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The Paths of Inland Commerce; A Chronicle of Trail, Road, and Waterway By Archer Butler Hulbert Characters: 58355

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The Steamboat And The West

Two great fields of service lay open before those who were to achieve by steam the mastery of the inland waterways. On the one hand the cotton kingdom of the South, now demanding great stores of manufactured goods, produce, and machinery, was waiting to be linked to the valleys and industrial cities of the Middle West; and, on the other hand, along those great eastward and westward rivers, the Ohio and Missouri, lay the commerce of the prairies and the Great Plains. But before the steamboat could serve the inland commerce of the West, it had to be constructed on new lines. The craft brought from the seaboard were of too deep draft to navigate shallow streams which ran through this more level country.

The task of constructing a great inland river marine to play the dual r?le of serving the cotton empire and of extending American migration and commerce into the trans-Mississippi region was solved by Henry Shreve when he built the Washington at Wheeling in 1816. Shreve was the American John Hawkins. Hawkins, that sturdy old admiral of Elizabethan days, took the English ship of his time, trimmed down the high stern and poop decks, and cut away the deep-lying prow and stern, after the fashion of our modern cup defenders, and in a day gave England the key to sea mastery in the shape of a new ship that would take sail and answer her rudder beyond anything the maritime world until then had known. Shreve, like Hawkins, flagrantly ignoring the conventional wisdom of his day and craft, built the Washington to sail on the water instead of in it, doing away altogether with a hold and supplying an upper deck in its place.

To few inventors, indeed, does America owe a greater debt of thanks than to this Ohio River shipbuilder. A dozen men were on the way to produce a Clermont had Fulton failed; but Shreve had no rival in his plan to build a flat-bottomed steamboat. The remarkable success of his design is attested by the fact that in two decades the boats built on his model outweighed in tonnage all the ships of the Atlantic seaboard and Great Lakes combined. Immediately the Ohio became in effect the western extension of the great national highway and opened an easy pathway for immigration to the eastern as well as the western lands of the Mississippi Basin. The story goes that an old phlegmatic negro watched the approach of one of the first steamboats to the wharf of a Southern city. Like many others, he had doubted the practicability of this new-fangled Yankee notion. The boat, however, came and went with ease and dispatch. The old negro was converted. "By golly," he shouted, waving his cap, "the Mississippi's got her Massa now."

The Mississippi had indeed found her master, but only by slow degrees and after intervals of protracted rebellion did she succumb to that master. Luckily, however, there was at hand an army of unusual men-the "alligator-horses" of the flatboat era-upon whom the steamboat could call with supreme confidence that they would not fail. Theodore Roosevelt has said of the Western pioneers that they "had to be good and strong-especially, strong." If these men upon whom the success of the steamboat depended were not always good, they were beyond any doubt behemoths in strength.

The task before them, however, was a task worthy of Hercules. The great river boldly fought its conquerors, asking and giving no quarter, biding its time when opposed by the brave but crushing the fearful on sight. In one respect alone could it be depended upon-it was never the same. It is said to bring down annually four hundred million tons of mud, but its eccentricity in deciding where to wash away and where to deposit its load is still the despair of river pilots. The great river could destroy islands and build new ones overnight with the nonchalance of a child playing with clay. It could shorten itself thirty miles at a single lunge. It could move inland towns to its banks and leave river towns far inland. It transferred the town of Delta, for instance, from three miles below Vicksburg to two miles above it. Men have gone to sleep in one State and have wakened unharmed in another, because the river decided in the night to alter the boundary line. In this way the village of Hard Times, the original site of which was in Louisiana, found itself eventually in Mississippi. Were La Salle to descend the river today by the route he traversed two and a half centuries ago, he would follow dry ground most of the way, for the river now lies practically everywhere either to the right or left of its old course.

If the Mississippi could perform such miracles upon its whole course without a show of effort, what could it not do with the little winding canal through its center called by pilots the "channel"? The flatboatmen had laboriously acquired the art of piloting the commerce of the West through this mazy, shifting channel, but as steamboats developed in size and power the man at the wheel had to become almost a superman. He needed to be. He must know the stage of water anywhere by a glance at the river banks. He must guess correctly the amount of "fill" at the head of dangerous chutes, detect bars "working down," distinguish between bars and "sand reefs" or "wind reefs" or "bluff reefs" by night as well as by day, avoid the "breaks" in the "graveyard" behind Goose Island, navigate the Hat Island chutes, or find the "middle crossing" at Hole-in-the-Wall. He must navigate his craft in fogs, in storms, in the face of treacherous winds, on black nights, with thousands of dollars' worth of cargo and hundreds of lives at stake.

As the golfer knows each knoll and tuft of grass on his home links, so the pilot learned his river by heart. Said one of these pilots to an apprentice:

You see this has got to be learned.… A clear starlight night throws such heavy shadows that if you didn't know the shape of a shore perfectly you would claw away from every bunch of timber because you would take the black shadow of it for a solid cape; and you see you would be getting scared to death every fifteen minutes by the watch. You would be fifty yards from shore all the time when you ought to be within fifty feet of it. You can't see a snag in one of those shadows, but you know exactly where it is, and the shape of the river tells you when you are coming to it. Then there's your pitch-dark night; the river is a very different shape on a pitch-dark night from what it is on a starlight night. All shores seem to be straight lines, then, and mighty dim ones, too; and you'd run them for straight lines only you know better. You boldly drive your boat right into what seems to be a solid, straight wall (you knowing very well that in reality there is a curve there) and that wall falls back and makes way for you. Then there's your gray mist. You take a night when there's one of these grisly, drizzly, gray mists, and then there isn't any particular shape to a shore. A gray mist would tangle the head of the oldest man that ever lived. Well, then, different kinds of moonlight change the shape of the river in different ways.… You only learn the shape of the river; and you learn it with such absolute certainty that you can always steer by the shape that's in your head and never mind the one that's before your eyes. 1

1 Mark Twain, Life on the Mississippi, pp. 103-04.

No wonder that the two hundred miles of the Mississippi from the mouth of the Ohio to St. Louis in time contained the wrecks of two hundred steamboats.

The river trade reached its zenith between 1840 and 1860, in the two decades previous to the Civil War, that period before the railroads began to parallel the great rivers. It was a time which saw the rise of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and Arkansas, and which witnessed the spread of the cotton kingdom into the Southwest. The story of King Cotton's conquest of the Mississippi South is best told in statistics. In 1811, the year of the first voyage which the New Orleans made down the Ohio River, Tennessee, Louisiana, and Mississippi exported five million pounds of cotton. In 1834 these same States exported almost two hundred million pounds of cotton. To take care of this crop and to supply the cotton country, which was becoming wealthy, with the necessaries and luxuries of life, more and more steamboats were needed. The great shipyards situated, because of the proximity of suitable timber, at St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Louisville became busy hives, not since paralleled except by such centers of shipbuilding as Hog Island in 1917-18, during the time of the Great War. The steamboat tonnage of the Mississippi Valley (exclusive of New Orleans) in the hustling forties exceeded that of the Atlantic ports (exclusive of New York City) by 15,000 tons. The steamboat tonnage of New Orleans alone in 1843 was more than double that of New York City.

