the Cabot discovery.

British rule, 1760-1900:-Garneau's History, already mentioned, gives the French Canadian view of the political situation from 1760 until 1840; William Kingsford's History of Canada (Toronto, 1887-1898) has a fairly accurate account of events from 1760 until 1840, in vols. V-X; A History of Lower Canada, by R. Christie, a member of the assembly of the province (Quebec, 1848-1854) is very useful for copies of public documents from 1774 until 1840.

The most important accounts of the U.E. Loyalists of the American

Revolution by writers in the United States are:-L. Sabine's Loyalists

(Boston, 1864), and Tyler's Literary History of the American

Revolution (New York, 1897). Canadian accounts are to be found in

Egerton Ryerson's Loyalists of America (Toronto, 1880)-remarkably

prosaic-and Canniff's History of Upper Canada (Toronto, 1872).

Consult also articles of J.G. Bourinot in the Quarterly Review for

October, 1898, and the Canadian Magazine for April, 1898, in which

names of prominent Canadian descendants of Loyalists are given.

Kingsford's History, vol. VIII, has the best Canadian account of the

War of 1812-15. The most impartial American record of its causes and

progress is Henry Adams's History of the United States of America (New

York, 1860), vols VI and VII.

Garneau's History gives the most favourable estimate of Papineau and his party, who brought about the Rebellion in Lower Canada. Kingsford (vols. IX and X) writes impartially on the risings in the two Canadas.

Other works to be consulted are:-Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America (London, 1839); Life of W. Lyon Mackenzie, by Charles Lindsey, his son-in-law (Toronto, 1863); The Upper Canadian Rebellion, by J. Charles Dent (Toronto, 1885). The Speeches and Letters of the Hon. Joseph Howe (Boston, 1858) contain the ablest expositions of the principles of responsible government by its greatest advocate in British North America. See also Campbell's History of Prince Edward Island (Charlottetown, 1875). New Brunswick has not a single good history. The Life and Times of Sir Leonard Tilley, by James Hannay (St. John, N.B. 1897), can be read with advantage. See Prof. Ganong's valuable essays on the early history of New Brunswick in "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can," New Series, vols. I-v. Rev. Dr. Withrow's History of Canada (Toronto, 1888) has chapters on affairs of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, to date of publication.

For the history of Canada since 1840, consult.-Canada since the Union (1840-1880), by J. Charles Dent (Toronto, 1880-81); Le Canada sous l'Union, by Louis Turcotte (Quebec, 1871); Memoirs of the Right Hon. Sir John A. Macdonald, by Joseph Pope, his private secretary (London and Ottawa, 1894); Debates on Confederation (Quebec, 1865); Confederation, by Hon. J.H. Gray, M.P., a delegate to the Quebec Conference (Toronto, 1872).

For the constitutional development of Canada, consult.-A Manual, by J.G. Bourinot (Montreal, 1888, and included in latest edition of his Parliamentary Procedure, 1891); How Canada is Governed, by the same (Toronto, 1897-1900); Parliamentary Government in the Colonies, by Alpheus Todd (London, 1894); Documents illustrative of the Canadian Constitution, by W. Houston (Toronto, 1891). Parliamentary Government in Canada, by J.G. Bourinot (Amer. Hist. Association, Washington, 1892, and "Trans. Roy. Soc. Can.," 1892), contains a long list of books relating to the constitutional history of Canada. Also consult How Canada is Governed for works on constitutional, legal, municipal and educational history of the provinces of Canada.

For Manitoba and the North-west Territories the reader may

consult:-Manitoba. Its Infancy, Growth and Present Condition, by Rev.

Prof. Bryce (London, 1882); History of the North-west, by A. Begg

(Toronto, 1894); The Great Company, by Beckles Wilson (Toronto and

London, 1899); Reminiscences of the North-west Rebellions, by Major

Boulton (Toronto, 1886). A remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay

Company, by Rev. Prof. Bryce (London, New York and Toronto, 1900). For

British Columbia:-A. Begg's History (Toronto, 1896).

For the literary progress of Canada, consult:-The Intellectual Development of the Canadian People, by J.G. Bourinot (Toronto, 1881); Canada's Intellectual Strength and Weakness ("Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada," vol. XI, also in separate form, Montreal, 1893), by the same, contains an elaborate list of Canadian literature, French and English, to date. The 17 volumes of the same Transactions contain numerous valuable essays on French Canadian literary progress.

Other valuable books to be consulted are:-Canada and Newfoundland in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1897), by Dr. S.E. Dawson, F.R.S.C.; The Statistical Year Book of Canada, a government publication issued annually at Ottawa, and edited by Geo. Johnson, F.S.S.; The Great Dominion (London, 1895), by Dr. G.R. Parkin, C.M.G., LL.D., the eloquent advocate of imperial federation for many years, merits careful reading. Canada and the United States, in Papers of the Amer. Hist Assoc. (Washington, July, 1891), and Canada and the United States: their Past and Present Relations, in the Quarterly Review for April, 1891, both by the present author, have been largely used in the preparation of the last chapter of this book.

With respect to the boundaries of Canada and the English colonies during the days of French dominion, and from 1763 until 1774-i.e. from the Treaty of Paris until the Quebec Act-consult a valuable collection of early French and English maps, given in A Report on the Boundaries of Ontario (Toronto, 1873), by Hon. David Mills, now Minister of Justice in the Laurier government, who was an Ontario commissioner to collect evidence with respect to the western limits of the province. Consult also Prof. Hinsdale's Old North-west (New York, 1888); Epochs of American History, edited by Prof. Hart, of Harvard University (London and Boston, 1893); Remarks on the French Memorials concerning the Limits of Acadia (London, 1756) by T. Jefferys, who gives maps showing clearly French and English claims with respect to Nova Scotia or Acadia "according to its ancient limits" (Treaty of Utrecht). These and other maps are given in that invaluable compilation, Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America. See also Mitchell's map of British and French possessions in North America, issued by the British Board of Plantations in 1758, and reprinted (in part) in the Debates on the Quebec Act, by Sir H. Cavendish (London, 1839). For text of Treaties of Utrecht (1612), of Paris (1763), of Quebec Act (1774), and other treaties and imperial acts relating to Canada, see Houston's Documents, cited above, p. 329. The maps of Canada and the disputed boundary in Alaska, which I give in this book, are taken from the small maps issued in 1899 by the Department of the Interior at Ottawa.


