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   Chapter 12 THE FUTURE

The Crisis of the Naval War By John Rushworth Jellicoe Characters: 36737

Updated: 2017-11-30 00:04


It is natural that the task of recounting the facts in the foregoing chapters should cause one's thoughts to turn to the future. The Empire has passed through a period of great danger, during which its every interest was threatened, and it has come successfully out of the ordeal, but to those upon whom the responsibility lay of initiating and directing the nation's policy the serious nature of the perils which faced us were frequently such as to justify the grave anxiety which sprang from full knowledge of events and their significance.

An international organization is in process of being brought into existence which, if it does not entirely prevent a recurrence of the horrors of the four and a half years of war, will, it is hoped, at least minimize the chances of the repetition of such an experience as that through which the world has so recently passed. But the League of Nations is still only a skeleton to be clothed with authority and supported by the public opinion of the world if it is to be a success. It is in its infancy, and so far the most optimistic have not advanced beyond hopes in its efficiency; and if the lessons of the past are correctly interpreted, as they were interpreted by our forefathers in their day, those upon whom responsibility lies in future years for the safety and prosperity of the Empire will see to it that, so far as lies in their power, whatever else may be left undone, the security of the sea communications of the Empire is ensured. Not one of us but must have realized during the war, if he did not realize it before, that the all-important thing upon which we must set our minds is the ability to use the sea communications of the far-flung Empire, which is only united by the seas so long as we can use them. But while governments may realize their duty in this matter, and set out with good intentions, it is, after all, upon the people who elect governments that the final responsibility lies, and therefore it is to them that it is so necessary to bring home in season and out of season the dangers that confront us if our sea communications are imperilled.

The danger which confronted the British peoples was never so great in any previous period as it was during the year 1917 when the submarine menace was at its height, and it may be hoped that the lessons to be learned from the history of those months will never be forgotten. The British Empire differs from any other nation or empire which has ever existed. Our sea communications are our very life-blood, and it is not greatly exaggerating the case to say that the safety of those communications is the one consideration of first-class importance. Upon a solid sense of their security depends not only our prosperity, but also the actual lives of a large proportion of the inhabitants. There is no other nation in the world which is situated as the people of these islands are situated; therefore there is no other nation to whom sea power is in the least degree as essential as it is to us. Four out of five of our loaves and most of our raw materials for manufacture must come to us by sea, and it is only by the sea that we can hold any commercial intercourse with the Dominions, Dependencies and Crown Colonies, which together make up what we call the Empire, with a population of 400,000,000 people.

What, then, are we to do in the future to ensure the safety of the communications between these islands and the rest of the Empire? As a matter of course we should be in a position to safeguard them against any possible form of attack from whatever quarter it may come. So far as can be seen there is no present likelihood of the transport of food or raw materials being effected in anything but vessels which move upon the surface of the sea. It is true that, as a result of the war, people's thoughts turn in the direction of transport, both of human beings and of merchandise, by air or under the water, but there is no possible chance, for at least a generation to come, of either of these methods of transport being able to compete commercially with transport in vessels sailing on the sea. Therefore the problem of guarding our communications resolves itself into one of securing the safety of vessels which move upon the surface of the sea, whatever may be the character of the attack.

I do not desire to enter into any discussion here as to the method by which these vessels can be protected, except to say that it is necessary for us to be in a position of superiority in all the weapons by which their safety may be endangered. At the present time there are two principal forms of attack: (1) by vessels which move on the surface, and (2) by vessels which move under water. A third danger-namely, one from the air-is also becoming of increasing importance. The war has shown us how to ensure safety against the first two forms of attack, and our duty as members of a great maritime Empire is to take steps to maintain effective forces for the purpose.

In order to carry out this duty it will be greatly to our advantage if the matter can be dealt with by all the constituent parts of the Empire. A recent tour of the greater part of the British Empire has shown me that the importance of sea power is very fully realized by the great majority of our kith and kin overseas, and that there is a strong desire on their part to co-operate in what is, after all, the concern of the whole Empire. It seems to me of the greatest possible importance that this matter of an Empire naval policy and an Empire naval organization should be settled at the earliest possible moment, and that it should be looked at from the broadest point of view.

