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Up To Date Business By Various Characters: 3522

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:03

Composition. This is the name given by printers to the work of setting the type. The compositor holds in his hand a composing-stick, into which he places the type letter by letter, adding the spaces where necessary. A great deal of the newspaper work of the present day is set by type machines.

Distributing. The type of a particular page or article after it has been used on the press or for electrotyping is distributed letter by letter in the cases. This work is much more rapid than composition. Type to be used a second time is said to be standing or is called standing matter.

Spaces. Spaces are short blank types and are used to separate one word from another. To enable a compositor to space evenly and to "justify" properly, these spaces are cast to various thicknesses. An em quadrat is a short blank type, in thickness equal to the letter m of the font to which it belongs. Quadrats are of various sizes.

Calendered Paper. This name is given to very highly rolled or glazed paper such as is used in illustrated work. Laid paper has a slightly ribbed surface. Antique paper is rough and usually untrimmed at the edges. It is made in imitation of old styles.

Caps. and Lower-case. These names are used to designate capitals and small letters.

Clarendon. This name is commonly given to a bold and black-faced type, such as used in text-books to bring out prominently particular words.

Dummy. An imitation in style and size of a book or pamphlet that is wanted, usually made up with blank paper.

Electrotype. Electrotype or stereotype plates are made from type. Books are usually printed from such plates.

Galley Proof. As the type is set up it is removed from the composing-stick to long forms called galleys. A proof taken of th

e whole galley at once is called a galley proof. Book work should be revised in galleys before it is made up into pages.

Impression. A flat-pull or first impression is a simple proof usually pulled in job offices by laying a sheet of damp paper on the inked type and pounding with a flat-surfaced weight to get the impression.

Indent. To set a line some distance forward, as in the case of a new paragraph.

Letterpress. Printed matter from type as distinguished from plate printing.

Make-up. To measure off type matter into pages.

Off-set. It frequently occurs that as the result of insufficient drying or from other causes the impression of one sheet appears on the back of another; such work is said to off-set.

Overlays. In making ready for the press the pressman finds it necessary to add here and there, by pasting, thicknesses of paper to his roller to bring out properly the light and shade of an illustration or to get an even ink impression from the type or plates. This work is called making overlays. In expensive illustrated work specialists are engaged solely for the purpose of making overlays.

Press Proof. The final proof passed by the author or publisher.

Process-blocks. Blocks produced by the photoengraving and other mechanical processes.

Query. A mark made on a proof by the printer to call attention to a possible error, sometimes expressed by a note of interrogation (?).

Register. The exact adjustment of pages back to back in printing the second side of a sheet.

Signature. The letter or figure at the foot of a sheet to guide the binder in folding; also used by printers to identify any particular sheet.

The various marks and signs used by printers will be explained in the lesson on proof-reading.

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