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   Chapter 25 THAT THE TRUTH OF THE CHRISTIAN RELIGION IS EXTREMELY PROBABLE.

The Truth of Christianity By William Harry Turton Characters: 67826

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:03


(A.) The Evidences of Christianity.

One remaining objection, why are there so many difficulties, and no more obvious proof? considered in detail.

(B.) Summary and Conclusion.

We have now examined all the more important arguments for and against the Truth of Christianity. Many of them, as we have seen, involve a good deal of study, and we have often been obliged to consider a few examples only of various classes of facts; but it is hoped that no important argument on either side has been entirely overlooked. One remaining objection has still to be considered.

(A.) The Evidences of Christianity.

Does not, it is urged, this very fact of itself form a difficulty? Can an ordinary man be expected to ponder over arguments, objections, and counter-arguments by the dozen, even supposing the balance of probability to be in favour of the Religion? Surely, if Christianity were true, and God wished men to believe it, there would not be so many difficulties. He would have provided an easier way of proving it than this; or, at all events, if this elaborate argument were examined, the inference in its favour would be simply overwhelming. This is a difficulty felt perhaps by some who have read the present Essay; fortunately it can be answered satisfactorily.

And first, as to there being so many difficulties. Several of these are simply due to the evidence in favour of Christianity being so strong. If, for instance, we had only one Gospel instead of four, the difficulties caused by the discrepancies between them would disappear, but the argument in favour of Christianity would not be strengthened in consequence. Still putting aside these, it must be admitted that there are many difficulties connected with the Religion.

But what is the cause of this? It is the very magnitude of the Christian Religion which opens the way for so many attacks. A religion which claims to be the only true one in the world; to have been founded by God Himself; to have been prepared for by prophecies and introduced by miracles; to be the centre of the world's history, all previous history leading up to it, and all subsequent history being influenced by it; to be suitable for all ages and countries; to hold the key to all mental and moral problems; to be man's guide and comfort in this life, and his only hope for the next;-such a religion must be assailable at a great many points. But provided all these assaults can be repelled, provided this long frontier-line, so to speak, can be properly defended, it does not show the weakness of the religion; on the contrary, it shows its enormous strength. A religion which made less claims would, no doubt, have less difficulties; but it would be less likely to be the true one. If God became Incarnate, no claims can be too vast for the Religion He founded. And to many, this unspeakable grandeur of Christianity, so far from being a difficulty, constitutes one of its greatest charms.

Next, as to there being no easier means of proof. It is a simple matter of fact that the vast majority of men, both educated and uneducated, who believe in Christianity, have not arrived at this belief by a long line of reasoning, such as we have examined. They assert that there is an easier way. They say that God has given them a faculty of Faith, which, though it may be hard to explain, just as man's free will is hard to explain, yet gives them the most certain conviction of the truth of Christianity. And starting with this inward conviction, they say it is confirmed by their daily experience, just as a man's belief in his free will is confirmed by his daily experience. Of course, this appeal to faith is no argument to those who do not possess it. On the other hand, to those who do possess it, no arguments can really weaken or strengthen it. It is a thing by itself, and absolutely convincing.

It may be pointed out, however, that if man is a partly spiritual as well as a partly material being, which we have already admitted; then the existence of some spiritual sense, or faculty, by which to perceive spiritual truths, just as the body has material senses by which to perceive material objects, cannot be thought incredible. And this is what faith claims to be; it is a means to spiritual discernment, and may be compared to eyesight. It does not enable us to believe what we might otherwise think to be untrue; but it enables us to know for certain, what we might otherwise think to be only probable (e.g., the existence of God). In the same way a blind man might, by feeling, think it probable that there were a certain number of pictures in a room, but if he could see, he would know for certain. And, just as a man, who had always been blind, ought not to reject the testimony of those who see, so a man who has no faith ought not to reject the testimony of those who have. And the existence of such a faculty will account for the very different views taken of Christianity by men of apparently equal intelligence and candour.

Still, it may be asked, why should some persons be given this faculty of faith, while others are not? The subject is no doubt a difficult one. But very possibly the faculty is latent in every one, only it needs (like other faculties) to be exercised and developed. And the man himself may be responsible for whether he takes suitable means (prayer, etc.) for doing this. However, we need not pursue this subject, since, as said above, no arguments can prove, or disprove Christianity to those who believe by faith.

