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The War With Mexico, Volume I (of 2) By Justin H. Smith Characters: 22102

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1. Butler returned to Monterey about the first of February.

2. The statements regarding Taylor's negligence are from Gen. Benham, who was on the ground as an engineer officer. His "Recollections" was published in 1871, and whether it was based on documents is not known. But, being an engineer, he was a man of clear and trained intelligence; he possessed superior ability; and on careful inquiry the author was told by Major Lukesh, director of the engineer school, Washington Barracks, that in 1878 his faculties appeared to be entirely sound. Moreover his account shows internal evidences of credibility. The alleged negligence of Taylor was in accordance with his temperament and previous record, and he probably thought it would reassure the troops.

3. Taylor wrote nothing and did nothing indicating an intention to make his stand at Carnero Pass, and the evidence that he intended to fight at Agua Nueva seems to be decisive. He might, however, have endeavored to annoy the enemy at the Pass.

4. Affairs with Taylor up to Feb. 20. Carleton, Buena Vista, 2–8, 50, 179–80. 190Ewing, diary. 330Taylor to brother, Feb. 8. Raleigh (N. C.) Star, Aug. 18, 1847. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 86, 182. 69Wool to Taylor, Jan. 20, 29. 69Warren to Wool, Feb. 14. 147Chamberlain, diary. 148Id., recollections. 61Am. offs. to S. Anna, Mar. 24. 61Heady to Marshall, Aug. 30, 1848. 61Gaines to Scott, May 3, 1847. 65Wool, orders 222. C. M. Clay, Mems., i, 143. Vedette, ii, no. 2 (Oury); no. 8 (Lee). 61[Wool] to adj. gen., Jan. 17. Article on Taylor (by J. Davis) in Appleton's Biog. Dict. Henry, Camp. Sketches, 248–9. 185Bragg to Duncan, Apr. 4. 299Posey to friend, Feb. 19. Smith, Chile con Carne, 161. Smith, Remins., 41–5. Upton, Mil. Policy, 209. Amer. Flag, Matamoros, Feb. 17. N. Y. Tribune, Mar. 29. 367Yell to -–, Jan. 19. Ho. Report 413; 30, 1. Encarnacion Prisoners, 35–8, 92–4. Meade, Letters, i, 169, 182. 300Prickett, letters. Bishop, Journal. 8Anon. diary. 245Bee to Lamar, Dec. 5, 1846. Rápida Ojeada, 6, 8. Coleman, Critt., i, 308–10. Balbontín, Invasión, 70. Benham, Recollections. 253Harney to McLean, June 13. 349Pattridge to Miss W., July 21. Spirit of the Times, May 1 (H. von S.). Hist. Teacher's Mag., Apr., 1912., p. 75. N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849. 316Bragg to Sherman, Mar. 4, 1848. 146Caswell, diary, Jan. 12. 139Campbell to D. C., Nov. 2, 9, 1846. Senex, Myth. N. Y. Sun, Jan. 28. (Urrea) Delta, Jan. 16. Picayune, Mar. 11; Apr. 14 (Taylor); June 25. Niles, Mar. 20, p. 60; May 8, p. 156. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 441, 1098, 1106–10, 1162 (Taylor); 864, 876 (Scott); 1108 (Wool); 1111–2, 1182 (lists). Monitor Repub., Jan. 14. 76S. Anna, Jan. 26; Feb. 27. 76Zambonino, Jan. 23. 76Auxil. inspector of N. León to Canales, Jan. 20.

Col. Campbell (First Tenn. regt.): "Old Zack's" manners are such that he excites no jealousy; "no one feels that he [Taylor] is his superior, but his equal or inferior, and each thinks he can control and manage such a mind" (139to D. Campbell, Apr. 25, 1847). U. S. Grant: We thought the battles on the Rio Grande pretty important, but had "only a faint conception of their magnitude until they were fought over in the North by the Press and the reports came back to us" (Mems., i, 99). It will be noted that Taylor pursued now the same anti-C?sarean, anti-Napoleonic policy of teaching his troops to despise the enemy that had been followed by him before the battles of May, 1846 (chap. viii, note 9). The distance by rail from Saltillo to Agua Nueva station is eighteen miles. Rives (U. S. and Mexico, ii, 350) speaks of the buildings at Buena Vista as "laid out in regular streets"; but, as the text states, Buena Vista was only a poor farm, not a rich hacienda. A soldier, there present, called it an "insignificant, dirty little rancho."