Abbott, Sir John; prime minister of Canada, 257; death of, ib

Aberdeen, Earl of; governor-general of Canada, 265-267

Aberdeen, Lady, 267

Acadia College, N.S., founded, 163

Acadie or La Cadie; name of, 8; settled by France, 8, 9; ceded to Great Britain by Treaty of Utrecht (1713), 9; French inhabitants expelled from, 22, 23

Adams, President John; on the U.K. Loyalists, 76

Alaskan Boundary, 310-312; map of, 311

Alexander, Sir William (Lord Stirling); names Nova Scotia, 11

Allan, Sir Hugh; contributes funds to Conservative elections, 236; results of, 237

Allouez, Father; founds mission at La Pointe (Ashland), 17

Almon, M, B.; banker and politician of Nova Scotia, 178

American Revolution; causes of, 56-65; momentous events of, 63-67; its effects upon Canada and Maritime Provinces, 67-74, 81

Angers, lieutenant-governor; dismisses Mercier ministry in Quebec, 247

Anglican Church: first built in Upper Canada, 84

Annand, William; Nova Scotian journalist, and first minister of province after Confederation, 218

Annapolis (Port Royal) named, 9

Archibald, Sir Adams, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; first lieutenant-governor of Manitoba, 230

Architecture in Canada, 288, 289

Art in Canada, 288

Assiniboia; name of Lord Selkirk's domain in North-west, 225

Australia, Commonwealth of; constitution of, 282, 283; comparisons between Canadian and Australian federal systems, 315-326 (Appendix A)

Baccalaos, or Newfoundland, 8

Bagot, Sir Charles, governor-general of Canada, 169

Baldwin, Robert, efforts of, for responsible government, 168, 169; joint leader with Lafontaine in Reform ministry, 170, 173; admirable character of, 184

Ballot, vote by; established, 239

Basques in Canada, 5

Batoche, N.W.T.; victory of loyal Canadian forces at, in second

North-west rebellion of 1885, 253

Bay of Chaleurs Railway; scandal connected with, 247

Bering Sea dispute, 308, 309

Bibliographical notes, see App. B

Bidwell, Marshall Spring; reformer of Upper Canada, 146, 149, 151; unjust treatment of, by lieutenant-governor Head, 153

Big Bear, Indian Chief in N.W.T.; rebels against Canada and is punished, 253-254

Bishop's Palace; first parliament house of Lower Canada, 92, 160

Blair, Mr.; Canadian statesman, 265

Blake, Edward; Canadian statesman, 230, 231, 234, 241, 244, 255

Blanchard, Hiram; Nova Scotia, Unionist, defeated in 1867, 218

Botsford, Amos; first speaker of assembly of New Brunswick, 88

Boucherville, M. de; prime minister of Quebec, 245, 247

Bouchette, Joseph, Canadian general and author, 164

Boundary disputes; in North-west, 292; in Maine, 296-300; in Oregon, 300-302; in British Columbia (San Juan) 301, 302; in Alaska, 310-312. See Maps

Boundary of Ontario settled, 238

Bourgeoys, Sister, 34

Bowell, Sir Mackenzie; prime minister of Canada, 257

Brant, Joseph (Thayendanega), Mohawk Chief, 84; his loyalty to Great

Britain, ib.

Brébeuf, Jean de, Jesuit martyr, 12

Bretons in Canada, 51

Briand, Bishop; consecrated after conquest, 43; loyal mandement of, in 1775, 58

British American League suggests federal union of provinces, 194

British Columbia, province of; its early history, 231, 232; enters

Confederation, 232

British North America Act of 1867; passed to unite provinces, 215. See Constitution of Canada.

Brock, General; services of, during war of 1812-15, 114, 119; death of, ib.

Brown, George; Canadian journalist and reformer, suggests federal union, 196; advocates representation by population, 197; assists in bringing about Confederation, 197; joins the Taché-Macdonald government with other reformers, 198; leaves the coalition ministry, 217; unsuccessful mission to Washington to obtain reciprocity, 306; assassination of, 256; character of, 197, 202

Brown, Thomas Storrow; leads Canadian rebels at St. Charles in 1837, 134

By, Colonel, founder of Bytown (Ottawa), 158; engineer of Ruleau Canal, ib.

Cabot, John; voyages of, to North America, 4, 5

Caldwell, Receiver-General; defaulter to government, 126

Calvet, Pierre du; opponent of Governor Haldimand, 72; disloyalty of, 72, 73

Campbell, Sir Alexander; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 203

Campbell, Sir Colin; governor of Nova Scotia, 173; opposes responsible government, ib.

Canada, name of, 6; discovery and settlement of, by France, 4-15; French exploration of, 15-21; conquered by Great Britain, 21-27; political, economic, and social conditions of, during French rule, 27-36; beginnings of British rule in, 37-45; influence of Quebec Act of 1774 upon, 45-48; during American Revolution, 67-74; United Empire Loyalists settle in, 81-86; political divisions of (in 1792), 91; effects of war of 1812-15 upon, 110-123; rebellion in, 134-156; social and economic condition of, in 1838, 156-164; union of, in 1840, 166; responsible government in, 167-173; social and economic conditions of, in 1866, 185-192; Confederation of, 215, 216; federal constitution of, 273-284, 315-326; first ministry of, under Confederation, 216, first parliament of, 218, 219; trade and revenue of, in 1899, 273; literature in, 284-287, art in, 288; sculpture in, ib.; architecture in, 288, 289; education in 289, 290; libraries in, ib.; relations with England and the United States, 390-314; bibliographical notes of, 327-330; maps of, see Maps

Canada's representation at "Diamond Jubilee" (1897), 35, 36, 270, 271

Canada Temperance Act. See Temperance Legislation

Canada and the United States, relations between (1783-1900), 290-313

Canadien, Le; established in French Canada, 95

Canadian Pacific Railway; history of 232, 233, 236, 242, 244

Canadian Trade Acts; respecting Upper and Lower Canada, 153

Canals of Canada, 273

Cape Breton, name of, 5

Carignan-Salières regiment settled in Canada 14

Carleton, Guy (Lord Dorchester); governor general of Canada, 44; his just treatment of French Canadians, ib.; his part in framing of the Quebec Act, 45; saves Canada during American revolution, 67; again governor-general, 89; his tribute to the U.E. Loyalists, ib.