But now comes the most important part of the objection. Granting, it is said, that the subject is a difficult one, and demands a long investigation, yet when we do go through the arguments on both sides the conclusion is not irresistible. In short, why are not the evidences in favour of Christianity stronger? Of course they might be so, but we have no reason for thinking that they would be. In our ordinary daily life we have never absolute certainty to guide us, but only various degrees of probability. And even, in Natural Religion, the reasons for believing in a Personal God and the freedom and responsibility of man, though to most people quite convincing, are certainly not irresistible; since, as a matter of fact, some men resist them.

And if God intends us to act on such evidence in common life, and also with regard to the great truths of Natural Religion, why should He not do the same with regard to Christianity? He seems, if we may use the word, to respect man's momentous attribute of free will even in matters of Religion; therefore in His sight a right belief, like right conduct, may be of no value unless it is more or less voluntary. It is to be a virtue, rather than a necessity. And this fully accounts for the evidences of Christianity not being overwhelming. They are amply sufficient to justify anyone in believing it; but they are not, and were probably never meant to be, sufficient to compel him to do so.

If, however,-and this is a matter of practical importance-they are strong enough to show that the Religion is probably true, a man who admits this is obviously bound to accept it. He cannot adopt a neutral attitude, because the evidence is not conclusive; since, as just said, in every other subject we have only probability, not certainty, to guide us; and why should religion alone be different? Then, if he accepts it, he is obviously bound to try and live accordingly, no matter what the sacrifice may be; for Christianity, if it is worth anything, is worth everything. Such tremendous truths cannot be half acted on if believed, any more than they can be half believed; it must be a case of all for all. And then, if he tries to live accordingly, he may find (as Christians in all ages have found) that for himself the probability becomes a certainty.

Lastly, it may be pointed out that though perhaps the evidences of Christianity are not so strong as we should expect, they are precisely of such a kind as we should expect; for they exhibit each of the three great attributes of God. His Omnipotence is shown in the miracles, His Omniscience in the prophecies, and His perfect Goodness in the Character of Christ; so that, judged by its evidences, Christianity is a Religion which might very reasonably have come from the God Who is All-Powerful, All-Wise, and All-Good.

(B.) Summary and Conclusion.

It now only remains to give a summary of the previous chapters, and then point out the final choice of difficulties.

In Chapter XIII. we considered the credibility of the Christian Religion, and decided that some of its leading doctrines, especially those of the Incarnation and the Atonement, seemed very improbable. All that can be said on the other side is practically this, that we have no adequate means of judging; and that when we apply similar reasoning to subjects about which we do know, such as the freedom of man or the existence of evil, it generally leads us wrong. But still the fact remains that the Religion appears, at first sight, very improbable.

In Chapter XIV. we considered the external testimony to the Four Gospels, and decided that this was very strongly in their favour. At the close of the second century they held the same position among Christians as they do at present; during the middle of that century Justin shows that they were publicly read, together with the Old Testament Prophets; while the few earlier writers whose works have come down to us also seem to have known them.

In Chapter XV. we considered their internal evidence, and found that it strongly supported the above conclusion; so combining the two, we have an almost overwhelming argument in favour of their genuineness.

In Chapter XVI. we considered an additional argument of great importance, derived from the Acts of the Apostles. There are strong reasons for dating this book about A.D. 60; and if so it proves a still earlier date for the first three Gospels.

In Chapter XVII. we considered the Resurrection of Christ, and the accounts we have of it in the Four Gospels. And we decided that these Narratives, in spite of some obvious discrepancies and omissions had every appearance of being thoroughly trustworthy. Indeed their complete agreement in important points, their mutual explanations, and their signs of early date are all strongly in their favour.

In Chapter XVIII. we considered the testimony of the First Witnesses, and examined in detail their veracity, knowledge, investigation, and reasoning; and each seemed to be supported by irresistible evidence. Therefore the opposite theories, which are based on denying these points, and are called respectively the Falsehood, the Legend, the Vision, and the Swoon Theory, are quite untenable. So we must either accept the Resurrection of Christ; or deny it, in spite of all the evidence, and solely because of the miraculous nature of the event.

In Chapter XIX. we considered the other New Testament Miracles, and came to the conclusion that they also occurred. Indeed their marks of truthfulness, and their publicity together with the fact that they were never disputed at the time, make the evidence in their favour extremely strong.

