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   Chapter 35 THE CALIFORNIA QUESTION No.35

The War With Mexico, Volume I (of 2) By Justin H. Smith Characters: 22613

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:03


1. In 1845 there entered at Monterey, the only port of entry, twenty-seven American vessels (9435 tons), eighteen Mexican (2620), four British (966), three French (756) and three German (525).

2. Mexico tried to keep the emigrants out with proclamations and orders to the California authorities, but the Americans appealed successfully to the treaty of amity and commerce and (it may be presumed) to the self-interest of local authorities.

3. The Mexican government was urged to buy New Helvetia, and negotiations began; but it was said that the Americans in the valley declared they would not permit Sutter to sell, and it seemed doubtful whether Mexico could hold the place even if she purchased it.

4. California and its population. 13Pakenham, nos. 66, 78, 1840; 1, 1842. 13Capt. Jones to Pakenham, Nov. 30, 1841. Revue de Paris, Jan., 1849. 13Forbes, no. 2, 1846. Nat. Intelligencer, Apr. 26, 1842; Nov. 5, 1844. Madisonian, Dec. 24, 1842. 77To gov. Calif., June 1, 1842. 77Almonte, no. 84, 1844. 13Barron, May 5, 1837; Jan. 20, 1844. Id. to Seymour, Jan. 28, 1845. 12Blake to Seymour, July 5, 1846. 52Vessels entering at Monterey, 1845. Forbes, Calif., 155, 225, 276. Bulletin de la Soc. de Géog., no. 77, May, 1844, 99–102. Dana, Two Years, 83–8, 90–3, 200. Colton, Three Years, 19–22, 37–8, 45, 68, 111, 118, 155, 158, 172–3, 231. Whittier, "The Crisis." 61R. B. Mason, Sept. 18, 1847. Sherman Letters, 43. Duflot de Mofras, Explor., i, 319, 402; ii, 24. Wise, Gringos, 42, 49. Ho. 70; 30, 1, pp. 7–8. 61Kearny, Mar. 15; Apr. 28, 1847. 77Covarrubias, Apr. 5, 1846. 247March to Larkin. 247Sutter to Larkin, Oct. 3, 1845. Bidwell, Calif., 157, 161. Revue des Deux Mondes, Dec. 15, 1845, p. 1039. Sherman, Sloat, xv, xxxix. St. Amant, Voyages, 513. Richman, Calif., 265, 267, 276. 13Forbes to Barron, Jan. 27, 1845. 13Elliott, July 3, 1845. Royce, Bidwell. Boston Post, Nov. 27, 1845. Jameson, Calhoun Corres., 946. 247Sutter to Larkin, Oct. 3, 1845. 372Hyde, statement, 6. Farnham, Life, 358–60. Diario, Mar. 21, 1846. Soulé, Annals, 168, 201. Sherman, Home Letters, 114. Niles, June 6, 1846, p. 211. Schafer, Pac. Slope, 231. Simpson, Narrative, i, 287, 297. Sen. 33; 30, 1, p. 97. Revere, Tour, 70. Sen. Rep. 75; 30, 1, p. 50. Sherman, Mems., i, 20. Bryant, What I Saw, 447. Royce, Calif., 31–2, 38–9, 41. 123Bidwell, statement. Sen. 7; 30, 1 (Emory). Larkin, Calif. prior to 1846 (52Cons. letters, Monterey, i, 1). Letter from S. Fe, July 29, 1841; Mex. in 1842, p. 128. London Times, June 18, 1841. Phila. No. American, Oct. 31, 1843. 52Larkin, nos. 7, June 20; 9, Aug. 18, 1844; 12, Mar. 22; 22, June 6; 26, Sept. 29, 1845.