I do not think that we in this country can claim to have taken into sufficient account the very natural views and the very natural ambitions which animate the peoples overseas. We have, in point of fact, looked at the whole question too locally, whilst we have been suggesting to the Dominions that they are inclined to make this error, and unless we depart from that attitude there is a possibility that we shall not reap the full benefit of the resources of the Empire, which are very great and are increasing. In war it is not only the material which counts, but the spirit of a people, and we must enlist the support, spontaneous and effective, of every section of the King's Dominions in the task of sea defence which lies before us, consulting fully and unreservedly the representatives of our kith and kin, and giving them the benefit of whatever instructed advice we, with ancient traditions and matured knowledge, may possess.

In framing our future naval policy it is obvious that we must be guided by what is being done abroad. We are bound to keep an absolutely safe margin of naval strength, and that margin must exist in all arms and in all classes of vessels. At the moment, and no doubt for some time to come, difficulties in regard to finance will exist, but it would seem to be nothing more than common sense to insist that the one service which is vital to our existence should be absolutely the last to suffer for need of money. During a period of the greatest financial pressure it may be necessary to economize somewhat in the construction of new ships, and in the upkeep of certain of our naval bases which the result of the war and consequent considerations of future strategy may suggest to be not of immediate importance, although even here it may well be necessary to develop other naval bases to meet changed conditions; but we cannot afford to fall behind in organization, in the testing and development of new ideas, or in the strength of our personnel or in its training. A well trained personnel and a carefully thought out organization cannot by any possibility be quickly extemporized.

It is the height of economic folly to stint experimental research, for it is in times of stress that the value of past experimental work is shown. In the matter of organization we must be certain that adequate means are taken to ensure that the different arms which must co-operate in war are trained to work together under peace conditions. A modern fleet consists of many units of different types-battleships, battle-cruisers, light cruisers, destroyers and submarines. Before I relinquished the command of the Grand Fleet, large sea-going submarines of high speed, vessels of the "K" class, had been built to accompany the surface vessels to sea. It is very essential that senior officers should have every opportunity of studying tactical schemes in which various classes of ships and kinds of weapons are employed. In considering the future of the Navy it is impossible to ignore aircraft. There are many important problems which the Navy and the Air Service ought to work out together. A fleet without aircraft will be a fleet without eyes, and aircraft will, moreover, be necessary, not only for reconnaissance work, but for gun-spotting, as well as, possibly, for submarine hunting. Air power is regarded by many officers of wide practical experience as an essential complement to sea power, whatever future the airship and aeroplane may have for independent action. A captain who is going to fight his ship successfully must have practised in time of peace with all the weapons he will employ in action, and he must have absolute control over all the elements constituting the fighting power of his ship. In a larger sense, the same may be said of an admiral in command of a fleet; divided control may mean disaster. The advent of aircraft has introduced new and, at present, only partially explored problems into naval warfare, and officers commanding naval forces will require frequent opportunities of studying them. They must be worked out with naval vessels and aircraft acting in close association. With the Air Service under separate control, financially as well as in an executive and administrative sense, is it certain that the Admiralty will be able to obtain machines and personnel in the necessary numbers to carry out all the experimental and training work that is essential for efficiency in action? Is it also beyond doubt that unity of command at sea, which is essential to victory, will be preserved? In view of all the possibilities which the future holds now that the airship and aeroplane have arrived, it is well that there should be no doubt on such matters, for inefficiency might in conceivable circumstances spell defeat.

Then there is the question of the personnel of the fleet. It would be most unwise to allow the strength of the trained personnel of the Navy to fall below the limit of reasonable safety, because it is upon that trained personnel that the success of the enormous expansions needed in war so largely depends. This was found during the late struggle, when the personnel was expanded from 150,000 to upwards of 400,000, throwing upon the pre-war nucleus a heavy responsibility in training, equipment and organizing. Without the backbone of a highly trained personnel of sufficient strength, developments in time of sudden emergency cannot possibly be effected. In the late war we suffered in this respect, and we should not forget the lesson.

