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   Chapter 39 BUENA VISTA

The War With Mexico, Volume I (of 2) By Justin H. Smith Characters: 52530

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1. Many of the Mexicans marched nearly forty-five miles in less than twenty-four hours. See Stevens, Camps., 18.

2. The statements regarding the time of day differ, but the account of the text appears to rest upon the most reliable evidence. See Wallace, Wallace, 40. Taylor's verbal reply to the summons of Santa Anna is said to have been more forcible than elegant, but a courteous answer in writing was sent by Bliss.

3. Several officers seem to have noted the advantages of this battlefield, but Wool recommended it near the end of December and is entitled to the credit of the choice. The author visited the ground twice, and found that a good route for infantry and cavalry ran from La Encantada behind the hills west of Buena Vista valley, and entered this valley north of La Angostura. Apparently it could have been made practicable for cannon easily, and could have been used effectively by either general for a feint at least. Engineer Mansfield had a picket guard it during the afternoon and night of February 22.

4. This space was to be closed, if necessary, with two wagons loaded with stone. The parapet was occupied by two companies of the First Illinois under Lieut. Col. Weatherford. The main American position was over-manned. S. Anna could not have carried it against Washington's guns and infantry flanking fire from the edge of the plateau, and men were urgently needed for the American left.

5. 330The American forces in action at Buena Vista were as follows: Dragoons under Bvt. Lieut. Col. May (First, 133; Second, 76), 209; Third Artillery (Co. C under Capt. Bragg, three guns-the fourth being at Saltillo; Co. E under Capt. Sherman, four guns), 150; Fourth Artillery, Capt. Washington, eight guns, 117; Arkansas horse, Col. Yell, 479; First Kentucky (two squadrons of cavalry and a battalion of mounted riflemen), Col. Marshall, 330; Second Kentucky, Col. McKee, 571; First Mississippi, Col. Davis, 368; Indiana Brigade (Second regt. under Col. Bowles and Third under Col. Lane), Gen. Lane, 1253, including a rifle battalion of four companies under Major Gorman; First Illinois, Col. Hardin, 580; Second Illinois, Col. Bissell, 573; Texas volunteer company (attached to Second Illinois), Capt. Conner, 61; Major McCulloch's Texan scouts, 27. The figures include officers and men. The general staff numbered forty-one. Three hundred and sixty-four of the men were on the sick list. A company of the First Artillery, a few men of the Third Artillery, two Mississippi companies and four Illinois companies were at Saltillo. All except the dragoons and artillery were volunteers. Only the artillery, dragoons, Mississippi regiment, and Conner's company had been under fire, and some of these men were raw recruits; but Col. Davis and all the field officers of the Second Kentucky were West Pointers. Mostly Wool's men had been well trained. McCulloch's company probably served under May. All the corps not otherwise described were infantry. In the volunteer horse certain companies appear to have been regarded as true cavalry and certain others as only mounted infantry. A similar fact was noted in connection with the battle of Sacramento (p. 309).

6. Mi?ón issued from the Palomas de Adentro pass.

7. No satisfactory explanation of Taylor's trips to Saltillo was made. The city had been in greater danger of attack from Mi?ón while the Americans were eighteen miles away at Agua Nueva than after they retired. Taylor should have ascertained seasonably that Palomas Pass was practicable for cavalry, and have done whatever was necessary. Wool appears to have barricaded the streets of Saltillo before going to Agua Nueva (N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849), and Butler began a redoubt, which seems to have been the only external defence. Taylor's escort were not needed as laborers. Major Warren, the governor of Saltillo, Capt. Webster of the First Artillery, who had charge of the redoubt, and First Lieut. Shover, of the Third Artillery, stationed not far away in the old camp, were competent officers; and the first two made no allusion in their reports to Taylor's visits, while the third only said that the General ordered him to watch Mi?ón, and, if attacked, defend his post to the last extremity-which were his obvious duties. There seems to have been no particular reason to anticipate a night attack. Taylor did not suggest this as a reason for going to the city. Especially is it surprising that he left his work at Saltillo, whatever it was, so incomplete on the morning of February 22 that he had to return in the evening. Santa Anna, after the exhausting march just made, could not be expected to strike decisively that day, whereas such an attack was almost certain to be made the next morning, and it was Taylor's duty to be on the ground at that time.

8. Events of Feb. 22; the battlefield. Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 97–9 (Taylor); 98 (S. Anna); 144 (Wool); 163 (Marshall); 169 (Fry); 171 (Roane); 174 (Weatherford); 175 (Bissell); 181 (Gen. Lane); 186 (Col. Lane); 189 (Gorman); 197 (May); 203 (Sherman); 205 (Warren); 206 (Webster); 207 (Shover). Carleton, B. Vista, 5–9, 27–49, 177–86. González, Aguascalientes, 158. French, Two Wars, 77–8. Journ. Milit. Serv. Instit., xiv, 443. 190Ewing, diary. Raleigh Star, Aug. 18. 276Neville diary. Delta, Mar. 14, 1848. 69Wool to Taylor, Jan. 20. 147Chamberlain, diary. 148Id., recolls. 110Barbour, diary. Vedette, iv, no. 8 (Lee). 8Anon. diary. 61[Wool] to Jones, Jan. 17. 300Prickett, letters. Rápida Ojeada. Diario, Apr. 17. Matamoros Amer. Flag, Mar. 20. Republicano, May 3. 80Ampudia to gov. Méx. state, Oct. 10. Balbontín, Invasión, 71–3. Apuntes, 98–100. Taylor and his Generals, 166. S. Anna, Apelación, 25–7. Eyewitness, Complete Hist., 55. Scribner, Camp., 62, note. Smith, Chile con Carne, 214–5. Smith, Remins., 37, 48. Picayune, Apr. 14 (Taylor); May 21; Sept. 7; Oct. 19; Dec. 3. Delta, July 11. Revue des Deux Mondes, Aug. 1, 413–4. Benham, Recolls. Nat. Intelligencer, Apr. 7. Spirit of the Times, May 1. Napoleon, Maxims, p. 26. Wallace, Wallace, 40. Davis, J. Davis, i, 340. Profess. Memoirs corps of engineers, no. 31, p. 110. Stevens, I. I. Stevens, i, 145. Carre?o, Jefes, ccxxxii. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1168 (Taylor). Stevens, Camps., 18. Encarnacion Prisoners, 34, 38–9. N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849. Littell no. 155. Romero, Geog. and Stat. Notes. 76Reports of S. Anna, Uraga, Memontesdeoca, Zamara, Mig. Andrade, Guzman, Trejo, Juvera, Mora.

9. The data relating to the Mexican batteries, when collated, cannot be fully harmonized. E.g. Carleton puts the 24-pounders on the American left near the mountain, but from Mexican sources it seems clear that they remained near the road, and Wallace (Wallace, 50) says the same. Washington states that he was most of the time under the fire of heavy guns. Of course the Mexican left had to be protected, and it would have been very hard to move these clumsy iron pieces on the rough ground. Gen. Pérez stated after the battle that from lack of forage the draught animals had been too weak to draw the artillery up the hills.

