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The War With Mexico, Volume I (of 2) By Justin H. Smith Characters: 33081

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1. Comanches were making raids near Reynosa (69Worth to Bliss, July 28), and the freebooter and cut-throat, Canales, was living on the country not far away with a band that he said consisted of more than 600 mounted men (June 16).

2. Taylor to daughter, June 9, in Autograph, July-Aug., 1912. Nat. Intelligencer, Sept. 16, 1848. 76Berlandier to Mejía, June 9, 1846. (Reynosa) Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 299, 305, 306, 397, 522–3, 550; Henry, Camp. Sketches, 117; 76Mejía, June 20; Smith, To Mexico, 57; Henshaw narrative; Meade, Letters, i, 98; 76Spanish consul, Matamoros, June 7, 1846; 76Canales, May 20; June 4, 7, 16, 1846. (McCulloch) Reid, Scouting Expeds., 43; Picayune, June 24; Aug. 15; Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 551. 139Campbell to D. C, July 3; Aug. 9. 224Larnard to Hitchcock, June 13. Weed, Autobiog., 573. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 4, 6–10, 13–15, 17–20, 31. 370Id. to -–, June 18 (draft): The war dept. has been "mean and contemptable to the last degree." 375Id. to E. G. W. Butler, July 1: Madigan, catalogue no. 2, 1914. (Disliked) Meade, Letters, i, 103. Scott, May 18 in Sen. 378; 29, 1, p. 17. This letter was acknowledged by Taylor July 2 (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 329). He wrote the substance of it to Dr. Wood on June 12 (Bixby). By May 28 U. S. newspapers stating that 30,000 volunteers were coming reached the Rio Grande (Meade, Letters, i, 95). "Licking" so many volunteers into shape involved an immense amount of work, but Taylor did not have to do this personally.

3. The laws recognized only the regulars, the militia (who could be required to serve but three months: Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 282) and the twelve-months volunteers. The six-months men, therefore, had to join one of the other classes or be discharged. Marcy enforced this plain legal requirement and was roundly abused for so doing. For the case of the Louisiana men see Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 307, 309, 311, 315–20; Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 176–7; La. Courier, Aug. 6; gen. orders 61 (Niles, Aug. 15); N. Orl. Bee, Aug. 3. For the St. Louis men see Scharf, St. Louis, i, 377.

One has to be extremely careful here about making assertions regarding dates and numbers. Affairs were in such confusion that even headquarters would seem to have been to a considerable extent in the dark. Marcy, June 8, did not know how many troops Taylor had (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 323), and the statements that one finds are nearly always wanting in precision or completeness. The facts given in the text are believed, however, to be adequate for the history of the operations. One may refer also to: Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 13; Matamoros News, July 8; 76Parrodi, July 8; Hamer in Wash. Union, Aug. 18; and Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 547.

The facts about the Texan troops are particularly confused, but it is plain that while unexpectedly late-none arriving until on or about June 10-a regiment of foot, under Albert Sydney Johnston, and two regiments of horse finally appeared in response to Taylor's call for four regiments. Henderson, who commanded these men, claimed the rank of a major general, and-apparently because mounted men were particularly needed-his claim was allowed. See Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 299, 307, 321–2; Henry, Camp. Sketches, 118; Rose, McCulloch, 69; Henshaw narrative; Johnston, Johnston, 133; Meade, Letters, i, 104. Scott (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 325) supposed that Taylor would receive about 16,280 twelve-months volunteers and enough recruits for the regular regiments to make his aggregate 23,070, besides the three-months and six-months men who would engage for a longer term. June 14 Meade (Letters, i, 105) thought Taylor had 10,000 men. By July 30 substantially all the twelve-months foot intended for Taylor, except those from Illinois and Missouri, had arrived (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 401).

4. Meade, Letters, i, 114–5. 224Bliss to Hitchcock, June 7. Robertson, Remins., 76. 139Campbell to D. C, July 3. 308Shields to R. J. Walker, Aug. 3. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 301, 305, 307, 315, 320–1, 329, 550 (Taylor). Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 176–7. Marcy, report, Dec. 5, 1846 in Sen. 1; 29, 2, p. 46. Nearly 1000 Louisiana vols. arrived at Brazos Id. or Pt. Isabel on May 13 (Conner in Ho. 1; 30, 2, p. 1162).