In Chapter XX. we considered the argument from Prophecy; and discussed in detail Isaiah's Prophecy of the Lord's Servant, and the Psalm of the Crucifixion, and then glanced at several others. And we pointed out how completely these prophecies were fulfilled in Christ, and how utterly hopeless it was to find any other fulfilment of them. So here again the choice lies between either accepting these prophecies, or disputing them simply because they are prophecies, and imply superhuman knowledge. In other words, we must either admit the marvel of a Divine Revelation, or else we must face the mental difficulty of believing that all these coincidences were due to chance, the improbability of which can scarcely be calculated.

In Chapter XXI. we considered the Character of Christ; and the admitted excellence of His moral teaching seems quite inconsistent with deliberate falsehood on His part. Yet He kept asserting His superhuman and Divine Nature, and was finally put to death in consequence. So here once more we have a similar choice before us. We must either accept the Divinity of Christ, with all the wonders it involves; or else we must face the moral difficulty of believing that the best moral teaching the world has ever had, was given by One, whose own life was full of falsehood and presumption.

In Chapter XXII. we considered the History of Christianity, and found that its marvellous progress at first, in spite of its immense difficulties, and without the use of any force, could only be accounted for by its truth. So here for the last time we have the same alternatives to choose from. We must either admit the supernatural origin and spread of Christianity; or else we must face the historical difficulty of believing that its first preachers were able to convince men without evidence, conquer them without force, and found the greatest religion the world has ever seen on claims which at the time everyone must have known to be untrue.

In Chapter XXIII. we considered the other evidence on the subject, and briefly examined various arguments for and against Christianity, such as its connection with prayer; its adaptation to human nature, and its relation to other religions; but all of comparative unimportance.

Lastly, in Chapter XXIV. we decided that the Three Creeds were deducible from the New Testament; so the religion which has all this evidence in its favour is the Christian Religion, as we have used the term.

From the above summary it will be seen that the arguments against Christianity are all what may be called antecedent (or a priori) ones. The Religion itself, its doctrines, its claims, its miraculous origin, all seem most improbable. Thus the objections to Christianity all lie on the surface. They are obvious and palpable to everyone.

On the other hand, the arguments in its favour have often to be sought for; but when found they are seen to be stronger and stronger the more they are examined. There are four main arguments. These are of a widely different character, and each appeals most strongly to a certain class of minds, so each is often said to be the chief argument for Christianity, but they are probably of equal value. They may be conveniently called the argument from Miracles, including of course the Resurrection of Christ; from Prophecy; from Christ's Character; and from History. And it should be noticed in passing, that they mutually support one another. Miracles, for instance, are less difficult to believe when it is seen that they were to establish a religion which has for centuries exercised a greater influence on mankind than anything else; and prophecies become stronger when it is seen that the Life foretold was one that had such supreme and far-reaching effects.

Now, it is important to remember that the actual facts on which these arguments rest are in each case absolutely unique. Once, and only once in the history of the world, have men appeared who asserted that they were actual witnesses of miracles, and who faced all forms of suffering and death solely in consequence of this. Again, once, and only once in the history of the world, has a long series of prophecies, uttered many centuries apart, united in a single Person, in whom they one and all find a complete fulfilment. Yet again, once, and only once in the history of the world, has a Man appeared of faultless moral character, who asserted that He was also God, and who boldly claimed all that this tremendous assertion involved, and submitted to the consequences. While, lastly, once, and only once in the history of the world, has a Religion, most improbable in itself, and without using any force, succeeded in conquering nation after nation.

These, then, are the four chief arguments on the subject, and in every case we have the same choice before us. We must either face the antecedent (or a priori) difficulties in accepting Christianity, or the mental, moral and historical difficulties in rejecting it. There is no neutral ground, no possibility of avoiding both sets of difficulties. But the difficulties on the one side concern what we do not know-God's purpose in creating man-and may be due to our ignorance only. The difficulties on the other side concern what we do know. They are practical, they are derived from experience. We do know that men will not lay down their lives for what they believe to be false, and that the first preachers of Christianity must have known whether it was false or not. We do know that prophecies uttered at random through centuries would not all unite in a single Person. We do know that even moderately good men do not make extravagant claims. And we do know that no natural causes can account for such a religion as Christianity obtaining such a triumph as it did.