5. Startled by this affair, the Mexican government now proposed to send 1200 men to California with the idea of establishing them as military colonists; and in May, 1845, Ignacio Iniestra, a Mexican educated at Paris and regarded as a competent officer, was appointed to the chief command. No such number of troops was, however, provided; Iniestra refused to set out until sure his men would be paid and fed; and the requisite money was not supplied. In August U. S. Consul Parrott and the Amigo del Pueblo of Mexico stated that a commissioner had come from California to inform the government that the troops would not be admitted. About this time the lack of funds caused a mutiny; but that was suppressed, and the dwindling forces lingered on until, at the end of the year, a large part of them were swept by Paredes into the vortex of his revolution. For nearly two months they were cantoned near Mexico; but finally another sham effort was put forth. Though Iniestra died, the men proceeded under various embarrassments-receiving accessions en route from the prisons of Guadalajara-to the port of Mazatlán, and the arms, munitions and provisions made their way under equal difficulties to Acapulco, where seven small vessels were gathered to receive them. But the restless Juan Alvarez, called "The Tiger of the South," seized the effects of the expedition, giving his brigandage a color of respectability by pronouncing, as we have seen, against Paredes, and three weeks later the troops at Mazatlán, commanded now by Col. Rafael Téllez, took a similar step-being determined on the one hand not to go to California, and quite willing on the other to live riotously on the funds of the expedition and the ample revenues of the customhouse. They pronounced for Santa Anna; and soon after the revolution of the citadel took place, August 4, 1846, the government, promising to make up his command to 1000, ordered Téllez to sail, but the necessary reinforcements were not provided. Téllez advised giving up the expedition, and on Sept. 7 the government expressed its concurrence in this recommendation. Thus ended even the pretence of taking the California situation in hand. Téllez stated that according to documents in his possession Paredes never intended to have the expedition sail; and it is certain that secret instructions were given to Iniestra, which the government was extremely anxious to keep from the knowledge of the public. In all probability the real purpose of proposing the expedition was merely to make people feel that something was to be done. (13Bankhead, nos. 13, 1845; 74, 1846. Diario, May 4, 1846. London Times, Jan. 8, 1846. 47Wood to Bancroft, June 4, 1846. Comunicación Circular que ... Pe?a. Amigo del Pueblo, Aug. 14, 1845. Of the author's very numerous 76documents relating to the expedition the following are enough to cite. Bustamante to Moreno, Mar. 26, 1847. Tornel to gov. Calif., May 13, 1846. N. Flores, Mar. 8, 1846. Yá?ez, Mar. 10, 23, 1846. Alvarez, Mar. 17; Apr. 7, 1846. M. Gutiérrez, May 19; June 16, 1846. To J. I. Gutiérrez, May 13, 1846. Téllez to prest. of consejo de gob., July 25, 1846; reply, Aug. 18. J. I. Gutiérrez, May 9, 1846. To Iniestra, Mar. 31; May 9, 1845. Iniestra, July 31; Aug. 24, 29; Sept. 23; Dec. 2, 24, 1845; Jan. 5, 18, 24; Feb. 28, 1846. Casta?ares, Oct. 27, 1845. To Monterde, Apr. 10, 1846. T. Moreno, Mar. 3, 1846. Baneneli to Téllez, May 7, 1846. Moreno to Gutiérrez, Apr. 16, 24, 1846. Téllez, Feb. 9, 27; Mar. 2; Apr. 11; Aug. 24, 26; Sept. 2, 1846. To Téllez, Sept. 7, 1846. See also chap. xxx, note 27.)

6. Mexico fully warned. London Times, June 18, 1841; Aug. 6; Oct. 6, 1845. 77Almonte, no. 84, P., July 16; 153, P., Dec. 12, 1844. 13Pakenham, no. 2, Jan. 6, 1842. 13Bankhead, nos. 31, Mar. 31, 1845; 42, 1846. 77Arrangóiz, Sept. 17, 1842; nos. 64, res., June 28, 1844; 41, res., Feb. 28; 70, res., May 7; 101, res., July 8, 1845. London Chronicle, Aug. 13, 1845. Casta?ares, Documentos. 75Sánchez, Apr. 2, 1846. Bancroft, Pac. States, xvii, 32. 76Mora y Villamil, Nov. 15, 1845. 76Bustamante, Nov. 13, 1845. 76Mil. comte., Acapulco, July 22, 1845. 76J. Castro to Casta?ares, Oct. 6, 1845. 76Id., May 30, 1845. 76Bustamante to Moreno, Mar. 26, 1847. In November, 1845, the Mexican minister of relations told Bankhead that Castro could not be punished for revolting (13Bankhead, no. 113).