In future wars, if any such should occur, trained personnel will be of even greater importance than it was in the Great War, because the advance of science increases constantly the importance of the highly trained individual, and if nothing else is certain it can surely be predicted that science will play an increasing part in warfare in the future. Only those officers and men who served afloat in the years immediately preceding the opening of hostilities know how great the struggle was to gain that high pitch of efficiency which the Navy had reached at the outbreak of war, and it was the devotion to duty of our magnificent pre-war personnel that went far to ensure our victory. It is essential that the Navy of the future should not be given a yet harder task than fell to the Navy of the past as a result of a policy of starving the personnel.

There is, perhaps, just one other point upon which I might touch in conclusion. I would venture to suggest to my countrymen that there should be a full realization of the fact that the Naval Service as a whole is a highly specialized profession. It is one in which the senior officers have passed the whole of their lives, and during their best years their thoughts are turned constantly in one direction-namely, how they can best fit the Navy and themselves for possible war. The country as a whole has probably but little idea of the great amount of technical knowledge that is demanded of the naval officer in these days. He must possess this knowledge in addition to the lessons derived from his study of war, and the naval officer is learning from the day that he enters the Service until the day that he leaves it.

The Navy, then, is a profession which is at least as highly specialized as that of a surgeon, an engineer, or a lawyer. Consequently, it would seem a matter of common sense that those who have not adopted the Navy as a profession should pay as much respect to the professional judgment of the naval officer as they would to that of the surgeon or the engineer or the lawyer, each in his own sphere. Governments are, of course, bound to be responsible for the policy of the country, and policy governs defence, but, both in peace and in war, I think it will be agreed that the work of governments in naval affairs should end at policy, and that the remainder should be left to the expert. That is the basis of real economy in association with efficiency, and victory in war goes to the nation which, under stress and strain, develops the highest efficiency in action.

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INDEX

Abdiel as minelayer,

Admiralty, the, American co-operation at,

and the control of convoys,

anomalies at,

lack of naval officers at,

naval air policy of,

official summary of changes in personnel of Board,

over-centralization at,

"production" at, in 1917,

reorganization at,

the Staff in October, 1916,

in April, 1917,

end of December, 1917,

end of November, 1918,

Admiralty Controller, appointment of an,

Admiralty Organization for Production, growth of the,

Adriatic, the, Austrian destroyers in,

R.N.A.S. assists military forces of Allies in,

Aegean Sea, the, British destroyers in,

Aeroplane, the Handley-Page type of,

Aeroplane stations,

Air Ministry, the, establishment of,

Air power as complement to sea power,

Aircraft, bombing attacks by,

for anti-submarine work,

the eyes of a fleet,

Airship stations,

Airships as protection for convoys,

Allied Naval Council, formation of,

America enters the war,

(see also United States)

American battleships and destroyers in British waters,

Anderson, Sir A.G.,

Anti-flash arrangements, improvements of,

Anti-submarine convoy escorting force, the, strengthened,

Anti-submarine devices,

Anti-submarine Division of Naval Staff, Directors of,

formation of,

Anti-submarine instructional schools,

Anti-submarine operations,

Anti-submarine protection for ports of assembly,

Approach areas, and how protected,

Arabian coast cleared of Turkish forces,

Armament production,

Armed merchant ships,

Armour-piercing shell, an improved,

Armstrong, Commander Sir George,

Atlantic convoys, losses in,

organization of system of,

Audacious, loss of,

Auxiliary patrols, deficiency in deliveries of,

in home waters and in Mediterranean zones,

Bacon, Sir Reginald,

a daring scheme of, abandoned,

author's tribute to,

his book on the "Dover Patrol,"