5. Later (Sen. 1; 30, 1, p. 546) Boca Chica was bridged.

6. Camp Lomita, a hill of about eight acres in extent, was five miles by water above Burrita; and above that lay Camp Patterson. Camp Palo Alto was on elevated ground near what was called Arista's Crossing. There was also a Camp Lane. Few troops were quartered at Matamoros. It is hard to understand why the well-behaved regulars were not permitted to occupy the many vacant houses there (Picayune, July 9, 14, 1846). This town, which looked attractive from the opposite side of the Rio Grande, dated from 1820. It had prospered for a time, but had been greatly injured by a hurricane in 1844, and was now falling to pieces (Meade, Letters, i, 86; "Matamoros" in Diccionario Univ.; 60Irons, April 20; República de Rio Grande, June 27; Robertson, Remins., 104–6; 217Henshaw papers; London Times, Oct. 16, 1844; Smith, Remins., 34–5).

7. The camps and soldier life. Picayune, Apr. 7; May 30; June 14, 24; July 9, 26. Perry, Indiana, 84–5, 87, 97, 100–2. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 697 (Thomas). Brackett, Lane's Brigade, 18, 22, 33. Robertson, Remins., 76–97. Giddings, Sketches, 27, 36–40. 254McClellan to sister, Oct. 8. 274Neeld, letter. 139Campbell to D. C, July 11, 19, 29, 31; Aug. 9. 280Nunelee, diary, July 5; Dec. 10. Meade, Letters, i, 59 (nine feet of water on Brazos bar; six feet to Pt. Isabel). 218Henshaw narrative. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 571 (Jesup). 332Tennery, diary, Aug. 12; Sept. 18. 190Ewing, diary, July 21-Aug. 17. Wash. Union, June 10; Aug. 3, 18; Sept. 1 (letters). 322W. B. Smith, diary. Special orders 71 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 528. Reid, Scouting Expeditions, 20. I. Smith, Remins., 9, 25, 34. Matamoros News, July 8. 69Shields, Aug. 28. Niles, July 4, p. 288; Sept. 12, pp. 21, 22. (Funds) Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 560–1. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 176. 61Carlin to Polk, May 19. Henry, Sketches, 121. Nat. Intelligencer, Aug. 3. Sedgwick, Corresp., i, 4. 69Miller to sister. 291C. Cushing to Pierce, May 4, 1847. Bishop, Journal. Allen, Pencillings, 25.

8. In the N. Y. Sun of Dec. 12, 1915, Major William Wallace showed why time is needed to make a soldier.

9. Hamer was, however, a man of strength and sound judgment, and for this reason proved very useful to the volunteers.

10. 252Lieut. Mackall wrote with reference to this matter, "I am determined, with God's aid, to do my duty cheerfully and show no sign of impatience." The letters and diaries of 6Robert Anderson and others give us reason to believe that such a spirit was not uncommon among the regular officers.

11. Morale of the army. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 7, 23, 42. Ewing, diary, Aug. 17; Sept. 7. "A Soldier's Honor," 22–3. Meade, Letters i, 91, 102–3, 108–10, 115–6, etc. (Brawls, etc.) Henry, Camp. Sketches, 124, 128, 137. W. B. Smith, diary, Aug. 13. Ewing, diary, Sept. 7. Niles, Sept. 19, p. 40. (Months) 69Bankhead, Apr. 7. St. Louis Republican, Aug. 5. Vedette, ix, no. 1 (officer, Aug. 22). 1Woll to Allen, July 2. Wilhelm, Eighth Inf., i, 425. 139Campbell to D. C, July 3; Aug. 28; Nov. 9; Dec. 7. Lawton, Artillery Off., 276. Jamieson, Campaign, 71. Scott, Mems., ii, 392. 148Chamberlain, recolls. 224Bliss to Hitchcock, July 23 (cf. 139Campbell to D. C, Aug. 9). 252Mackall, Aug. 4. 218Henshaw narrative. 13Giffard to Bankhead, June 9. The fundamental idea of military discipline is that each man is a factor in a great organization, and must do his part in co?peration with all the rest. Time is necessary to bring a man to this point of view. More will be said about the morale of the troops in chap. xxxi.

12. Taylor attempted to defend himself (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 558) by citing his letter of April 26 to the department, in which he said that he trusted it would "give the necessary orders to the staff department for the supply" of the new troops from Louisiana and Texas; but this was by no means what he was bound to do in the premises (see note 13); and, in particular, river steamboats of an unknown description and number not only did not come under the head of army supplies, but were almost certainly not even in his own mind when he wrote that letter.