7. If anyone doubts this, let him look at the present populous, rich, happy state of California, think how much it contributes to the world, and consider what it would now be, had it remained a part of Mexico, and suffered from the anarchy, devastations and massacres of recent years.

8. France had at one time cast longing glances at California. In the early forties Duflot de Mofras made a visit there, and according to the British vice consul in California a formal offer of protection was made by him, Admiral Du Petit Thouars and Capt. Laplace in the name of their government (13Forbes to Barron, Sept. 5, 1844); but the time for such a move was not then ripe, and France, aside from maintaining a consular representative on the ground, became inactive. England was even less responsive. While many British subjects, particularly the correspondent of the London Times at Mexico (e.g. Times, Sept. 9, 1845), felt that England should take California, the British government, though doubtless extremely anxious that the territory should not fall into the possession of the United States, refused to move or countenance any move in that direction. December 31, 1844, the Foreign Office wrote to Consul Barron at Tepic, Mexico, who had charge of Vice Consul Forbes at San Francisco, that in the California agitation the British agents were to be entirely passive, and that the idea of a British protectorate could not be countenanced, adding that the authorities of California "should be clearly made to understand that Great Britain would view with much dissatisfaction the establishment of a protectoral power over California by any other foreign State." Other documents bearing on the subject are the following. 13Forbes to Barron, Sept. 5, 1844. Kennedy in London Times, June 18, 1841. 13Pakenham, nos. 91, Aug. 30, 1841; 61, July 21, 1842. 13To Id., Dec. 15, 1841. Bankhead, nos. 74, July 30, 1845; 73, May 30, 1846. 13To Bankhead (exactly in line with the despatch addressed to Barron on the same day), nos. 53, Dec. 31, 1844; 18, May 31, 1845; 16, June 1; 4, Aug. 15, 1846. 108Ashburton to Sturgis, Apr. 2, 1845 ("we certainly do not want colonies, and least of all such as would be unmanageable from this distance, and only serve to embroil us with our neighbours"). 13Mora to Palmerston, Dec. 15, 1847. London Times, Oct. 6, 1845. 12For. Off. to Admty., June 19, 1846. Webster, Writings, xviii, 192. 12Seymour to Admty., Apr. 27, 1846. Monitor Repub., Apr. 16, 1846. 52Everett, Mar. 28, 1845. Gordon, Aberdeen, 183. Smith, Annex. of Texas, 155, 230, 417. Mackintosh, Brit. consul at Mex., proposed to place 500,000 European colonists in California in twenty years (13to Bankhead, July 26, 1845) with a view to turning over to England the control of the province (13Bankhead, no. 73, May 30, 1846). Paredes promised to give "every possible facility" for the execution of this plan (13Bankhead, no. 73), but the British government would not take it up.

9. Mexican rule to the end of 1845. 13Forbes, nos. 1, Oct. 19, 1843; 2, Jan. 26, 1846. Boston Advertiser, Sept. 26, 1842. Nat. Intelligencer, May 11, 1844. London Times, Aug. 6; Oct. 6; Nov. 11, 1845; Mar. 13, 1846. Revue de Paris, Jan., 1849. 77Almonte, nos. 84, P., July 16; 153, P., Dec. 12, 1844. 13Barron, May 5, 1837; Feb. 18, 1845. 13Id. to Seymour, Jan. 28, 1845. 13Pakenham, nos. 13, 1837; 66, 1840; 91, 1841; 2, 1842. 13Doyle, no. 79, 1843. 13Bankhead, nos. 108, 1844; 31, 52, 113, 1845; 73, 1846. Paredes, address on opening Cong., June 6, 1846 (Diario). Mobile Commercial Register, June 13, 1843. Diario, Mar. 27; June 3; Aug. 21, 1845. Wash. Globe, May 29; Oct. 21, 1845. Amigo del Pueblo, Aug. 14, 1845. St. Louis New Era, Aug. 20, 1845. Memphis Eagle, Oct. 1; Nov. 5, 1845. 52Black, Sept. 2, 1845. Britannia, May 15, 1847. 52Virmond to Jones, Feb. 4, 1837. 52Larkin, nos. 9, Aug. 18; 11, Oct. 30; 12, Dec. 9, 1844; 16, Jan. 1; 1, Mar. 22; 2, Mar. 22; 20, Mar. 24; 25, July 10; 26, Sept. 29, 1845. 247Stearns to Larkin, May 14, 1846. 52Parrott, Aug. 26, 1845. 12Blake to Seymour, July 5, 1846. 12Seymour, June 13. Otero, Cuestión Social, 117. Giménez, Memorias, 90. México á través, iv, 404. 52Burroughs to Ellis, Jan. 10, 1837. 77Castillo, no. 119, 1835. (Simpson) Amer. Hist. Rev., xiv, pp. 88–9.