Carleton, Colonel John; first governor of New Brunswick, 87

Carnarvon, Earl of; introduces British North America Act of 1867 in

British Parliament, 215

Caroline steamer; seized by Canadians 295; international complications respecting 295, 296

Caron Father le; French missionary, 16

Caron, Sir Adolphe; minister of militia during North-west rebellion of 1885, 252; resists Riel agitation in French Canada, 254

Carter, Frederick B.T.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Cartier, Sir George; a father of Confederation, 201; great public services of, ib.; death of, 233

Cartier, Jacques, discovers the St. Lawrence, 6, 7

Cartwright, Sir Richard; Canadian statesman, 94, 265

Casgrain, Abbé; Canadian author, 284

Cathcart, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 171, 172

Champlain, Samuel; founds Quebec, 9; career of, in Canada, 9-12, character of, ib.

Chandler, Edward Barron delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; public career of, 206

Chapais, J.C., delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 304

Chapleau, Sir Adolphe; resists popular clamour in French Canada for

Riel's pardon after rebellion of 1885, 254

Charlesbourg-Royal, 7

Charlevoix, Jesuit priest; historian of New France, 19

Chartier, Abbé; Canadian rebel of 1837, 135

Chartrand, murder of, in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 135

Chateauguay, battle of; won by French Canadians, 116, 121

Chateau of St. Louis; founded at Quebec, 31; destroyed by fire, 160

Chauveau, Pierre O.J.; his services to education, 192; first prime minister of Quebec after Confederation, 217

Chenier, Dr.; Canadian rebel, 134; monument to, 135

Christie, Mr.; expelled from assembly of Lower Canada, 127;

Chrystler's Farm, battle at; won by British troops in 1813, 116

Civil Law of French Canada, 29; established under British rule, 46, 278

Clergy Reserves Question; origin of, 141; powerful factor in political controversy for years, ib.; settled, 186

Cockburn, James; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; first speaker of commons' house of Dominion parliament, ib.

Code Napoléon in French Canada, 278

Colbert, French minister, 27

Colborne, Sir John (Lord Seaforth); represses rebellion in Lower Canada, 134, 138; governor-general of Canada, 138

Colebrooke, Sir William; lieutenant-governor of New Brunswick, 174

Coles, George; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Colonial Conference at Ottawa (1894), 200

Commissions, International, affecting Canada; Maine boundary, 296,

Washington (1871), 302, 304-306; Washington (1887), 307, 308, Bering

Sea, 309; joint high commission (Quebec and Washington, 1897-98),


Commonwealth of Australia. See Australia

Confederation of the British North American provinces; foreshadowed, 194; beginnings of, 195-198; initiated at Quebec Convention of 1864, 199; fathers of, 199-206, consummated, 206-215; birth of Dominion of Canada, 216; constitution of, 206-209, 273-284; first ministry under, 216; first parliament under, 217; results of, 272, 273

Congrégation de Notre-Dame established, 34

Constitutional Act of 1791; forms provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 90, 91; general provisions of, 91, 92

Constitution of Canadian Dominion, 273-281; compared with that of

Australian Commonwealth, 282-284, 315, 326 (App. A)

Cornwallis, Colonel, founds Halifax, 49

Corrupt elections: measures to restrain and punish, 239

Cortereal, Gaspar and Miguel; voyages of, to North America, 5

Coureurs-de-bois, 17, 18

Coutume de Paris established in French Canada, 29

Craig, Sir James; governor-general of Canada, 96; quarrels of, with leading French Canadians, character of, 96, 97

Crémazie, Canadian poet, 192

Crozier, Superintendent; defeated by half-breeds in North-west rebellion of 1885, 252

Cut Knife Greek, N.W.T.; Colonel Otter engages Indians at, in North-west rebellion of 1885, 253

Dalhousie College, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Dalhousie, Lord, governor-general of Canada; quarrel of, with Papineau, 129

Daly, Sir Dominick; first minister of Canada under Lord Metcalfe, 170

Davies, Sir Louis; Canadian statesman, 265

Davies, English navigator; voyages of, to Canada, 7

Dawson, Sir William; Canadian scientist, 192, 286

Dickey, R.B.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 305

Dochet Island (St. Croix River); first settlement of French on, 8

Dominion of Canada; origin of name, 215; established, 215, 216; first ministry of, 216; first parliament of, 217; completed from Atlantic to Pacific, 227, 232, 234; history of, from 1873-1900, 236-272; map of, at end.

Dorchester, Lord; see Carleton, Sir Guy

Douglas, Sir James; governor of British Columbia, 232

Drew, Captain; seizes steamer Caroline on U.S. frontier, 154. See Caroline.

Drummond, Attorney-General; member of MacNab-Morin ministry, 186

Drummond, Dr., Canadian poet, 285

Drummond, General, services of, during war of 1812-15, 116, 117, 122

Duck Lake, N.W.T., defeat of government forces at, in Canadian rebellion of 1885, 252

Dumont Gabriel; takes part in Riel's North-west revolt of 1885, 252, 253

Dufferin, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 241, 243, 267

Durham, Earl of; high commissioner to Canada after rebellion of 1837, 136; his humanity and justice, 137; returns from Canada when rebuked in England, ib., his report on Canadian affairs, 165

Durham Terrace, constructed, 160

Education in Canada; state of, under French rule, 33, 34, in 1838, 162, 163; after union of 1840, 192; present condition of, 290; contributions by government and people, ib.

Elgin, Lord; governor-general of Canada, character of, 172, 173; established responsible government, 173; action of, on Rebellion Losses Bill in 1849, 188, 189

Falkland, Lord; governor of Nova Scotia, 176; quarrels with Joseph Howe and Liberal party, 177-179; returns to England, 179

Family Compact in Upper Canada; meaning of, 141; controls government, ib.

Fenian raids; in 1866, 213; in 1870-71, 230, 231, Canada never indemnified for, 305

Ferland, French Canadian historian, 192

Fielding, Mr., finance minister of Canada, 265, his budget of 1897, 209

Fish Creek, N.W.T.; General Middleton checked at, in engagement with rebels of 1885, 253

Fisher, Charles; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

Fishery question between Canada and the United States, 293, 302, 304, 307, 308

Fitzgibbon, Lieutenant; successful strategy of, at Beaver Dams in 1813, 116

Franchise Act of Dominion, passed, 255, repealed, 268

Frechétte, French Canadian poet, 285

Free Trade policy of England; its early effects upon Canada, 172, 187, 189

French Acadians See Neutrals

French Canada; during French regime (1534-1760), 4-37; under military government after conquest by Great Britain, 37, 38; desire of British government to do justice to, 44, 45, provisions of Quebec Act affecting, 45, 48; political struggles and rebellion in, 124-138; influence of Union Act of 1840 upon, 170, 187; brought into confederation, 216; results of union upon, 273; literature in, 284, 285

French exploration in great valleys of North America, 15-21

French language; use of, restricted by Union Act of 1840, 187; restriction removed, ib.