13. The question of boats. (View) Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 329–32 (Taylor); Taylor to Butler, July 1, 1846 in 375Madigan, catalogue no. 2, 1914. (Rules) 61Adj. gen. to Kearny, May 14; Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 560, 751 (Jesup). Dec. 26, 1913, the chief clerk of the quartermaster general's office, Washington, stated to the author (for publication) that under the regulations in force in 1846 Taylor was bound to specify the kind and amount of supplies that he wanted. (Knew) Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 685 (Whiting, Nov. 30). (Assuming) Taylor to Butler, July 1, supra. (Depended) Ibid. (Useless) Ibid.; Taylor in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 547. (Denunciations) Taylor in Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 547–8, 558, etc.

Marcy to Taylor, June 8, 1846: You are expected to "push your advantages to the utmost extent it can be done with the means at your command" (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 325).

As late as May 24 Taylor knew little about the depth of the river. It was then being studied (Thomas in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 654). May 18 he called for only one steamboat (ibid., 653), and May 28 for only three more (ibid., 656). By August 11 about twenty were said to be on the river. The documents appear to show that the quartermaster's department, notwithstanding Taylor's complaints against it, did about all in this matter that could reasonably have been expected under the circumstances (ibid., 549, 763). It was difficult to find light-draught boats that were strong enough to risk a voyage across the Gulf. It should be borne in mind here and elsewhere that the war bill of May 13 threw suddenly upon the war department a very extensive and complicated business, such as it requires years to build up in civil life. Many of Jesup's subordinates were doubtless old, lazy or fond of "red tape"; others lacked the necessary capacity; still others were political henchmen; but they seem in general to have been willing. Taylor said he did not like the plan of campaign (to Butler, July 1, supra), but had not been willing to obtrude his ideas upon the government. On this point consult note 28 of chapter ix.

When Taylor found himself in trouble about boats, he undertook to cover his lack of foresight by denouncing (Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 547–8, 558, etc.) the government for sending a flood of volunteers without supplying the means of transportation. But evidently, in the first place, if Taylor, who had been near the Rio Grande for about seven months and then upon it for nearly two, did not feel sure as late as May 21 whether it could be made to serve (ibid., 300), Jesup, who possessed no definite and reliable information on the subject of the river (ibid., 560) could not very well know whether Taylor could and would use it, how many boats he would need, and how much water they should draw. In the second place, if the General had provided transportation for his regulars and the men he called out on April 26, he would have been able to establish the dép?t, leave about 1000 men to guard it, and advance with as many troops (some 6000) as he planned to throw forward at first (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 330 (Taylor), 561 (Jesup); Madigan, cat. no. 2, 1914 (Taylor, July 1); Taylor, Letters (Bixby) 40, 44; 370Id. to -–, draft, June 18; Smith, Remins., 14). Thirdly, even if a flood of twelve-months volunteers came, those he did not require for the forward movement could have been left at healthy camps in the rear, as he himself pointed out (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 330), to drill and prepare. Fourthly, instead of complaining that a lack of boats prevented his advancing (ibid., 305, 307), he might-for aught that we know-have pushed forward his regulars promptly by land, having for this operation a month of good weather and a wagon train ample for twice that number of men (ibid., 560, 651). And, finally, it is worth mention that Scott's letter of May 18 was probably as early an official notification of the coming volunteer forces as could prudently have been given. Rives observes (U. S. and Mexico, ii, 252), "Taylor was thus obviously disabled for some time [by the sickness of the volunteers resulting from the rainy season] from making any extensive forward movement." But (1) Taylor had a month of good weather after the capture of Matamoros; (2) the regulars were not sickly, and might have been pushed forward with little delay; (3) the sickness near and below Matamoros was not such as to prevent him from completing his expeditionary force with volunteers; (4) the boats, which began to arrive about the first of July, would have enabled the necessary number of volunteers to move promptly; (5) and even the severe sickliness at Camargo did not prevent advancing with fair promptness after Taylor had decided to move. Of course it must be remembered that Taylor had much to think about, and lacked experience.

14. There was also a notable want of order and energy, said Worth, in the control of the steamboats (69to Bliss, July 27).

15. By August 4 substantially all of the regulars except the cavalry and two or three batteries set out. June 16, the adj. gen. (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 454) estimated that Taylor would have under his immediate command about 11,840 twelve-months volunteers and would soon receive nearly 800 regulars. This left out of account a regiment and a half from Texas and some other small corps. Taylor may, then, have had at about this time (not allowing for discharges) 15,500 men. An account printed in the Cincinnati Chronicle of Sept. 6 gave him 15,810. Lieut. Col. Clarke, Eighth Infantry, remained in command at Matamoros, and Major Gardner, Fourth Artillery, at Point Isabel and Brazos Island (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 533). The rank of these officers indicates that but few soldiers were left behind, and at Reynosa and Mier there were only detachments. During July Capt. Gillespie with a company of Texas Rangers marched from San Antonio and passed through Laredo, Guerrero and Mier, finding the people quiet in those towns (Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 402).