5. El Crepusculo, May 16, 1835, said that Santa Anna triumphed over Zacatecas "with the tranquillity of the tiger, which, sated with the flesh of its prey, lies down on what it does not wish to devour." During December, 1846, very sharp 76letters were exchanged by Governor González and Santa Anna.

6. This estimate is based upon about thirty statements, none of them official. About the middle of August Salas ordered to the north the troops that had been fighting in Jalisco. About 5500 regulars preceded or accompanied Santa Anna's journey to the north, and later he called other troops from the capital and the states. Though accounts varied, Ampudia seems to have brought nearly 6000; the Fourth Brigade, which had failed to reach Monterey, and the former garrison of Tampico were substantial additions; Guanajuato state, roused personally by Valencia, contributed more than 5000; the Jalisco regiment, which arrived at the end of October, numbered 1345 foot; the state of S. Luis Potosí did well, and other states did more or less; and an artillery company was made up from American deserters, mostly Irishmen, under the name of San Patricio (see chap. xi, note 11); but desertion-due to the inborn distaste of the masses for war, to bad treatment and to poor subsistence-was constantly unraveling the work of accumulation.

It seems to have been a mistake to draw Ampudia's army to San Luis at so early a date. It was in no danger before the end of the armistice; it could have encouraged the people near Saltillo to act as guerillas; and it needed time to regain its morale. Besides, this backward movement had a bad effect on the other troops, and so much was said at San Luis by Ampudia's men about the prowess of the Americans, that a general order forbidding such talk had to be issued. Ampudia and a number of his officers were put on trial; but the trials were suspended, and most of the accused were exonerated in orders. Several thousand men (successively under Urrea, Valencia and Vázquez) were kept at Tula, about 125 miles northeast of San Luis. Santa Anna knew the Americans could not bring artillery via Tula, and did not fear them without it; but he looked forward to operating via Victoria against Taylor's line of communication. Another body was kept at Matehuala. Smaller forces were echeloned in the same general direction; and Mi?ón's brigade was thrown still farther forward as a screen, corps of observation and means of annoying the enemy. In order to prevent the Americans from learning about his operations, Santa Anna gave orders to the cavalry at his front that no one should be permitted to go to Saltillo or Monterey without a pass signed by himself.