10. Bowles was personally brave, but had been away much of the time and did not understand his work (65orders 281). His men keenly realized this (Perry, Indiana, 292), and hence went into the battle shaky. Lane knew how they felt (Scribner, Camp., 62); and apparently he should not have placed them far in advance and alone to meet overwhelming numbers. It should be added, however, that (1) he intended to give his personal attention to the regiment (Scribner, Camp., 62), and (2) the Mississippi Rifles (to whom a position had been assigned the previous evening) were expected to join the Second Indiana at an early hour (Barbour, diary). Had they not been absent with Taylor, one may fairly say, Bowles would not have given his fatal order, and the American flank would in all probability not have been turned; or, had the order been given, the Second Indiana would almost certainly have rallied upon the Mississippians, and the virtual loss of Marshall's troops would have been avoided. The gap created by the absence of the Mississippi regiment should have been filled by recalling McKee and Bragg from the west side as soon as the formation of Santa Anna's columns indicated where he intended to strike and by ordering the reserved artillery to the plateau. The cause of Bowles's order is not certain; but O'Brien's horses, when attached to the guns for the purpose of advancing, faced of course to the rear, and it seems probable that Bowles misunderstood this as a sign of withdrawal. The worst feature of his order was that he specified no place to stop.

Lieut. Col. Haddon of the Second Indiana stated in 1848 that the regiment was rallied on the south edge of a ravine, but was ordered by Taylor himself, who had then arrived, to cross to the other side of it, and, as a body of Mexicans charged it just then, it broke and ran (Perry, Indiana, 292). Certainly Taylor exhibited a peculiar resentment toward the regiment, opposed having the affair investigated (ibid., 163, 313) and endeavored to hush it up (ibid., 276). Other officers were doubtless as censurable as Bowles, but he was the most conspicuous delinquent and became the scapegoat.

11. The failure of this attack on Buena Vista was said by a Mexican officer to have been due to Gen. Andrade, who failed to co?perate, and prevented a large force of infantry from doing so (Republicano, May 3, 1847). Yell was a gallant but negligent officer. He did not know how to manoeuvre his men, and only a portion of them fought here (Niles, May 8, 1847, p. 157; Spirit of the Times, May 1). He was far in advance of them when he fell (Carleton, B. Vista, 93). American guns came up and also some dragoons, and helped complete the repulse of the enemy. The skirmish lasted only a few minutes.

What the Arkansas men lacked was not courage, but the discipline (and the resulting skill and confidence) against which they had protested while on the Chihuahua expedition (p. 274). Benham states that Marshall would not go back to the field though urged by Taylor personally to do so (Recolls.). All this resulted from a mistake of Wool's. He understood that the bench was an extremely valuable position, and should therefore have occupied it in advance, and thrown up a breastwork there, dismounting the volunteer cavalry, and placing them behind this and other works (Chamberlain). One part of the lancers ("cuirassiers") retreated; the other part crossed to the opposite side of the valley, and returned behind the hills (see note 3) to Santa Anna's position. On reappearing they were taken for Americans and caused great alarm (Balbontín, Invasión, 87). This suggests what the effect might have been had either Santa Anna or Taylor used this route for a feint or attack.

12. A bitterly contested question was whether Wool advised retreat during the battle. The truth appears to be that, as Benham fully explains, he advised preparing to retire, that Taylor gave an order accordingly to Washington, and that a zealous subaltern began to move; but that Taylor, almost instantly reflecting on the moral effect that a sign of retreat would have on the volunteers, countermanded the order. Wool would not have advised retreating from what he considered the best position, except in the case of absolute necessity.

13. Bragg now had three guns, for the one that had been under Lieut. Kilburn had rejoined him. It is worth mention that Bragg gives his ammunition expenditure, Feb. 23, as about 250 rounds per gun (Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 202), an unparalleled record for muzzle-loading cannon.

14. The Americans looked upon this as a ruse of Santa Anna, designed to save the men in the recess of the mountain; but the Mexicans give the view of the text (e.g. Apuntes, 102), and a field officer (probably Col. Bissell), who went with Hardin and McKee to meet the Mexican officers, stated that they had no white flag (Littell, no. 155, p. 234). The fact that so much consideration was paid to their absurd question suggests that Taylor was not averse to a parley. Many of the Mexicans in the recess endeavored to escape by scaling the mountain (Carleton, B. Vista, 105).

15. As the Mexican artillery could not cross the long ravine, the Mexicans in the north field were almost predestined to fail, but had Santa Anna attacked the centre vigorously at this time with all his remaining forces, the American artillery would have had to stay on the plateau, and hence in that respect the two sides would have been equal in the north field. Santa Anna's critics charged that he simply threw his troops into the battle, and left them without guidance or support. Not knowing how much he was hampered by misconduct on the part of subordinates one must be cautious, but the criticism seems mainly just. He should have concentrated on the American left and centre, sending merely a small force to amuse Washington, and making feints on the west side of the road and from behind the western hills. Again, as we see from the Mexican reports, he gave too much attention to the details of the operations, and he was unable to adapt his plans to the quick manoeuvring of the American artillery. He attributed his defeat to Mi?ón's failing to attack Taylor's rear (Negrete, Invasión, ii, 378); but Mi?ón had not force enough to do this effectively, and such a duty had not been assigned to him (Balbontín, Invasión, 71). Giménez (Memorias) charged it to the want of subordination, precision and morale on the part of the officers and the effect of their criticisms of Santa Anna upon the soldiers.

16. Benham (Recollections, 24) states that (as he learned from Mansfield) Chilton, Taylor's aide, told Mansfield that he carried this order, and was cautioned by Mansfield not to mention the fact. Wallace (Wallace, 47) says Chilton carried the order, and gives his language. Wool states that this final affair occurred under Taylor's eye and direction (Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 149). W. A. Richardson, a captain in one of these regiments, and also Col. Bissell stated that the order emanated from Taylor (Charleston Courier, Jan. 20, 1854). Weatherford, who succeeded Hardin, gives the language of the order in his report. Lombardini, general-in-chief of the Mexican infantry, had been wounded, and hence Pérez, second in that command, took his place. It has been said that Santa Anna should have led the charge, but he stated that his old wound had reopened (76Feb. 23).

17. The redoubt at Saltillo commanded most of the approaches. It was held by Capt. Webster with two 24-pound howitzers, a company of the First Artillery, and an Illinois company. At the train and headquarters camp on the right of the redoubt Lieut. Shover had one of Bragg's 6-pounders and two Mississippi companies. The three remaining Illinois companies (two having been detached from each of the regiments) remained in the city. Mi?ón found that on account of the broken ground he could do nothing (Mi?ón in Delta, June 16, 1847), and soon retired. Shover pursued him for some distance with his gun, the Mississippians and a yelling crowd of stragglers and teamsters, followed by Lieut. Donaldson of Webster's company with one of the howitzers. It was believed that Mi?ón lost fifty or sixty men. Many Mexican irregulars gathered near Saltillo but they accomplished nothing.