16. Occupation of Camargo, etc. The distance from the Gulf to Camargo by water was also called 450 miles (Smith, To Mexico, 92). Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 690–1 (Hunt). (Mishaps) 76Letter from Matamoros, July 13; Whiting, Aug. 3 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 675; Gaceta de Ciudad Victoria, July 21; Matamoros Reveille, June 24 ("The channel [of the river] shifts and fills with incredible rapidity"); Niles, July 18, p. 310; Aug. 1, p. 341. Ho. 60; 30, 1, pp. 300, 336–8, 397–402, 408. Henry, Camp. Sketches, 120, 123, 125, 132–151. 69Smith to Bliss, July 8. Donnavan, Adventures. 180Pillow to wife, Aug. 8. Meade, Letters, i, 106–7, 118. Henshaw narrative. Claiborne, Quitman, i, 239. Robertson, Remins., 107–9. Brackett, Lane's Brig., 23–4. Tilden, Notes, 10. 69Miles to Bliss, July 8, 14. (Alcalde) Encarnacion Prisoners, 25. 76Comte. gen., Saltillo, July 20. 76Mejía, July 19. Picayune, July 26; Aug. 1, 6, 9, 14, 15. Wilhelm, Eighth Infantry, ii, 279. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 25, 30, 39, 40. 65Id., gen. orders 93, July 30. Ewing, diary, Aug. 20–31, 1846. 76García to Parrodi, Aug. 10. Grant, Mems., i, 104. 267Memo. [apparently from Maj. Smith]. Kenly, Md. Vol., 61–4. French, Two Wars, 59. Niles, Sept. 5, p. 1; 19, p. 56. Sanders, June 5 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 551. (Mier) 69Vinton to Lee, Aug. 1; Smith, To Mexico, 66; Green, Journal, 82.

17. At Camargo. 99Gov. Tamaul. to Tampico ayunt., July 23. 80Gov. N. León, July 2, 1846. Picayune, Aug. 1, 6, 9, 14, 15; Sept. 12. Smith, Remins., 35. Sanders, June 5 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 551. McClellan, diary. Henshaw narrative. Meade, Letters, i, 119, 121. Ewing, diary, Aug. 31-Sept. 19. Robertson, Remins., 109–11. Wash. Union, Sept. 14; Oct. 5. Bishop, Journal. 185Worth to Duncan, July 30. (Worth) Wilhelm, Eighth Inf., ii, 278; Special orders 72 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 529; 61W. to adj. gen., May 9; 61Marcy to W., May 11. Henry, Camp. Sketches, 121, 152–4. Giddings, Sketches, 83. Taylor, Letters (Bixby), 42, 176. Trans. Ills. State Hist. Soc., 1906, pp. 176–7. Vedette, ix, no. 10. Tennery, diary, Oct. 28. 139Campbell to D. C., Aug. 28. Nashville Union, Oct. 17. Niles, Sept. 12, p. 23; Jan. 2, 1847, p. 286. 117Pillow to wife, Sept. 6; Dec. 24. Sedgwick, Corres., i, 13, 30. 169Taylor to Crittenden, Sept. 1, 1846. (Mier) Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1180 (Ta


Camargo was the proper place for Taylor's dép?t, but no Americans were needed there except the quartermaster's force and a guard of regulars. For these there was sufficient elevated ground. The regulars occupied this ground (Picayune, Aug. 15), and suffered comparatively little; but we know enough of the conditions existing at Camargo to pronounce the place unfit for the number of men encamped there.

18. May 9 Paredes decided that all the American consuls should cease to exercise their functions, and four days later orders were issued that wherever a U. S. war vessel should appear, the Americans should embark or go twenty leagues into the interior. Mexican consuls in the United States were soon directed to close their offices. 52B. E. Green, Apr. 25, 1844: Tornel "hates us with a most envenomed spite." 52Ellis, Sept. 20, 1839: Tornel shows a bitter and unrelenting hostility toward the United States.