Memoria de ... Relaciones, Mar., 1845. Royce, Calif., 202. Memoria de ... Guerra, Jan., 1844; Mar., 1845. Mateos, Hist. Parl., v, 98. Bandini, Calif., 138. 13Jones to Pakenham, Nov. 30, 1841. L?wenstern, Le Mexique, 84. 13Diaz to Barron, Sept. 29, 1845. London Chronicle, Aug. 13, 1845. 47Wood to Bancroft, June 4, 1846. St. Louis Reveille (weekly), May 18, 1846. 77Arrangóiz, Jan. 9; Sept. 17, 1842; nos. 64, res., 1844; 70, res., 76, res., 101, res., 1845. Gordon, Aberdeen, 183. Forbes, Calif., 146–52. Bulletin de la Soc. de Géog., no. 77, p. 186. Casta?ares, Documentos. Colton, Three Years, 20, 22, 32. Argonaut, Feb. 2, 1878 (Sutter's diary). Sherman Letters, 43–4. 13Forbes to Barron, Aug. 9; Sept. 5, 1844; Jan. 27; Mar. 10, 1845. Ho. 70; 30, 1, pp. 7–8, 42. 75P. Pico, July 1, 1845; Feb. 13, 1846. 75Covarrubias, Apr. 5, 1846. 75Sánchez, Apr. 2, 1846. 75Calif. Commission, Aug. 10, 1846. Reforma, Feb. 10, 1846. 122Bidwell, Calif., 119, 123. 3Alvarado, Calif., v, 129. Revue des Deux Mondes, Dec. 15, 1845, p. 1037. Richman, Calif., 273–9. 334Torres, Peripecias, 49. Blackmar, Span. Instits., 10–12. Walpole, Four Years, ii, 205. N. Y. Journ. Commerce, Dec. 30, 1846. 11Cyprey to Guizot, no. 58, 1841. Wilkes, Narrative, v, 171. 13Aberdeen to Bankhead, no. 53, 1844. Sen. 7; 30, 1. 52Larkin, Calif, prior to 1846 (Cons. letters, Monterey, i, 1). Dana, Two Years, 90–1, 200. (Prussia) 52Everett, no. 284, confid., Mar. 28, 1845. And from 76 the following. To gov. Calif., Apr. 1, 1845; May 9, 1846. Téllez, Mar. 23, 1846. Alvarez, Mar. 17, 1846. Guerra, circular, Apr. 1, 1845. Comte. gen. Iguala, Mar. 13, 1846. Mora y Villamil, Nov. 15, 1845. Bustamante, Nov. 13, 1845. J. Castro, memo., undated. Id., Oct. 6, 1845. Casta?ares, Jan. 27, 1846. Estado, Monterey, June 15, 1845. Castro and Alvarado, May 30, 1845. Sutter to Mex. commr., Nov. 19, 1845. Casta?eda to P. Pico, Feb. 10, 1846. Carrera, Apr. 8, 1846.