18. Once, it was said, Col. McKee sent his adjutant to inform the General that he was surrounded, and to ask what should be done. With convincing energy Taylor replied, "Go and tell your Colonel that he has got them just where he wants them, and now is the time to give them Jesse"; upon which the adjutant, whose face had been a picture of despair, clapped spurs to his horse, rushed back and delivered the message at the top of his voice with a spirit that every soldier caught instantly. Whether the story is literally true or not, it doubtless represents the most important part played by Taylor, and this was invaluable. If Taylor made the remark, however, he doubtless used a stronger Biblical word than "Jesse." According to Gen. Chamberlain, instead of saying, "Give them a little more grape, Mr. Bragg," he exclaimed, "Double-shot your guns and give 'em hell!" Rev. Theodore Parker said (Sermon) that the following anecdote appeared to be "very well authenticated." Seeing McKee's regiment stagger, Taylor cried as if the men could hear him, "By God, this will not do; this is not the way for Kentuckians to behave." Then they rallied, and rising in his stirrups he shouted, "Hurrah for Old Kentuck! That's the way to do it. Give 'em hell, damn 'em!" There is ample reason to believe that such Taylor could be on the battlefield.

19. The battle of Feb. 23. The reports of Taylor and his officers in Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 97–209. 267Reports of Miss. captains. Perry, Indiana, contains numerous letters. Carleton, Buena Vista, passim. Calderón, Rectif. Ceballos, Capítulos, 122–3. González, Aguascalientes, 159–60. Puga y Acal, Doc., 59. Rápida Ojeada, Segunda Parte, 9. Zarco, Historia, i, 259. French, Two Wars, 78–83. Journ. Milit. Serv. Instit., xiv, 443–4; xvii (Van Deusen). Neville, diary. Sierra, Evolution, i, 219. Delta, Mar. 14. Claiborne, Quitman, i, 291. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 182. 69Wool to Taylor, Mar. 30. 147Chamberlain, diary. 148Id., recolls. 69Bragg to [Bliss], Mar. 5. 190Ewing, diary. Davis, Recolls., 212–3. Dix, Speeches, i, 210. 330Taylor to brother, Mar. 27; Apr. 25; Sept. -. Raleigh Star, Apr. 28; July 21; Aug. 18. Charleston Mercury, Apr. 8. Rowland, Register, 407, 410–12. Ills. State Hist. Soc. Trans., 1904, pp. 49–50, 53–6; 1905, p. 209. 61Gorman, report, Mar. 2. 61O'Brien court of inquiry. 61Gen. Lane, statement, May 19, 1849. 65Gen. Lane court of inquiry. 65Bowles court of inquiry. Eyewitness, Complete Hist., 63. 110Barbour, diary. Greensborough (N. C.) Morn. Post, Apr. 5, 1903 (O. R. Smith). 8Anon. diary. 61[Wool] to Jones, Jan. 17. Madison Record, 1850 (Prickett). 300Prickett, letters. Sen. 32; 31, 1 (Hughes). Zirckel, Tagebuch, 9. Appleton's Biog. Dict. (Taylor by J. Davis). Johnson, Thomas, 24. McCormack, Koerner, i, 499, 504–5. Parker, Sermon. 256Gen. Lane to Wool, May 20. 256Wool to Marcy, June 12. 277Taylor to Coombs, May 23. Wallace, Wallace, 44–51. Nebel and Kendall, The War Illustrated, 11–16. Semmes, Service, 120–2. Rápida Ojeada, i. 5Anaya, memoria, [Nov., 1847]. S. Anna, Mi Historia, 60–5. Id., Apelación, 28. Gamboa, Impug., 24–5. 185Bragg to Duncan, Apr. 4, 1847; Jan. 13, 1848. Kenly, Md. Vol., 264. Tampico Sentinel, Mar. 27. Diario, Apr. 16. Republicano, Mar. 24; Apr. 17; May 3; June 20. 80Ampudia to gov. Méx., Oct. 10. 208Herran to Acal, Mar. 6. Noticia hist. de todos los Cuerpos. 212Hastings, diary. Negrete, Invasión, iii, app., 33–5. Balbontín, Invasión, 80–8. Apuntes, 100–4. Taylor and his Generals, 166. Scribner, Campaign, 21, 59–71. Ordó?ez, Refutación, i, ii. Hitchcock, Fifty Years, 349. Grant, Memoirs, i, 138. Muro, Miscelánea, 75. Smith, Chile con Carne, 215–49. Smith, Reminiscences, 6, 50, 112. N. Orl. Picayune, Mar. 27; Apr. 14, 22; May 21; June 24. Delta, Apr. 4; May 30; June 6, 16; July 11. Tropic, Mar. 31. Upton, Milit. Policy, 209–10. Boletín de la Democracia, no. 11. Buhoup, Narrative, 120, 123. 210Bragg to Hammond, May 4; Dec. 20. 349Pattridge to Miss W., Aug. 25. Piatt, Thomas, 69. Quisenberry, Taylor, 34–5. Revue des Deux Mondes, Aug. 1, pp. 413–7. Benham, Recolls. Wash. Union, Apr. 6, 7; June 16; Aug. 25. Nat. Intelligencer, Apr. 7, 23; May 7, 21, 1847; Mar. 23, 1848. N. Y. Journ. of Commerce, Apr. 16. Monitor Repub., May 6, 16; Nov. 30. Spirit of the Times (H. von S.), May 1. Journ. of U. S. Artillery, July, 1892, p. 296; Oct., 1892, pp. 415–8. Halleck, Milit. Art, i, p. 415. Dodd, Davis, 87. Charleston Courier, Apr. 20, 1847; Jan. 20, 1854. N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849. Ceremonies. 367Moore to Moore, Apr. 15. Davis, J. Davis, i, 341–50. Stevens, I. I. Stevens, i, 145. Carre?o, Jefes, ccxxxiv-v. Niles, Apr. 3, p. 80; Apr. 10, pp. 83–4; Apr. 24, p. 117; May 8, p. 156. 92Accusación del Gral. S. Anna. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 1115, 1169, 1181. Dix, Dix, i, 210–3. Madigan, cat. no. 2, 1914 (Bragg). 210Alvord to Hammond, Feb. 24, 1848. Griepenkerl, Applied Tactics, 187. Ills. State Hist. Soc. Trans. ix, 50. South. Qtrly. Rev., Jan., 1851, 169–89. Littell, no. 155, pp. 233–5. 251Lowry, narrative. Albert Pike, poem. 76S. Anna, Feb. 23. 76Id. to Adame, Feb. 26. 76Mora, Mar. 31, res.

A German ex-officer under Taylor said the battle was won, in spite of an unexampled ignorance of all tactical rules on the part of field officers, by the lion-like courage of the soldiers of certain regiments assisted by other fortunate circumstances (Zirckel, Tagebuch, 9). W. H. L. Wallace, adjutant of First Illinois, wrote: "I've no doubt-inter nos-had it been just as convenient for us, as for Santa Anna, to vamos [i.e. retreat] we would have been off for Monterey"; but we knew Mi?ón was in our rear, and believed that larger Mexican forces had been sent toward Monterey, and that the mountains were full of irregulars (Wallace, Wallace, 51; see also Balbontín, Invasión, 84).