19. Feb. 4, 1846, El Tiempo, the favorite journal of Paredes, had said: "We are not a people of traders and adventurers, the scum and dregs of all countries, whose only mission is to rob the Indians of their land and then seize the fertile regions opened to civilization by the Spanish race." June 13 La Esperanza, of Tampico, close to the field of war, printed the Address of a Patriotic Junta [Committee] to raise funds for the campaign, which used the following language about the Americans: "People without morality, composed of the scum of all nations; people without honesty, who count their bankruptcies by the numberless number of their enterprises; people without religion, who tolerate all beliefs and mock at the most sacred things; people for whom probity is not a virtue, who value money and know nothing of glory, a monstrous collection of the most heterogeneous elements united by the double bond of crime and fear, etc."

20. Paredes, Mexico and the war. (Paredes' appearance) Portrait, City Hall, Mexico; Aguila del Norte, Mar. 18. London Times, Mar. 13, 1846. Bankhead, nos. 13, 45, 72, 92, 100, 1846. 52Slidell, Feb. 6, 17. México á través, iv, 567–8. Dublán, Legislación, v, 134–6. Apuntes, 68. Diario, May 18; June 2, 7, 12, 17, 26–30; July 2, 4, 6, 21, 23, 25, 26, 28, 30. Memoria de ... Relaciones, 1846. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 58. 52Black, no. 379, July 4. Monitor Repub., June 1, 4, 30, 1846. Imparcial, July 15, 1846. Indicador, June 4; July 24, 1846. Esperanza, May 30, 1846. Pregonero, June 18, 1846. 84S. L. Potosí assembly, procl., May 22, 1846. Wash. Union, June 18, 1846. Balbontín, Estado Militar. 13Foreign Office to Bankhead, June 1, 1846. 76Parrodi, June 8, 1846.

21. Mar. 31, 1846 (no. 8), the British Foreign Office wrote to Bankhead, the minister at Mexico, that according to the British minister at Madrid the project of setting up a monarch in Mexico was entertained in Spain. See also chap. iv, note 15 and chap. vi, note 32.

22. The political situation of Paredes. 52Slidell, Jan. 14; Feb. 6, 17; Mar. 1, 18, 27; Apr. 2, 1846. 13Bankhead, nos. 12, 15, 22, 27, 34, 45, 49, 57, 62, 63, 80, 92, 98, 111, 1846. Conner, Mar. 2 in Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 121. Dublán, Legislación, v, 134–6. Diario, April 19; May 4, 13; June 7, 28, 1846. Tributo á la Verdad. 52Black, June 1; July 29; Aug. 12. London Times, Mar. 13; Apr. 11; Aug. 7; Sept. 5, 9; Oct. 7. Gov. Durango to Dur. cong., Nov. 8, 1846 (pamphlet). 47Wood to Bancroft, June 4. Bermúdez de Castro, no. 316, res., Aug. 28, 1846. 76Acta, Mazatlán, May 7, 1846. 52Dimond, no. 317, Feb. 2, 1846. Paredes, Papers (García, ed.), 43, 46. México á través, iv, 556, 558. 75Gov. Jalisco, Feb. 24, 1846. 75Circular, Apr. 18, 1846. Monitor Constit., Jan. 9, 1846. Boletín de Noticias, June 1, 1846. Monitor Repub., May 23; June 6, 7, 9, 22; July 5, 14, 1846. Republicano, June 27, 1846. 80Gov. Jalisco, decree, May 25, 1846. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 15. 76Paredes, manifiesto, Mar. 21. Memoria de ... Guerra, Dec., 1846. 76Comte. gen. Méx., Aug. 2, 1846. Niles, June 6, p. 211; June 20, p. 242. 80Gov. Méx., April 20, 1846. Lerdo de Tejada, Apuntes, ii, 524, 530, 531, 536. Sierra, Evolution, i, 215. 13Forbes to Bankhead, July 2, 1846.

A pamphlet said, "?A las armas, Mexicanos! People, a horrible treason, an infamous treason threatens our independence, our adored independence, for which our fathers gave their lives"; Paredes and his coterie of wretches are aiming to hand us over, manacled, to the foreigners; "this is a fact, Mexicans; read, read that newspaper, protected by the government, called El Tiempo."

23. E.g. El Telégrafo said in capitals on March 31: "Many a nation would like to take by the hand" one of the heroes who helped to establish it, and "the silence of the majestic tomb replies, 'He no longer lives'; but Santa Anna does live, and his voice proclaims, 'Mexico shall be great, free and happy.'"