Frobisher, English navigator; voyages of, to Canada, 8

Frog Lake, massacre at, in North-west rebellion of 1885, 252

Frontenac, Count de (Louis de La Buade); French governor of Canada, 13; eminent services of, ib.

Galloway, Thomas; his scheme for readjusting relations between Great

Britain and her old Colonies, 79

Galt, Sir Alexander; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 20; public services of, ib.

Garneau, French Canadian historian, 192

German and Belgian Treaties; denunciation of, 261, 271

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey; takes possession of Newfoundland, 8

Glenelg, Lord; colonial secretary in 1838, 137

Gordon, Lt.-Governor; promotes federal union in New Brunswick, 212

Gosford, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 132, 134

Gourlay, Robert; misfortunes of, as a reformer in Upper Canada, 143-145

Grasett, Colonel; assists in repressing North-west rebellion of 1885, 253

Gray, Colonel; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Gray, John Hamilton, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

Grey, Earl; colonial secretary, 172

Haldimand, general; governor-general of Canada, 71, 72

Haliburton, Judge, author of Sam Sack, etc., 164

Halifax, founded, 49

Harvey, Colonel; victory of, at Stoney Creek in 1813, 116. See Harvey,

Sir John.

Harvey, Sir John; governor of Nova Scotia, of New Brunswick, establishes responsible government in the maritime provinces. See Harvey, Colonel.

Haviland, Thomas Heath; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206; public career of, ib.

Head, Sir Francis Bond; lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 148; his unjust treatment of reformers, 149-151; his rashness before rebellion, 152; represses rebellion, 153

Henry, William A.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204

Hincks, Sir Francis; Canadian statesman, melancholy death of, 233

Historian of Canada, 192, 284

Hochelaga (Montreal); Indian village of, visited by Jacques Cartier, 6

Howe, Joseph; father of responsible government in Nova Scotia, 175, 176; his quarrel with Lord Falkland, 176-179; ability of, 183, 184; advocate of imperial federation, 195; opposes confederation from 1864-1868, 212, 219; his reasons for receding from his hostile position, 219; enters the Macdonald ministry, 220; lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia, ib; sudden death of, ib; orator, poet, and statesman, 220, 221

Howland, Sir William P.; delegate to Westminster Palace Conference of 1866-67, 214; lieutenant-governor of Ontario, 217

Hudson's Bay Company; its great territorial privileges, 231-324; its claims purchased by the Canadian government, 227; map illustrating its charter, 222

Hull, General; defeat of, by Brock at Detroit, 114

Hundred Associates, Company of; established in Canada, 10

"Hunter's Lodges"; formed in United States to invade Canada, 154

Huntington, Lucius Seth; makes charges against Sir John Macdonald, 236

Huron Indians; massacre of, by the Iroquois, 12

Hutchinson, Governor Thomas (of Massachusetts); on relations between

Great Britain and her old Colonies, 98

Iberville, founder of Louisiana, 19

Immigration to Canada, 78, 79

Independence of old Thirteen Colonies acknowledged, by Great Britain, 74

Indians; British treatment of, 41,42; Canadian relations with, 238, 239

Intellectual culture in Canada; under French rule, 35; under British rule, 164, 192, 284, 285

Intercolonial Railway; history of, 191, 215, 219

Iroquois Indians; ferocity of, 10-13

Jameson, Miss Anna, her "Winter Studies and Summer Rambles" in Upper

Canada in 1838, 157-159

Jesuit College at Quebec, 34

Jesuits' Estates, Act; political controversies respecting, 248

Jesuits in Canada, 11, 12; their estates confiscated by the British government, 38; restored in part, 248

Johnson, John; delegate to the Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Johnston, James William; public career of, 175; eminence of, 185; early advocate of confederation, 194, 195

Joliet, Louis; discovers the Mississippi, 18

Journalism in Canada, 164, 287

Judiciary, independence of; political contests for, 128, 139

Keewatin, district of; established provisionally, 238

Kent, Duke of; commander of British forces in Canada, 193; gives name to P.E. Island, 53; letter to, from Chief Justice B.C. Sewell on union of provinces, 194

King, George E.; prime minister of New Brunswick after Confederation, 218

King's University, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Kingsford, Dr.; Canadian historian, 284

Kingston, city of; first parliament of Canada meets at, in 1841, 167

Kirk, David; captures Quebec, 10, 11

Labrador, discovery of, 5; origin of name of, 7

Lafontaine-Baldwin Ministry, 170, 173; its successful administration of

Canadian affairs, 173

Lafontaine, Sir Louis Hippolyte; Canadian statesman and jurist, 170, 173, 184

La Gallissonière, French governor of Canada, 35

Lake of Woods, international boundary at, 292, 293; map of, 293

Lalemant, Gabriel; Jesuit martyr, 12

Land question; in Upper Canada, 143; in Prince Edward Island, 54, 234

Langevin, Sir Hector; Canadian statesman, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; charges against, 258

Lansdowne, Marquess of; governor-general of Canada, 207

Lartigue, Bishop; mandement of, against French Canadian rebels, 135, 136

La Salle, Sieur de (Réné Robert Cavelier); at Lachine, 18; descends the

Mississippi, 18, 19; assassination of, 19

Laurier government; formation of, 265; measures of, 268-272

Laurier, Rt Hon. Sir Wilfrid; prime minister of Canada, 265; settles

Manitoba school question, 266 267; represents Canada at celebration of

"Diamond Jubilee" (1897), 36, 270; his action on Canadian aid to England

in South African War, 372; his mastery of English, 267

Laval, Bishop; first Roman Catholic Bishop of Canada, 12; establishes tithes, 29

Laval University, Quebec, 290

La Valmière, a disloyal priest, 72

Lawrence, Governor; expels French Acadians from Nova Scotia, 23; encourages New England emigration, 51; opens first assembly in Halifax, 53

Lepine, Canadian rebel; punished, 241; his sentence commuted, ib.