his proposal for Folkestone-Cape Grisnez minefield,

organizes coastal bombardments,

witnesses bombardment of Ostend,

Baker, Rear-Admiral Clinton,

Balfour, Rt. Hon. A.J., a mission to the United States,

offers author post of First Sea Lord,

Baltic, the, a difficult situation in,

Barrage, Folkestone-Cape Grisnez,

four forms of,

off Belgian coast,

the Dover,

the North Sea,

the Otranio,

Bayly, Admiral Sir Lewis, in command at Queenstown,

Belgian coast, barrage off,

mining the,

Bell, Sir Thomas,

Benson, Admiral, and author,

visits England,

Bergen, Capt. Halsey's appointment to,

Bethlehem Steel Company, the,

Bird, Captain F., of the Dover patrol,

Blackwood, Commander M.,

Blockade of German ports, difficulties of,

Board of Invention and Research, the (B.I.R.),

Bomb-throwers and howitzers,

Bonner, Lieutenant Charles G., awarded the V.C.,

Boxer campaign in China, the,

Breslau, loss of,

British and German production of submarines, etc., compared,

British Empire, the, importance of security of sea communications of,

British merchant steamships, losses from submarines,

losses of unescorted,

submarine sinks enemy destroyer,

Brock, Admiral Sir Frederick, and the disaster to the Scandinavian

convoy,

Broke, action with German destroyers,

conveys author to witness bombardment of Ostend,

Brown, Commander Yeats,

Browning, Vice-Admiral Sir Montague, confers with U.S. Navy Department,

Bruges, aerial attacks on, as enemy base,

enemy evacuation of,

proposed long-range bombardment of,

Burney, Admiral Sir Cecil, at Rosyth,

Second Sea Lord,

Burney, Lieutenant Dennis, a clever device of,

Burton, Lieutenant G. E.,

Calais, enemy destroyer raids on,

Calthorpe, Admiral (see Gough-Calthorpe)

Campbell, Captain Gordon,

awarded the V.C.,

fights with submarines,

sinks an enemy submarine,

Canadian Government asked to build vessels for use in Canadian waters,

Cape Grisnez-Folkestone mine barrage,

Capelle, Admiral von, and submarine construction,

Cardiff, instructional anti-submarine school at,

Carrington, Commander I.W.,

Carson, Sir Edward, a tribute to,

and the defensive arming of merchant ships,

becomes First Lord,

leaves the Admiralty,

offers post of Admiralty Controller to Sir Eric Geddes,

Cassady, Lieut. G.L., awarded the D.S.C.,

Cattaro, Germans destroy their submarines at,

Cayley, Rear-Admiral C.G.,

Cayley, Commander H.F.,

Cervera, Admiral, and the Spanish-American War,

Chain-sweep, a, introduction of,

Chatham, gunnery cours

es for cadets and apprentices at,

instructional anti-submarine school at,

Chief of the Staff, duties and responsibilities of,

Churchill, Right Hon. Winston, and Staff organization,

Coal-ships, French, convoy of,

Coastal motor boats,

Coastal traffic, regulation of: typical instructions,

Colville, Admiral the Hon. Sir Stanley,

Constantinople, bombing operations in vicinity of,

Convoy commodores, appointment of,

Convoy Section of Trade Division of Naval Staff, the,

"Convoy sloops,"