24. A revolt in favor of Santa Anna occurred at Mazatlán on May 7, but it was not an integral part of the movement.

25. Paredes was imprisoned in the fortress of Ulúa, transferred to Perote castle, and early in October permitted to leave the country. In this revolution Tornel miscalculated and stood out against Santa Anna. The Puebla garrison also was hostile at first. The title of Salas was, "Most Excellent Se?or, General-in-Chief of the Liberating Republican Army exercising the Supreme Executive Power."

26. The downfall of Paredes. London Times, Aug. 6, 1845; Feb. 10; May 13; Oct. 7, 1846. W. S. Parrott, June 4. 52Campbell, Apr. 8, 1845. Slidell, Mar. 27, 1846. Imparcial, June 18, 1906. Dimond, nos. 324–7, 329, 331, Mar. 18, 22, 31; Apr. 1, 5, 17, 1846. Santa Anna's "Plan," etc., in Sen. 1; 29, 2, pp. 34–6. Sierra, Evolution, i, 215–7. Suárez y Navarro, Causas, 82. Mora, Papeles Ined., 59. Bankhead, nos. 57, 78, 88, 100, 110, 111, 149, 1846. 13Giffard, April 1; Aug. 1. Memoria de ... Relaciones, Dec., 1846 (and documents). Giménez, Memorias, 92. Acta, Guadalajara, May 22, 1846 (pamphlet). México á través, iv, 555, 569–76. Picayune, April 21. Diario, May 4; July 31; Aug. 1–9, 26. 285Montoya to Paredes, April 1. 285Parrodi to Paredes, July 25. 182Almonte to -–, May 13. Monitor Repub., June 22; Aug. 4. 52Black, Apr. 26; May 21; July 29; Aug. 6, 22, 27; Sept. 17; Oct. 8. Plan Salvador, Feb. 11, 1847. 47Conner, July 16, 28; Aug. 12., 1846. 166Pommarès to Conner, July 31. Monitor Repub., Aug. 4. 73Bermúdez de Castro, no. 316, res., Aug. 28, 1846. Lerdo de Tejada, Apuntes, ii, 531–5. Memoria ... de Guerra, Dec., 1846. Dublán, Legislación, v, 146, 155. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 63, 67–74. 94Circular of Hacienda, Aug. 15. Also from 76 the following. Letter to Guerra, Acapulco, Apr. 15. To Garay and Falcon, April 7. To Bravo, April 13. Rea, June 5. Comte. gen. Oaxaca, June 15. Yá?ez, Aug. 31. Id. to troops, May 20. Id., address, June 7. Id., proclam., July 16. Acta, Mazatlán, May 7. Acta, Tepic, May 12. Yá?ez to Reyes, May 22. To Morales, Aug. 7. To Parrodi, July 31. Acta, Coatepec, July 20. Comte. gen. V. Cruz, July 1, 9, 21. Rebolledo to Echagaray, July 20. Paredes, Sept. 12. To comte. gen. Vera Cruz, Sept. 18. Acta, Jalapa, Aug. 2. Salas to Mora, Aug. 4. To Paredes, Aug. 4. Agreement, Aug. 6. Salas, proclam., Aug. 6. Circulars, July 27; Aug. 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 15, 17. The Guerra archives contain a great number of documents relating to internal troubles at this time. For the Organic Bases see chap, ii, p. 52.

27. The captain general of Cuba had been ordered-evidently in the interest of the Mexican monarchical party-to prevent Santa Anna from returning to Mexico, but was friendly to him, and gave him a passport on the grounds that he could not be prevented from going, that an attempt to hold him (contrary to the rules of neutrality and hospitality) might be made an excuse for misusing the Spanish residing in that country, and that, even should the monarchical plan be carried out, its results would probably not be stable (72Reales Ordenes, Serie de Gobernación, legajo 43). He went in a hired vessel called the Arab, under British colors. Near Vera Cruz the Arab was hailed by the U. S. sloop-of-war St. Mary's and boarded, but was permitted to proceed (S. Anna, Apelación, 17; Semmes, Service, 118; Taylor, Broad Pennant, 254–5). Conner stated that the Arab was not boarded, but apparently he wrote this before receiving a report from the St. Mary's. The city of Vera Cruz had not declared for Santa Anna, and did not do so for some time. In fact the city government appeared so unsympathetic that an effort was immediately made to overthrow it. Santa Anna was accompanied by Almonte, Rejón and other partisans. See Courrier des Etats Unis, Aug. 22; 313Letters in Saunders papers; 297Mackenzie, July 11; 166Campbell to Conner, Aug. 7; 166Conner, Aug. 17; ("Flower") Kenly, Md. Vol., 392–3; 76comte. gen. V. Cruz, Aug. 16, 22; Tributo á la Verdad; Semmes, Service, 118–9; 100Landero and Pérez, July 31; Bankhead, nos. 121, 122, Aug. 29; 47Conner, Aug. 16; Diario, Aug. 28; Memoria de ... Guerra, Dec., 1846.