Letellier de Saint-Just; lieutenant-governor of Quebec, 246; dismissed, 246, 247

Lévis, General; defeats Murray at St. Foye, 26

Liberal or Reform party; formed in Nova Scotia, 99; in Upper Canada, 141

Liberal Convention in Ottawa (1893), 259

Libraries in Canada, 290

Lisgar, Lord, governor-general of Canada, 267

Literature in Canada, during French régime, 35; before union of 1840, 164; after union, 192; since Confederation, 284-287

Londonderry in Nova Scotia; origin of name of, 51, 52

Lome, Marquess of; governor-general of Canada, 244; His services to Art,

Science, and Literature, 267

Louisiana, named by La Salle, 19

Louis XIV establishes royal government in Canada, 12, 27, 28

Lount, Samuel; Upper Canadian rebel of 1837, 148, 152-153; executed, 155

Loyalists. See United Empire Loyalists

Loyal and Patriotic Society of Upper Canada; usefulness of, during war of 1819-15, 121

Lundy's Lane, battle of; won by British in 1814, 117, 120

Lymburner, Adam; opposes separation of Upper from Lower Canada, 90

Macdonald, Andrew Archibald; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Macdonald, Baroness (of Earnscliffe), 257

Macdonald, Colonel George; at Ogdensburg in 1813, 115; at Chateauguay, 121

Macdonald, John Sanfield; first prime minister of Ontario after

Confederation, 217

Macdonald, Rt. Hon. Sir John; enters public life, 173; member of government, ib.; settles Clergy Reserves question, 186; takes lead in establishing Confederation, 198, 199, 209; first prime minister of the Dominion, 216; resigns under unfortunate circumstances, 236; initiates the "National Policy" of Conservative party, 243; prime minister again, ib.; death of, 256; great ability, and patriotism of, 200, 256; mourned by all Canada, 257; monuments and tributes to his memory, ib.

Macdonell; Colonel John; first speaker of assembly of Upper Canada in 1792, 94

Macdonell, Vicar-General; first Roman Catholic Bishop of Upper Canada, 120

Mackenzie, Alexander; prime minister of Canada, 237; character of, ib., 243; his administration of public affairs (1873-78), 238-242; death of, 257

Mackenzie, Sir Alexander; North-west explorer, 224

Mackenzie, William Lyon; journalist and reformer, 146; enters Upper Canada legislature, 146; unjustly expelled, ib., first mayor of Toronto, 147; indiscretions of, ib.; moves for committee of grievances, 148, its report, ib.; defeat of, at elections of 1836, 150, resorts to rebellion, 152; defeat of, at Montgomery's and flight from Canada, 153; on Navy Island, 154; imprisoned in the United States, ib.; returns from exile, 182, exercises no influence in Canadian politics, ib.; poverty and death of, ib.; character of, 182, 183

MacLeod, international dispute respecting, 295

MacNab, Sir Allan; leads loyal "Men of Gore" against Canadian rebels in 1837, 153; orders seizure of steamer Caroline on. U.S. frontier, 154; prime minister of Canada, 186

Maine Boundary Dispute, 292, 296-300; map of, 296

Maisonneuve, Sieur de (Paul de Chomedey); founds Montreal, 12

Manitoba, first visited by French, 20; province of, established, 230

Manitoba school question, 262-265, 266, 267

Maps relating to Canada; of French, Spanish and British possessions in North America in 1756-1761, at end; of British possessions in 1763-1775, at end; of boundary established in 1783 between Canada and the United States, 75; of Hudson's Bay Co.'s territory, 222; of North-west boundary in 1842, 293; of North-eastern boundary in 1842, 297; of Alaskan disputed boundary, 311; of the Dominion of Canada in 1900, at end.

Marquette, Father, founds mission of Sainte-Maria, 17; discovers the

Mississippi, 18; death of, ib.;

Marriage laws in early Canada, 97

Masères, Attorney-general, 43

Matthews, Peter; Upper Canadian rebel, 148, 151, 153; executed, 155

McCully, Jonathan; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205

McDougall, William, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 203; provisional lieutenant-governor of N.W.T., 227; Half-breed rebellion prevents him assuming office, ib.; disappears from public life, 230

McGee, Thomas D'Arcy; historian and orator, delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 203; his political career in Canada, ib.; assassinated, 221

McGill University, Montreal; founded, 163

McGreevy, Thomas, impeached for serious misdemeanors, 258; punishment of, ib.

McLane, executed for treason in 1793, 101, 102

McLure, General (United States General); burns Niagara in 1814, 116

Mercier, Honoré, prime minister of Quebec, 247; dismissed, ib.

Merritt, W. Hamilton; originator of Welland Canal, 159

Metcalfe, Lord; governor-general of Canada, 170; antagonism of, to responsible government, 171; retirement and death of, ib.

Métis or Half-breeds of the Canadian North-west, 225, 228, 249

Middleton, Major-general; commands Canadian forces on Riel's revolt of 1885 in North-west, 252-254

Military rule in Canada after 1760, 37, 38

Mills, David; Canadian statesman, 206

Minto, Earl of; governor-general of Canada, 268

Mitchell, Peter; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; public career of, ib.

Mohawks, members of the Iroquois confederacy, 10; humbled by the Marquis de Tracy, 13. See Brant Joseph, Iroquois.

Monk, Lord; governor-general of Canada at Confederation, 216, 267

Montcalm, Marquis de; loses battle on Plains of Abraham, 26; death of ib.

Montgomery, Brigadier-General; invades Canada, 69, 70; death of, at

Quebec, 70

Montreal founded, 12

Monts, Sieur de; founder of French Acadie, 8

Monts-Déserts named by Champlain, 9

Mowat, Sir Oliver; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1804, 203; public career of, 203, 265, 266

Municipal system of Canada; established, 185, 186; nature of, 278

Murray, General; in command at Quebec, 26; defeat of, at St. Foye, ib.; governor-general of Canada, 42; his just treatment of French Canadians, 43

Mutual or reciprocal preferential trade between Canada and England; advocacy of, 260, 271

Nation Canadienne, La; Papineau's dream of, 130, 133, 134

"National Policy," or Protective system; established by Conservative party (1879), 243, 244

Navigation Laws repealed, 187

Navy Island, see Mackenzie, William Lyon

Neilson, John; Canadian journalist and politician, 127, 131

Nelson, Robert; Canadian rebel of 1837-38, 138

Nelson, Dr. Wolfred; leader in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 134