The choice, then, seems to lie between what we may call unknown difficulties and known ones. The unknown difficulty of believing that the Eternal God could so love man as to humble Himself even to death to win man's love; and the known difficulty of believing that evidence so vast and so various, so cumulative and so apparently irresistible, could all unite in making a monstrous falsehood appear to be a momentous truth. Between these two sets of difficulties we have to make our choice. But to those who agree with the previous chapters, the choice cannot be doubtful; for however hard it is to believe Christianity, it is, as we have shown, harder still to disbelieve it. This, then, is our final conclusion, that the truth of the Christian religion is extremely probable, because, to put it shortly, though the difficulties of accepting Christianity are great, the difficulties of rejecting it are far greater.

INDEX OF TEXTS.

Genesis.

PAGE

1. 117

" 1 213

" 26 159, 393

2. 132

" 4 119

3. 22 159, 393

4. 13-17, 26 132

5. 1-2 134

6. 2-4 132

7. 11 126

" 21 132

7-8. 159

9. 13-14 127

11. 7 393

12. 3 205

" 6 160

" 16 141

13. 7 160

14. 22 213

18. 25 215

21. 33 213

22. 210

" 17 217

" 18 374

23. 2, 19 142

25. 18 143

26. 4 374

27. 8-13 208

33. 18 142

35. 6 142

36. 31-39 159

39. 1 139

" 9 215

40. 11, 19 140

" 15 156

41. 140

" 41 393

43. 27-28 143

" 32 139

46. 34 139

48. 3 142

49. 30 142

50. 3 139

Exodus.

PAGE

1. 11 144

" 14 144

2. 3 144

3. 14 405

4. 21 159

5. 12 144

" 23 165

7. 3 159

" 11, 22 182

" 14-25 157

" 19 145

8. 7, 18, 19 182

" 15, 32 210

9. 34 210

10. 1 159

" 3, 7 210

12. 12 146

" 25 153

" 37 171

13. 11 153

" 13 210

14. 4 209

" 21, 22 178

" 30 179

16. 36 160

17. 14 164

19. 5 206

20. 24 161

21. 2, 16 211

22. 29, 30 210

23. 4-5 211

" 9 148

24. 4 164, 165

25. 3-10 148

" 13-18 147

29. 14 154

34. 20 210

" 27 164

Leviticus.

PAGE

4. 12 154

6. 2 392

" 11 154

7. 1 380

" 38 151

11. 29 132

13. 46 154

14. 3 154

" 34 153

16. 1 151

" 19 380

" 26 154

17. 3 150, 154

18-20. 211

18. 20 392

" 21-28 209

19. 11, 15, 17 392

" 23 153

" 34 148

23. 10 153

24. 15 151

" 16 412

24. 19 392

25. 1 151

" 2 153

" 13 150

" 14, 15, 17 392

" 41 211

26. 33 190

" 46 151

27. 28, 29 210

" 34 151

Numbers.

PAGE

1. 171

" 1 151

" 21 171

" 47-4, 49 150

2. 10, 17 169

3. 14 151

" 29 169

5. 2 154

9. 1 151

" 10 151

11. 5 147

15. 2, 18 153

" 35 151

16. 169, 183

17. 2 147

18. 15 210

19. 3, 14 154

21. 14 159

23. 19 214

26. 171

" 11 170

27. 8 151

33. 165

" 2 164

" 4 146

" 50 151

35. 1 151

" 1-8 150

" 10 153

36. 8 151

" 13 164

Deuteronomy.

PAGE

1. 3 151

" 37 165

2. 10-12 160

" 20-23 160

3. 8, 20, 25 156

" 14 160

" 23-26 165

4. 1, 5, 14 154

" 3-15 152

" 17 126

" 21 165

" 27 190

" 39 212

" 46 151

5. 3 152

" 31 154

6. 1, 18 154

" 5 215

" 9 146

7. 1 153

" 2 163

" 15 148

" 22 163

8. 1 154

" 7-10 148

9. 5 209

11. 2-8 152

" 6 170

" 10-12 148

" 11 126

" 20 146

" 30 156

12. 1, 10, 29 153

" 5 161

" 21 150

" 31 210

13. 1-3 199

14. 2 216

17. 14 153

18. 6-8 162

" 9 153

" 22 199

20. 17 163

21. 23 377

24. 9, 18, 22 152

25. 17 152

26. 1 153

" 14 147

" 18 216

27. 2 146

28. 191

" 25, 64 190

" 37, 46, 48 190

" 60 148

29. 1 151

" 2-9 152

31. 2, 22, 24-26 165

" 9, 22, 24 164

32. 8 206

33. 27 123

Joshua.