Convoy system, the, a committee on, at the Admiralty,

growth of,

introduction of,

successful organization and working of,

the system at work,

Convoys, as protection against submarine attack: success of,

enemy attacks on,

losses in homeward and outward bound,

Coode, Captain C.P.R.,

Crisp, Thomas, of the Nelson,

Cross-Channel sailings and losses,

Crystal Palace, Royal Naval Depot at,

author's visit to,

Dakar convoy, the,

Dare, Admiral Sir Charles,

Dartmouth, a successful attack on an enemy submarine off,

Dazzle painting for merchant ships, system of,

De Bon, Admiral,

De Chair, Rear-Admiral Sir Dudley, and the U.S. mission,

Decoy ships,

and the convoy of merchant shipping,

fitted with torpedo tubes,

number of enemy submarines sunk by,

typical actions fought by,

Delay action fuses,

Denison, Admiral John,

Depth charge throwers,

Depth charges,

enemy submarine victims to,

Deputy Controller of Armament Production, appointment of a,

Destroyers, American, in British waters,

and patrol craft, number of enemy submarines sunk by,

available force in February, 1917

average output of British,

enemy flotilla of, intercepted,

essential to Grand Fleet,

fitted with "fish" hydrophones,

heavy strain on,

hunting flotillas of,

Destroyers, inadequate number of British,

of the Dover Patrol,

time taken in building,

Devonport, gunnery courses for cadets and apprentices at,

D'Eyncourt, Sir Eustace T.,

Directional hydrophones,

Directorate of Materials and Priority, creation of,

Dover, daily average of mercantile marine passing,

enemy destroyer raids on,

Dover Patrol, the,

an enemy attack on,

Sir Reginald Bacon's book on,

the Sixth Flotilla and its arduous work,

Dover, Straits of, inefficiency of the barrage,

minelaying in,

passage of U-boats through,

Dreyer, Captain F.C.,

and the defensive arming of merchant ships,

appointed Director of Naval Ordnance,

energy of,

Drift nets, mines fitted to,

Drifters, work of,

Duff, Rear-Admiral A.L.,

a tribute to,

becomes A.C.N.S.,

Dunkirk, enemy destroyer raids on,

Royal Naval Force at, and their work,

Dunraven (decoy ship), a gallant fight by,

Dutch convoy, the,

East coast and Norway, trade between, convoyed,

East Coast, the, volume of trade on, and difficulty of proper

protection of,

Electrical submarine detector, the,

Elsie,

English coast towns, destroyer raids on,

Escorts for merchant shipping,

Ethel and Millie sunk by submarine,

Evans, Captain E.R.G.R., of the Broke, rams an enemy vessel,

Falmouth convoy, the,

losses in 1917,

Farrington, Captain Alexander, and decoy ships,

"Fish" hydrophones, invention of,

Fisher, Lord,

destroyer programme of,

Fisher, Captain W.W., Director of Anti-Submarine Division,

tribute to,

Fitzherbert, Rear-Admiral the Hon. Edward,

appointed Director of Torpedoes and Mines,

"Flares,"