Those who, if the old story is true, ran in fear to the hills when the little New Orleans went puffing down the Ohio, in 1811, would have been doubly amazed at the splendid development in the art of boat building, could they have seen the stately Sultana or Southern Belle of the fifties sweep swiftly by. After a period of gaudy ornamentation (1830-40) steamboat architecture settled down, as has that of Pullman cars today, to sane and practical lines, and the boats gained in length and strength, though they contained less weight of timber. The value of one of the greater boats of this era would be about fifty thousand dollars. When Captain Bixby made his celebrated night crossing at Hat Island a quarter of a million dollars in ship and cargo would have been the price of an error in judgment, according to Mark Twain, 1 a good authority.

1 Op. cit., p. 101.

The Yorktown, built in 1844 for the Ohio-Mississippi trade, was typical of that epoch of inland commerce. Her length was 182 feet, breadth of beam 31 feet, and the diameter of wheels 28 feet. Though her hold was 8 feet in depth, yet she drew but 4 feet of water light and barely over 8 feet when loaded with 500 tons of freight. She had 4 boilers, 30 feet long and 42 inches in diameter, double engines, and two 24-inch cylinders. The stateroom cabin had come in with Captain Isaiah Sellers's Prairie in 1836, the first boat with such luxuries ever seen in St. Louis, according to Sellers. The Yorktown had 40 private cabins. It is interesting to compare the Yorktown with The Queen of the West, the giant British steamer built for the Falmouth-Calcutta trade in 1839. The Queen of the West had a length of 310 feet, a beam of 31 feet, a draft of 15 feet, and 16 private cabins. The building of this great vessel led a writer in the New York American to say: "It would really seem that we as a nation had no interest in this new application of steam power, or no energy to appropriate it to our own use." The statement-written in a day when the Mississippi steamboat tonnage exceeded that of the entire British Empire-is one of the best examples of provincial ignorance concerning the West.

On these steamboats there was a multiplicity of arrangements and equipments for preventing and for fighting fire. One of the innovations on the new boats in this particular was the substitution of wire for the combustible rope formerly used to control the tiller, so that even in time of fire the pilot could "hold her nozzle agin' the bank." Much of the great loss of life in steamboat fires had been due to the tiller-ropes being burned and the boats becoming unmanageable.

The arrival of the railroad at the head of the Ohio River in the early fifties brought the East into an immediate touch with the Mississippi Valley unknown before. But however bold railway engineers were in the face of the ragged ranges of the Alleghanies, they could not then out-guess the tricks of the Ohio, the Mississippi, or the Missouri, and railway promoters could not afford to take chances on having their stations and tracks unexpectedly isolated, if not actually carried away, by swirling, yellow floods. The Mississippi, too, had been known at times to achieve a width of seventy miles, and tributaries have overflowed their banks to a proportionate extent. It was several decades ere the Ohio was paralleled by a railway, and the Mississippi for long distances even today has not yet heard the shrill cry of the locomotive. So the steamboat entered its heyday and encountered little competition. Until the Civil War the rivers of the West remained the great arteries of trade, carrying grain and merchandise of every description southward and bringing back cotton, rice, and sugar.

The rivalries of the great lines of packets established in these days of the steamboat, however, equaled anything ever known in railway competition, and, in the matter of fast time, became more spectacular than anything of its kind in any line of transportation in our country. With flags flying, boilers heated white with abundance of pine and resin, and bold and skillful pilots at the steering wheels, no sport of kings ever aroused the enthusiasm of hundreds of thousands to such a pitch as did many of the old-time races northward from New Orleans.

The J. M. White and her performances stand out conspicuously in the annals of the river. Her builder, familiarly known to a generation of rivermen as Billy King, deserves to rank with Henry Shreve. Commissioned in 1844 to build the J. M. White for J. M. Converse of St. Louis, with funds supplied by Robert Chouteau of that city, King proceeded to put into effect the knowledge which he had derived from a close study of the swells made by steamboats when under way. When the boat was being built in the famous shipyards at Elizabeth, on the Monongahela, the wheel beams were set twenty feet farther back than was customary. Converse was struck with this unheard-of radicalism in design, and balked; King was a man given to few words; he was resolved to throw convention to the winds and trust his judgment; he refused to build the boat on other lines. Converse felt compelled to let Chouteau pass on the question; in time the laconic answer came: "Let King put the beams where he pleases."

Thus the craft which Converse thought a monstrosity became known far and wide for both its design and its speed. In 1844 the J. M. White made the record of three days, twenty-three hours, and nine minutes between New Orleans and St. Louis. 1 Of course the secret of Billy King's success soon became known. He had placed his paddle wheels where they would bite into the swell produced by every boat just under its engines. He had transformed what had been a handicap into a positive asset. It is said that he attempted to shield his prize against competition by destroying the model of the J. M. White, as well as to have refused large offers to build a boat that would beat her. But it is said also that an exhibition model of the boat was a cherished possession of E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War, and that it hung in his office during Lincoln's administration.

1 This performance is illustrated by the following comparative table showing the best records of later years between New Orleans and St. Louis, a distance estimated in 1844 as 1300 miles but in 1870 as 1218 miles, owing to the action of the river in shortening its course.

Year Boat Time

1844 J. M. White 3 d. 23 h. 9 m.

1849 Missouri 4 d. 19 h. -

1869 Dexter 4 d. 9 h. -

1870 Natchez 3 d. 21 h. 58 m.

1870 R. E. Lee 3 d. 18 h. 14 m.

The steamboat now extended its service to the West and North. The ancient fur trade with the Indians of the upper Mississippi, the Missouri, and the Arkansas, had its headquarters at St. Louis, whence the notable band of men engaged in that trade were reaching out to the Rockies. The roll includes Ashley, Campbell, Sublette, Manuel Lisa, Perkins, Hempstead, William Clark, Labadie, the Chouteaus, and Menard-men of different races and colors and alike only in their energy, bravery, and initiative. Through them the village of St. Louis had grown to a population of four thousand in 1819, when Major Long's expedition passed up the Missouri in the first steamboat to ascend that river. This boat, the Western Engineer, was built at Pittsburgh and was modeled cunningly for its work. It was one of the first stern wheelers built in the West; and the saving in width meant much on streams having such narrow channels as the Missouri and the Platte, especially when barges were to be towed. Then, too, its machinery, which was covered over or boarded up, was shrouded in mystery. A fantastic figure representing a serpent's open mouth contained the exhaust pipe. If the New Orleans alarmed the population of the Ohio Valley, the sensation caused among the red children of the Missouri at the sight of this gigantic snake belching fire and smoke must have thoroughly satisfied the whim of its designer.