PAGE

1. 7, 8 160

3. 14-17 183

6. 6-20 183

6. 15 173

8. 31, 32 160

9. 1, 10 156

10. 12-14 179

12. 7 156

23. 26 160

24. 26 160

Judges.

PAGE

3. 4 160

5. 4 127

6. 15 171

" 26 162

11. 39 210

20. 27, 28 160

21. 19 160

I. Samuel.

PAGE

2. 12-30 160

3. 3 160

4. 4 160

6. 15 160

" 19 171

14. 3 160

15. 22 161

25. 16 178

II. Samuel.

PAGE

7. 12-16 195

8. 16 173

10. 5 141

11. 24 386

12. 9 386

24. 18 162

I. Kings.

PAGE

2. 3 160

3. 2 161

6. 14-36 147

8. 27 213

9. 4, 5 195

10. 29 174

11. 31, 40 195

12. 24 195

13. 2 196

14. 15 196

17. 21 357

18. 27-40 183

" 27 212

" 32 162

20. 30 171

22. 43 161

II. Kings.

PAGE

2. 22 181

4. 6 181

5. 10-27 183

6. 6 181

7. 2 126

" 6 174

14. 6 160

15. 19 176

17. 6 177

18. 4-6 161

" 28-35 184

" 18 173

19. 10, 34 184

" 15-18 212

" 35 183, 184

20. 8-11 183, 196

" 17 196

21. 2, 21 163

22. 162

23. 15, 16 196

25. 3 177

I. Chronicles.

PAGE

21. 12 184

28. 9 215

29. 11 213

II. Chronicles.

PAGE

14. 8, 9 171

20. 6 206

32. 24, 31 197

34. 8 173

Ezra.

PAGE

6. 12 393

7. 21 393

Nehemiah.

PAGE

1. 8 190

9. 6 213

Job.

PAGE

10. 4, 5 120

11. 7 214

12. 10 213

16. 10 385

29. 9 376

34. 19 215

36. 26 213

37. 16 213

33. 8-11 127

Psalms.

PAGE

8. 3, 4 60

22. 384

22. 27 218

58. 4 134

69. 474

82. 6 412

86. 9 218

90. 2 213

115. 4-8 212

139. 2 213

" 7 213

147. 5 213

" 8-9 178

148. 6 214

Proverbs.

PAGE

15. 3 213

16. 4 213

30. 19 126

Ecclesiastes.

PAGE

12. 14 215

Isaiah.

PAGE

1. 4 378

6. 5-10 460

" 8 394

8. 4 196

9. 1-2 390

" 6 390

10. 21 390

11. 9 218

13. 4 134

" 19-22 187

14. 22, 23 187

28. 29 213

37. 16 206

38. 8 196

40. 3 407

" 10 377

41. 8 381

" 22 199

42. 1-6 382

44. 6 408

" 8 199

" 28 196

45. 7 213

" 15 214

46. 10 213

48. 3-5 199

" 12 213

49. 3-5 382

" 6-7 382

51. 9 377

52. 13-53, 12 376

Jeremiah.

PAGE

7. 22 161

8. 8 155

9. 16 190

14. 14 155

23. 24 213

24. 9 190

26. 8-16 196

29. 10 196

" 18 190

30. 11 190

31. 35-37 190

32. 17 213

50. 13, 39, 40 187

51. 26, 37, 43 187

Lamentations.

PAGE

4. 4 385

Ezekiel.

PAGE

11. 5 213

13. 7 155

22. 15 190

29. 11-13 189

" 15 188

30. 7, 13 189

34. 23 383

Daniel.

PAGE

3. 20-27 183

4. 6 393

5. 1 174

8. 1 174

9. 21 311

9. 26 196

11. 196

12. 2 465

Hosea.

PAGE

4. 4-6 160

6. 6 161

8. 1, 12, 13 160

9. 4 160

" 17 190

12. 9 160

Joel.