7. Santa Anna's arrival, plans and operations at S. L. P.; his financial difficulties there. Amer. Eagle, Apr. 8. 52J. Parrott, Feb. 6. 52Black, Nov. 17, 1846. London Times, Dec. 18, 1846; Mar. 11; Apr. 20, 1847. Matamoros Amer. Flag, Mar. 13. Giménez, Mems., 96–7, 264. Journal des Débats, Feb. 22. Constitutionnel, Dec. 5, 12, 1846; Jan. 17, 31, 1847. 69Worth to Bliss, Nov. 29, 1846. 69Shields to Bliss, Jan. 13, 1847. 58Jobson, Feb. 14. 61Shields to adj. gen., Jan. 19. 47Black to Conner, Sept. 24, 1846. 47Conner, Oct. 26; Nov. 5; Dec. 1. Memoria de ... Guerra, Dec., 1846. Doblado, Memoria que contiene. 70Canalizo to S. Anna, Jan. 7. Henry, Camp. Sketches, 249, 271. Gamboa, Impug., 26. Negrete, Invasión, ii, 351; iii, app., 444; iv, app., 177, 417. Ramírez, México, 9, 10, 12. México á través, iv, 579, 591–2. Don Simplicio, Oct. 10, 1846; Jan. 9, 30; Feb. 17, 1847. Observador Zacat., Dec. 27, 1846, suplem. 100Jefe dept. of V. Cruz to ayunt., Dec. 21, 1846. Eco de Tampico, Oct. 8, 14, 1846. Escudero, Mems., 6. Durango congress, Dec. 11, 1846. Republicano, Oct. 15, 1846; Feb. 2, 1847. 80Méx. state, decree, Nov. 26, 1846. Epoca, Sept. 26; Oct. 13, 1846; Jan. 19, 26, 30; Feb. 16. 77Relaciones, circulars, Sept. 30; Oct. 6, 19, 20, 22, 1846. 75aHacienda, circular, Oct. 14, 1846. 83Gov. Querétaro to other govs., Oct. 16, 1846; to Farías, Oct. 18; to S. Anna, Nov. 21; Dec. 21. Rivera, Gobernantes, ii, 309. Balbontín, Invasión, 53–4, 58, 61. Apuntes, 69, 70, 73, 75. Defensa de ... Estrada. Donnavan, Adventures, 51, 76. 13Bankhead, nos. 140, 144, 151, 173, 178, 1846. Muro, Miscelánea, 65, 68, 70. García, Revol. de Ayutla, 27. Sierra, Evolution, i, 217. Crepúsculo, May 16, 1835. Puga y Acal, Docs., 57. García, Juárez, 65. Bustamante, Apuntes ... S. Anna, 289. S. Anna, Apelación, 24–5; app., 3, 14, 18–24, 30, 30–9, 66–7. 80Id. to gov. Méx. state, Nov. 26, 1846; Jan. 31, 1847. Picayune, Mar. 10. Delta, Jan. 22. Independiente, May 22. Wash. Union, Nov. 16, 30, 1846; Mar. 17, 1847. N. Y. Journ. of Commerce, Jan. 8. 80Gov. to legislature, Feb. 15, 1847. Diario, Oct. 1, 2, 6, 7, 16, 21, 22, 24; Nov. 2, 14, 19, 27; Dec. 4, 6, 8, 16, 20, 24, 25, 28, 1846; Jan. 30; Feb. 15, 17, 1847. Monitor Repub., Oct. 18, 31; Nov. 17, 18, 20, 21; Dec. 21, 1846; Jan. 8, 29; Feb. 11, 16; Apr. 22; Nov. 30, 1847. Mora, Papeles, 64, 66. 162Conner, Dec. 1, 1846 166Black to Conner. Sept. 24, 1846. Niles, Mar. 27, p. 57. Meade, Letters, i, 160. 52J. Parrott, June 4, 1846. 73Bermúdez de Castro, nos. 343, 346, 1846. 75Gov. Michoacán to Relaciones: circ. no. 252 of Relac. Parrodi, Memoria (S. Anna, Oct. 18). Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 776, no. 4. 366Letters from S. Anna to gov. S. L. P., Nov. 1. And from 76 the following. Carrera, Nov. 10. Plana mayor, Dec. 1. Valencia, addresses, Oct. 6, 30. Gov. to cong. Durango, Nov. 8. M. Escandón, July 21. Salas, proclams., Aug. 28; Nov. 11. Pi?a to Carrera, Dec. 10. Decrees, Sept. 27; Dec. 2. Memo, of artill. sent to S. L. P. Circular, Aug. 4. Report on artillery, Nov. 13. Comte. gen. Chiapas, Oct. 3. Comisario gen. to S. Anna, Nov. 30; Dec. 5. Juan Morales, Nov. 2. Comte. gen. Durango, address, Oct. 16. Guerra, circulars, Oct. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; Nov. 30; Dec. 2, 1846. S. Anna, Sept. 29; Oct. 3, 4, 10, 14, 17, 19, 22, 22, res., 25, res., 28, 30, 31; Nov. 2, 4, 5, 7, 9, 16, 18, 19, 28, 30; Dec. 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, 19, 22, 28, 30, 1846; Jan. 1, 4, 7, 15, 19, 20; Feb. 27, 1847. Mora, Apr. 22, 1847. Comte. gen. Guanajuato, Oct. 30; Nov. 13; Dec. 28, 1846. S. L. P. assembly, decree, June 17, 1846. Ampudia to S. Anna, Oct. 18. Relaciones, Jan. 11. J. G. P. Garay, June 8, 1846. Valencia, proclam., Dec., 1844. Yá?ez, Oct. 9; Nov. 6, 1846. Ampudia, Oct. 1, 1846. Valencia, Nov. 8. To S. Anna, Oct. 17. S. Anna to gov. Zacatecas, Dec. 17.