20. Killed, 265; wounded, 408 (Ho. 24; 31, 1). Missing, 6. The Mississippi regiment lost more heavily than any other-one out of 3.75 men (Carleton, B. Vista, 212).

21. Aside from pluck and patriotism Taylor had a good reason for not giving up. Had he been defeated, he would probably have been punished for disobeying orders in advancing so far (see Polk, Diary, March 23, 1847). (Querying) 173J. Davis, Address.

22. The greater part of the deserters appear to have gone to Agua Nueva (Balbontín, Invasión, 83), where they hoped to find provisions and water. Santa Anna should have had a guard on the road to check and reorganize these men. His policy of holding out expectations of booty reacted now, for many men left the ranks to rob the dead and wounded (Uraga in Monitor Repub., Nov. 30, 1847).

23. Balbontín (Invasión, 89) said that the troops felt confident of triumphing the next day, and therefore would not have deserted; but while this may have been true of the artillery (always a superior body) to which he belonged, it cannot have been true of the army in general. Thousands had deserted already.

24. The night of Feb. 23. Semmes, Service, 122. Ceballos, Capítulos, 122. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1115 (Taylor). 69Wool to Taylor, Mar. 30. Chamberlain, diary. Id., recolls. Barbour, diary. Prickett, letters. Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 99, 137 (Taylor); 144 (Wool). Delta, June 16; July 11. Benham, Recolls. Rápida Ojeada, i, ii. Ordó?ez, Refutación, i, ii. 5Anaya, Memoria. 185Bragg to Duncan, Apr. 4. Republicano, Mar. 24; May 3. Carleton, B. Vista, 125–31, 191. French, Two Wars, 81–2. Journ. Milit. Serv. Instit., xiv, 443–4. Ewing, diary. Dix, Speeches, i, 213. 330Memo. in Taylor's letters to his brother. 330Taylor to brother, Mar. 27. Nebel and Kendall, 13. 267Bradford to J. Davis, Mar. 2. Perry, Indiana, 178, etc. Polk, Diary, Mar. 23. Sierra, Evolution, etc., i, 219. Independiente, Apr. 10. Balbontín, Invasión, 83, 89, 90–1, 93, 100–1. Apuntes, 104–7. 118Berlandier, journal. S. Anna, Apelación, 29, 32, etc. Gamboa, Impug., 23–5. Scribner, Camp., 66. 52Black, Mar. 6. Picayune, Mar. 24 (Sold. de la Patria); Apr. 11. Monitor Repub., May 6; Nov. 30. Niles, Apr. 10, p. 83. N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849. Ills. State Hist. Soc. Trans., ix, 50. 316Bragg to Sherman, Mar. 1, 1848. 76S. Anna, Feb. 23, 26, 27. 76Id. to Adame, Feb. 26. 76J. M. Aguirre, Jan. 27, 1848. Wallace, Wallace, 40.

The Kentucky horse and the guns (First Artillery) should have been ordered up from Rinconada Pass as soon as Taylor found there was to be a battle (Ripley, War with Mex., i, 437–8). They could have guarded La Angostura, and Washington's field pieces would have been invaluable on the plateau.

25. The Mexicans were not driven away by hunger. Statements from persons knowing the facts regarding the provisions available at Agua Nueva differ so radically that we can reach no precise conclusion on that point; but certainly there were enough to support the army more than two days, and then enable it to move. Whatever provisions were at that place could have been brought to the battlefield (Balbontín, Invasión, 89). It seems as if there must also have been supplies at Patos and La Vaquería; and Mi?ón asserted later that, as he sent word to Santa Anna, he had plenty of provisions for the army (Delta, June 16). The question of water is more difficult; but there were many wagons, and enough could have been transported for say 6000 picked men. Apparently some water must have been brought up on Feb. 22 and 23. In short, had Santa Anna felt any assurance of being able to rout the Americans on Feb. 24, he would have tried to do so, knowing that abundant supplies lay at Saltillo. Possibly he might have remained in the vicinity and prepared for another battle, even if he could not fight again the next day; but probably he remembered Scott, and he had not counted upon remaining long at the north.

26. Taylor doubtless expected to obtain the men captured at La Encarnación, but they had gone south (see Encarnacion Prisoners). Santa Anna had very few to give up, for almost all Americans who had been or might have been captured were killed by his excited troops (Rápida Ojeada; Balbontín, Invasión, 81; Republicano, March 24, 1847).

27. The Mexican sequel. Rápida Ojeada, i, ii. Gamboa, Impug., 23–5, 27–9. Otero, Comunicación, 11. Republicano, Mar. 24; May 3. Epoca, Mar. 2, 11. 208Herran to Acal, Mar. 6, 13. Balbontín, Invasión, 95–100. Apuntes, 108–15. S. Anna, Apelación, app., 39–55, 67. Ordó?ez, Refutación, i, ii. Muro, Miscelánea, 77–8. 52Black, Mar. 6. Picayune, Mar. 24 (Sold. de la Patria). Independiente, Apr. 10. Boletín de la Democracia, no. 21. Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 99 (Taylor). Diario, Mar. 31 (S. Anna); June 13. Monitor Repub., Mar. 31; May 6; Nov. 30. Carre?o, Jefes, ccxlii. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1115 (Taylor); 1125 (S. Anna). Dublán, Legislación, v, 267. 82Gil to Ruano, Mar. 6. 76S. Anna, Feb. 26, 27. 76Id. to Adame, Feb. 26. 76Comte. gen. Puebla, Mar. 3. 76Comte. gen. Tabasco, proclam., Mar. 11. 76Mora, Mar. 31, res. 76Comte. gen.

S. L. Potosí, Mar. 6. 76A. Bustamante, Mar. 9. 76Comte. gen. V. Cruz, Mar. 4. 76Guerra, circular, Mar. 1.

28. The fortifications of Monterey had already been greatly improved. Col. Morgan, Lieut. Col. Irwin and Major Wall of the Second Ohio occupied respectively Cerralvo, Marín and Punta Aguda (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1123). Morgan distinguished himself by a march executed in the face of great odds, and Irwin went to his aid (ibid.). Urrea attacked at least one other train (Mar. 6), and did a large amount of damage. So great became the alarm of the Americans that Col. Curtis, now in charge at Camargo, sent an officer to Washington with a requisition for 50,000 volunteers (Nat. Intelligencer, Mar. 23).