The admission of Missouri to statehood and the independence of Mexico mark the beginning of real commercial relations between St. Louis and Santa Fé. In 1822 Captain William Becknell organized the first wagon train which left the Missouri (at Franklin, near Independence) for the long dangerous journey to the Arkansas and on to Santa Fé. In the following year two expeditions set forth, carrying out cottons and other drygoods to exchange for horses, mules, furs, and silver.

Despite the handicaps of Indian opposition and Mexican tariffs, the Santa Fé trade became an important factor in the growth of St. Louis and the Missouri River steamboat lines. In 1825 the pathway was "surveyed" from Franklin to San Fernando, then in Mexico. This Santa Fé trade grew from fifteen thousand pounds of freight in 1822 to nearly half a million pounds twenty years later.

By 1826 steamboat traffic up the Missouri began to assume regularity. The navigation was dangerous and difficult because the Missouri never kept even an approximately constant head of water. In times of drought it became very shallow, and in times of flood it tore its wayward course open in any direction it chose. "Of all variable things in creation," wrote a Western editor, "the most uncertain are the action of a jury, the state of a woman's mind, and the condition of the Missouri River." A further handicap, and one which was unknown on the Ohio and rare on the Mississippi, was the lack of forests to supply the necessary fuel. The Missouri, it is true, had its cottonwoods, but in a green state they were poor fuel, and along vast stretches they were not obtainable in any quantity.

The steamboat linked St. Louis with that vital stretch of the river lying between the mouth of the Kansas and the mouth of the Nebraska. From this region the great Western trail ran on to California and Oregon. In the early thirties Bonneville, Walker, Kelley, and Wyeth successively essayed this Overland Trail by way of the Platte through the South Pass of the Rockies to the Humboldt, Snake, and Columbia rivers. From Independence on the Missouri this famous pathway led to Fort Laramie, a distance of 672 miles; another 300-mile climb brought the traveler through South Pass; and so, by way of Fort Bridger, Salt Lake, and Sutter's Fort, to San Francisco. The route, well known by hundreds of Oregon pioneers in the early forties, became a thoroughfare in the eager days of the Forty-Niners. 1

1 For map see The Passing of the Frontier, by Emerson Hough (in The Chronicles of America).

The earliest overland stage line to Great Salt Lake was established by Hockaday and Liggett. After the founding of the famous Overland Stage Company by Russell, Majors, and Waddell in 1858, stages were soon ascending the Platte from the steamboat terminals on the Missouri and making the twelve hundred miles from St. Joseph to Salt Lake City in ten days. Stations were established from ten to fifteen miles apart, and the line was soon extended on to Sacramento. The nineteen hundred miles from St. Joseph to Sacramento were made in fifteen days, although the government contract with the company for handling United States mail allowed nineteen days. A host of employees was engaged in this exciting but not very remunerative enterprise-station-agents and helpers, drivers, conductors who had charge of passengers, in addition to mail and express and road agents who acted as division superintendents. In 1862 the Overland Route was taken over by the renowned Ben Holliday, who operated it until the railway was constructed seven years later. Freight was hauled by the same company in wagons known as the "J. Murphy wagons," which were made in St. Louis. These wagons went out from Leavenworth loaded with six thousand pounds of freight each. A train usually consisted of twenty-five wagons and was known, in the vernacular of the plains, as a "bull-outfit"; the drivers were "bull-whackers"; and the wagon master was the "bull-wagon boss."

The old story, however, was repeated again here on the boundless plains of the West. The Western trails streaming out from the terminus of steamboat traffic between Kansas City and Omaha had scarcely time to become well known before the railway conquerors of the Atlantic and Great Lakes regions were planning the conquest of the greater plains and the Rockies beyond. The opening of the Chinese ports in 1844 turned men's minds as never before to the Pacific coast. The acquisition of Oregon within a few years and of California at the close of the Mexican War opened the way for a newspaper and congressional discussion as to whether the first railway to parallel the Santa Fé or the Overland Trail should run from Memphis, St. Louis, or Chicago. The building of the Union Pacific from Omaha westward assured the future of that city, and it was soon joined to Chicago and the East by several lines which were building toward Clinton, Rock Island, and Burlington.

But the construction of a few main lines of railway across the continent could only partially satisfy the commercial needs of the West. True, the overland trade was at once transferred to the railroad, but the enormous equipment of stage and express companies previously employed in westward overland trade was now devoted to joining the railway lines with the vast regions to the north and the south. The rivers of the West could not alone take care of this commerce and for many years these great transportation companies went with their stages and their wagons into the growing Dakota and Montana trade and opened up direct lines of communication to the nearest railway. On the south the cattle industry of Texas came northward into touch with the railways of Kansas. Eventually lateral and trunk lines covered the West with their network of lines and thus obliterated all rivalry and competition by providing unmatched facilities for quick transportation.

In the last days previous to the opening of the first transcontinental railway line a unique method of rapid transportation for mail and light parcels was established when the famous "Pony Express" line was put into operation between St. Joseph and San Francisco in 1860. By relays of horsemen, who carried pouches not exceeding twenty pounds in weight, the time was cut to nine days. The innovation was the new wonder of the world for the time being and led to an outburst on the part of the enthusiastic editor of the St. Joseph Free Democrat that deserves reading because it breathes so fully the Western spirit of exultant conquest:

Take down your map and trace the footprints of our quadrupedantic animal: From St. Joseph, on the Missouri, to San Francisco, on the Golden Horn-two thousand miles-more than half the distance across our boundless continent; through Kansas, through Nebraska, by Fort Kearney, along the Platte, by Fort Laramie, past the Buttes, over the Mountains, through the narrow passes and along the steep defiles, Utah, Fort Bridger, Salt Lake City, he witches Brigham with his swift pony-ship-through the valleys, along the grassy slopes, into the snow, into the sand, faster than Thor's Thialfi, away they go, rider and horse-did you see them? They are in California, leaping over its golden sands, treading its busy streets. The courser has unrolled to us the great American panorama, allowed us to glance at the home of one million people, and has put a girdle around the earth in forty minutes. Verily the riding is like the riding of Jehu, the son of Nimshi for he rideth furiously. Take out your watch. We are eight days from New York, eighteen from London. The race is to the swift. 1

1 Quoted in Inman's The Great Salt Lake Trail, p. 171.

The lifetime of many and many a man has covered a period longer than that interval of eighty-six years between 1783, when George Washington had his vision of "the vast inland navigation of these United States," and the year 1869, when the two divisions of the Union Pacific were joined by a golden spike at Promontory Point in Utah. In point of time, those eighty-six years are as nothing; in point of accomplishment, they stand unparalleled. When Washington's horse splashed across the Youghiogheny in October, 1784, the boundary lines of the United States were guarded with all the jealousy and provincial selfishness of European kingdoms. But overnight, so to speak, these limitations became no more than mere geometrical expressions. "Pennamite," "Erie," and "Toledo" wars between the States, suggesting a world of bitterness and recrimination, are remembered today, if at all, only by the cartoonist and the playwright. The ancient false pride in mock values, so cherished in Europe, has quite departed from the provincial areas of the United States, and Americans can fly in a day, unwittingly, through many States. Problems that would have cost Europe blood are settled without turmoil in the solemn cloisters of that American "international tribunal," the Supreme Court, and they appear only as items of passing interest in our newspapers.