PAGE

2. 31 145

Amos.

PAGE

2. 4, 11 160

3. 6 213

4. 1 385

" 4, 5 160

5. 8 213

" 21-25 160

8. 5 160

9. 9 190

Micah.

PAGE

5. 2 391

Nahum.

PAGE

3. 7 187

" 8 178

Zephaniah.

PAGE

2. 11 218

2. 13-14 187

Zechariah.

PAGE

3. 8 383

9. 9 392

11. 12-13 392

12. 10 392

13. 7 392

14. 9 392

Malachi.

PAGE

3. 6 214

" 10 126

II. Esdras.

PAGE

8. 3 262

Matthew.

PAGE

1. 22 389

2. 1 318

3. 3 407

" 17 268

5. 3, 10 261

" 24 273

" 39 398

6. 14 401

7. 13, 23 465

" 22 359, 403

8. 3 356

" 12 465

" 30-32 352

9. 9 275

" 33 361

" 34 367

10. 8 283

" 17, 22 433

" 28 472

" 32 403

" 33 465

11. 21-24 350

" 4 350

" 5 283

" 25-27 281

" 27 402

12. 24 367

" 31, 32 460

" 32 465

" 42 268

13. 41 402, 403

" 42, 50 465

" 58 358

14. 13 284

15. 26 386

16. 13-16 402

" 17 304

" 18 433

" 21 317

" 27 403, 468

" 28 273

18. 6 478

" 8 465

" 20 404

19. 12 399

" 26 32

" 28 403

20. 28 402

21. 43 273

22. 11 400

" 14 261

" 17 272

23. 37 283

24. 3, 29 274

" 16 274

" 30 403

" 31 402

" 36 281

25. 31-46 403

" 41, 46 465

26. 28 402

" 39 32

" 52 386

" 61 284

" 62 378

" 64 403

" 65 412

27. 8 274

" 14 378

27. 43 390

" 63-64 303

28. 4, 11 311

" 16, 7, 10 313

" 9 337

" 10, 19 386

" 15 274, 337

" 17 334

" 18 402

" 19, 20 404

" 19 262, 281

" 19 433, 461

Mark.

PAGE

1. 3 407

" 5 368

" 11 268

" 14-20 278

" 20 285

" 34 355

" 42 356

2. 10 350

3. 1-5 359

" 10 355

" 12 358

" 22 367

" 28, 29 460

" 29 465

5. 11-13 352

" 39 358

" 41 354

" 42 361

" 43 358

6. 5-6 358

" 31 284

" 56 355

7. 34 354

" 36 358

" 37 361

9. 1 273

" 31 317

" 48 465

10. 18 405

" 24 378

" 45 402

11. 10 366

12. 29 460

13. 7, 10 273

" 13 433

" 14 274

" 24 274

" 32 281, 405

14. 9 273

" 24 402

" 28 311

" 51 275

" 58 284

" 64 412

16. 7 313

" 8 311

" 11 312

" 11-14 334

" 13 312

" 14 322

" 15 433

" 16 477

" 17 359

Luke.

PAGE

1. 1 276

" 1-4 271

" 2-3 272

" 3 295, 313

" 25 311

2. 2 266

" 52 405

3. 1 268

" 4 407

" 22 268

5. 17-21 360

" 25 356

6. 36-38 261

7. 14 357

" 22 283, 350

8. 32-33 352

" 55 356

9. 10 284

" 27 273

10. 13-15 350

" 21, 22 281

" 22 402

" 38 283

11. 15 367

" 31 268

13. 453

" 10-17 359

" 34 283

14. 21-22 309

16. 8 399

17. 1-2 261

18. 33 317

" 42 358

" 43 356

19. 37 283

" 37-38 392

" 43 299

21. 21 274

" 24 273

" 27 274

22. 19 402

" 71 412

24. 4, 23 311

" 9, 33 322

" 11 311

" 11, 37 334

" 12 318

" 18 276

" 24 318

" 30, 43 337

" 34 312, 313

" 34 321

" 41 322

" 39 261

John.