29. The American sequel. 330J. T. Taylor to Scott, Feb. 12. 330Taylor to brother, Mar. 27. Perry, Indiana, 127–8, 137, 149. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 95. Polk, Diary, Jan. 5; Mar. 21–3; Apr. 1, 7. 69Mesa to Trist, Mar. 3. 169Taylor to Crittenden, Mar. 25; May 15. 251Lowry, narrative. Amer. Pioneer, Mar. 8. 272Memoir of Morgan. Henry, Camp. Sketches, 327–9. Rápida Ojeada, 9. 139Campbell to D. C., Mar. 20. Meade, Letters, i, 143, 182. 69Wool to Taylor, Mar. 7. 60Marcy to Brooke, Mar. 22. Picayune, Feb. 18; Mar. 13, 28; Apr. 8. Kenly, Md. Vol., 263–4. Tampico Sentinel, Mar. 27. Carleton, B. Vista, 153–4. 60Marcy, Mar. 22, to Pierce; to Brooke; to Scott; to govs. Grant, Mems., i, 123. Smith, Chile con Carne, 151–71. Delta, Jan. 19. Matamoros Amer. Flag, Feb. 13, 17. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 1118–9, 1123–5, 1131 (Taylor). Wash. Union, Mar. 23. N. Y. Journ. of Commerce, Jan. 8. Nat. Intelligencer, Mar. 23. Niles, Mar. 27, p. 59; May 1, p. 131; May 8, pp. 151–2. 185Thomas to Duncan, Mar. 18. Sen. 32; 31, 1 (Hughes). Parrodi, Memoria. Benham, Recolls. 76S. Anna, Feb. 27. 76Carbajal to Urrea, Mar. 8. 76Mora to S. Anna, Mar. 17. Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 49, 99, 210–5. 245Curtis to Lamar, Mar. 1. 108Buchanan to Bancroft, June 14.

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APPENDIX-THE SOURCES

A. MANUSCRIPT AND PERSONAL SOURCES

As a number of the owners or holders of MSS. (whose names are preceded below by colons) did not desire to receive applications for the use of their papers, it has been thought best to omit all addresses.

Some documents belonging to large collections are, for convenience of citation, listed separately. A few verbal statements (so described) are included. The numbers preceding collections, etc., correspond to numbers preceding citations of MS. documents in the notes.

The complete Appendix follows the Notes of volume ii.

Allen, William. 1Papers: Library of Congress.

Allred, R. N. 2Recollections: R. R. Allred, Esq.

Alvarado, J. B. 3Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll., Univ. of California.

Amador, J. M. 4Memorias sobre la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Anaya, P. M. 5Memoria: Se?. Lic. D. Genaro García.

Anderson, Robert. 6Papers: Mrs. James M. Lawton.

Anderson, W. E. 7Document.

Anonymous. 8Soldier's Diary sent anonymously to the author.

Antrim, Jay. 9Sketches: Library of Congress.

Aram, Joseph. 10Narrative: Mrs. Grace Aram.

Archives of France. 11Dépt. des Affaires Etrangères, Paris.

Archives of Great Britain. 12Admiralty Papers; 13Foreign Office Papers: Public Record Office, London.

Archives of States. 14Alabama, 15Arkansas, 16Connecticut, 17Delaware, 18Georgia, 19Florida, 20Illinois, 21Indiana, 22Iowa, 23Kentucky, 24Louisiana, 25Maine, 26Maryland, 27Massachusetts, 28Michigan, 29Mississippi, 30Missouri, 31New Hampshire, 32New Jersey, 33New York, 34North Carolina, 35Ohio, 36Pennsylvania, 37Rhode Island, 38South Carolina, 39Tennessee, 40Texas, 41Vermont, 42Virginia, 43Wisconsin.

Archives of the 44U. S. Embassy at Mexico.

Archives of the 45U. S. Legation in Texas: State Dept., Washington.

Archives of U. S. Navy Dept. 46Captain's Letters; 47Squadron Letters; 48Confidential Letter Books; 49Orders; 50Executive Letters; 51Marine Corps.

Archives of U. S. State Dept. 52Correspondence (and enclosures) with diplomatic and consular agents in Mexico, Great Britain, France, Spain, Prussia and Texas; 53Notes to and from the legations of those countries; 54Report Books; 55Confidential Report Books; 56Special Missions and Correspondence with confidential agents in Mexico, Texas and California; 57Domestic Letter Books; 58Miscellaneous Letters and Replies; 59Circulars issued to diplomatic and consular agents. See also Claims Commission.

Archives of U. S. War Dept. 60Secretary of War's files; 61Adjutant General's files; 62Quartermaster General's files; 63Military Book; 64Adjutant General, Miscellany; 65Orders; 66Engineer's office; 67Bureau of Topog. Engineers; 68Judge Advocate General's office, courts martial, courts of inquiry; 69Discontinued Commands, etc.

Archivo 69adel Distrito Federal, Mexico.

Archivo 70General y Público (particularly "Guerra"), Mexico.

Archivo 71Histórico-Nacional, Madrid.

Archivo 72Nacional de Cuba.

Archivo 73Particular del Ministerio de Estado, Madrid.

Archivos (National) de 74Fomento (Maps); 75Gobernación (formerly called "Relaciones Interiores"); 75aHacienda; 76Guerra y Marina; 77Relaciones (i.e., Exteriores). At Mexico City.

Archivos (State) de 78Coahuila, 79Jalisco, 80México, 81Nuevo León, 82Puebla, 83Querétaro, 84San Luis Potosí, 85Tamaulipas, 86Vera Cruz, 87Zacatecas. At the state capitals.

Archivos (Municipal) de 88Córdoba, 89Guadalajara, 90Jalapa, 91Matamoros, 92México, 93Monterey, 94Orizaba, 95Puebla, 96Querétaro, 97Saltillo, 98San Luis Potosí, 99Tampico, 100Vera Cruz, 101Victoria, 102Zacatecas.

Avila, Juan. 103Notas Californianas: Bancroft Coll.

Ayer 104Collection: Newberry Library, Chicago.

Baldridge, William. 105The Days of 1846: Bancroft Coll.

Bancroft 106Collection: Univ. of California.

Bancroft 107Papers: New York City Public Library.

Bancroft, George. 108Papers: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Bandini, Juan. 109Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Barbour, H. H. 110Diary: Mrs. Barbour.

Beauregard, P. G. T. 111Papers: C. S. Hook, Esq.

Beauregard, P. G. T. 112Papers: Justin H. Smith.

Beauregard, P. G. T. 113Reminiscences (done by him from diary and notes): Claiborne papers, Mississippi Dept. of Hist.

Beeler, Louis F. 114Recollections.

Belden, Josiah. 115Statement: Bancroft Coll.

Bell, A. N. 116Document.

Benjamin, W. R. 117Collection.

Berlandier, Luis. 118Papers: Library of Congress.

Bevan, William. 119Statement.

Biddle, James. 120Papers: Library of Congress.

Biddle, Charles J. 121Papers: Charles Biddle, Esq.

Bidwell, John. 122California, 1841–8: Bancroft Coll.

Bidwell, John. 123Statement: Harvard Univ. Library.

Blocklenger, Benjamin. 124Letter.

Bonham, Milledge L. 125Letters: Dr. Milledge Lake Bonham, Ill.

Botello, Narciso. 126Anales del Sur de la California: Bancroft Coll.

Boyle, John. 127Letter: Miss Esmeralda Boyle.

Brackett, A. G. 128Diary: Mrs. Brackett.