8. Copies of the Herald containing this letter arrived at Vera Cruz, but were seized. Later Santa Anna denied flatly that he had had any dealings with the United States (Apelación, 16).

9. As Santa Anna's movement rested essentially upon non-military reasons, Scott's forecast of his operations naturally proved incorrect. The American attack upon Vera Cruz, though known to be planned, was not yet known certainly to be coming. Santa Anna defended himself later for not going to Vera Cruz by saying that he was merely commander of the northern army, but in fact he did not so regard himself. The truth is that he urged and expected the government to provide for Vera Cruz, that the government assured him it had been provided for, and that, had it been tenaciously defend

ed, it could have held out until he could have arrived in that vicinity (76S. Anna, Oct. 14, 20, 1846; Jan. 14, 18, 1847. Id., Apelación, 33. 76To S. Anna, Jan. 30, 1847). Taylor's moving away from Scott caused the intercepting of Scott's letter of January 3, which revealed Taylor's weakness, and thus may have been the cause of the battle of Buena Vista.

10. Why Santa Anna marched north (complaints of his conduct). 52Black, Aug. 27; Oct. 8; Nov. 17, 1846; Jan. 28, 1847. Sierra, Evolution, 218. Soldado de la Patria, no. 13. London Times, Jan. 28. Memoria de ... Relaciones, Dec., 1846. Courrier des Etats Unis, June 20; July 9, 1846. 335Mackenzie to Trist, Nov. 25, 1846. Gamboa, Impug., 15–19, 21–2. Kenly, Md. Vol., 390. Ramírez, Mexico, 173, 192. Don Simplicio, Jan. 9, 20, 27; Feb. 3. 82MS. apparently written in Jan., 1847. 77Relaciones, circular, Nov. 27, 1846. Republicano, Jan. 21, 31. 13Pakenham, no. 127, 1846. 83Gov. Querétaro to S. Anna, Nov. 21, 1846. Biog. del Gen. S. Anna, 1847. 13Pakenham to Palmerston, Oct. 29, 1846. Negrete, Invasión, iii, app., 483 (Otero); iv, app., 177. Balbontín, Invasión, 59. Apuntes, 77. Pacheco, Exposición. 13Bankhead, nos. 121, 140, 141, 157, 169, 1846; 5, 1847. García, Juárez, 65. Tributo á la Verdad, 27. S. Anna, Manifiesto, Méx., 1847, 6. Id., Apelación, 16, 23. Picayune, Mar. 9, 10. Acta, Mazatlán, Jan. 18. 80Olaguíbel to S. Anna, Jan. -, 1847. Wash. Union, Oct. 10, 1846 (from La Patria); Mar. 17, 1847. Nat. Intelligencer, Sept. 5, 1846. Richmond Times, Sept. 2, 1846. Diario, Nov. 24; Dec. 6, 8, 1846; Jan. 30, 1847. Monitor Repub., Oct. 22; Nov. 20, 29; Dec. 28, 1846; Jan. 4, 6, 8, 14, 19, 22 (calling attention to the scattered state of Taylor's forces), 26, 29, 1847. Mora, Papeles, 70. Niles, Mar. 27, p. 57. 73Bermúdez de Castro, nos. 343, res., 410, 1846. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 90. 76Relaciones, Jan. 11. 76S. Anna, Feb. 27. 76Id., Manifiesto, Jan. 26.

Rives (U. S. and Mexico, ii, 341) doubts whether S. Anna had learned from Richey's despatches (chap. xviii, note 27) that Taylor's forces had been depleted, and cites in evidence S. Anna's declaration in defence of himself for going against Taylor when Scott was about to attack Vera Cruz (Apelación, 32). But (1) S. Anna was not a person to admit unnecessarily the strongest point of an accusation against him, and in fact the other point of his defence, cited by Rives, was not honest; (2) S. Anna here representing that he feared Scott was coming from Tampico to S. Luis Potosí shows again the disingenuousness of his defence, for he must have known that such a movement was impracticable; (3) it is hardly conceivable that Scott's intercepted letter of Jan. 3 did not, like Marcy's of Sept. 2, find its way to headquarters.