for night illumination of minefields,

Folkestone-Cape Grisnez mine barrage,

Ford Company, the (U.S.A.),

France, the Staff organization at G.H.Q. in,

Fremantle, Rear-Admiral Sydney,

French, Sir John (Field-Marshal Viscount),

French Admiralty, the, cordial co-operation with Allies,

French coal trade, the, convoy of,

losses in 1917,

Fuller, Captain C.T.M.,

Funakoshi, Admiral, Japanese Naval Attache in London,

Furious converted into a seaplane carrier,

Gallipoli, hydrophone training school at,

naval work at,

Gauchet, Vice-Admiral,

Geddes, Sir Eric, becomes Admiralty Controller,

becomes First Lord,

disappointing forecasts of,

General Headquarters in France, Staff organization at,

German Army, von Schellendorft; on Staff work in,

German attacks on convoys,

campaign against merchant shipping,

operations in the Baltic against Russia,

prisoners assist a decoy ship to port,

star shells, efficiency of,

submarine commanders and decoy ships,

submarine fleet at commencement of war and subsequent additions,

view of entry of America into the war,

Germans, the, a new weapon of,

destroy their submarines,

their choice of objectives for night attacks,

their lack of enterprise,

tip-and-run raids by,

Germany, America declares war on,

estimated total of submarines in 1917,

her submarine production,

naval programme of,

submarine force of and her losses,

Gibb, Colonel Alexander,

Gibraltar, an American detachment at,

an experimental convoy collected at,

Gibraltar convoy, the,

a reason for heavy losses in,

Gibraltar convoy, the, losses in 1917,

Glen (decoy ship),

Goeben severely damaged,

Gough-Calthorpe, Vice-Admiral the Hon. Sir Somerset, his Mediterranean

command,

Gowan Lea,

Grand Duke trawler,

Grand Fleet, the, changes in command of,

destroyers and,

destroyers used for Atlantic trade,

Grant, Captain H.W.,

Grant, Rear-Admiral Heathcote, his command at Gibraltar,

Greenock, instructional anti-submarine school at,

Gunnery courses for cadets and apprentices,

Haig, Sir Douglas (Earl), commends work of air force,

Halifax convoy, the,

Hall, Rear-Admiral Sir Reginald,

Halsey, Captain Arthur, appointed Naval Vice-Consul at Bergen,

Halsey, Commodore (Rear-Admiral) Lionel,

becomes Third Sea Lord,

Hampton Roads and New York convoy,

losses in 1917,

Harwich, hydrophone station at,

Harwich force, the, and its commander,

duties of,

intercepts a flotilla of German destroyers,

Hawkcraig, hydrophone station at,

Heath, Vice-Admiral Sir H.L.,

Heligoland Bight, mining of,

proclaimed a dangerous area,

Henderson, Captain Reginald G.H.,

a tribute to,

Henderson, Captain Reginald G.H., and the convoy system,

Homeward-bound convoys, losses in,

Hope, Rear-Admiral George P.W., appointed Deputy First Sea Lord,

Hopwood, Sir Francis (Lord Southborough),

Hotham, Captain A.G.,

Howard, Captain W. Vansittart,

Howitzers and bomb-throwers,

Hydrophone stations and training schools,

Hydrophones,

directional,

fitted to auxiliary patrols,

Irvine, Lieutenant, fights a submarine,

Jackson, Admiral Sir Heney,

First Sea Lord,

Jackson, Captain, injured in a motor accident,

Japanese destroyers in the Mediterranean,

Jellicoe, Admiral (Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa), a personal telegram to

Mr. Schwab,

a tour of the British Empire and its lessons,

amicable relations with U.S. Navy,

and merchant ship construction,

and the building programme of 1916,

and the Dover Patrol,

and the future naval policy,

and the reorganization at the Admiralty,

and the submarine menace,

Jellicoe, Admiral (Viscount Jellicoe of Scapa), becomes First Sea Lord

and Chief of Naval Staff,

confers with Mr. Balfour,

friendship with Admiral Mayo,

his admiration for the work of Admiral Sir Henry Oliver,

his proposals for Admiralty reorganization,

on the convoy system,

on the work of destroyers,

praises work and organization of convoys,

relations with Admiral Sims,

unveils a memorial to Lieut. Commander Sanders,

visits New Zealand,

witnesses bombardment of Ostend,

wounded in the Boxer campaign,

Jutland battle, and the shells used in,

Kite balloons,

Lacaze, Admiral,

Lambe, Captain C.L., and his command,

Lamlash convoy, the,

losses in 1917,

League of Nations, the,

Learmonth, Captain F.C.,

Lerwick as junction for convoy system,

enemy mining of,

Leslie, N.A.,

Ley, Rear-Admiral J.C.,

Litchfield-Speer, Captain,

Lockyer, Commander E.L.B.,

Longden, Captain H.W.

Lowestoft, average daily number of vessels passing,

bombardment of,

Lusitania, loss of,

MacNamara, Right Hon. T.J.,

Madden, Admiral Sir Charles,

Malta, hydrophone training school at,

Manisty, Fleet Paymaster H.W.E.,

appointed Organizing Manager of Convoys,

Margate, bombardment of,

Mark-Wardlaw, Lieutenant, decoy ship of,

Marx, Admiral J.L.,

Mary Rose, sinking of,

Mayo, Admiral, and author,

object of his visit to England,

visits Grand Fleet,

witnesses bombardment of Ostend,

Mediterranean, the, Japanese destroyers in,

narrow waters of,

need of a unified command in,

shipping losses in 1917 in,

Mercantile marine, daily average of,

passing Lowestoft and Dover,

schools of instruction for,

wireless for,

(See also Merchant ships)

Mercantile Movements Division, formation of,

its head,

Mercantile repair work,

shipbuilding,

Merchant ships, arming of,

convoying,

losses of,

route orders for,

submarines and,

(Cf. Mercantile marine)

Merz, Sir Charles H.,

Milford Haven convoy, the,

losses in 1917,

Mine-cutters (see Paravanes)