10. Interest of the American people in California. 13Pakenham, no. 63, 1841. N. Orl. Commercial Bulletin, Feb. 19, 1840; May 21; Oct. 12, 1841. London Times, June 18, 1841; Aug. 1, 1845. N. Y. Journ. Commerce, Oct. 9, 1841; Feb. 23, 1842. St. Louis Reveille, Sept. 17, 1845. Wash. Globe, Feb. 27; Aug. 23; Oct. 21; Nov. 4, 1845. Nashville Union, Mar. 13, 1845. Memphis Eagle, May 2; Nov. 5, 1845. N. Orl. Picayune, Apr. 21, 1842; Apr. 5, 1844; Nov. 25, 1845; Mar. 31, 1846. 13Bankhead, no. 113, 1845. Savannah Republican, Apr. 25, 1845. N. Orl. Courier, Feb. 17, 1840; Apr. 26; July 10, 1845. American Review, Jan., 1846, 82–99. Diario, Nov. 3, 1845. Charleston Courier, July 11, 1845. Journal des Débats, June 1, 1846. Richmond Enquirer, Sept. 12, 1845. Balt. Clipper, Mar. 2, 1840. N. Y. Herald, Feb. 22, 1845. (Regulations) 52Larkin, no. 8, June 24, 1844. Charleston Mercury, Feb. 24, 1845. N. Orl. Bee, Apr. 19, 1842. Phila. North American, Nov. 1, 1845. N. Y. Tribune, Apr. 5, 1845. Forbes, Calif., 147–8. Dana, Two Years, 200. Southwestern Hist. Qtrly., xviii, nos. 1–3 (R. G. Cleland). (Whalers) Hunt's Merchants' Mag., Jan., 1845. Cong. Globe, 29, 1, p. 197 (Allen); app., Hunter, Jan. 10, 1846. Sen. 33; 30, 1, p. 98. 77Almonte, no. 84, P., July 16, 1844. 77Arrangóiz, 71, res., May 12, 1845.

11. Views and policy of U. S. government. Ho. 42; 25, 1, p. 18 (Forsyth, Aug. 6, 1835). 52Ellis, Sept. 24, 1836. 108Hooper to Bancroft, June 25, 1846. 52Slidell, no. 3, Dec. 17, 1845. 13Pakenham, nos. 43, 1833; 63, 91, 1841. 13Forbes, no. 2, Jan. 26, 1846. London Times, June 18, 1841; Aug. 6; Sept. 9; Oct. 6; Nov. 19, 1845; Apr. 11, 1846. 77Mex. commrs., Feb. 16, 1842. 52Larkin to Stearns et al., Apr. 17, 1846. Journal des Débats, July 10, 1843; Jan. 12; June 1, 1846. México á través, iv, 399. Wash. Globe, Feb. 27, 1845. 52Everett, no. 284, confid., Mar. 28, 1845. 52Shannon, Jan. 9, 1845. Gilmer in U. S. Ho. Repres., Jan. 28, 1843. N. Y. Courier and Enquirer, Nov. 17, 1845. 77Almonte, no. 4, res., Jan. 10, 1843; 84, P., July 16, 1844. 52Thompson, nos. 1, Apr. 29; 4 July 30, 1842. 56W. S. Parrott, May 13; Sept. 2, 1845. Constitutionnel, Oct. 13, 1844; Mar. 29, 1845; July 9, 1846. National, Sept. 4, 1845. 52Wickliffe to Buchanan, private, [June] 3, 1845. N. Y. Journ. Commerce, Feb. 23, 1842. Harvey, Webster, 203–4. 52Buchanan to Slidell, no. 1, Nov. 10, 1845. Adams, Mems., xi, 346, 355. Curtis, Webster, ii, 250. Forbes to Barron, Mar. 10, 1845. Nat. Intelligencer, Apr. 19. Buchanan to Larkin, Oct. 17, 1845. Charleston Mercury, July 12, 1845. Charleston Courier, Nov. 12, 1845. Forbes, Calif., 149. Mofras, Exploration, i, 517. Smith, Annex. of Texas, 109. Polk, Diary, Oct. 24, 1845. St. Louis Reveille, Apr. 29, 1846. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, i, 45. 247Hastings to Larkin, Mar. 3, 1846. 247Allerton to Larkin, Mar. 4, 1846. 247Sutter to Larkin, Oct. 3, 1845. 1Allen in U. S. Sen., Aug. 6, 1846. Revue des Deux Mondes, Dec. 15, 1845, pp. 1037, 1043. Vallejo, Documentos. Van Tyne, Letters of Webster, 269. Texas Review, Jan., 1917, p. 217 (Barker). Schafer, Pac. Slope, 229. Reeves, Amer. Diplomacy, 280–1. 52Flower to Van Buren, Feb. 8, 1840. 52Kelley to Webster, Jan. 2, 1842. Kelsey, Consulate, 7, 35, etc. 52Larkin, nos. 8, June 24; 9, Aug. 18, 1844; Mar. 22; 25, July 10; 26, Sept. 29; 29, Dec. 31, 1845; 37, Mar. 9; 42, Apr. 17; 44, June 1, 1846. Webster, Writings, xviii, 203–4. N. Orl. Picayune, Nov. 25, 1845. Jameson, Calhoun Corres., 978. 351Thompson to Webster, Jan. 30, 1843. Monitor Repub., Apr. 16, 1846. Royce, Calif., 38–9. 122Bidwell, Calif., 138. Richardson, Messages, iv, 398, 539–40. Richmond Enquirer, Sept. 12, 1845. 77Arrangóiz, no. 41, res., Feb. 28, 1845. 13Crampton to Palmerston, no. 63, 1848. London Chronicle, Aug. 13, 1845. Democratic Review, July, 1845, p. 9. 48Bancroft to Sloat, Mar. 21, secret and confid., Oct. 17, 1845. Southwestern Hist. Qtrly., xviii, nos. 1–3 (R. G. Cleland). Meade, Letters, i, 65.

