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   Chapter 15 FIRST AID TO THE INJURED

Camping For Boys By H. W. Gibson Characters: 24891

Updated: 2017-11-30 00:03


First aid should teach every boy how to render temporary assistance by improvised means for the relief of the injured one, and the methods by which he can be removed to a place of safety. With this in view, the information given in this chapter incorporates what every camper should know. Before going to camp, boys should be taught the use of the Triangular Bandage. This bandage is used by the United States Government, and is well suited for an emergency bandage. It can be easily made from a handkerchief or a piece of linen. The American Red Cross First Aid Outfit contains a triangular bandage, with methods of application printed thereon. The gauze or roller bandage is more difficult to handle. This, however, is the bandage to control bleeding, etc. Any reliable book on First Aid gives information as to its manipulation.

Dislocation

A dislocation of the finger or toe can generally be reduced by pulling strongly and at the same time pressing where the dislocation is. If the hip, shoulder, or elbow is dislocated, do not meddle with the joint, but make the boy as comfortable as possible by surrounding the joint with flannel cloths wrung out in hot water; support with soft pads, and send for a doctor at once. If the spine is dislocated, lay the boy on his back. Never put him on his side or face, it may be fatal. If he is cold, apply hot blankets to his body, hot water bottle or hot salt bag to the seat of pain.

[Illustration: Triangular Bandage; Method of Folding Triangular Bandage for Use; Bandage should always be secured by means of a reef knot.]

Broken Bones

Do not try to reduce the fracture if a physician can be secured, for unskilled handling will do more harm than good. The thing to do is to make the boy comfortable by placing him in a comfortable position with the injured part resting on a pad, keeping him perfectly quiet. If there is an open wound, cover it with cheesecloth or gauze which has been dipped in boiling water, to which baking soda has been added. Then wrap absorbent cotton around it. If the boy has a fever, put wet cloths on his head, swinging them in the air to cool for changing.

THE FOLLOWING PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS ARE GIVEN IN "CAMP KITS AND CAMP LIFE," BY CHARLES STEDMAN HANKS.

Nose

If the nose is broken, plug with gauze to stop bleeding.

Jaw

If the jaw is broken, push the bone gently into place, and if there is an open wound, cover it with gauze or cotton, made antiseptically, and then put a bandage around the jaw.

Collar Bone

If the collar bone is broken, it will be known by the pain in the shoulder and the shoulder dropping. Holding the elbow up will relieve the weight from the collar bone. Lay the boy on his back. Put a cotton wad in his armpit and bandage the arm to the side of the body and put the arm in a sling.

Shoulder Blade

If the shoulder blade is broken, put the forearm across the chest with the fingers on the shoulder and then bandage the arm to the body.

Rib

If a rib is broken it will pain the patient when he takes a long breath. Put him on his back, resting a little on the uninjured side, so that he will breathe easily. If it is necessary to move him, bandage strips of adhesive plaster around the body, beginning at the lowest rib and working upward, having each strip lap over the one below it. If you have no adhesive plaster, use a wide strip of cotton cloth. After you have put his coat on, pin it as tightly as you can in the back.

Leg Above Knee

If the leg is broken above the knee, lay shoulders slightly back, with the head and shoulders slightly raised. Draw the leg out straight, and, after padding it with cotton or towels, cut a small sapling long enough to reach from the foot to the armpit, and fasten it at the ankle, knee, and waist. If it is necessary to move the boy, bind both legs firmly together.

Leg Below Knee

If the leg is broken below the knee, lay the boy on his back and put a pillow or a bag stuffed with grass lengthwise under it. Then put a board or a hewed sapling on the under side of the pillow to stiffen it, and bandage the pillow and the board or sapling firmly to the leg. If the boy has to be moved, bind both legs together.

Knee Pan

If the knee pan is broken, put the boy on his back and straighten out the leg on a padded splint which reaches from the heel to the hip, putting some cotton or a folded towel under the knee and the heel. Then bandage the splint on at the ankle, at the upper part of the leg, and above and below the knee pan.

Foot

If the foot is broken, make a splint of two pieces of wood held together at right angles, and, after padding the foot with cotton, bind the splint to the side of the foot and the leg.

[Illustration: Large arm sling as a support for the forearm.]

[Illustration: Large arm sling as a support for the elbow.]