Neutrality of the Great Lakes, 294, 295

"Neutrals," on French Acadians; expulsion of from Nova Scotia, 22, 23

Newark (Niagara), meeting of first Upper Canadian legislature at, 93; seat of government removed from, to York, 101

New Brunswick; originally part of Acadie and Nova Scotia, 53; province of founded by Loyalists, 83; capital ib.; state of, in 1838, 162; political struggle for self-government in, 173, 174; takes part in Quebec Convention, 198, 205; brought into Confederation, 215, 216; boundary dispute with Maine, 296-300

New Brunswick school question, 201, 2O2

New Brunswick University; founded at Fredericton, 163

New Caledonia; old name of British Columbia, 232

Newfoundland; delegates from, to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206; refuses to join the Dominion, 235

Niagara, see Newark

Nicholson, General; captures Port Royal, 9

Norse voyages to Canada, 4

North-eastern Boundary question, 296-299; map of Boundary, 1842, 297

North-west Company; rival of the Hudson's Bay Company in North America, 224, 225

North-west Boundary dispute, 292, 293; map of, 293

North-west Territories, early history of, 221-227; annexation of, to Canada, 227, 230; first rebellion in, 227-230; government of, 277; second rebellion in, 249-255; districts of, 277

Nova Scotia (Acadie); first settled by France, 8, 9; foundation of Port Royal (Annapolis), 8; ceded to Great Britain by Treaty of Utrecht, 9; population of, at conquest, 15; first called Nova Scotia, 11; Halifax founded, 49; settlement by colonists of New England, 50, 51; expatriation of the Acadian French, 22, 23, 50, 51; population of, in 1767, 51; Irish immigration, ib.; Scotch immigration, 52; early government of, 52, 53, included New Brunswick, C. Breton, and St. John's Island (Pr. Edward I), 53; early courts of justice, 55; coming of Loyalists to, 82; state of in 1837-38, 162, political struggles in, for self-government, 174-180; take part in Quebec Convention of 1864, 198, 204; brought into Confederation, 215; people opposed to, 212, 218, 219; repeal movement gradually ceases in, 233

Novelists, Canadian, 164, 285, 286

O'Callaghan, Dr.; Canadian journalist and rebel, 130

O'Donohue, Canadian rebel, 231; amnesty to, 241

Ohio Valley, French in, 23

Oregon Boundary, dispute respecting, 300-302

Osgoode, Chief Justice; first speaker of legislative council of Upper

Canada in 1792, 94

Ottawa, city of; founded, 158

Pacific Cable; action of Canadian government with respect to, 271

Palmer, Edward; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Panet, Joseph Antoine; first speaker of assembly of Lower Canada in 1792, 93

Papineau, Louis J.; leader of French Canadian malcontents in rebellion of 1837, 129-134; conduct of, on outbreak of rebellion, 134, 135; return of, from exile, 181; opposes responsible government, ib.; loses political influence, ib.; character of, 180-182

Pardon, prerogative of; instructions respecting exercise of, 241

Parishes established in French Canada, 29

Parker, Gilbert; Canadian novelist, 286

Parr Town, first name of St. John, New Brunswick, 83

Perry, Peter; founder of Upper Canadian Reform party, 141, 146, 150

Pictou Academy, Nova Scotia; founded, 163

Pitt, the elder (Lord Chatham); gives Canada to Great Britain, 25, 35, 36

Pitt, William (the younger); introduces Act separating Upper from Lower

Canada (Constitutional Act of 1791), 90, 91

Plains of Abraham; Wolfe's victory on, 26

Plattsburg, battle of, pusillanimity of General Prevost at, 117

Plessis, Bishop (Roman Catholic); patriotism of, in war of 1812-15, 120

Poets in Canada, 192, 284, 285

Pontiac's Conspiracy, 39

Pope, William H., delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Portuguese discovery in Canada, 5

Post Office in Canada; under British management, 164; transferred to

Canada, 187

Poundmaker, Indian chief in North-west; rebels against Canadian government, 253; punished, 254

Poutrincourt, Baron de; founder of Port Royal, 8

Powell, Chief Justice, his unjust treatment of Robert Gourlay, 145

Preferential trade with Great Britain, 200, 201, 269, 271

Prevost, Sir George (governor-general of Canada), retires from Sackett's Harbour 1813, 115; retreats from Plattsburg in 1814, 117; character of, 113

Prince, Colonel; orders execution of American raiders in 1838, 155

Prince Edward Island. See St. John's Island

Prince of Wales visits Canada, 193

Princess Louise, arrives in Canada with the Marquess of Lome, 244; her support of Art, 288

Proclamation of 1764; for government of Canada, 40-42

Procter, General, defeats General Winchester in 1813, 115; beaten at

Moraviantown in 1813, 116

Prohibitory Liquor Law; agitation for, 340; popular vote on, ib.

Protestantism unknown in French Canada, 28

Provincial governments established under Confederation, 217, 218

Provinces, constitution of, under Confederation, 275, 276

Puritan migration to Nova Scotia, 50

Put-in Bay (Lake Erie); British fleet defeated at, in 1813, 116

Quebec Act; origin of, 44, 45, its provisions, 45-47; how received in

Canada, 46; unpopularity of, in old British colonies, 67

Quebec, Convention of, 1864; delegates to, 199-206; passes resolutions in favour of federal union, 206-209

Quebec founded, 9

Queenston Heights; battle of, in 1812, 114

Railways in Canada; in 1865, 191, in 1899, 273. See Intercolonial R.

Canadian Pacific R.

Rebellion in Lower Canada; its origin, 124-133; Louis J. Papineau's part in, 129-134; outbreak of, 134; prompt action of authorities against, ib.; Dr. Nelson wins success at St. Denis, ib.; defeat of Brown at St. Charles, ib.; flight of Papineau and rebel leaders, ib.; fight at St. Eustache and death of Chenier, ib.; murder of Weir and Chartrand, 135; collapse of the rebellion of 1837, 135, 136; loyal action of Bishop Lartigue, 135; arrival of Lord Durham as British high-commissioner and governor-general, 136; his career in Canada, 137-138; Sir John Colborne; governor-general, 139; second outbreak of rebellion, 1838, ib.; promptly subdued, ib.; punishment of prominent insurgents, ib.; action of United States government during, 139; social and economic condition of Canada during, 159-162; remedial policy of British government, and new era of political development. See Responsible Government in Canada.