Breckenridge, Robert J. 129Papers: Library of Congress.

Brichta, A. C. 130Letter: belonging to the family.

Brindle, William. 131Statement: J. D. Parrish, Esq.

Buchanan, James. 132Papers: Pennsylvania Hist. Soc.

Buck, Dr. Solon J. 133Collection.

Burton, C. M. 134Collection, Public Library, Detroit.

Butler, Anthony. 135Papers: Univ. of Texas.

Butterfield, James. 136Recollections.

Calhoun, John C. 137Papers: Clemson Coll.

Calhoun, John C. 137aPapers: Library of Congress.

Campbell, William B. 138Letters: John DeWitt, Esq.

Campbell, William B. (and David). 139Papers: Lemuel R. Campbell, Esq.; Mrs. James S. Pilcher.

Cantwell, John L. P. 140Letter: Miss Jessica R. Smith.

Carson, J. C. 141Statement: Bancroft Coll.

Carson, J. H. 142Gold Mines of 1848: Bancroft Coll.

Cary, T. G. 143California Papers: Boston Public Library.

Cassidy, P. A. 144Recollections.

Castro, Manuel. 145Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Caswell, William R. 146Diary and Letters: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Chamberlain, S. E. 147Diary: loaned by the writer.

Chamberlain, S. E. 148Recollections (verbal).

Chase, Salmon P. 149Papers: Library of Congress.

Cheatham, B. F. 150Diary and Papers: Mrs. Telfair Hodgson.

Claiborne, J. F. H. 151Papers: State of Mississippi, Dept. of Hist.

Claiborne, Thomas. 152Memoirs: belonging to the family.

Claims Commission of 1849. 153Book of Awards; 154Book of Opinions; 155Journal: U. S. State Dept.

Clay, Henry. 156Papers: Library of Congress.

Cobb, Howell. 157Papers (printed later by the Amer. Hist. Assoc.): Dr. U. B. Phillips.

Cobb, Howell. 158Papers: Dr. R. P. Brooks.

Collins, Francis. 159Papers (published later in the Qtrly. Publication of the Hist. and Philos. Soc. of Ohio, 1915, Nos. 2–3).

Columbus. 160Record of Punishments, 1846–7: U. S. Naval Academy Library.

Congress. 161Journal of a Cruise, 1846: U. S. Naval Academy Library.

Conner, David. 162Papers: Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Conner, David. 163Papers: P. F. Madigan, Esq.

Conner, David. 164Papers: Library of Congress.

Conner, David. 165Papers: Navy Dept. Library.

Conner, David. 166Papers: New York City Library.

Coutts. 167Diary of a March to California: Bancroft Coll.

Crallé, R. K. 168Papers: Library of Congress.

Crittenden, J. J. 169Papers: Library of Congress.

Crooker Family (of South Carolina). 170Papers: Dr. E. M. Shealy.

Cyane. 171Journal of a Cruise; Abstract of Journal: U. S. Naval Academy Library.

Cyane. 172Log Book: Library, U. S. Navy Dept.

Davis, Jefferson. 173Address: Library of Congress (reading-room desk).

Davis, Jefferson. 174Papers: Confederate Memorial, New Orleans.

Davis, Jefferson. 175Papers: Library of Congress.

Davis, Jefferson. 176Papers: State of Mississippi, Dept. of Hist.

Davis, John W. 177Statement of the Battle of San Pascual: Bancroft Coll.

Davis, T. F. 178Diary: belonging to the family.

Diario 179Esactísimo de lo ocurrido en México, etc.: Bancroft Coll.

Dreer 180Collection: Pennsylvania Hist. Soc.

Donelson, A. J. 181Papers: Mrs. Wm. A. Donelson (now in the Library of Congress).

Dormitzer, Walter. 182Collection.

Drum, R. C. 183Recollections (verbal).

Duke, Moses S. 184Letters: Miss Winnie V. Lynch.

Duncan, James. 185Papers: U. S. Military Academy.

Duncan, W. L. 186Notes on Bishop's Journal: McLean County (Ill.) Hist. Soc.

Eddy 187Manuscripts: Charles Carroll, Esq.

Edwards, Marcellus B. 188Diary: Missouri Hist. Soc.

Evans, Mrs. Lucy. 189Letter: belonging to the family.

Ewing, J. C. 190Diary: belonging to the family.

Fairfield, John. 191Papers: Library of Congress.

Ford. 192Collection: New York City Public Library.

Foster, R. C. 193Letters: Mrs. Edward W. Foster.

Fourth (Mexican) Infantry. 194Book of Accounts: New York Hist. Soc.

Fowler, W. P. 195Collection.

Frémont, John C. 196Statement: Library of Harvard Univ.

Gaines, E. P. 197Papers: Library of Congress.

Gallatin, Albert. 198Papers: New York Hist. Soc.

García, Se?. Lic. D. Genaro. 199Collection.

Gibbes, W. H. 200Collection.

Gibson, George R. 201Diary: Missouri Hist. Soc.

Giménez, M. M. 202Papers: Se?. Lic. D. Genaro García.

Gleason, James. 203Letter.

Gouverneur, S. L. 204Diary: Mrs. Rose Gouverneur Hoes.

Graham, L. P. 205Memorandum Book: E. W. McGlenen, Esq.

Graham, W. A. 206Papers: A. W. Graham, Esq.

Griffin, John S. 207Journal of 1846: Bancroft Coll.

Guadalajara (Public Library) 208Collection.

Guitar, Aldon. 209Letter.

Hammond, J. H. 210Diary and Papers: Library of Congress.

Hardie, James A. 211Papers: Library of Congress.

Hastings, D. H. 212Diary: loaned by the writer.

Hatch, John P. 213Letters: Library of Congress.

Hays, John C., and Caperton, John. 214Life and Adventures of John C. Hays: Bancroft Coll.

Heald, Nathan. 215Papers: Univ. of Wisconsin Library.

Heiman, A. 216Services of the First Regt. of Tennessee: Tennessee Hist. Soc.

Henshaw, J. C. 217Papers: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Henshaw, J. C. 218Narrative, prepared by Mrs. Henshaw from his papers: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Heráldica 219del Ejército Mex., etc.: Biblioteca Nacional.

Higgins, H. H. 220Plans and letters: Mrs. T. M. Coxe.

Hill, D. H. 221Diary: Pres. D. H. Hill.

Hiney, E. F. 222Diary.

Hirschorn, Jacob. 223Recollections: Justin H. Smith.

Hitchcock, E. A. 224Diary and Papers: Mrs. E. A. Hitchcock (now in the Library of Congress).

Holt, Joseph. 225Papers: Library of Congress.

Hook, C. S. 226Collection.

Hoyle, E. D. 227Recollections.

Illinois University. 228Collection.

Indiana State Library. 229Collection.

Itúrbide, Agustín de. 230Papers: Library of Congress.

Jackson, Andrew. 231Papers: Library of Congress.

Jameson, J. Franklin. 232Collection.

Janssens, Agustín. 233Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Johnson, Andrew. 234Papers: Library of Congress.

