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An English Grammar By William Malone Baskervill Characters: 2945

Updated: 2017-11-30 00:04

What these terms mean.

412. As to their conjunctive use, the definite relatives who, which, and that may be co?rdinating or restrictive.

A relative, when co?rdinating, or unrestrictive, is equivalent to a conjunction (and, but, because, etc.) and a personal pronoun. It adds a new statement to what precedes, that being considered already clear; as, "I gave it to the beggar, who went away." This means, "I gave it to the beggar [we know which one], and he went away."

A relative, when restrictive, introduces a clause to limit and make clear some preceding word. The clause is restricted to the antecedent, and does not add a new statement; it merely couples a thought necessary to define the antecedent: as, "I gave it to a beggar who stood at the gate." It defines beggar.

413. It is sometimes contended that who and which should always be co?rdinating, and that always restrictive; but, according to the practice of every modern writer, the usage must be stated as follows:-

A loose rule the only one to be formulated.

Who and which are either co?rdinating or restrictive, the taste of the writer and regard for euphony being the guide.

That is in most cases restrictive, the co?rdinating use not being often found among careful writers.


In the following examples, tell whether who, which, and that are restrictive or not, in each instance:-


1. "Here he is now!" cried those who stood near Ernest.-Hawthorne.

2. He co

uld overhear the remarks of various individuals, who were comparing the features with the face on the mountain side.-Id.

3. The particular recording angel who heard it pretended not to understand, or it might have gone hard with the tutor.-Holmes.

4. Yet how many are there who up, down, and over England are saying, etc.-H. W. Beecher

5. A grizzly-looking man appeared, whom we took to be sixty or seventy years old.-Thoreau.


6. The volume which I am just about terminating is almost as much English history as Dutch.-Motley.

7. On hearing their plan, which was to go over the Cordilleras, she agreed to join the party.-De Quincey.

8. Even the wild story of the incident which had immediately occasioned the explosion of this madness fell in with the universal prostration of mind.-Id.

9. Their colloquies are all gone to the fire except this first, which Mr. Hare has printed.-Carlyle.

10. There is a particular science which takes these matters in hand, and it is called logic.-Newman.


11. So different from the wild, hard-mouthed horses at Westport, that were often vicious.-De Quincey.

12. He was often tempted to pluck the flowers that rose everywhere about him in the greatest variety.-Addison.

13. He felt a gale of perfumes breathing upon him, that grew stronger and sweeter in proportion as he advanced.-Id.

14. With narrow shoulders, long arms and legs, hands that dangled a mile out of his sleeves.-Irving.

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