Rebellion in Upper Canada; effect of family compact on, 140, 141; of clergy reserves on, 141, 142; influence of Archdeacon, afterwards Bishop, Strachan in public affairs, 142; unjust treatment of Robert Gourlay, 143-145; persecution of William Lyon Mackenzie, 146-148; other prominent actors in, 148; indiscretions of the lieutenant-governor, Sir Francis Bond Head, 149-152; outbreak and repression of, 152, 153; flight of Mackenzie and other rebel leaders, 153; Mackenzie's seizure of Navy Island, 154; affair of the Caroline, ib.; filibustering expeditions against Canada from United States in 1838, 154, 155; prompt execution of filibusters by Colonel Prince, 155; action of U.S. authorities during, ib.; execution of Von Schoultz, Lount, Matthews, and other rebels, ib.; Sir George Arthur, harshness of, ib.; social and economic conditions of Upper Canada at time of, 156-159; rebellion leads to the enlargement of political privileges of people, See Responsible Government in Canada.

Rebellion Losses Bill (of 1849); its nature, 188; assented to by Lord Elgin, 189; consequent rioting and burning of parliament house at Montreal, 189, Lord Elgin's life in danger, ib.; his wise constitutional action, ib. Rebellions in North-west: See _North-western Territories, _and Riel, Louis.

Reciprocity of Trade between Canada and the United States; treaty of 1814, 190, 191; repeal of the same, 303; efforts to renew it, 304, 307; Canadians not now so favourable to, 310

Recollets, or Franciscans, in Canada, 11

Redistribution Acts of 1882 and 1897; measures to amend, rejected by

Senate, 268

Representative institutions in Canada; established in Nova Scotia, 53;

in New Brunswick, 88; in French or Lower Canada (Quebec), 91; in Upper

Canada (Ontario), ib.; in Prince Edward Island, 54; in Manitoba, 230; in

British Columbia, 232

Responsible government in Canada; beginnings of, 165-175; consummated by Lord Elgin, 173; struggle for, in New Brunswick, 173, 174; in Nova Scotia, 174-180; in Prince Edward Island, 180; prominent advocates of, 183-185; results of (1841-1867), 185-192

Revenue of Canada in 1899, 273

Riall, General; defeated by United States troops at Street's Creek in 1814, 117

Richardson, Major; Canadian author, 164

Richelieu, Cardinal; his effort to colonise Canada, 10

Rideau Canal, constructed, 158

Riel, Louis; leads revolt of French half-breeds in North-west, 228; murders Ross, 229; flies from the country, ib; elected to and expelled from the Canadian Commons, 241; reappears in North-west, and leads second revolt, 249-253; captured and executed, 253, 254; political complications concerning, 240, 254

Roberval, Sieur de (Jean Fran?ois de la Rocque); attempts to settle

Canada, 7

Robinson, Chief Justice; public career of, in Upper Canada, 145

Rocque, Jean Fran?ois de la. See Roberval

Roebuck, Mr.; Canadian agent in England, 131

Rolph, Dr.; his part in Canadian rebellion of 1837, 151-153; character of, 183

Roman Catholic Church in Canada, 28, 29, 43, 46, 47

Rose, Sir John, effort of, to obtain reciprocity with United States, 304

Rosebery, Earl of, unveils Sir John Macdonald's bust in St. Paul's

Cathedral, 256

Rouse's Point, boundary at, 302

Royal Society of Canada, 286

Rupert's Land; origin of name of, 224. See North-west Territories of


Russell, Administrator, 101

Russell, Lord John; introduces resolutions respecting Canada in British parliament in 1836, 132; also Act reuniting the Canadas in 1840, 166; lays basis of responsible government in Canada, 167. See Responsible Government in Canada.

Ryerson, Rev. Egerton; Loyalist, Methodist, and educationalist, 141, 147, 192

Sainte-Geneviève (Pillage Bay); named St. Laurens by Jacques Carrier, 7

Salaberry, Colonel de; defeats United States troops at Chateauguay, 121

Sanderson, Robert; first speaker of assembly of Nova Scotia, 53

San Juan Island; international dispute respecting, 301, 302

Sarrasin, Dr., French Canadian scientist, 35

Saskatchewan River (Poskoiac), discovery of, 20

Sculpture in Canada, 288

Seaforth, Lord. See Colborne, Sir John

Secord, Laura; heroic exploit of, in 1814, 120

Seigniorial tenure in French Canada, 14, 32; abolished under British rule, 186

Selkirk, Lord; attempts to colonise North-west, 225; death of, ib.

Seven Years' War; between France and Great Britain in America, 21-27

Sewell, Chief Justice (Loyalist); adviser of Sir James Craig, 96; suggests union of provinces, 194

Shea, Ambrose; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Sheaffe, General; services of, during war of 1812-15, 114

Shelburne, in Nova Scotia, founded by Loyalists, 82

Sherbrooke, Sir John, governor of Nova Scotia, 118; occupies Maine in war of 1812-15, ib.

Shirley, Governor; deep interest of, in Nova Scotia, 49

Simcoe, Colonel; first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, 93; public career of, 94

Simultaneous polling at elections established, 239

Slavery in Canada, 98

Smith, Chief Justice (Loyalist); first president of legislative council of Lower Canada in 1792, 92; suggests federal union of provinces, 194

Smith, Donald (Lord Strathcona); intervenes in North-west rebellion of 1870, 229

Social and economic conditions of the Canadian provinces; in 1838, 156-164; in 1866, 189-192; in 1900, 272-290

South African War; Canadians take part in, 271, 272

Square Gulf, or "golfo quadrado"; old name of St. Lawrence Gulf, 7

St. Charles; defeat of Canadian rebels in 1837 at, 134

St. Denis; Canadian rebels repulsed by British regulars in 1837 at, 134

St. Eustache; stand of Canadian rebels at, 134; death of Chenier, ib.

St. John, New Brunswick; founded, 83

St. John's, Island; named Prince Edward, 53; under government of Nova Scotia, ib.; survey of, ib.; separated from Nova Scotia, 54; public lands of, granted by lottery, ib.; political struggles in, for self-government, 180, 185; takes part in Quebec Convention of 1864, 206; enters Confederation, 234; settlement of its land question, ib.