12. For the facts merely alluded to here see pp. 127–8, 130–4. (Virtually forbid) chap. iv, note 24. Polk's announcement that he should endeavor to obtain California (Schouler, United States, iv, 498) is sufficiently explained by his attempts to purchase it. When he determined to lay our grievances before Congress, it is not certain that he expected war to result. He seems to have felt that a determined stand on our part might bring Mexico to terms. And his promptly taking advantage of the rights conferred by the state of war to occupy the territory and bar out foreign interference counts for nothing as proof that he brought on the war for the alleged purpose. See e.g. Von Holst, U. S., iii, 266.

13. Bancroft's history of California, which at times is rather free in its conclusions, denies that such a meeting was held (Pacific States, xvii, 61–2). His principal reasons are lack of corroborative evidence, the silence of Larkin, and the inconsistencies in the accounts of it. But (1) we have corroborative evidence from several persons; (2) Larkin may not have wished to mention a confidential talk held under his own roof-especially as it accomplished nothing; and (3) inconsistencies are found in the accounts of many events. On the other hand some accounts of the meeting have no doubt been exaggerated and embellished.

14. Bancroft (Pacific States, xvii, 200) says there is no evidence that Gillespie had official relations with Sloat; but Sloat's 47report, February 25, 1846, said that in accordance with "the verbal orders he delivered me," Gillespie was immediately sent forward.

15. Although no formal meeting took place at Santa Barbara, Capt. Blake, of the British warship Juno, who went there, was appealed to for protection on the ground that Mexico and England were allied nations (12Seymour to Admiralty, Aug. 27, 1846). Some proposed, should England refuse it, to address France. About this time an Irish priest named McNamara arrived in a British vessel with a grand scheme of colonization, and obtained an immense grant of land. The scheme was much talked about, but signified nothing. The grant was illegally made. Mexico, though she treated McNamara pleasantly did not endorse the plan, and in all probability would not have confirmed such a grant, had California remained under her jurisdiction, for she was extremely suspicious of England, and could see that 10,000 British colonists would be a dangerous element. Indeed, McNamara was suspected at Mexico of acting in the interest of England. A few of the documents bearing on this subject are: Ramírez, Méx., 246; Ho. 17; 31, 1 (Halleck, Cuevas, Castillo y Lanzas); Bancroft, Pac. States, xvii, 215–23; Sen. Report 75; 30, 1 (testimony of Frémont and others; the McNamara papers); Royce, California, 166; 52Larkin, no. 56, Aug. 22, 1846; 335McNamara, proposition, May 17, 1845.