Minelayers, fleet of, strengthened,

Minelaying, British and German methods of, contrasted,

Minelaying by submarines,

difficulty of dealing with problem of,

Mine net barrage, definition of,

Mines, American,

Britain, number laid in 1915-17,

number of submarines sunk by,

Mines and minefields,

as protection against enemy submarines,

"H" type of,

improved type of,

inadequate supply of,

influence of, in Great War,

Minesweepers, delay in deliveries of,

Minesweeping and patrol services,

Minesweeping craft, damage caused by mines to,

gallantry of officers and men of,

Minesweeping Division, formation of the,

Minesweeping, introduction of a chain-sweep,

statistics for 1916, 1917,

Ministry of Munitions, formation of,

Minotaur,

Mobilization and Movements Department, formation of,

Monitor M15, loss of,

Monitors, bombardment of enemy ports by,

Morris, Sub-Lieutenant K.,

Motor boats, coastal,

launches as submarine hunters,

fitted with hydrophones,

in home waters and in the Mediterranean,

Murray, Sir O.,

Nash, Mr., invents the "fish" hydrophone,

Naval Ordnance Department, the, changes in,

Naval Staff and the movements of convoys,

confers with masters of cargo steamers,

minesweeping section of,

Operations Division of, strengthened,

reorganization of,

Navy, the, a specialized profession,

considerations on the future of,

personnel of: importance of,

Staff work in,

work of, during 1917,

Nelson attacked and sunk,

Net barrage at Dover,

Net protection against torpedo fire,

at ports of assembly,

Nets as an anti-submarine measure,

New York and Hampton Roads convoy,

losses in 1917,

Nicholson, Captain R.L.,

North Foreland, the, naval guns mounted in vicinity of,

star shells supplied to,

North Sea barrage, the,

advantages and disadvantages of,

North Sea, the, convoy system at work in,

Norway convoy, the,

Oil tankers, serious loss of,

Oliver, Vice-Admiral Sir Henry,

and mining operations,

becomes D.C.N.S.,

his valuable work,

Ommanney, Admiral R.N., an appreciation of his services,

Operations Division of Naval Staff strengthened,

Ordnance production, delay in,

Ostend, bombardment of,

Otranto, hydrophone station at,

Otranto, Straits of, a drifter patrol attacked by Austrian light

cruisers,

mining the,

"Otter" mine destroyers,

Outward-bound convoys, losses in,

Overseas trade, vessels sunk in 1917,

"P" Boats, fitted with "fish" hydrophones,

hunting flotillas of,

P. Fannon,

Page, Mr. W.H., relations with author,

Paget, Admiral Sir Alfred,

Paine, Commodore Godfrey,

joins the Air Council,

Palestine, work of the Navy off coast of,

Paravanes, and their use,

Pargust (decoy ship),

Partridge, sinking of,

Patrol craft and minesweeping services,

a tribute to officers and men of,

as decoy vessels,

hydrophones for,

lack of British,

retired officers volunteer for work in,

synopsis of losses among,

Patrol gunboats,

Pease, Mr. A.F.,

Pellew, damaged in action,

Persius, Captain, and the construction of German submarines,

Personnel of the Navy, importance of,

Piave, the, Austrian advance to,

Pirie, Lord, becomes Controller-General of Merchant Shipbuilding,

Pitcher, Petty-Officer Ernest, awarded V.C.,

Plymouth convoy, the,

losses in 1917,

Pola, Germans destroy their submarines at,

Portland, submarine-hunting flotillas at,

Ports of assembly for Atlantic convoy system,

Portsmouth, gunnery courses for cadets and apprentices at,

instructional anti-submarine school at,

Pound, Captain A.D.P.,

Preston, Captain Lionel G., Head of Minesweeping Service,

Pretyman, Right Hon. E.G.,

Prince Charles, success of, against an enemy submarine,

Pringle, Captain, appointed Chief of Staff to Sir Lewis Bayly,

Prize sinks a submarine,

Production of warships, etc., and forecasts of et seq.,

Projectiles, anti-submarine,

"Protected sailings," system of,

Q-Boats (see Decoy ships),

Q22 in action with a submarine,

Queenstown, amicable relations between British and U.S. Navies at,

Queenstown convoy, the,

Ramsgate, bombardment of,

Rawlinson, General Sir Henry (Lord), confers with Admiral Bacon,

Red Sea, naval operations in,

Rodman, Rear-Admiral Hugh,

Route orders, and principle on which compiled,

Royal Naval Air Service, the, activities of,