In unifying the nation the influence of the Supreme Court has been priceless, for it has given to Americans, in place of the colonial or provincial mind, a continental mind. But great is the debt of Americans to the men who laid the foundations of interstate commerce. No antidote served so well to counteract the poison of clannish rivalry as did their enthusiasm and their constructive energy. These men, dreamers and promoters, were building better than they knew. They thought to overcome mountains, obliterate swamps, conquer stormy lakes, master great rivers and endless plains; but, as their labors are judged today, the greater service which these men rendered appears in its true light. They stifled provincialism; they battered down Chinese Walls of prejudice and separatism; they reduced the aimless rivalry of bickering provinces to a businesslike common denominator; and, perhaps more than any class of men, they made possible the wide-spreading and yet united Republic that is honored and loved today.

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

The history of the early phase of American transportation is dealt with in three general works. John Luther Ringwalt's Development of Transportation Systems in the United States (1888) is a reliable summary of the general subject at the time. Archer B. Hulbert's Historic Highways of America, 16 vols. (1902-1905), is a collection of monographs of varying quality written with youthful enthusiasm by the author, who traversed in good part the main pioneer roads and canals of the eastern portion of the United States; Indian trails, portage paths, the military roads of the Old French War period, the Ohio River as a pathway of migration, the Cumberland Road, and three of the canals which played a part in the western movement, form the subject of the more valuable volumes. The temptation of a writer on transportation to wander from his subject is illustrated in this work, as it is illustrated afresh in Seymour Dunbar's A History of Travel in America, 4 vols. (1915). The reader will take great pleasure in this magnificently illustrated work, which, in completer fashion than it has ever been attempted, gives a readable running story of the whole subject for the whole country, despite detours, which some will make around the many pages devoted to Indian relations.

For almost every phase of the general topic books, monographs, pamphlets, and articles are to be found in the corners of any great library, ranging in character from such productions as William F. Ganong's A Monograph of Historic Sites in the Province of New Brunswick (Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Second Series, vol. V, 1899) which treats of early travel in New England and Canada, or St. George L. Sioussat's Highway Legislation in Maryland and its Influence on the Economic Development of the State (Maryland Geological Survey, III, 1899) treating of colonial road making and legislation thereon, or Elbert J. Benton's The Wabash Trade Route in the Development of the Old Northwest (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, vol. XXI, 1903) and Julius Winden's The Influence o

f the Erie Canal upon the Population along its Course (University of Wisconsin, 1901), which treat of the economic and political influence of the opening of inland water routes, to volumes of a more popular character such as Francis W. Halsey's The Old New York Frontier (1901), Frank H. Severance's Old Trails on the Niagara Frontier (1903) for the North, and Charles A. Hanna's The Wilderness Trail, 2 vols. (1911), and Thomas Speed's The Wilderness Road (The Filson Club Publications, vol. II, 1886) for Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky. The value of Hanna's work deserves special mention.

For the early phases of inland navigation John Pickell's A New Chapter in the Early Life of Washington (1856), is an excellent work of the old-fashioned type, while in Herbert B. Adams's Maryland's Influence upon Land Cessions to the United States (Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Third Series, I, 1885) a master-hand pays Washington his due for originating plans of trans-Alleghany solidarity; this likewise is the theme of Archer B. Hulbert's Washington and the West (1905) wherein is printed Washington's Diary of September, 1784, containing the first and unexpurgated draft of his classic letter to Harrison of that year. The publications of the various societies for internal improvement and state boards of control and a few books, such as Turner Camac's Facts and Arguments Respecting the Great Utility of an Extensive Plan of Inland Navigation in America (1805), give the student distinct impressions of the difficulties and the ideals of the first great American promoters of inland commerce. Elkanah Watson's History of the … Western Canals in the State of New York (1820), despite inaccuracies due to lapses of memory, should be specially remarked.

For the rise and progress of turnpike building one must remember W. Kingsford's History, Structure, and Statistics of Plank Roads (1852), a reliable book by a careful writer. The Cumberland (National) Road has its political influence carefully adjudged by Jeremiah S. Young in A Political and Constitutional Study of the Cumberland Road (1904), while the social and personal side is interestingly treated in county history style in Thomas B. Searight's The Old Pike (1894). Motorists will appreciate Robert Bruce's The National Road (1916), handsomely illustrated and containing forty-odd sectional maps.

The best life of Fulton is H. W. Dickinson's Robert Fulton, Engineer and Artist: His Life and Works (1913), while in Alice Crary Sutcliffe's Robert Fulton and the "Clermont" (1909), the more intimate picture of a family biography is given. For the controversy concerning the Fulton-Livingston monopoly, note W. A. Duer's A Course of Lectures on Constitutional Jurisprudence and his pamphlets addressed to Cadwallader D. Colden. The life of that stranger to success, the forlorn John Fitch, was written sympathetically and after assiduous research by Thompson Westcott in his Life of John Fitch the Inventor of the Steamboat (1858). For the pamphlet war between Fitch and Rumsey see Allibone's Dictionary.

The Great Lakes have not been adequately treated. E. Channing and M. F. Lansing's The Story of the Great Lakes (1909) is reliable but deals very largely with the routine history covered by the works of Parkman. J. O. Curwood's The Great Lakes (1909) is stereotyped in its scope but has certain chapters of interest to students of commercial development, as has also The Story of the Great Lakes. The vast bulk of material of value on the subject lies in the publications of the New York, Buffalo, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Chicago Historical Societies, whose lists should be consulted. These publications also give much data on the Mississippi River and western commercial development. S. L. Clemens's Life on the Mississippi (in his Writings, vol. IX, 1869-1909) is invaluable for its graphic pictures of steamboating in the heyday of river traffic. A. B. Hulbert's Waterways of Western Expansion (Historic Highways, vol. IX, 1903) and The Ohio River (1906) give chapters on commerce and transportation. For the beginnings of traffic into the Far West, H. Inman's The Old Santa Fé Trail (1897) and The Great Salt Lake Trail (1914) may be consulted, together with the publications of the various state historical societies of the trans-Mississippi States.

