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   Chapter 33 SANTA FE No.33

The War With Mexico, Volume I (of 2) By Justin H. Smith Characters: 11382

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:03


1. Independence is ten miles east of Kansas City and about thirty-five from Fort Leavenworth.

2. Conditions in New Mexico; Armijo. 13Bankhead, no. 148, 1846. St. Louis Weekly Reveille, May 23. St. Louis Republican, Aug. 25. Sen. 7; 30, 1 (Emory). 60Leitensdorfer, June 7. Sen. Misc. 26; 30, 1 (Wislizenus). Inman, Old S. Fe Trail, 27–54, 67–92. 75Armijo, Jan. 12. 75Hacienda to Relaciones, Mar. 16. Monitor Repub., Apr. 15. Memoria de ... Guerra, March, 1845. Picayune, March 18. Dublán, Legislación, v, 10. Niles, Sept. 26, p. 52. 52Alvarez, Feb. 2, 1842; Sept. 4, 1846. 52Jones, Sept. 20, 1837. 13Ashburnham, no. 50, 1837. Sen. 90; 22, 1, pp. 30–41. Captain of Vols., Conquest. Pacheco, Exposición. Ruxton, Adventures (London, 1847), 110, 185–6. Cooke, Conquest, 60. Kendall, Narrative, i, 295, 314–5, 346–60. Amigo del Pueblo, Aug. 19, 1845. México á través, iv, 403. Wash. Globe, Sept. 2, 1845. N. Orl. Courier, July 5, 1845. Houston Telegraph, Jan. 24, 1844. 77Arrangóiz, no. 63, res., 1843. 77Almonte, no. 4, 1844. Amer. Antiquarian Soc. Proceeds., new series, viii, 324–41. And the following from 76. Assembly of N. Méx., Feb., 1846 (petition for comte. gen.). Re-extracto on N. Méx. (Sambrano). Ayunt., Hermosillo, Son., proclam. Comte. gen. N. Méx., May 17, 1845. Tornel, Mar. 10, 1846. To Hacienda, Mar. 6. Trial of Magoffin (testimony). A merchant's estimate of Santa Fe caravan business for 1846 was that the first cost of the goods amounted to $937,500 (Captain of Vols., Conquest, 11).

3. The text includes two companies of dragoons that joined Kearny on the march. On account of the scarcity of grass at Santa Fe and because he considered infantry the chief reliance, Kearny did not wish so large a proportion of mounted men. Fischer's company enlisted to serve as horse. The artillery had twelve brass 6-pounders and four 12-pound howitzers. Kearny's army, being near states abounding in resources, was more readily set in motion than Taylor's or Wool's, but on account of its long march 459 horses, 3658 mules, 14,904 oxen, 1556 wagons, and 516 pack mules were required to transport it, its reinforcements, and its supplies. (This account is not complete, but on the other hand it refers not only to Kearny's expedition but to troops that followed him. Rives's account in U.S. and Mexico, ii, 214–5, is therefore misleading, and makes the short rations endured on the march seem incredible.) The Indians drove off many of the cattle, robbed trains and killed not a few drivers (Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 545).

4. S. Fe expedition ordered and organized. S. Louis Weekly Reveille, May 11, 23. Polk, Diary, May 13, 14, 16, 30. 69Jones to Kearny, May 13. 63Marcy to Kearny, May 27. 240Kennerly, Narrative. Sen. 7; 30, 1 (Emory). 69Kearny, orders, June 19; July 31. Richardson, Journal, 3–6. 61Kearny to gov. Mo., June 16; to Cummins, June 20. 60Marcy to gov. Mo., May 13. Wash. Union, Sept. 24. Nat. Intelligencer, Oct. 2. Monitor Repub., Mar. 27, 1847. Scharf, St. Louis, i, 369, 372–3. St. Louis Republican, May 13, 22, 30; June 26. Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 545. Niles, July 4, 1846, p. 281; July 3, 1847, p. 279. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 326. Elliott, Notes, 217, 221. Ruxton, Adventures (1849), 312–3. St. Louis New Era, Aug. 20. Mo. Hist. Soc. Colls., ii, no. 4. 212Hastings, diary. 256Penn, Jr., [May 23]. Bancroft, Pac. States, xii, 410, note (names of officers). Hughes, Doniphan's Expedition, 24–7. Cooke, Conquest, 2.

5. The route taken by Kearny was not the shortest but it seemed the best for his purpose (Cooke, Conquest, 13). Distances from Fort Leavenworth: to Council Grove, 126 miles; to the Arkansas River, 393; to Bent's Fort, 564; to S. Fe, 873 (Ho. 1; 30, 2, p. 236).