bombs enemy bases,

Royal Naval Air Service, the, in the Eastern theatre of war,

Russian Baltic Fleet, the,

demobilization of,

Russian Navy, the defection of,

Russo-Japanese war, the,

Ryan, Captain, experimental work of,

St. Louis mined outside Liverpool,

Salonika, Navy co-operation with Army in,

Sanders, Lieutenant W. E., actions with submarines,

awarded the V.C.,

memorial to,

Scandinavian convoy, the,

enemy attacks on a,

loose station-keeping of ships in,

losses in 1917,

Scapa, a conference at,

Scarlett, Wing-Captain F.R.,

Scheer, Admiral, his work on the High Sea Fleet,

on the convoy system,

Schellendorff, von, on German Army Staffs,

Schwab, Mr.,

Sea, the, considerations on future safeguarding of,

Seaplane, advent of "America" type of,

Seaplane carriers,

Seaplane stations,

Searchlights,

Shannon,

Shipbuilding Advisory Committee,

Shipbuilding programme of 1916, British,

Shipping (British, Allied and neutral), losses in 1917,

Shipping Controller, appointment of a,

Sierra Leone convoy, the,

Signalling arrangements for convoys,

instruction in,

Simpson, Rear-Admiral C.H.,

Sims, Vice-Admiral W.S., arrives in London,

ensures unity of command,

his career,

hoists his flag at Queenstown,

in command of U.S. forces in European waters,

Singer, Admiral Morgan,

Smoke screens,

Spanish-American War, the,

Special service or decoy ships,

Specialist training in the Navy,

Speed, importance of, in convoy system,

Star shells, introduction of,

Startin, Admiral Sir James, the Albert Medal for,

Staunch sunk by submarine,

Slonecrop (decoy ship) sinks a submarine,

Strongbow, sinking of,

Submarine attacks on decoy ships,

campaign of 1917, the,

danger, the, difficulties of combating,

detector, an electrical,

-hunting flotillas,

warfare, offensive and defensive measures against,

Submarines, British, delay in deliveries of,

estimated number of enemy sinkings by,

fitted as minelayers,

length of time taken in construction of,

offensive use of,

operations against enemy submarines,

production of,

value of depth charges against,

Submarines, German,

aircraft attacks on,

Allied losses by, 1916-17,

as minelayers,

devices for circumventing,

losses of,

Submarines, German, rapid construction of,

success of, in the Mediterranean,

Swift, action with German destroyers,

Sydney (Cape Breton) convoy, the,

Syrian Coast, the, operations on,

Taussig, Lieut-Commander T.K.,

"Taut wire" gear, value of the device,

Terror, bombardment of Ostend by,

damaged,

Thames Estuary, mines laid in the,

Torpedo and Mining Department, the

valuable work of,

Torpedo, the, in general use,

Tothill, Rear-Admiral H.H.D.,

Trade Division of the Naval Staff, the,

"Trawler Reserve," the,

Trawlers as minesweepers,

convoy work of,

delay in deliveries of,

hunting flotilla work of,

Troop transports, escorts for,

Tyrwhitt, Rear-Admiral Sir Reginald, and his command,

U-Boats, various types of, (see also Submarines, German)

Unescorted ships, losses by submarine attack in 1917,

United Kingdom, the, approach areas for traffic to,

coast divided into areas for patrol and minesweeping,

United States Navy, a detachment dispatched to Gibraltar,

co-operation with British Navy,

In 1917,

United States, the, a new type of mine produced in,

United States, the, and the convoy system,

declares war on Germany,

rate of ship production in,

(See also America)

"Unrestricted submarine warfare," object of,

opening of,

Vengeance, experimental tests in,

Villiers, Captain Edward C., net protection device of,

Warship production in 1917,

Watt, I., skipper of Gowan Lea,

Webb, Captain Richard, in charge of Trade Division,

Wemyss, Vice-Admiral Sir Rosslyn, becomes Deputy First Sea Lord,

Chief of Naval Staff,

Whalers and their work,

White Sea, the, British naval work in,

Whitehead, Captain Frederic A., Director of Mercantile Movements

Division,

Wilde, Commander J.S.,

Wilson, Admiral Sir Arthur, anti-submarine measures of,

Wireless, importance of, in convoys,

provided for the Mercantile Marine,

patrol work of,

Zeebrugge, aerial bombing attacks on,

bombardment of,

Zeppelin assists in a hunt for a British submarine,

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