11. The forces taking part in the campaign seem to have been 9500 infantry from San Luis, 4000 (under Mejía) stationed at Matehuala, and 1000 (under Parrodi) from Tula, 6000 cavalry in four brigades (Torrejón at Las Bocas near S. L. P., Juvera at Venado, Andrade at Cedral, and Mi?ón at La Encarnación), and 900 engineers, artillery and sappers-a total of 21,400 including officers. These numbers are taken from Rápida Ojeada and from a San Luis letter (the figures of which were stated positively to have come from a member of Santa Anna's staff) printed in El Republicano of February 12, which substantially agree. Santa Anna's figures were smaller but perhaps did not include Mi?ón's and Parrodi's troops. Those of the Spanish minister were somewhat larger. There seem to have been seventeen guns (three 24-pounders and three 16's, all of which were siege or fortress guns, and for field pieces five 12's, five 8's and a 7-inch howitzer) which, as well as most of the ammunition, appear to have gone forward January 27. Urrea was at the same time to pass from Tula into Tamaulipas, strike at Taylor's communications and threaten Monterey. Probably there were bodies of irregulars at points not named above.

It occurs to the author at this point to remark that consistency in the use of the article in geographical names is hardly practicable. Even Mexican maps have not been consistent; and for us it would (e.g.) be an affectation to use the article with such well-known names as Puebla and Saltillo.

12. At certain points in the desert there were large wells; and in each of these a wide wheel, carrying buckets, was turned by mule power.

13. The main part of the army arrived Feb. 17–19 (Apuntes, 96). Taylor thought he could not move more than about 6000 men some 125 miles (supposed to be about 140) from a well-stocked base, Camargo, through a region supplied with water, subsistence and forage, and could not transport 18-pounders (chap. xi, note 5). After Mi?ón advanced to Potosí, Andrade occupied La Encarnación (night of Feb. 11). The wheel pumps were then set in operation, but by Feb. 19 they were worn out. The only ample supply of water was then seven or eight miles away, but it had to be used for the animals. The distance from S. L. Potosí to Agua Nueva by rail is about 223 miles.

14. Feb. 19 two brigades of cavalry had not arrived. The figures may or may not have included these and Mi?ón's force. Probably they did include many whose duties kept them from the firing line (Republicano, May 3, 1847). The original reports of the officers regarding numbers and operations have disappeared from 76.

15. To and at La Encarnación. Carleton, Buena Vista, 23, 229. León, Méx., 474. García, Juárez, 67. London Times, May 10. Journal Milit. Serv. Instit., xiv, 443. Giménez, Mems., 98. Sierra, Evolution, 219. Le Clercq, Voyage, 31–49. Calendario de Ontiveros, 1847. Sen. 32; 31, 1, p. 8, note. Rápida Ojeada, 4, 7–9, etc. Ordó?ez, Refutación, 5, 8, etc. 61Lamar to Bliss, Apr. 21. Rodríguez, Breve Rese?a, 1848, 57. Republicano, Feb. 12; Mar. 24; May 3. 80S. Anna to gov. México state, Jan. 27. Epoca, Jan. 19, 26; Feb. 25. Negrete, Invasión, ii, 389. Balbontín, Invasión, 60–9, 78. Apuntes, 88, 91–7. S. Anna, Manifiesto, Mar., 1848. Id., Apelación, 24–7, 32; app., 67. Muro, Miscelánea, 73–5. Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 153–8. De Peyster, Kearny, 127. Diario, June 13. Monitor Repub., Nov. 30. Journal of U. S. Artillery, July, 1892, p. 294. Rápida Ojeada, ii, 4, 6, 7. Niles, Mar. 27, p. 62. 73Bermúdez de Castro, no. 445, 1846. Encarnacion Prisoners, 43. Steele, Amer. Campaigns, i, 125. 76S. Anna, Jan. 19, 26; Feb. 2, 11, 17, 27. The author has been over the greater part of the route.

16. One cannot be sure enough now regarding the truth of the various allegations regarding the lateral routes to say what Santa Anna might have done. If he had reason (as he seems to have had) to believe that he could surprise Agua Nueva, it would have been unwise to choose a circuitous route of doubtful practicability. No Mexican came to give him information about the ground (76Mora, April 23, 1847).