Jones, Roger. 235Papers: W. R. Benjamin, Esq.

Judah, H. M. 236Diary: Library of Congress.

Kearny, S. W. 237Letter Book: Missouri Hist. Soc.

Keating, E. H. 238Map of Monterey, Mex.: Monterey City Govt.

Kemper, Jackson. 239Papers: Univ. of Wisconsin Library.

Kennerly, W. C. 240Narrative.

Kent, James. 241Papers: Library of Congress.

Kingsbury, D. M. 242Letters to his Mother.

Kribben, Christian. 243Home Letters: B. D. Kribben, Esq.

Lakin, George W. 244Papers: Univ. of Wisconsin Library.

Lamar, M. B. 245Papers: Texas State Library.

Lane, Joseph. 246Autobiography: Bancroft Coll.

Larkin, T. O. 247Papers: Bancroft Coll.

Lasselle, Stanislaus. 248Papers: Indiana State Library.

Leese, Jacob P. 249Bear Flag Papers: Bancroft Coll.

Lieber, Francis. 250Papers: Library of Congress.

Lowry, Robert. 251Narrative.

Mackall, W. W. 252Letters: belonging to the family.

McLean, John. 253Papers: Library of Congress.

McClellan, Geo. B. 254Diary and Papers: Library of Congress.

Mangum, W. P. 255Papers: A. W. Graham, Esq.

Marcy, W. L. 256Papers: Library of Congress.

Markoe and Maxcy. 257Papers: Library of Congress.

Marshall, Henry. 258Recollections: Bancroft Coll.

Maryland Hist. Soc. 259Collection.

Massachusetts Hist. Soc. 260Collection.

Mémoires. 261 I, Apparently prepared by the French agent in Mexico; 261aII Sur les Revolutions du Mexique: Dépt. des Affaires Etrangères, Paris.

Memorias. 262Reports issued under this title by Depts. of the Mexican government (see also "Memorias" under the head of Books and Pamphlets. A number of the Memorias were not published-unless in newspapers-but exist in MS. in the library of the Sría. de Relaciones).

Mervine, William. 263Letter Books and Papers: Navy Dept. Library.

Mexican Hist. 264Documents: Museo Nacional, Mexico.

Miller, N. C. 265Letter.

Miller, W. D. 266Papers: belonging to the family.

Mississippi Dept. of Hist. 267Collections (Dr. Dunbar Rowland, Director).

Missouri Hist. Soc. 268Collection.

Molina, Se?. D. Ignacio. 269Recollections (verbal).

Moore, H. Judge. 270Diary.

Morales, J. B. 271Papers: Library of Congress.

Morgan, George. 272Memoir of: Col. J. M. Morgan.

Mullan, James. 273Diary: belonging to the family.

Neeld, Peter C. 274Letter.

Nelson, T. B., Jr. 275Letter: Mrs. Annie J. Holland.

Neville, Harvey. 276Diary: Chicago Hist. Soc.

New York Hist. Soc. 277Collection.

Niehenke, R. 278Statement.

Notes. 279Sur les Possessions Espagnoles en Amérique: Dépt. des Affaires Etrangères, Paris.

Nunelee, S. F. 280Diary: James Howell Nunelee, Esq.

O'Keefe, Michael. 281Statement: Justin H. Smith.

Olivera, Agustín. 282Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Orders (General and Special). 283Army of the North under Mejía, Ampudia and Arista: New York Hist. Soc.

Otero, M. 284Comunicación que sobre las Negoc. Diplom., etc.: Yale Univ. Library.

Paredes y Arrillaga, Mariano. 285Papers: Se?. Lic. D. Genaro García.

Parker, James. 286Statement.

Parrish, P. C. 287Diary.

Pennsylvania Hist. Soc. 288Collection.

Pérez de Acal. 289Papers: Guadalajara Public Library.

Pico, Pio (Familia Pico). 290Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Pierce, Franklin. 291Papers: Library of Congress.

Pillow, Gideon J. 292Letters: W. R. Benjamin Collection.

Pillow, Gideon J. 293Letters: Library of Congress.

Pillow, Gideon J. 294Letters: Pennsylvania Hist. Soc.

Pinto, Rafael. 295Apuntaciones para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Poinsett, Joel R. 296Papers: Pennsylvania Hist. Soc.

Polk, James K. 297Papers: Library of Congress (including the Polk papers examined by the author at the Chicago Hist. Soc.).

Porter, Andrew. 298Papers: Major John Biddle Porter.

Posey, Carnot. 299Letters: Dr. Walter L. Fleming.

Pricket, John A. 300Letters.

Primer Battn. Activo de Oaxaca. 301Libro de Servicios: Rhode Island Hist. Soc.

Puryear, J. F. 302Document.

Quitman, John A. 303Papers: in possession of the family.

Quitman, John A. 304Papers in the Claiborne Papers.

Richardson, C. T. 305Recollections: Justin H. Smith.

Riser, J. J. 306Recollections (Mormon Battalion).

Roberts, B. S. 307Diary and letters: Brigadier General B. K. Roberts.

Roberts, Charles. 308Autograph Collection: Haverford Coll.

Roessler, Edward. 309Diary: belonging to the family.

Roque, J. K. 310Document.

Santa Anna, A. L. de. 311Papers: Se?. Lic. D. Genaro García.

Santa Anna, A. L. de. 312Papers: Library of Congress.

Saunders, J. L. 313Papers: Library of Congress.

Sawyer, Charles H. 314Documents for the Hist. of the Conquest of California: Bancroft Coll.

Schouler, William. 315Papers: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Sherman, W. T. 316Papers: Library of Congress.

Sibley, H. H. 317Papers: Minnesota Hist. Soc.

Smith, C. B. 318Papers: Library of Congress.

Smith, George. 319Diary: belonging to the family.

Smith, Persifor F. 320Papers: State Normal School, West Chester, Pa.

Smith, T. F. 321Diary: belonging to the writer.

Smith, W. B. 322Diary: belonging to the family.

Stevenson, J. D. 323Letter Book; 324General Order Book; 325Regimental Order Book: New York Hist. Soc.

Sumner, Charles. 326Papers: Harvard Univ. Library.

Sutherland, D. H. 327Letters: belonging to the family.

Sweet, G. N. 328Statement.

Taliaferro, William B. 329Papers: Miss L. S. Taliaferro.

Taylor, Zachary. 330Papers: Library of Congress.

Taylor, Zachary. 331Papers: Henkels catalogue.

Tennery, Thomas D. 332Diary: Rev. John S. Cook, D.D.

Tlacotálpam, Mex. 333Judicial Archives.

Torres, Manuel. 334Peripecias de la Vida California: Bancroft Coll.

Trist, Nicholas P. 335Papers: Library of Congress.

Turner, C. B. 336Letter: belonging to the family.

Turner, H. S. 337Diary: Missouri Hist. Soc.

U. S. House of Representatives. 338Files: Capitol, Washington.

U. S. House of Representatives. 339Papers: Library of Congress.

U. S. Military Academy (West Point). 340Collection.

U. S. Senate. 341Files: Capitol, Washington.

University of Illinois. 342Collection.