16. Politics in California, Jan.-June, 1846. 13Jones to Pakenham, Nov. 30, 1841. 108Hooper to Bancroft, June 25, 1846. 13Forbes, no. 2, Jan. 26, 1846. Boston Advertiser, May 27, 1843. 13Forbes to Barron, Sept. 5, 1844; Jan. 27; Mar. 10, 1845. 13To Barron, Dec. 31, 1844. Diario, Aug. 21, 1845. 52J. Castro to P. Pico, June 8, 1846. 12Blake to Seymour, July 5, 1846. 52Larkin to Stearns et al., Apr. 17, 1846. 13To Bankhead, no. 53, 1844. 47Sloat to Bancroft, Feb. 25, 1846. 47Wood to Bancroft, June 4, 1846. 12Seymour to admty., Aug. 27, 1846. Colton, Three Years, 429. 247Stearns to Larkin, May 14, 1846. 13Forbes to Calif. govt., Jan. 28, 1846. 13Seymour to Bankhead, June 13, 1846. 13Pico to Forbes, June 29, 1846. 13Barron, Aug. 12, 1846. 52Military junta, Monterey, Apr. 11, 1846. 52Larkin to Gillespie, Apr. 23, 1846. 52Larkin, circular (in Spanish). Sherman Letters, 43. 13J. A. to A. Forbes, July 9, 1846. Sen. 18; 31, 1, p. 574 (Stevenson). 75P. Pico to Relaciones, Feb. 13, 1846. 75Covarrubias to Relaciones, Apr. 5, 1846. 75Sánchez to Relac., Apr. 2, 1846. Bancroft, Pacific States, xvii, 41–75, 215–22. 247Allerton to Larkin, Mar. 4, 1846. 247Larkin to Bennett, May 26, 1846; to Stearns, May 24, 1846. 247Stearns to Larkin, June 12, 1846. Revere, Tour, 24. Buchanan to Larkin, Oct. 17, 1845. 122Bidwell, Calif., 138, 147, 151. Alvarado, Calif., v, 129–43, 222, 241. 126Botello, Anales, 133, 136. Phelps, Fore and Aft, 284. Amer. Hist. Rev., xiv, 88–9. Richman, Calif., 316, 474. Ramírez, México, 246. Lancey, Cruise. 343Vallejo, Documentos. 334Torres, Peripecias, 48–9. Walpole, Four Years, ii, 208. Ho. 17; 31, 1, p. 121. Hall, S. José 143. Sen. 33; 30, 1, p. 377. McGroarty, Calif., 190–1. Sen. Report, 75; 30, 1, pp. 12, 16 (Frémont), 19, 31, 33 (Gillespie), 37 (Hensley), 44 (Minor), 46 (Childs). Sherman, Sloat, 56, xv. 263Mervine to Sloat, July 1, 1846. Swasey, Early Days, 57, 81. Cong. Globe, 30, 1, pp. 604–7 (Benton). Willey, Transition Period, 19. Kelsey, Consulate, 45, 51. Royce, Calif., 36, 166. 123Bidwell, statement. 52Larkin, Calif. prior to 1846 (Consular letters, Monterey, i, 1). 52Id>., nos. 4, Apr. 16; 9, Aug. 18, 1844; 20, Mar. 24; 26, Sept. 29, 1845; 39, Apr. 2; 42, Apr. 17; 44, June 1; 48, June 18; 54, July 20; 56, Aug. 22, 1846; 63, Jan. 14, 1847. 13Crampton to Palmerston, nos. 35, 63, 1848. 76P. Pico to Relac., June 29, 1846. 76Id., proclams., May [13]; June 23, 1846. 76Vallejo, Nov. 24, 1845. 76Pico, May 25, 1846. 76J. Castro, Mar. 5; Apr. 1, 2; May 30, 1846. 76Castro and Alvarado, May 30, 1845.

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