17. From La Encarnación to Carnero Pass. Carleton, Buena Vista, 232. Semmes, Service, 121. Gamboa, Impug., 23. Epoca, Feb. 25. Balbontín, Invasión, 69, 70, 79. Apuntes, 97. S. Anna, Apelación, 25. Ordó?ez, Refutación. Republicano, Mar. 24. Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 156–8. Diario, June 13 (Ordó?ez). Diccionario Universal (Itinerarios). 76Mora, Feb. 25. 76S. Anna, Feb. 27.

18. McCulloch had made a previous expedition to La Encarnación and found cavalry there.

19. Santa Anna attributed to a deserter named Váldez the failure of his plan to surprise Taylor (Apelación, 26), but the story of Váldez in itself probably would not have had much effect on Taylor. At La Hedionda May sent Lieut. Sturgis on a scouting expedition. Firing was heard later, and Sturgis, being captured, did not return. This La Hedionda was often called La Hedionda Grande.

20. Chamberlain's 147diary states in detail, quoting the remarks made, how Wool, supported by the officers, forced the withdrawal from Agua Nueva by threatening to lead the troops back himself rather than see them sacrificed. This is startling, but cannot easily be rejected. Of all the military men known to the author Chamberlain was the most sternly soldierlike. He rose from the ranks to a brevet brigadier-generalship, and he vouched for the correctness of his diary, which had been kept strictly for himself. When not acting as Wool's orderly he served as one of May's dragoons, who were commonly used by Taylor as a sort of bodyguard. The reason given by Taylor for retreating (Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 132) was that his position could be turned on either side; but he knew that long before, or should have known it.

As the route via La Hedionda debouched in the rear of Buena Vista, one asks why the reason which seems mainly to have caused the retreat did not veto the stand actually taken. Wool must have seen this point; and one suspects that he used the alarm produced by the reports of the scouts to bring about a withdrawal to the position he had long preferred, reckoning also that, should it prove necessary to retire farther, this could much more easily be done from Buena Vista than from Agua Nueva. Evidently the sudden retreat fatigued the troops as well as discouraged them; and not having become acquainted with the peculiar ground on which they were to fight, they were repeatedly taken by surprise during the battle that followed. By retreating Taylor gave up the advantage, on which he had insisted, of forcing S. Anna to fight at the very edge of a desert (chap. xviii, note 39).

21. At night wagons were sent to Agua Nueva for the stores, but the Gentlemen-Volunteers under Yell refused to load them. Hence the First Dragoons (regulars), who had slept only some three hours in as many days, were sent up to do the work (Chamberlain, diary). Marshall's Kentucky horse reinforced Yell. The haste of the Americans was such that corn and beans, instead of being loaded into waiting wagons or destroyed, were thrown into a spring, where the Mexicans found them (officer's diary in Republicano, May 3, 1847). Yell's instructions were to retire before midnight, taking the Second Kentucky with him from La Encantada.

22. Taylor's operations Feb. 20–21 (including night of Feb. 21). 299Posey to friend, Feb. 19. 69Wool to Bliss, Feb. 7. 147Chamberlain, diary. 148Id., recollections. Madison Record, 1850 (Prickett). 300Prickett, letters. Semmes, Service, 121–2. Tampico Sentinel, Mar. 27. Scribner, Camp., 59. Smith, Remins., 37, 42. Picayune, Apr. 14 (Taylor). Sen. 1; 30, 1, pp. 97, 99, 132 (Taylor); 144 (Wool). J. Davis in Cong. Globe, 31, 1, app., 1034–41. 173Id., Address. Benham, Recolls. Journ. U. S. Artillery, July, 1892, p. 294. Davis, J. Davis, i, 336. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 1168, 1176 (Taylor). Carleton, Buena Vista, 4, 12–21, 24–6, 45. Journ. Milit. Serv. Instit., xiv, 199 (No one can tell why Taylor did not fortify Saltillo before the battle), 443. N. Y. Eve. Post, Jan. 4, 1849. 76Mora, Feb. 25.

The reason that led Taylor to neglect preparing Saltillo was no doubt the same that had led him previously to neglect preparations when the circumstances called for them.

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