Upper Arm

If the upper arm is broken, make three splints, one long enough to reach from the shoulder to the elbow to go on the outside of the arm, one to go on the inner side of the arm, and one on the back of the arm. Pad the arm from the armpit to the elbow with cotton, towels, or newspapers wrapped in cloth, and, after bandaging on the splints, put the forearm in a sling and bind the arm to the body.

Forearm

If the forearm is broken, make a cotton pad long enough to reach from the fingers well up to the forearm, and rest the palm of the hand on it. Put a similar pad on the back of the hand, and, after bandaging in a splint, put the arm in a sling.

Hand

If the hand is broken, put a cotton pad on the palm and over it a thin splint long enough to reach from the tips of the fingers to the forearm. After binding the splint in place, put the arm in a sling with the hand higher than the elbow.

Finger

If a finger is broken, make a splint of cardboard or a thin piece of wood long enough to reach from the tip of the finger to the wrist. Cover the finger with gauze or cotton, and, after binding on the splint, support the hand in a sling.

Fainting

Fainting comes from too little blood in the head. Lay the boy on his back with feet higher than his head. Loosen tight clothing and let him have plenty of fresh air. Sprinkle his face with cold water and rub his arms with it. For an attack of dizziness, bend the head down firmly between the knees. If his face is flushed, raise the head.

Stunned

Lay the boy on his back with head somewhat raised. Apply heat, such as bottles of hot water, hot plates or stones wrapped in towels to the extremities and over the stomach, but keep the head cool with wet cloths. Do not give any stimulant; it would drive blood to the brain.

Stretcher

A stretcher may be improvised in one of the following ways: (a) A shutter, door, or gate covered well with straw, hay, clothing, or burlap bagging.

(b) A piece of carpet, blanket, sacking, tarlatan, spread out, and two stout poles rolled up in the sides. Put clothes for a pillow.

(c) A coat with the two sleeves turned inside out; pass two poles through the sleeves, button the coat over them. (See illustration.) Patient sits on coat and rests against the back of the first bearer.

(d) Two poles passed through a couple of bags, through holes at bottom corners of each.

[Illustration: Coat Stretcher]

Carry a patient by walking out of step, and take short paces, about 18 inches apart. Usually carry the patient feet first, but in going up hill the position is reversed, and the patient is carried head first.

[Illustration: Life Saving Patrol]

The following illustrations explain the process of carrying a patient without a stretcher:

[Illustration: Three and four handed carry.]

PREVENTION FROM DROWNING

Learn to Swim

Every summer records its hundreds of drowning accidents, many of which might have been prevented if methods of rescue had been generally taught. No boy should be permitted to enter a boat, particularly a canoe, until he has learned to swim. The movement to teach swimming to every boy and young man in North America who does not know how to swim is both commendable and practical. The text-book used largely is "At Home in the Water," by George H. Corsan, issued by the publishers of this book.

Button Awards

Summer camps provide a special opportunity for giving such instruction. To each individual who is actually taught to swim in camp a silver-oxidized button is given by the Association's International Committee, 124 East 28th St., New York, provided the test is made under the supervision of a committee of three men. Those who teach others to swim receive a gold oxidized leader's button. Write to the Physical Department at the above address for information.

[Illustration: Award Button]

U. S. V. Life Saving Corps

An Auxiliary Division of the U. S. Volunteer Life Saving Corps should be established to patrol the water during swimming periods. Any camper may qualify for membership by taking the following examinations: the boy to receive not less than 6 points in 10 point subjects, and not less than 3 points on 5 point subjects, with a total of 75 points. Those receiving less than 75 points may become members of auxiliary crews.

[Illustration: Award Button]

HOW TO QUALIFY.

1 Swimming not less than 100 yards and 25 yards on back. 10 points

2 Diving, plunging, floating, fetching. 10 points

3 Rescue drill on land and water. 10 points

4 Release drill on land and in water. 10 points

5 Resuscitation. 10 points

6 Names of parts of a row boat. 5 points

7 Rowing and boat handling. 10 points

8 Use of life saving appliances. 10 points

9 First aid work and remedies. 10 points

10 Written examination on work in water. 5 points

11 Written examination on work in boats. 5 points

12 Written examination on work on land. 5 points

Organization

To organize at camps, officials will proceed by conducting the above-mentioned examinations. Should there be five or more successful competitors, crews can be organized as follows, the regular form of enrollment being employed and no enlistments required:

Five men constitute a crew entitling one of the five to the rank of acting third lieutenant.