St. Lawrence, River and Gulf of; origin of name of, 7

St. Lusson, Sieur; takes possession of the Sault, 18

St. Maurice forges founded, 30

Stadacona (Quebec), Indian village of, visited by Jacques Cartier, 6

Stanley, Lord, governor-general of Canada, 267

Steeves, William H.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

Strachan, Bishop (Anglican); patriotism of, during war of 1812-15, 121; his influence in Upper Canadian politics, 142

Strange, Lt.-Col.; engaged in repressing North-west rebellion of 1885, 253

Stuart, Andrew; prominent Canadian lawyer and politician, 127, 131

Sulpitians in Canada, 37

Superior Council of French Canada. See Supreme Council

Supreme Council, established by Louis XIV in French Canada, 28, 29

Supreme Court, established in Canada, 239

Sydenham, Lord (Poulett Thomson); governor-general of Canada, 166; carries out scheme of uniting the Canadas in 1840, 167; opinions of, on responsible government, 168; death of, 169

Taché, Sir Etienne Paschal; chairman of Quebec Convention of 1864, 199; character of, ib.

Talbot, Colonel, pioneer in Upper Canada, 157

Talon, Intendant, 13

Taite, Israel; accuses McGreevy of grave misdemeanours, 258; member of

Laurier ministry, 206

Temperance Legislation; "Scott Act" passed, 239; plèbiscite on

Prohibition, 240

Thompson, Sir John; prime minister of Canada, 257; sudden death of, ib; great ability of, ib.

Thomson, Poulett. See Sydenham, Lord

Tilley, Sir Leonard; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 205; public career of, ib.; introduces scheme of "National Policy," 244

Timber trade in Canada, in early time, 162

Tithes established in French Canada, 29

Todd, Dr.; Constitutional writer, 286

Tonge, William Cottnam Tonge; Nova Scotian Liberal, 99; his controversy with Governor Wentworth, ib.

Trade of Canada in 1899, 273

Treaties, international, affecting Canada; of St. Germain-en-Laye (1632), 11; of Utrecht (1713), 9, 21, 22; of Paris (1763), 38; of Versailles, 292; of Ghent, 293; of 1818, 294; Ashburton (1842), 299; Oregon (1846), 301; reciprocity (1854), 303; of Washington (1871), 305, 306; Bering Sea, 308, 309, Anglo-Russian (Alaska), 310-312

Treaties with Indian tribes of Canada, 41, 238

Trutch, Sir Joseph; first lieutenant-governor of British Columbia under

Confederation, 232

Tupper, Sir Charles; prime minister of Nova Scotia, 192; services of, to education, ib.; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 204; introduces legislation for construction of Canadian Pacific Railway, 244; high commissioner of Canada in London, 258; re-enters political life, ib.; action of, on Manitoba school question, 264; prime minister of Canada, 265; defeat of, at general elections of 1896, ib; difference with Lord Aberdeen, when governor-general, ib.; remarkable ability of, 204, 258; leader of Liberal Conservative party from 1896-1900, 258; policy of, on "preferential trade" with Great Britain, 271

Tyler, Professor, on U.E. Loyalists, 76

Uniacke, James Boyle; Nova Scotian statesman, 175; advocate of responsible government, 176; first minister of Nova Scotia, 180

Union of the Canadas in 1840, 166, 167

United Empire Loyalists; number of, during American Revolution, 76; justice done to, ib.; opinions of, on issues of revolution, 77, 78; suffering of, during revolution, 79; treatment of, after the peace of 1783, 80; compensation to, by British government, 81; settle in British America, ib; privations of, in Nova Scotia, 80; founders of New Brunswick, 83; of Upper Canada, 84; eminent descent of, 86; Canada's debt to, ib origin of name of, 89; representatives of, in first legislature of New Brunswick, 87, 88; of Upper Canada, 94; services of, during war of 1812-15, 188-120

Universities in Canada, 163, 289

University of Toronto, beginning of, 164

Upper Canada, founded by Loyalists, 84; first districts of, 89, 94; made separate province, 91, first government of, 93; Newark, first capital of, ib.; York (Toronto), second capital of, 94; rebellion in, see Rebellion in Upper Canada; state of, in 1838, 159; reunited with Lower Canada, 166; joins Confederation as Ontario, 216

Upper Canada College, Toronto, founded, 163

Ursulines at Quebec, 34

Vancouver Island; history of, 231, 232

Verendrye, Sieur de la (Pierre Gauthier de Varennes); discovers

Manitoba and North-west of Canada, 19, 20

Verrazzano, Giovanni di; voyages of, to North America, 5

Victoria College, Upper Canada, founded, 164

Vincent, General; services of, in war of 1812-15, 115

Von Schoultz; leads filibusters into Canada, 155; executed, ib.

War of 1812-15; origin of, 103-110; population of Canada and United States during, 110-112; loyalty of Canadian people during, 113; services of General Brock during, 114; campaign of 1812 in Upper Canada, 114, 115; of 1813, 115, 116; of 1814, 117; maritime provinces during, 117, 118, close of, 118; services of Loyalists during, 118-120; Laura Secord, heroism of, 120; description of striking incidents of battles during, 121-123

Washington, George; eminent character of, 66

Washington Treaty of 1871, 304, 305

Weir, Lieutenant, murder of, in Lower Canadian rebellion of 1837, 135

Welland Canal commenced, 159; completed, 190

Wentworth, Sir John; Loyalist governor of Nova Scotia, 99

Westminster Palace Conference in London; Canadian delegates arrange final terms of federation at, 214, 215

Wetmore, Attorney-general; first minister of New Brunswick after

Confederation, 218

Whelan, Edward; delegate to Quebec Convention of 1864, 206

White, Thomas; Canadian journalist and statesman, 256; sudden death of, ib.

William IV visits Canada as Prince William Henry, 193

Williams, Lt.-Col.; death of, in North-west rebellion of 1885, 254

Williams, Sir Fenwick ("hero of Kars"); lieutenant-governor of Nova

Scotia, 213, 217

Wilmot, Lemuel A.; father of responsible government in New Brunswick, 174, 185; lieutenant-governor of the province, 217

Wolfe, General; at Quebec, 25; his bold ascent of heights, 25, 26; wins battle on Plains of Abraham, 26; death of, 26; a maker of Canada, 35

York (Toronto) made capital of Upper Canada, 101

Young, Sir William; Nova Scotian statesman and jurist, 185

Yukon, district of; gold discovery in, 209; administration of, ib, 277; boundaries of, 310-312

[Illustration: (map) FRANCE, SPAIN, AND ENGLAND, IN NORTH AMERICA, 1756-1760.]




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