PAGE

1. 1 286, 407

" 3 409

" 14 277

" 29-2, 12 278

" 29, 36 286

" 40 276

" 46 377

2. 11 360

" 13 280

" 17, 22 278

" 19 284

" 19-21 317

3. 13 404

" 16 476

" 24 281

4. 27 278

5. 1 280

" 2 277

" 9 356

" 9-16 359

" 18 411

" 23 403

" 27 473

" 36 350

6. 4 280, 284

" 15 366

" 38 404

" 42, 70 281

" 51 472

" 62 314

7. 5 325

8. 12 434

" 24 477

" 29 401

" 58 404

" 59 411

9. 8-34 353

" 13-34 362

" 14-16 359

" 32 361

10. 18 241, 381

" 30 404

" 33 411

11. 8 411

" 11 358

" 47 362

12. 32 434

" 45 404

13. 28 278

14. 1, 23 403

" 9 404

" 16, 26 460

" 28 406

15. 26 460

16. 7 403

" 17 278

" 28 404

17. 5 404

" 21 404

18. 15 276, 285

19. 7 412

" 28-30 385

" 34 343

" 35 277

20. 2, 13 318

" 6-8 318

" 17 314, 406

" 25 334

" 26 303

" 28 407

" 30 306, 313

" 31 282

21. 5 378

" 12 322

" 13 337

" 15 322

Acts.

PAGE

1. 1 419

" 1-13 307

" 3 296, 306

" 3 310, 327

" 6 309

" 8 321

" 13 275

" 15 307

" 22 303, 309

" 22 322

" 22-23 307

2. 22 362, 407

" 24 302

" 31 303

" 38 462

" 41 338

" 43-47 386

3. 6 408

" 13 383

" 15 379, 344

" 21 296

4. 5-22 362

" 10 302, 408

" 12 477

" 16 362

" 37 275

5. 3, 4 460

" 30 302

" 37 267

6. 5 295

7. 59 408

8. 5, 26, 40 295

" 16 462

9. 7 339

" 10 332

10. 10 332

" 30 333

" 38 362

" 40 302

" 41 337, 348

11. 5 333

12. 1 289

" 12 275

13. 1 419

" 7 288

" 30 302

" 31 306, 310

" 31 315

" 35-37 303

14. 1-12 291

15. 7, 14 322

16. 9 332

" 9-40 294

" 18, 26 362

" 31 477

17. 6 290

" 17 418

" 19, 32 456

" 28 109

" 31 302

" 34 419

18. 8, 24 419

" 12 289

" 25 462

19. 3 461

" 9-10 418

" 21 293

" 29-39 292

" 38 289

20. 2 294

" 5-21, 18 294

" 25, 38 299

" 28 408

21. 10 295

" 18 272

22. 9 339

" 17 333

23. 26 289, 419

24. 3 419

" 17 293

25. 13, 14, 23 290

" 26 289

26. 23 302

" 8 456

" 19, 8 304

" 13, 14 339

" 23 245

" 30 289

27. 1-28, 16 294

28. 6, 8, 9 362

" 7 290

" 25 460

Romans.

PAGE

2. 6 468

6. 23 472

8. 26 460

" 8, 29 78

" 35 328

9. 5 410

10. 9 477

13. 4 386

14. 9 410

" 10 410

15. 18, 19 363

" 19 294

" 25, 26 293

" 30 463

16. 23 419

I. Corinthians.

PAGE

1. 23 417

2. 8 405

" 10 460

4. 9-13 328

6. 12 479

8. 4 460

8. 6 410

9. 1 303, 333

10. 2 462

12. 9-10, 28 370

15. 1-3 306

" 3 410

" 4 303

" 3-5 304

" 5 322

" 8 333

" 11 306, 314

" 14-17 303

" 15 329

" 20 245

" 50 304

16. 23 462

II. Corinthians.

PAGE

3. 17 460

5. 10 410

" 16 302

" 21 410

8. 18 300

11. 24-27 328

12. 12 363

13. 14 462

Galatians.

PAGE

1. 8-9 474

" 13 328

" 16 304

" 16-17 333

" 19 306, 409

" 23 409

2. 2 409

3. 13 377

" 28 427

4. 4 239

6. 18 462

Ephesians.

PAGE

4. 4-6 410, 463

6. 12 304

" 23 462

Philippians.

PAGE

2. 6 410

4. 3 260

Colossians.

PAGE

1. 15-16 409

" 17 109

" 18 245

" 20 471

2. 9 410

4. 10 275

" 14 296

I Thessalonians.

PAGE

1. 3-5 463

I Timothy.