Ten men constitute two crews with acting second and third lieutenants.

Fifteen men constitute three crews with acting first, second, and third lieutenants.

Twenty men constitute four crews (or a division) with acting captain, first, second, and third lieutenants, lieutenant surgeon, quartermaster, boatswain, and one coxswain for each crew or three coxswains.

Auxiliary members over eighteen years of age may become active members after leaving camps and receive active membership commissions, provided they affiliate with some active permanent crew in their home district.

Auxiliary members holding our certificates shall be entitled to auxiliary membership buttons, but active members only are entitled to wear the official badge of membership of the corps.

Summer camps will be equipped, at the discretion of headquarters, on the following conditions:

That they shall pay all express on supplies to and from camps.

That they shall report at the end of each season the exact condition of the supplies and make provision for the safekeeping of same for future seasons, or return same.

Medicine chests must be returned.

Instructors will be sent to the various camps, at the discretion of headquarters, whenever possible. All expenses, traveling, board, etc., but not services, must be covered by the camps.

Examination questions will be found in our book, "Instruction on Subjects for Examination for Membership." If desired, camp officials can make examinations more rigid than outlined by us.

Examination papers furnished on request.

The above information was furnished by K. F. Mehrtens, Assistant

Secretary, United States Volunteer Life Saving Corps, 63-65 Park Row, New

York City.

Training Course

Efficient life saving comes from thorough experience and training, not from a theory. These subjects for instruction may be taught preparatory to the summer camp, as well as during the camping season.

Swimming to include straight-away, swimming with clothes on, floating, diving, fetching: strokes-perfect breast stroke, side stroke, overhead stroke, crawl stroke.

Rescue Methods to include rescuing a supposedly drowning person. Use of life saving apparatus.

Methods of R

elease to include grasping by the wrist, clutch around the neck and grasp around the body.

Resuscitation of the apparently drowned, including the Sylvester method described on page 194, and the simple "first aid" rules.

Boat Handling to include rowing a boat, taking a person into a boat from the water, clinging to a boat without capsizing it, etc.

Knot Tying to include all kinds of knots and their value in connection with life-saving work, and the use of them on life-saving appliances.

Wig-wagging to include the committing to memory of the U. S. Naval Wig-Wag

Signal Code. The following is used at Camp Wawayanda, New Jersey Boys.

WIG-WAG CODE

Signalling by wig-wag is carried on by waving a flag in certain ways, represented by the figures 1, 2 and 3, and thus letters are made and words spelled.

Two wig-wag flags are used, one a square white flag with a red square in the center, and the other a square red flag with white square in the center.

Only one flag is used in signalling, and that one is selected which can best be seen against the boy's background.

[Illustration: Interval; Signal 1; Signal 2; Signal 3]

U. S. NAVAL WIG-WAG SIGNAL CODE.

ALPHABET.

A 22

B 2112

C 121

D 222

F 2221

G 2211

H 122

I 1

J 1122

K 2121

L 221

M 1221

N 11

O 21

P 121

Q 1211

R 211

S 212

T 2

U 112

V 1222

W 1121

X 2122

Y 111

Z 2222

Tion 1112

ALPHABET CLASSIFIED. I 1 N 11 Y 111

E 12 H 122 V 1222 U 112 J 1122

C 121 Q 1211 M 1221 P 1212 W 1121

T 2 A 22 D 222 Z 2222

O 21 R 211 L 221 G 2211 F 2221

S 212 X 2122 B 2112 K 2121

Numerals 1 1111 2 2222 3 1112 4 2221 5 1122 6 2211 7 1222 8 2111 9 1221 0 2112

Conventional signals

End of word, 3

End of sentence, 33

End of message, 333

I understand, A.A. 3

Cease signalling, A.A.A. 333

Repeat last word, C.C. 3

Repeat last message, C.C.C. 3

I have made an error, E.E. 3

WIG-WAG RULES

1. The boy should face the person to whom he is signalling, and should hold the flag-staff vertically in front of the centre of his body, with the butt at the height of his waist.