Various bibliographies on this general subject have been issued by the Library of Congress. Seymour Dunbar gives a good bibliography in his A History of Travel in America, 4 vols. (1915). The student will find quantities of material in books of travel, in which connection he would do well to consult Solon J. Buck's Travel and Description, 1765-1865 (Illinois State Historical Library Collections, vol. IX, 1914).

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INDEX

A.

Adams, J. Q., and internal improvements, 145.

Albany, Old Bay Path to, 16; road to Baltimore, 58; Clermont's voyage to, 113.

Alexandria (Va.), rival of New York City, 137.

Alleghanies, pathways across, 17-19, 116 et seq.

Allegheny Portage Railway, 151.

American, New York, quoted, 182.

Appalachian Mountains, pathways across, 15-21.

Arkansas, influence of river trade on, 180.

"Army" plan of occupying West, 4.

Ashley, fur trader, 186.

Audubon, J. J., description of barge journey, 72-73.

B.

Baily, Francis, journey in United States (1796-97), 81-98; quoted, 90-91.

Balcony Falls, trail between James and Great Kanawha Rivers at, 19.

Baltimore, road to Albany, 58; part in transportation development, 136-137, 143-151.

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 153; Washington's vision realized by, 10; follows old trail, 18, 29; state appropriation, 148; contest with canal company, 150-151; reaches Ohio, 151, 171.

Baltimore-Frederick Turnpike, 59.

Baltimore-Reisterstown Turnpike, 58-59, 143.

Baring Brothers contribute to canal work, 163.

Bay Path, see Old Bay Path.

Becknell, Captain William, organizes first wagon train for Sante Fé, 187.

Bedford, Fort, established, 50.

Bixby, Captain, at Hat Island, 181.

Black Hawk War (1832), 162.

Bonneville, Captain B. L. E., on Overland Trail, 189.

"Bonnyclabber Country," 86, 87.

Boone, Daniel, 19.

Bouquet, Colonel Henry, criticizes Washington, 50.

Boston and Albany Railroad, 13, 16.

Boulton and Watt of Birmingham, Fulton uses engine of, 110, 113.

Braddock's Road, 51.

Brissot, French traveler in America, 81, 83.

Broad River, trail on, 19.

Brown, Charles, builds hull of Clermont, 113.

Brown, George, and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 149.

Brownsville (Penn.) growth of, 26.

Bryan, Guy, of Philadelphia, 66.

Buffalo, demand for means of transportation, 164, 170; harbor improvement, 169; growth, 172.

Buffalo-Utica Canal, 124; see also Erie Canal.

Bunting, "Red," stagecoach driver, 123.

Burt, W. A., discovers iron ore in Michigan, 165-166.

C.

Calhoun, J. C., and internal improvements, 145.

California, western trail to, 188; acquisition of, 191.

Campbell, fur trader, 186.

Canals, early projects, 37-38; inadequacy of, 157; in the West, 157 et seq.; see also Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Erie Canal, Welland Canal.

Catskill Turnpike, 16.

Céloron de Blainville sends English traders from Ohio country, 25-26.

Charleston (S. C.), trails to Tennessee from, 19.

Charleston (Wellsburg) made port of entry, 77.

Charlotte Dundas (steamboat), 109, 110.

Chastellux, Chevalier de, Washington's letter to, 6.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, Washington's vision realized in, 10; plan for, 132, 143, 144; Company formed, 145; engineering difficulties, 146; state subscription, 148; contest with Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 150-151.

Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, 19; Washington's vision realized in, 10; follows old route, 152.

Chicago, harbor improvement, 161, 169; canal terminal, 162; growth, 162-163, 172; demand for means of transportation, 164, 170; convention discusses rivers and harbors (1846), 169; Illinois Central Railroad to, 170.

Chickasaw Trail, 97.

Chillicothe (O.), grant to Zane at, 47.

China, influence on West of opening ports, 191.

Chiswell, Fort, "Warrior's Path" from, 19.

Choctaw Trail, 97.

Chouteau, Robert, 184.

Cincinnati, founded, 68; ship-building, 76, 180; made port of entry, 77; see also Columbia.

Clark, William, fur trader, 186.

Clay, Henry, and internal improvements, 145; on Western canal project, 155.

Clermont (steamboat), 78, 113-114.

Cleveland, demand for means of transportation, 164, 170; harbor improvement, 169; growth, 172.

Clinton, DeWitt, Memorial (1816), 127; and Ohio and Miami canals, 159.

Columbia (Cincinnati), port of entry, 74, 77; Baily at, 92; see also Cincinnati.

Comet (steamboat), 78.

Conemaugh River, Kittanning Trail follows, 17.

Congress, Fitch appeals to, 106; appropriation for canal survey, 145.

Connecticut Path, 16.

Connecticut River, Old Bay Path, 15.

Connellsville (Penn.), growth of, 26.

Converse, J. M., 184.

Cooper, Peter, builds engine Tom Thumb, 150.

Cotton, influence on river navigation, 180.

Cowpens, description of inhabitants, 22-24.

Crawford, agent for Washington, letter to, 5.

Crisman, Jesse, owner of Hit or Miss, 140.

Cumberland (Md.), eastern terminus of Cumberland Road, 119.

Cumberland Gap, "Warrior's Path" through, 19; railroad through, 20.

Cumberland Road, 136; Washington's vision realized in, 10; building authorized, 114-115; importance, 116; plan, 118-119; route, 119-120; building of, 120-121; cost, 121; stage lines, 122-123; freight traffic, 123-124; extension to Missouri, 132; Baltimore and, 143-144; bibliography, 199.

D.

Day, Sherman, quoted, 140.

Deane, Silas, plan for payment of Revolutionary War debt, 2-3.

Delaware Water Gap, 17.

Delta (La.), changed by Mississippi River, 177.

Detroit, Washington marks out commercial lines to, 9; port of entry, 74; demand for transportation facilities, 164; harbor, 169; growth, 172.

Detroit (lake steamer), 169.

Dickens, Charles, cited, 100; describes canal boat journey, 140-141; describes aerial railway, 141-142.

Doddridge, Notes, quoted, 27-28.

Doolittle, Sylvester, builds Vandalia, 168.

Duane (ship), 76-77.

Duquesne, Fort, 26, 28, 50.

E.

Enterprise (steamboat), 79.

"Era of Good Feeling," 60.

Erie (Penn.), as place of embarkation, 35; port of entry, 74.

Erie Canal, 35, 37, 58, 116-117; Washington foresees, 9, 12; work begun (1817), 38, 128; Hawley writes challenge to New York concerning, 115; state enterprise, 118, 124-128, 136; Hawley's original plan, 119; building of, 129-131; completion, 132; locks enlarged, 169.

Erie Railroad, 153; Washington forecasts, 9-10; follows Indian trade route, 17.

"Erie" war, 194.

Evans, Oliver, and steam propelled wagon, 102-103.

Everett, Edward, quoted, 12-13.