6. To and at Bent's Fort. Mexico in 1842, 128. Sen. 7; 30, 1. 63Marcy to Howard, May 13, 1846. Ho. 41; 30, 1. 61Kearny, June 5; Aug. 1. 61Kearny, orders, June 27; July 31. 61Capt. Johnston, diary. 201Gibson, diary. Prince, Concise Hist., 164–74, 178. Niles, Aug. 1, 1846, p. 343. Cooke, Conquest, 3–4. Elliott, Notes, 222–3. 58Cooke, Map of S. Fe Trace. Captain of Vols., Conquest. Ho. 45; 31, 1. Sen. 23; 30, 1. Mo. Hist. Soc. Colls., ii, no. 4. Richardson, Journal. Sen. Misc. 26; 30, 1, pp. 5–13. Connelley, Doniphan's Exped., 179–81. 212Hastings, diary. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 151, 168. Ruxton, Far West, 189. 69Kearny, July 17. Hughes, Doniphan's Exped., 30–59. 76Kearny to Armijo, Aug. 1. 76Heredia to S. Anna, Dec. 31, 1846. Bent's Fort lay about fifteen miles above the mouth of Las Animas River (Cooke, Conquest, 12).

7. Armijo's motives and preparations. Sen. 7; 30, 1 (Emory). Gibson, diary, Sept. 5. Republicano, Jan. 13; Feb. 5, 1847 (Armijo). Twitchell, Milit. Occup., 60. Read, Guerra, 219. Prince, Concise Hist., 179. 52Alvarez, Sept. 4, 1846. From 76 the following. M. E. to F. Pino. N. to F. Pino. J. F. to J. E. Ortiz. J. F. Ortiz to P. Armendaris. M. Ramírez to Se?ora Casanoba. N. Quintanar to L. Téllez. D. Vigil to J. F. Zubia. Decision of the mesa. Testimony given at the trial of Magoffin. S. Anna, Dec. 8, 1846. Summary of four packets of letters, and conclusion of the mesa. Armijo, Sept. 8, 1846; Jan. 20; Mar. 30, 1847. Tornel, Mar. 10, 1846. Id. to Ugarte, Mar. 10; June 25; July 25. Segundo cabo, Chihuahua, July 10. Armijo to Ugarte, July 1. To Armijo, July 25. Comte. gen. Durango, July 16. Ugarte, July 17; Aug. 23. Letter from El Paso, Aug. 9.

8. The regiment under Price numbered at first about 1000, and the battalion, commanded by Lieut. Col. Willock, about 300. In July a third force (infantry) was ordered to take the same route but it was found unnecessary, and the plans were given up (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 162).

The second (Price's; Mormons) and third

(abortive) expeditions. Polk, Diary, May 30; June 2, 3, 5; July 18, 1846; Apr. 28, 1847. 62Marcy to gov. Mo., May 11, 1847. 62Jones to Price, May 18, 22, 1847. 63Marcy to gov. Mo., Apr. 28; May 6, 11, 1847. 69Jones to Scott, Apr. 20, 1847. 61Doniphan to Marcy, Oct. 20, 1846. 61Shields, Aug. 9, 1846. 62Marcy to gov. Mo., July 18, 1846. Wash. Union, Sept. 24, 1846. Scharf, St. Louis, i, 375–6. Niles, July 18, 1846, p. 312. 2Allred, recolls. Sen. 439; 29, 1, p. 2. Sen. 1; 29, 2, p. 49. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 171. Bancroft, Pac. States, xii, 410, note (names of officers). Cooke, Conquest, 2. Hughes, Doniphan's Exped., 134, 137–8.

9. Kearny's letter to Armijo, found in the Mexican archives, is stated to have been translated by the American consul from a certified copy of the original. A little later an American trader, who had married a Santa Fe woman, was despatched to distribute the proclamation and sound the people at Taos. A scouting party under Bent went forward to examine the route.

10. Kearny was criticised for undertaking to release the people from their allegiance to Mexico; but since, as our Supreme Court decided in the Castine case, the inhabitants of conquered territories pass under at least a temporary allegiance to the conquering power, they must necessarily be absolved from their former obligations. See Washington Union, August 21, 1847.

11. Kearny returned a conciliatory message by the bearer of Armijo's letter. See note 13.

12. Estimates of the number of the people in arms vary from about 1800 (76Armijo) to 4–5000 (Cooke). Armijo's reports minified all his means of defence. Apparently there were about 3000. So Magoffin stated on his 76trial, and this was the conclusion of the war department at Mexico. Probably Armijo felt surprised and embarrassed by the response of the people.