Vallejo, M. G. 343Documentos para la Hist. de California: Bancroft Coll.

Vallejo, M. G. 344Recuerdos Hist. y Personales: Bancroft Coll.

Van Buren, Martin. 345Papers: Library of Congress.

Wade, W. P. 346Document: belonging to the family.

Washburne, Elihu B. 347Papers: Library of Congress.

Watterston, George. 348Notes on U. S. History: Library of Congress.

Watterston, George. 349Papers: Library of Congress.

Weber, Juan L. 350Recollections (verbal).

Webster, Daniel. 351Papers: Library of Congress.

Weeks, J. W. 352Reminiscences: Bancroft Coll.

Welles, Edgar T. 353Collection: Connecticut Hist. Soc.

Welles, Gideon. 354Papers: Library of Congress.

Wheaton, Henry. 355Papers: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Whitcomb, T. M. 356Diary: T. J. Whitcomb, Esq.

Wilcox, C. M. 357Diary (portions copied by him): Claiborne papers, Mississippi Dept. of History.

Williams, Thomas. 358Letters: Rt. Rev. G. Mott Williams.

Winthrop-Clifford. 359Correspondence: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Winthrop-Kennedy. 360Correspondence: Massachusetts Hist. Soc.

Woods, William. 361Recollections.

Worth, G. A. 362Papers: Library of Congress.

Worth, W. J. 363Papers: W. R. Benjamin Collection.

Worth, W. J. 364Papers: Mrs. K. S. Hubbell.

Wyse, F. O. 365Papers: Miss Mary Wyse.

Yale University. 366Collection (University Library).

Yell, Archibald. 367Papers: Mrs. R. H. Fitzgerald.

Map Division, Library of Congress. 369Map of Palo Alto.

Taylor, Zachary. 370Papers: Mrs. W. R. Stauffer.

Mitchell, W. I. 371Statement.

Hyde, George. 372Statement of Hist. Facts on California: Bancroft Coll.

Evans, Joseph. 373Narrative: Justin H. Smith.

Conner, David. 374Letters: Henkels catalogue.

Madigan, P. F. 375Collection.

Nicholson, A. S. 376Recollections (verbal).

Willing, Wildurr. 377Paper on Scott's operations (published later).

Winthrop, R. C. 378The Mexican War Bill (Massachusetts Hist. Soc.)

De Witt, John. 379Collection (see also No. 138).

Footnotes

[A] The notes to which this and the other "superior figures" invite attention will be found immediately after the text of the volume. In the notes only brief titles of books are given, but these may be supplemented by reference to the list of printed sources given in the appendix of the second volume. Citations (in the notes) preceded by a number in black type refer to the list of MS. sources standing at the end of the notes.

[B] These figures cover also the author's "Annexation of Texas," which is virtually an introduction to the present work.

[C] In Mexico, however, usually like s in "sun."

[D] In Mexico usually like y.

[E] It will be seen that occasionally the same "superior figure" is attached to several paragraphs, and that sometimes these reference numbers are not in consecutive order. The reasons will be discovered when the reader consults the notes, which follow the text of each volume.

[F] A Mexican sometimes chose to bear the family name of his mother as well as that of his father. The former was connected to the latter with the word "and" (y). Paredes y Arrillaga, Pe?a y Pe?a, Mora y Villamil are instances. In referring to such persons, however, it was customary to use only the first of the names. Thus one finds much more often "Paredes" than "Paredes y Arrillaga."

[G] Smith was colonel of the Mounted Rifles; but, as he had been brigadier general of Louisiana volunteers and now commanded a brigade, he was commonly given the higher title. In August, 1847, he was a regular brevet brigadier general.

Transcriber's Note

There are three types of notes in the text. The lettered notes (originally asterisks) were printed as standard footnotes on each page. References to these notes now appear in brackets as [A], [B] and so on. The notes themselves have been moved to directly follow the paragraph within which they are referenced. Occasionally, an asterisk is used for some other purpose, usually preceding rather than following a word or phrase, and remain asterisks.

Numeric notes refer to the extensive Notes section of the text. The references to those notes in the text are themselves not necessarily consecutive, nor are they unique.

Within the Notes, there are bold numbers prefixed to key words (e.g., '123keyword') which serve as references to sources, to be found in the Appendix. There may be multiple references to the same source.

The logic behind this system is explained by the author in his Preface, and in more detail in note 5 of the Notes to that Preface.

In general, Spanish names, when used in English phrases, are printed without accents. 'México' is used when the language is Spanish, and 'Mexico', without the accent, when in English. On occasion, the printer fails to observe this distinction, as on p. xviii: "and a plan in [Mexico] á través de los Siglos". These are considered as printer's errors, and have been corrected here.

Where variants in spelling occur in quoted passages, they are always retained.

The name of the town of Matamoros is spelled, occasionally (pp. 177, 468), as 'Matamoras'. The variants are retained.

The word 'manoeuvre' is sometimes printed with an 'oe' ligature. The variant has been retained.

At the end of the final paragraph of Chapter III, there is a reference to Note 41 of that chapter, which does not exist. Either the note was not included, or the reference was misnumbered. The anchor is included, and linked to a [note ] to that effect.

The following table describes other textual issues, and the resolution of each. The [x/y] annotations mark the additions, deletions or substitutions made to the text. Minor inconsistencies of punctuation in the Notes have been silently corrected. On several occasions, letters or numbers have gone missing from the images used to prepare this text. Where no reasonable conjecture is supportable, an empty bracket [ ] indicates the spot.

p. xviii [9]. Battles of Monterey. Central Operations '9' is missing.

and a plan in M[e/é]xico á través de los Siglos Corrected.

p. 57 to accomplish anything[.] Added.

p. 91 extend our ter[r]itory by conquest Corrected.

p. 95 the minister proce[e]ded to Vera Cruz Added missing 'e'.

p. 99 "the i[n]gnominious loss of national integrity" Removed spurious 'n'.

p. 149 made Arista commander[-]in-chief The hyphen is missing on the line break.

p. 177 rei[e]nforcements Removed extraneous 'e'.

could probably h[o/a]ave taken Corrected.

p. 301 seven hundred National [oe/G]uards Corrected printer's error.

p. 372 tha[t] he might be able Added missing 't'.

p. 402 Coch[e]let Added missing 'e'.

p. 412 dates given as 'fractions'

p. 415 Bankhead, nos. 108 of 1844; [ ], 17, The first numeral is indistinct, may be 2, 3, 8.

p. 424 ([i]bid., 94; Ho. 351; 25, 2, Added missing 'i'.

p. 431 to cast a gratuit[u]ous aspersion Removed gratuitous 'u'.

p. 438 Carre?o, Je[f]es Added missing 'f'.

p. 440 Watson, Taylo[e/r], 113–4 A reference to 'Watson, Taylor' appears earlier. None to 'Tayloe'.

p. 476 Housto[u]n, Texas May refer to 'Houston', but is retained.

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