F.

Fallen Timber, battle of, 67.

Ferries, 46-47.

Fink, Mike, "the Snag," 64; "Snapping Turtle," 64.

Fitch, John, steamboat experiments, 12, 101-102, 103-105; petition to Congress, 106-107; obtains monopoly from States, 106; Fulton and, 108.

Forbes, General John, captures Fort Duquesne, 26; breaks army road, 50.

Forman, Joshua, bill for Erie Canal project, 124.

Franklin, Benjamin, on making rivers navigable, 30; and international boundary line, 164.

Frederick (Md.), trail from, 18.

Free Democrat, St. Joseph, quoted, 192-193.

Freeland, H., account of the Clermont, 113-114.

French as commercial rivals, 20.

Fulton, Robert, steamboat experiments, 12, 107-114; and Livingston, 108-112; on Erie Canal committee, 125; bibliography, 199.

Fur trade, French and, 20; with Illinois country, 66; headquarters at St. Louis, 186.

G.

Gallatin, Albert, scheme of internal improvements, 114.

Geddes, James, engineer, 125.

Gibbons, Thomas, steamboat competitor of Ogden, 132.

Great Britain, steamboat experiments in, 109; Fulton imports engine from, 111, 113.

Great Kanawha River, Washington outlines route by way of, 10; as trade route, 19.

Great Lakes, Washington's vision concerning, 8; French on, 20; navigation of, 154 et seq.

Great Meadows, Washington on, 8; Nemacolin's Path by, 18.

"Great Trail," 28.

Great Western (lake steamer), 168.

Greensburg (Penn.), growth of, 26.

Greenville, Treaty of, 67.

H.

Hamilton County (O.) organized, 68.

Hard Times (Miss.), location changed by Mississippi River, 177.

Hawkins, John, Shreve compared with, 175.

Hawley, Jesse, and Erie Canal, 115, 119.

Hazard, of Pennsylvania, 31; and Lehigh coal, 40.

Hempstead, fur trader, 186.

Henry Clay (steamboat), 156.

Hercules (lake freighter), 169.

Heydt, Jost, leads immigrants south, 49.

"Highland Trail," 17, 20.

Hit or Miss (canal boat), 140.

Hockaday and Liggett establish stage line to Great Salt Lake, 189.

Holliday, Ben, and Overland Route, 190.

Horses, pack, 21; in "Bonnyclabber Country," 86.

Hough, Emerson, The Passing of the Frontier, cited, 189 (note).

Houghton, Douglass, discovers copper in Michigan, 165.

Hudson River, Washington foresees joining to Great Lakes, 8; pathway along, 15; see also Erie Canal.

I.

Illinois, trade with, 66; growth of population, 116, 156; canal fever, 157, 161; railway projects, 171; influence of river trade on, 180.

Illinois (lake steamer), 168.

Illinois Central Railroad, 170.

Illinois-Michigan Canal, 157-158, 161, 167, 168.

Illinois River, French on, 20.

Independence (Mo.), Overland Trail from, 189.

Indiana, migration to, 67; growth of population, 116, 156; canal enthusiasm, 161; railway projects, 171; influence of river trade on, 180.

Indians, trails, 14, 18; pack-horse trade with, 21, 27.

Ingles ferry, 47.

Iowa, influence of river trade on, 180.

J.

J. M. White (river boat), 184, 185, 186.

James-Kanawha Turnpike, 10.

James River, 17; Washington's vision regarding, 8, 10; as trade route, 19.

Jefferson, Thomas, plan for settlement of West, 4.

June Bug, stagecoach line, 122.

Juniata River, Kittanning Trail along, 17, 152.

K.

Keever, Captain, builds steamboat on Ohio, 78.

Kent, Chancellor, and Erie Canal, 127, 128.

Kentucky, wagon road constructed to, 49-50; migration to, 67.

King, Billy, builder of the J. M. White, 184.

Kittanning Trail, 17, 25.

Knoxville (Tenn.), Baily reaches, 98.

L.

Labadie, fur trader, 186.

Lake Shore Railroad, 170, 171.

Lancaster (O.) grant to Zane at, 47.

Lancaster Turnpike, 35, 53-58.

Laramie, Fort, Overland Trail to, 189.

Lee, Arthur, on cost of transportation (1784), 66.

Lee, Henry, Washington writes to, 9.

Lehigh Coal and Navigation Company, 39, 43.

Lehigh Coal Company, 42-43.

Lehigh Navigation Company, 42-43.

Lewis and Clark expedition, 12.

Liggett and Holliday run stage to Salt Lake, 189.

Ligonier (Penn.), growth of, 26.

Ligonier, Fort, 50.

Lisa, Manuel, fur trader, 186.

Livingston, R. R., and Fulton, 108-112; on Erie Canal committee, 125.

Long, Major, expedition up Missouri River, 186.

Louisiana cotton exports, 180.

Louisiana of Marietta (ship), 77.

Louisiana Purchase, 75, 77.

Louisville, importance and growth, 68-69; as river port, 73-74, 77; shipbuilding, 180.

Ludlow, actor, sings The Hunters of Kentucky, 62-63.

M.

Mackinaw Island, port of entry, 74.

Marietta (O.), founded, 67-68; shipbuilding, 76; as port of entry, 77.

Maryland, Washington outlines trade routes for, 10; roads, 49, 53, 58-59; cotton grown in, 85; Cumberland Road, 119; canals, 136, 144; Canal Company formed, 145; see also Baltimore.

Massac, Fort (Ill.), port of entry, 74; 75, 77; Baily at, 93.

Massachusetts, Old Bay Path, 16; roads, 44, 54-55.

Mauch Chunk (Penn.), coal from, 40.

Maynard and Morrison, trade with Illinois, 66.

Menard, fur trader, 186.

Mercer quoted, 148.

Miami Canal, 159.

Michigan, growth of population, 116, 156; plan for Erie Canal funds from sale of land in, 117, 125; development, 164; "Toledo War," 164-165; minerals, 165.

Michigan (lake steamer), 168.

Milwaukee, demand for transportation facilities, 164; harbor improvement, 169.

Minnesota, development, 164.

Mirror, New York, prints The Hunters of Kentucky, 62.

Mississippi cotton exports, 180.

Mississippi River, Washington's vision of navigation on, 12; French on, 20; importance to commerce, 160; canal to connect with Lake Michigan, 161, 163; navigation, 176 et seq.; eccentricities, 177, 183.

Missouri, influence of river trade on, 180; admitted as State, 187.

Missouri River, navigation on, 186, 187, 188.

Mohawk River, route through Appalachians, 16.

Mohawk Trail, 16.

Mohawk Turnpike, 16.

Mohawk Valley, Washington and, 7.

Monongahela Farmer (ship), 76.

Monroe, James, Fulton writes to, 107, 110, 112; recommends congressional aid for canals, 145.