28. Santa Anna till he reaches El Encero. Ruxton, Adventures (1849 ed.), 17, 18, 20, 47. 76Comte. gen. V. Cruz, Aug. 14, 16, 22. Encarnacion Prisoners, 45. Stapp, Prisoners, 89, 90, 95. Calderón, Life, i, 48–50; ii, 121. S. Anna, Apelación, 16–8. Kendall, Narrative, ii, 364. Am. Sentinel, June 15, 1836. 297Mackenzie, July 11. 76S. Anna, Aug. 16. Rivera, Gobernantes, ii, 183, 186, 221. London Times, June 25, 1836. Thompson, Recolls., 66. Ferry, Revolutions, 175–206. 231Powhatan Ellis, July 8, 1839. 76Comte. gen. Zacatecas, Aug. 28. 76Comte. gen. Oaxaca, Aug. 28. 76Comte. gen. Tamaul., Aug. 26. 76Comte. gen. Sinaloa, Oct. 14. 13Bankhead, nos. 120–2, Aug. 29. Taylor, Broad Pennant, 254–5. Semmes, Service, 118–9. Memoria de ... Relaciones, Dec., 1846. Lerdo de Tejada, Apuntes, ii, 536. 47Conner, Aug. 16 (unofficial), 25, 30; Sept. 5. 166Conner, Aug. 17. 76Circular, Aug. 19. Memoria de ... Guerra, Dec., 1846. Indicador, Aug. 16. Ramírez, México, 134, 137, 139–40. Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 777 (S. Anna). Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 86–7. 76S. Anna, Sept. 7. Diario, Aug. 27–8. 162Conner to wife, Aug. 19. 52Campbell, Nov. 10.

29. This account is based upon a study of his career and a wide range of reading. A few sources may be specified: Atlas, Feb. 1, 1845. Bankhead, nos. 66, 110, 1844. Calderón, Life, ii, 121. Sierra, Evolution, i, 190, 198, 203, 210, 216. Mofras, Exploration, i, 14. Negrete, México, xiii, 370. León, Historia, 480. Defensa de S. Anna. Nacional, Dec 22, 1847. Arco Iris, Dec. 7, 1847. Monitor Repub., Oct. 12; Dec. 12, 1847. 166Campbell to Conner, July 9, 1846. Noticias Importantes. 73Reports of the Spanish legation (which give striking evidence of S. Anna's intellectual qualities and volubility). Proceso del Gral. S. Anna. Biog. del Gral. S. Anna.

30. No doubt Santa Anna had felt at an earlier period and possibly felt even now an occasional emotion of patriotism inundate his soul, as a Mexican proclamation would have said. Few are so utterly selfish as never to bestow a kind wish upon their fellow-creatures, and Santa Anna was bad in a spontaneous, human way, not in that of cold villainy. Probably he was largely guided by worse men than himself, who had more ability to think but needed him to execute their designs.

31. The army sent agents to question Santa Anna with reference to his intentions. It may safely be assumed that he reassured the military chiefs regarding his real aims.

32. The Boletín Oficial of S. L. Potosí said on July 31: "And liberty! Oh liberty! There also we meet with fine phrases. How beautiful are phrases! How they fill the heart! Santa Anna instead of Paredes ..., is not this liberty, I ask? A prince from abroad, a dictator from Mexico,-is not this also liberty, I ask?"

33. 47Conner reported that on August 28 an American urged upon Santa Anna the necessity of making peace with the United States, and that Santa Anna replied in substance as follows: I am convinced of that but will not assume the responsibility of proposing it; I am old; I have money enough; I will not run the risk of dying in exile; I will assemble Congress as soon as possible and act as the majority shall decide; meanwhile I will attempt the arduous task of repelling the invaders. This American was Hargous, a merchant of Vera Cruz (see Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 90; 166Pommarès to Conner, Aug. 29). The British minister believed that Santa Anna had made an arrangement with the United States at Havana, but was prevented by the unpopularity of his return from carrying out the agreement (Bankhead, no. 128, Sept. 7).