2. The motion represented by the Figure 1 is made by waving the flag down to the right; 2, by waving it down to the left; and 3, by waving it down in front of the sender. (Page 188)

3. Each motion should embrace an arc of ninety degrees, starting from and returning to the vertical without a pause.

4. When two or more motions are required to make a letter, there should be no pause between the motions.

5. At the end of each letter there should be a slight pause at the vertical.

6. At the end of each word, one front motion (3) should be made; at the end of a sentence, two fronts (33); and at the end of a message, three fronts (333).

7. To call a boat, signal the initial letter of her name until answered. To answer a call, signal A.A. 3 (I understand).

8. If the sender makes an error he should immediately signal E.E. 3 (I have made an error), and resume the message, beginning with the last word sent correctly.

9. If the receiver does not understand a signal he should signal C.C. 3 (Repeat last word); the sender should then repeat the last word and proceed with the message.

EXAMINATIONS USED BY THE U. S. V. L. S. C., CAMP BECKET Y. Y. C. A. AUXILIARY CORPS, AUGUST 24, 1910

A-Boat Work-10 Points 1. With what knot should you tie a boat? 2. Define amidships, thole-pin[1], painter[2]. 3. Define port, starboard, aft. 4. Explain briefly a rescue from the bow. 5. Explain briefly a rescue from the stern.

[Transcriber's Footnote 1: thole-pin: Pairs of wooden pegs set in the gunwales as an oarlock.]

[Transcriber's Footnote 2: painter: Rope attached to the bow for tying up when docking or towing.]

B-Water Work-10 Points 1. Describe breakaway Number 3. 2. "Before jumping into water for rescue, be sure to do-" what? 3. Give two ways to locate a body. 4. If you are seized and cannot break away, what should you do? 5. "If in a strong outsetting tide, it is advisable when rescuing to-" do what?

C-General First Aid-10 Points 1. How and where do you apply a tourniquet? 2. Give the treatment for fainting. 3. Give the treatment for sun-stroke. 4. Give the treatment for wounds. 5. Give the treatment for and symptoms of shock.

D-Wig-Wag-10 points

Translate into code "Go send them help quick."

Translate into English

"1121-12-3-1121-22-11-2-3-22-3-2112-21-22-2-333."

E-Write an essay on general methods, precautions, etc., for rescuing. - 20 Points

F-Write an essay on how you would restore an apparently drowned man to consciousness.-20 Points

G-Practical First Aid (Make appointment with the doctor.)

GENERAL HINTS

Kick!

If you work your hands like paddles and kick your feet, you can stay above water for several hours, even with your clothes on. It requires a little courage and enough strength of mind not to lose your head.

Cramps

Many boy swimmers make the mistake of going into the water too soon after eating. The stomach and digestive organs are busy preparing the food for the blood and body. Suddenly they are called upon to care for the work of the swimmer. The change is too quick for the organs, the process of digestion stops. Congestion is apt to follow, and then the paralyzing cramps.

Indian Method

The Indians have a method of protecting themselves from cramps. Coming to a bathing pool, an Indian swimmer, after stripping off and before entering the water, vigorously rubs the pit of his stomach with the dry palms of his hands. This rubbing probably takes a minute; then he dashes cold water all over his stomach and continues the rubbing for another minute, and after that he is ready for his plunge. If the water in which you are going to swim is cold, try this Indian method of getting ready before plunging into the water.

Rule

The rule for entering the water, in most camps, is as follows: "No one of the party shall enter the water for swimming or bathing except at time and place designated." Laxity in the observance of this rule will result disastrously.

RESCUE FROM DROWNING

[Illustration: FIG. 1]

Rescue

To rescue a drowning person from the water, always try to pull him out with an oar, a rope, a coat (holding the end of one sleeve and throwing him the other), or some other convenient object. If you are obliged to jump in after him, approach him with great caution, throw your left arm around his neck with his back to your side (Figure 1), in which position he can't grapple you, and swim with your legs and right arm. If he should succeed in grasping you, take a long breath, sink with him, place your feet or knees against his body, and push yourself free.

[Illustration: Fig. 2]

Although life may seem extinct, make every effort at resuscitation.

Various procedures are advocated. The Sylvester method is one of the best.

Hold the boy for it few seconds as in Figure 2, to get rid of water which may have been taken in. Do this several times. Tear off clothing. Rub briskly the legs and arms toward the body. Draw the tongue forward every three seconds for a minute. If these methods fail to restore breathing, then perform artificial respiration, first sending for a physician.