Montreal, furs brought to, 20; rival of New York City, 125, 126.

Moody, John, The Railroad Builders, cited, 157 (note).

Morey, Samuel, inventor of stern-wheeler, 104, 109, 110.

Morgantown (Penn.), growth of, 26.

Morris, Gouverneur, of New York, 31, 36.

N.

Nashville (Tenn.), trails to, 19.

Natchez (Miss.), Baily at, 93, 97.

Natchez Trace, 96.

National, stagecoach line, 122.

Nemacolin Path, 18, 25.

Newberry, Oliver, of Detroit, builds Michigan, 168.

New Madrid, Baily at, 93.

New Orleans, made open port, 75; Baily at, 95; steamboat tonnage of (1843), 181.

New Orleans (steamboat), 180, 181, 187.

New York (State), Washington foresees communication lines of, 9; canal project, 35-38; roads, 44, 59; Livingston obtains steamboat monopoly, 109; steamboat grant to Livingston, Roosevelt and Fulton, 111; railroads, 151, 153; see also Erie Canal.

New York Central Railroad, 153; Washington and, 9; follows Mohawk Trail, 16, 17.

New York City, Baily at, 84; Erie Canal and, 125, 126; tonnage compared to that of river ports, 181.

Niagara, French at, 25.

Niagara (steamboat), 156.

Nickel Plate Railroad, 17.

Northwest, Deane's plan for, 2-3; navigation of Great Lakes, 154 et seq.; immigration to, 167-168.

O.

Ogden, Aaron, vs. Gibbon, 132.

Ohio, migration to, 67; growth of population, 116, 156; and Cumberland Road, 117; canals, 157-160; admitted as State (1802), 158; railroads, 171; influence of river trade on, 180.

Ohio and Lake Erie Company, 145.

Ohio Canal, 157, 159, 168, 169.

Ohio River, Washington and, 8, 12; access of French and English to, 25; value of cargoes on (1800), 74; Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reaches (1853), 151, 183; navigation, 180.

Old Bay Path, 15, 16.

Ontario (steamboat), 156.

Orange, Fort (Albany), 16; see also Albany.

Ordinance of 1787, 170.

Oregon, western trail to, 188; effect of acquisition on transportation, 191.

Orleans (steamboat), 78.

Ormsbee, of Connecticut, makes steamboat model, 104.

Ottawa (Ill.) canal terminal, 162.

Overland Stage Company, 189.

Overland Trail, 189, 191.

P.

Palmyra (Tenn.), as river port, 74.

Pedee River, 17.

"Pennamite" war, 194.

Pennsylvania, Washington and transportation in, 9, 10-11; canals, 33-35, 136; roads, 35, 44, 45, 48-49, 50, 53-54, 119-120; "Bonnyclabber Country," 86, 87; and Great Lakes, 138; railways, 151.

Pennsylvania Canal, 132; Washington forecasts, 9; route, 139; engineering achievement, 139-140.

Pennsylvania Railroad, 142, 153; Washington and, 9-10; follows Indian trail, 29; incorporated (1846), 151; reaches Ohio River, 171.

Perkins, fur trader, 186.

Philadelphia, roads to, 48-49; meeting to protest against monopoly of Lancaster Turnpike, 55; Baily at, 84; rival of New York City, 137.

Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road Company, 53-54.

Philadelphia Road, 49.

Pickering plan of occupying West, 4.

Pike, Captain Z. M., 93.

Pioneer, stagecoach line, 122.

Pioneer (steamboat), 156.

Pitt, Fort, 28.

Pittsburgh, growth, 26, 67; trade with, 65-66, 66-67, 75; shipbuilding, 76; port of entry, 77; Baily reaches, 88.

Platt, Judge, and Erie Canal, 126, 127.

Pontiac's Rebellion, 26-27, 34.

"Pony Express," 192.

Potomac Canal Company, 143.

Potomac Company, 31-33, 138.

Potomac River, Washington's vision regarding, 8, 10; commerce on, 17-18.

Prairie (steamboat), 182.

Presq'Isle (Erie) recommended as place of embarkation, 35.

Prices in 1800, 92.

Putnam, General Rufus, advocates Pickering plan, 3-4.

Q.

Quebec, furs brought to, 20.

Queen of the West (British steamer), 182.

R.

Railroads, 134 et seq.; see also names of railroads.

Revolutionary War, plans for payment of debt of, 2-3.

Rhodes, Mayor of Philadelphia, 30.

Rideau canal system, 160.

Rivers and harbors, government policy of improvement, 12; Chicago convention (1846), 169.

Roads, 44 et seq., 83; tolls, 59-60; see also Cumberland Road.

Robinson, Moncure, 139-140.

Roosevelt, Theodore, quoted, 176.

Rumsey, James, 12; general manager of Potomac Company, 32; steamboat experiments, 101, 102, 103, 106; Virginia grants monopoly to, 106; Fulton and, 108.

Russell, Majors, and Waddell found Overland Stage Company, 189.

Rutherfordton Trail, 19.

S.

Sacramento, stage line to, 189.

St. Clair (brig), 76.

St. Joseph (Mo.), stage line from, 189.

St. Lawrence canal system, 160.

St. Louis, shipbuilding, 180; headquarters for fur trade, 186; trade with Santa Fé, 187.

St. Mary's River Ship Canal, 164, 167, 168.

Salt Lake City, stage line to, 189.

Samson (lake freighter), 169.

Sandusky, port of entry, 74.

San Francisco, Overland Trail to, 189.

San Lorenzo, Treaty of, 75.

Santa Fé, trade with, 187.

Santa Fé Trail, 191.

"Sapphire Country," 19, 152.

Saturday Advertiser, Liverpool, on the Duane, 76-77.

Schoph, J. D., crosses mountains in chaise, 66.

Schuylkill-Susquehanna Canal, 35.

Searight describes freight wagons on Cumberland Road, 123-124.

Sellers, Captain Isaiah, 182.

Shreve, Henry, builds double-decked steamboat, 79; invents flat-bottomed steamboat, 175.

Society for Promoting the Improvement of Roads and Inland Navigation, 31, 34-35, 39, 54.

South, trade with, 65; demands for commerce, 174.

Southern Belle (steamboat), 181.

Southern Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, 29.

Southern Railway, 19.

Stanton, E. M., has model of J. M. White, 186.

Stephenson, Robert, on Pennsylvania Canal, 140.

Stevens, E. A., invents twin-screw propeller, 104.

Sublette, fur trader, 186.

Sultana (steamboat), 181.

Superior (steamboat), 156, 167.

Superior, Lake, copper and iron deposits near, 164; commerce from, 166-167.

Susquehanna River, Washington foresees joining to West, 8.

T.

Taverns, 56-57, 82-83.

Taylor, Acting-Governor of New York, and Erie Canal, 127, 128.