34. A striking glimpse into the situation is given by the fact that for some time the government could not communicate confidentially with Santa Anna because there was nobody it dared trust with such a mission, and no person of importance dared absent himself from the centre of intrigue (Ramírez, México, 145).

35. A series of acts concluded on October 23 restored fully the externals of the federal system (Ramírez, Memorias, 33–4). This change metamorphosed departments into states.

36. The constitution of 1824 was revived so far as it did not conflict with the revolution of Aug. 4. Salas was a weak man and longed to escape from his difficult and trying situation (Bankhead, no. 140, Sept. 29; Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 101; México á través, iv, 577).

37. Other war measures were: (Aug. 28) free importation of arms; (Aug. 31) severe penalties for civil and military officers refusing to obey orders during the war; (Sept. 3) the free manufacture and sale of gunpowder; (Sept. 4) a commission to provide lands for American deserters; (Sept. 10) naturalization to be gained by entering the army or navy; (Sept. 10) re?stablishment of the Military Normal School at Chapultepec under the name Military College; (Sept. 11) regulations for the National Guard. The purpose of offering a pardon to deserters from the regular army was probably to transfer men from it to the National Guards (Bankhead, no. 126, Sept. 7).

38. The attitude of the best citizens was probably stated by the Monitor Republicano of Aug. 25: "We will say to Santa Anna: ... if you recognize your errors, promote the welfare of the country, pursue a course entirely different from your former policy, and prove by acts-not words-that your misdeeds were not crimes but errors, then Mexico will forget the past and reward liberally the citizen conferring upon her so marked a benefit."

39. Thirteen municipalities of Oaxaca contributed a total of 75 pesos.

40. Guadalupe Hidalgo, a suburb on the northern side of Mexico, contained a deeply venerated shrine of the Virgin.

41. The situation and Santa Anna's course. 47Conner, July 28; Aug. 12, 16 (unofficial), 25; Sept. 5, 13, 22; Oct. 4. 73Bermúdez de Castro, no. 316, res., Aug. 28; nos. 345–6, Sept. 28. Ramírez, México, 131–5, 137, 145, 149. 52Black, Aug. 22, 27; Sept. 12, 22, 28; Oct. 8. Mora, Papeles Ined., 60. 162Conner to wife, Aug. 29. Heller, Reisen, 195–6. Sierra, Evolution, i, 215. Tributo á la Verdad. 70Degrees, Aug. 22, 28. 76Salas, proclams., Aug. 28; decrees, Sept. 10, 27. 13Gutiérrez de Estrada to Palmerston, Mar. 1, 1847. 76Circular, Aug. 28 ("infamous" reports that the govt. aims to destroy the army). 13Bankhead, nos. 111, 120–2, 126, 128, 136, 140, 142, 1846. Rivera, Jalapa, iii, 787–9. 166Campbell to Conner, July 9, 13. 166Pommarès to Conner, Aug. 29; Sept. 23. Amer. Sentinel, June 15, 1836. Revue des Deux Mondes, Aug. 1, 1847, p. 404. México á través, iv, 577–9, 590, 628. Diario, Aug. 27-Sept. 6, 9, 11–20, 23, 25–30. 47Black to Conner, Sept. 24. Eco de Tampico, Nov. 4 (If S. Anna beats the enemy he will be the idol of the Mexicans). 76Circulars, Aug. 17, 22, 28, 31; Sept. 3, 15, 17, 20, 25, 28. Memoria de ... Guerra, Dec. García, Revol. de Ayutla, 15. Memoria de ... Relaciones, Dec. 77Circular, Sept. 10; Nov. 27. Dublán, Legislación, v, 155–61. Republicano, Sept. 15, 29; Nov. 5. 76To Almonte, Aug. 28. 76S. Anna, Sept. 7, 13, 14, 21, 24, 25, 26. Apuntes, 67, 115. Tributo á la Verdad. Bustamante, Nuevo Bernal, ii, 94, 96, 101, 111. 76Comte. gen. Puebla, Sept. 6. Diario, supplem. to no. 39. 70Almonte to comte. gen. Méx., Sept. 15. 76Comte. gen. V. Cr., procl., Oct. 1. Monitor Repub., Aug. 25; Sept. 14–15, 18, 25. Ruxton, Advent. (1847), 47, 49. Imparcial, June 18, 1906. 76Comte. gen. Querétaro, procl., Sept. 29. S. Anna, Apelación, 20. London Times, Oct. 7; Nov. 6. (380) Ho. 60; 30, 1, p. 1046 (Scott).

42. (Bulls) 121Handbill.

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