[Illustration: Respiration]

Lay the boy on his back with a folded coat or sweater under his shoulders, and grasp his wrists or his arms straight up over his head as in Figure 3.

[Illustration: FIG. 3. RESPIRATION]

[Illustration: FIG. 4. EXPIRATION]

Pull steadily and firmly in that position while you count 1, 2, 3. This causes air to enter the lungs. Then quickly bring his arms down on his chest and press them firmly on his ribs (Figure 4) while you again count 1, 2, 3. This forces the air out of the lungs. Then quickly carry his arms over his head and down again, and repeat the same routine fast enough to make him breathe from twelve to sixteen times a minute. The tendency is to work too fast. If the work is done properly the air can be heard distinctly as it passes in and out of the air passages. Sometimes the tongue drops back in the throat, stopping it up so no air can enter. If you suspect this, have an assistant grasp the tongue with a handkerchief and keep it pulled forward.

[Illustration: FIG. 5. Expiration.]

Cuts used by courtesy of Health-Education League.

Don't Give Up

It will make it much easier if you have another person push on the ribs for you when you relax the arms, as shown in Figure 5. Have him place the hands as shown in the figure with the thumbs toward the medium line in front, the fingers farther away, the palms just below the breasts; this will make the boy's nipples come just midway between the ends of the thumbs and the middle joint of the forefinger. Press firmly downward and inward toward the backbone.

Continue these motions about fifteen times per minute. Keep this up until the boy begins to breathe, himself. When done properly, the work is hard for the operator, and he should be relieved by some one else as soon as he gets tired.

Warmth and Quiet

As soon as the boy begins to breathe himself-but not before-his limbs should be well rubbed toward the heart. This will help to restore the circulation. He should afterward be put to bed, well covered with warm blankets, hot stones being placed at his feet, and warm drinks administered. Fresh air and quiet will do the rest.

Books

"Boys' Drill Regulation," published by the National First Aid Association of America, and "Boys' Life Brigade Manual of Drill," published by the Boys' Life Brigade, London, England, are two small books containing a number of practical drills which may be used in training the boys in camp for emergency work.

Instruction

Every camp for boys, no matter how small or how large, should plan for instruction in First Aid. This may be done by the camp physician, the director, the physical director, or some physician invited to spend several days in the camp.

Drills

The illustration on page 174 shows how one hundred boys were trained in Camp Couchiching. The "litter" drill was especially attractive to the boys of Camp Becket. The boys were sent out in the woods in brigades of five each, one of whom was the leader. Only a small hatchet was taken by each squad. One of the boys was supposed to have broken his leg. An improvised "litter," or, stretcher, was made of saplings or boughs, strapped together with handkerchiefs and belts, so that in ten minutes after they left the camp the first squad returned with the boy on the litter and in a fairly comfortable condition.

[Illustration: Litter Drill]

Health Talks

A course of health talks given in popular form by those who are well versed upon the subject, cannot help but be instructive and productive of a greater ambition on the part of the boy to take good care of his body. The following list of subjects is suggestive:

The Human Body and How to Keep It in Health 1 The Skeleton. 2 The Muscular System. 3 The Vascular System. 4 The Nervous System. 5 The Digestive System. 6 The Lungs, Skin and Kidneys.

Personal Hygiene 1 The Eye, its use and abuse. 2 How to care for the Teeth. 3 Breathing and pure air. 4 Microbes and keeping clean. 7 The health of the Skin. 8 Some facts about the Nose. 9 Our Lungs. 10 Eating. 11 Alcohol. 12 Tobacco and the Human Body. 13 The Use and Care of Finger Nails. 14 Cause of Colds.

The American Red Cross Society, 715 Union Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C., issues a series of five handsomely lithographed wall charts mounted on linen and heavy rollers. These charts are numbered as follows and may be purchased for $2.50 for the set.

Chart I. The Skeleton;

Chart II. The Muscles;

Chart III. Scheme of Systematic Circulation;

Chart IV. Fracture and Dislocation;

Chart V. Arteries and Points' of Pressure for Controlling Hemorrhage.

These charts will make the talks doubly attractive. Honor points are given boys for essays written upon the Health Talks. Some camps found that boys were desirous of taking examinations in First Aid. In one camp twenty-three boys won the Certificates of the American Red Cross Society. For information write to the Educational Department of the International Committee, Young Men's Christian Association, 124 East 28th Street, New York, or the American Red Cross Society. (See address above)

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