Tennessee, trails to, 19; cotton exports, 180.

Tennessee Path, Baily on, 96.

Thackeray, W. M., quoted, 135.

Thomas, P. E., and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 149.

Thompson, Chief Justice of New York, and Erie Canal, 127.

Toledo (O.), demand for transportation facilities, 164.

"Toledo War," 164-165, 194.

Tom Thumb, Peter Cooper's engine, 150.

Transportation, Conestoga wagons, 57-58, 86; steamboats, 100 et seq.; stagecoaches, 122; "J. Murphy wagons," 190; see also Canals, Ferries, Horses, Railroads, Roads.

Tupper, General Benjamin, 104.

Twain, Mark, cited, 181.

Tyson, Jonathan, 52.

U.

Unaka Mountains, see Alleghanies.

Union Canal, 35, 139, 151; see also Pennsylvania Canal.

Union Pacific Railroad, 191, 193.

Uniontown (Penn.), growth of, 26.

V.

Vandalia (lake freighter), 168.

Vesuvius (steamboat), 78.

Virginia, Washington's vision of trade routes for, 10; Indian trails, 18; roads, 44-45, 49, 119; negroes, 85; tobacco, 85; canals, 136, 144.

Virginia Road (Braddock's Road), 51.

W.

Walk-in-the-Water (steamboat), 132, 156, 167, 172.

"Warrior's Path," 19, 20.

Washington (D. C.), Baily at, 84, 85-86.

Washington, first double-decked steamboat, 79, 175.

Washington, Fort, 68.

Washington, George, vision of inland navigation, 4 et seq., 193; doctrine of expansion, 6; journey to West, 7-9; letter to Harrison, 10, 53, 117, 127; Journal, 10; and river improvement, 31; president of Potomac Company, 32; and army roads, 50; and crop rotation, 85; prophecy regarding millstones, 87-88; Rumsey and, 100-101, 105-106.

Watauga, Fort, 19.

Waters, Dr., of New Madrid, builds schooner, 95.

Watson, Elkanah, of New York, 31, 33, 36, 37, 54.

Wayne, Anthony, 67.

Webster, Pelatiah, and settlement of Northwest, 3.

Weiser, Conrad, 26.

Welch, Sylvester, 139.

Welland Canal, 12, 155, 160, 168, 169.

Western Engineer (steamboat), 186.

Western Inland Lock Navigation Company, 31, 36-37.

Western Maryland Railway, 18.

Westfield River, Old Bay Path along, 16.

Westover, stagecoach driver, 122-123.

Wheeling, western terminus of Cumberland Road, 119.

White, of Pennsylvania, 31, 40, 43.

Wickham, Nathan, 49.

Wilderness Road, 47, 50.

Winchester (Va.), trail from, 18.

Wisconsin, development of, 164.

Woodworth, Samuel, The Hunters of Kentucky, 62-63; The Old Oaken Bucket, 62.

Y.

Yadkin River, trail on, 19.

Yates, Judge, and Erie Canal, 127.

Yoder, Jacob, 64-65.

York Road, 52.

Yorktown (steamboat), 181, 182.

Z.

Zane, Ebenezer, 47, 88.

Zanesville (O.), grants to Zane near, 47.

* * *

The Chronicles of America Series

The Red Man's Continent

by Ellsworth Huntington

The Spanish Conquerors

by Irving Berdine Richman

Elizabethan Sea-Dogs

by William Charles Henry Wood

The Crusaders of New France

by William Bennett Munro

Pioneers of the Old South

by Mary Johnson

The Fathers of New England

by Charles McLean Andrews

Dutch and English on the Hudson

by Maud Wilder Goodwin

The Quaker Colonies

by Sydney George Fisher

Colonial Folkways

by Charles McLean Andrews

The Conquest of New France

by George McKinnon Wrong

The Eve of the Revolution

by Carl Lotus Becker

Washington and His Comrades in Arms

by George McKinnon Wrong

The Fathers of the Constitution

by Max Farrand

Washington and His Colleagues

by Henry Jones Ford

Jefferson and his Colleagues

by Allen Johnson

John Marshall and the Constitution

by Edward Samuel Corwin

The Fight for a Free Sea

by Ralph Delahaye Paine

Pioneers of the Old Southwest

by Constance Lindsay Skinner

The Old Northwest

by Frederic Austin Ogg

The Reign of Andrew Jackson

by Frederic Austin Ogg

The Paths of Inland Commerce

by Archer Butler Hulbert

Adventurers of Oregon

by Constance Lindsay Skinner

The Spanish Borderlands

by Herbert Eugene Bolton

Texas and the Mexican War

by Nathaniel Wright Stephenson

The Forty-Niners

by Stewart Edward White

The Passing of the Frontier

by Emerson Hough

The Cotton Kingdom

by William E. Dodd

The Anti-Slavery Crusade

by Jesse Macy

Abraham Lincoln and the Union

by Nathaniel Wright Stephenson

The Day of the Confederacy

by Nathaniel Wright Stephenson

Captains of the Civil War

by William Charles Henry Wood

The Sequel of Appomattox

by Walter Lynwood Fleming

The American Spirit in Education

by Edwin E. Slosson

The American Spirit in Literature

by Bliss Perry

Our Foreigners

by Samuel Peter Orth

The Old Merchant Marine

by Ralph Delahaye Paine

The Age of Invention

by Holland Thompson

The Railroad Builders

by John Moody

The Age of Big Business

by Burton Jesse Hendrick

The Armies of Labor

by Samuel Peter Orth

The Masters of Capital

by John Moody

The New South

by Holland Thompson

The Boss and the Machine

by Samuel Peter Orth

The Cleveland Era

by Henry Jones Ford

The Agrarian Crusade

by Solon Justus Buck

The Path of Empire

by Carl Russell Fish

Theodore Roosevelt and His Times

by Harold Howland

Woodrow Wilson and the World War

by Charles Seymour

The Canadian Dominion

by Oscar D. Skelton

The Hispanic Nations of the New World

by William R. Shepherd

* * *

Historic Highways of America

Paths of the Mound-Building Indians and Great Game Animals

Indian Thoroughfares

Washington's Road (Nemacolin's Path):

The First Chapter of the Old French War

Braddock's Road and Three Relative Papers

The Old Glade (Forbes) Road:

Pennsylvania State Road

Boone's Wilderness Road

Portage Paths: The Keys of the Continent

Military Roads of the Mississippi Basin:

The Conquest of the Old Northwest

Waterways of Westward Expansion:

The Ohio River and Its Tributaries

The Cumberland Road

Pioneer Roads and Experiences of Travelers: Volume I

Pioneer Roads and Experiences of Travelers: Volume II

The Great American Canals:

Volume I The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and Pennsylvania Canal

The Great American Canals:

Volume II The Erie Canal

The Future of Road-Making in America: A Symposium

Index

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