13. It was charged by Mexicans that Armijo was bought by American agents. But Kearny had no money to use in this way, and in the absence of substantial evidence there seems to be no good ground to suppose that the merchants had a sufficient reason for buying him. Armijo sent Dr. Henry Connelly back with Cooke to treat in his behalf with Kearny (Cooke, Conquest, 31, 33), but nothing seems to have been accomplished. Kearny probably desired (76Connelly to Armijo, Aug. 19) that Armijo should surrender with his troops, and presumably Armijo asked for impossible concessions. Magoffin went on to Chihuahua, was arrested, tried, and imprisoned until the end of the war, and later was paid $30,000 by the U.S. government for his services and losses (Benton, View, ii, 683). There is little reason to suppose that his services were of much value.

14. The Mexican archives contain many letters from New Mexico bearing upon Armijo's conduct and motives. Most of the writers called him a traitor; and a war department board (mesa), after reviewing the evidence, decided that he ought to be tried. But of course this was the opportunity for his enemies to turn upon him. The popular party naturally insisted that the people wanted to fight, and were betrayed by him. But he denied this, demanding why, in that case, they did not select some other chief, and hold their ground. Armijo hovered about for a time, pretending to co?perate with Ugarte; but, not being permitted to remain in Chihuahua, he went south with a train of wagons filled with American merchandise and guarded by Missourians, and finally, making his way to the capital under an order to come and answer for his conduct, he repeatedly demanded to be put on trial.

15. The population of Santa Fe was about 3000.

16. Events from Aug. 1 to 18 inclusive. Mexico in 1842, p. 128. Sen. 7; 30, 1. Polk, Diary, June 15, 17, 1846. Sen. Misc. 26; 30, 1, pp. 17–20. Sen. 18; 31, 1, p. 237. 61Kearny, Aug. 1. 61Capt. Johnston, diary. 62Marcy to Kearny, June 18. 201Gibson, diary. Republicano, Sept. 10, 1846; Jan. 13; Feb. 5, 1847. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 104. Connelley, Doniphan's Exped., 181, 184. Anzeiger des Westens, Aug. 6; Sept. 5, 7, 24, 1846. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 168–70. Wash. Union, Sept. 14; Oct. 2, 27, 1846; July 12, 1847. Diario, Sept. 9, 10; Oct. 5. Read, Guerra, 220. Prince, Concise Hist., 179–80. Niles, Oct. 10, pp. 90–2. Robinson, Sketches, 20–1. Elliott, Notes, 225, 231, 234–5, 237, 241. 52Alvarez, Sept. 4. Sen. 23; 30, 1. Ruxton, Adventures (London, 1847), 110. Benton, View, ii, 683. Mo. Hist. Soc. Colls., ii, no. 4. 212Hastings, diary. 268Kearny, letter book. 337Capt. Turner, diary. Cutts, Conquest, 44. Cooke, Conquest, 5–43. Richardson, Journal. Hughes, Doniphan's Exped., 59–87. From 76 the following. Letters from N. Mex. (undated letters in note 7). Testimony at trial of Magoffin. S. Anna, Dec. 8. Summary of four packets of letters and conclusion of the mesa. Armijo, Sept. 8. Armijo to Kearny, Aug. 12. Connelly to Armijo, Aug. 19. Armijo, Jan. 20; Mar. 30, 1847. Re-extracto from statement of Sambrano. Reyes, Aug. 25, 1846. Ugarte, Aug. 23; Sept. 5. Kearny to Armijo, Aug. 1. Estados of troops in Zac., Dur., Chih., and N. Mex.

17. Events from Aug. 19 to Sept. 25 inclusive. 61Wooster, Sept. 25. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 169–74 (Kearny). Sen. 7; 30, 1. Sen. Misc. 26; 30, 1, pp. 55, etc. 61Kearny, Aug. 30; Sept. 24. 69Kearny, orders, Aug. 27; Sept. 12. 201Gibson, diary. Anzeiger des Westens, Sept. 26; Nov. 16. 243Kribben, home letter, Aug. 28. Wash. Union, Oct. 27. Prince, Concise Hist., 180, 182. Niles, Oct. 10, p. 90. Hastings, diary. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 169–70. Hughes, Doniphan's Exped., 100–19. 76Vigil, reply to Kearny, Aug. 19. 76Letter from El Paso, Aug. 9. 76Heredia, Oct. 17. Some of the force did not set out until Sept. 26 (Cooke, Conquest, 71).

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