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   Chapter 65 MARKS USED IN PROOF-READING

Up To Date Business By Various Characters: 6915

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:03


The most important of the signs used in making corrections for the printer are as follows:

1. Delete or expunge.

2. A turned letter.

3. Wrong-font letter.

4. Change capital to small letter, ("lower-case").

5. Insert period.

6. Transpose words or letters as indicated.

7. Change roman to italic.

8. Change italic to roman.

9. Space to be inserted.

10. Matter wrongly altered to remain as it was originally. Dots are placed under the matter.

11. A bad or battered letter.

12. Space to be reduced.

13. Close up.

14. Push down space or lead.

15. New paragraph.

16. Something foreign between the lines, or a wrong-font space making the type crooked.

17. Line to be indented one em of its own body.

When letters or words are set double or are required to be taken out a line is drawn through the superfluous word or letter and the mark No. 1, called dele, placed opposite on the margin. (Dele is Latin for take out.)

A turned letter is noted by drawing a line through it and writing the mark No. 2 on the margin.

If letters or words require to be altered to make them more conspicuous a parallel line or lines must be made underneath the word or letter-namely, for capitals, three lines; for small capitals, two lines; and for italic, one line; and on the margin opposite the line where the alteration occurs the sign caps., small caps., or ital. must be written.

Where a letter of a different font is improperly introduced into the page it is noted by drawing a line through it and writing w. f. (wrong font) on the margin.

Where a word has been left out or is to be added a caret must be made in the place where it should come in and the word written on the margin. A caret is made thus: ^

Where letters stand crooked they are noted by a line, but where a page hangs lines are drawn across the entire part affected.

Where a faulty letter appears it is denoted by making a cross under it and placing a similar mark on the margin.

Where several words are left out or where new matter is to be added the added matter is written wherever convenient, and a line is drawn from the place of omission to the written words.

In making a correction in a proof always mark the wrong letter or word through and insert the alteration in the margin, not in the middle of the printed matter, because it is liable to be overlooked if there is no marginal reference to the correction. To keep the different corrections distinct finish each off with a stroke, thus /; and to make the alterations more clear or less crowded mark those relating to the left-hand portion on the left margin and those relating to the right-hand portion on the right margin.

* * *

The hints given here are intended for the general public and not for the printer, and to the student of these lessons let us say that the first essential of good proof-reading is clearness. Be very sure that the printer will understand the changes which you desire him to make. Quite often it is an advantage if you wish a particular style of type used to cut out a sample of that style and paste it on your copy or on your proof, indicating that you want it to be used. Instructions to the printer written either on the copy or on the proof should be surrounded by a line to separate them from the text, or to prevent any confusion with other written matter intended as copy or as corrections.

When the corrections have been duly made

and approved by the author or editor it is customary to write the word "press" on the top of the first page. If intermediate proofs are wanted, mark on the proofs returned to the printer "Send revise." The final or "press" proof is always retained by the printer in case of any dispute. It is his voucher, and he retains it for future reference.

It is a good plan to make corrections in a different coloured ink from that used by the printer's proof-reader. If you are having a pamphlet or book printed the different proofs will reach you in the following order:

Galley proofs.

Revised proofs (if any).

Page proofs.

Foundry proofs.

A printer's proof.

So far as possible, make all the necessary changes while the type is in galleys. Once made up into pages, a very slight change, particularly such a change as the crossing out or addition of a sentence, may make a great deal of trouble. When the pages are passed upon they are sent to the foundry for casting. The foundry proofs are the last proofs pulled. Corrections made on these make it necessary to alter the electrotype plates, which is rather an expensive process. To change a word, a piece of the metal plate has to be cut out and another with the new word soldered in.

A printer's corrected proof.

A page is said to overrun if it is too long. If the space to be occupied is limited it is a good plan to adapt your copy to it by counting the words and by comparing the count with that of some printed page in the same size of type.

Return proofs to your printer or publisher as promptly as possible. As a rule printing houses cannot afford to keep type locked up and unused waiting for the return of proofs. There are many imperfections in typography, such as wrong-font and inverted letters, awkward and irregular spacing, uneven pages or columns, crooked words and lines, etc., which it is the business of the printing house to correct. No book or pamphlet, therefore, ought to go to press until it has been read and revised by an experienced reader.

Strict uniformity should always be preserved in the use of capitals, in spelling, and in punctuation.

Where authors have their manuscripts type-written and make two or three revises upon the type-written sheets before their copy is turned over to the publishing house, the labour of proof-reading and the expenses of corrections are reduced to a minimum.

The errors shown in our illustration are more numerous than are likely to appear in any proof sent out from a publishing house.

Transcriber's Notes

Page

? favorable changed to favourable 35

? favor changed to favour 49

? (5) changed to 5. 65

? contantly changed to constantly 115

? Ierland changed to Ireland 130

? battle-ships changed to battleships 150

? BREAD-STUFFS changed to BREADSTAFFS 152

? duplicated "from" deleted 162

? bread-stuffs change to breadstuffs 163

? June, 1898 changed to June 30, 1898 205

? proportiona t changed to proportion at 208

? duplicated "in" deleted 223

? typewritten changed to type-written 259

? everyday changed to every-day 350

? comma added after figures 384

? colored changed to coloured 389

? nessary changed to necessary 390

Illustrations that appear on pages 117, 199, 216 and 241 in the original publication do not coincide with page numbers in this eBook due to the positioning of illustrations and footnotes at beginning and/or end of paragraphs.

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