PAGE

1. 13 479

4. 10 471

II Timothy.

PAGE

1. 13 475

4. 7 476

" 11 296

" 20 299

Titus.

PAGE

2. 13 410

Philemon.

PAGE

24 296

Hebrews.

PAGE

1. 3 404

" 8 410

9. 14 460

I Peter.

PAGE

1. 2 463

" 19 477

4. 14 434

II Peter.

PAGE

3. 10 437

I John.

PAGE

1. 1 277, 286

2. 2 471

4. 2-3 478

Jude.

PAGE

20-21 463

Revelation.

PAGE

1. 5 245

" 17, 18 408

" 18 344

2. 8 408

" 13, 25 475

3. 11 475

" 14 409

5. 11-14 408

" 13 471

6. 1 286

13. 18 255

14. 1 286

" 11 465

17. 6 298

19. 13 286

20. 15 465

22. 13 408

INDEX OF SUBJECTS.

PAGE

Abila, inscription at, 268

Abraham, trust in God, 205, 210

-- promises to, 374

Account of creation, 117

Acts of Apostles, 287

-- accuracy, 288

-- authorship, 294

-- medical language, 296

-- date, 297

-- and Christ's Divinity, 407

-- of Pilate, 365

Adam and Eve, 132

Additions to Pentateuch, 159

Agreements, undesigned, 168

-- in Gospels, 315

Agrippa, called King, 289

Amalek, threat against, 164

Ambition, the great, 451

Amos, 160

Analogies and illustrations:

-- watch showing design, 12

-- mass of machinery, 22

-- house and tenant, 31

-- ship in distress, 36

-- king and child, 67

-- bird in egg, 89

-- telegraph clerk, 91

-- Mont Cenis tunnel, 102

-- telephone, 105

-- clock and magnet, 107

-- artist and pictures, 126

-- diseases of Normandy, 148

-- similar letters, 227

-- man's nature, 232

-- parents and children, 234

-- paying a debt, 242

-- regiments crossing, 245

-- whirlpool, 248

-- Indian Mutiny, 299

-- ingenious robbery, 399

-- founding a religion, 416

-- going for a holiday, 439

-- prayer to a father, 441

-- trees and storm, 447

-- key fitting lock, 450

-- planting a flower, 466

-- quicksands, 474

-- doctor and fever, 474

-- scarlet fever, 482

-- long frontier line, 484

Angels, their existence, 202

-- their influence, 203

-- at tomb, 310, 345

-- seen by the women, 310

-- and by soldiers, 311

-- not fellow-creators, 394

-- seeing and hearing, 202

-- are Christ's angels, 402

-- casting out evil, 351

Animals, their creation, 131

-- difference from man, 51

-- cannot know man, 227

-- not immortal, 91

-- their sufferings, 69

Antioch, inscription at, 267

Antiquity of man, 132

Apocryphal Gospels, 354

Apollos of Alexandria, 418

Apostasy, under trial, 475

Apostolic Fathers, 260

Aramaic words of Christ, 354

Arch?ology and O. Test, 172

Arianism, 475

Aristides, 259, 364

Aristion, 258, 305

Ark, 147

Arm of the Lord, 377

Artist and pictures, 126

Ascension, the, 314

-- and early converts, 344

Ashdod, taken by Sargon, 176

Assyria, prophecies as to, 187

-- army destroyed, 184

Athanasian Creed, warnings, 473

-- implies persecution, 475

-- dogmatism, 479

Atonement, doctrine of, 240

-- prophecies as to, 379

-- and human nature, 447

-- and other religions, 454

Baal and Jehovah, 183

Baalbec, inscription at, 268

Babylonia, prophecies, 187

-- messengers from, 197

Baker, the chief, 140

Baptismal formula, 461

-- witness of St. Paul, 461

-- of Teaching, 262, 461

Baptist (see John), 279

Barnabas, epistle of, 261

Bashan, bulls of, 385

Battering-rams, 192

Beauterne as to Napoleon, 251

Bees, cells of, 52

-- not due to heredity, 53

Belief, importance of true, 473

-- virtue not necessity, 487

Belshazzar, 174

Beneficence in nature, 59

-- and righteousness, 80

-- in Jewish Religion, 214

-- and in Christian, 242

Bernice, 290

Berosus, as to Nabonidus, 174

-- as to Sennacherib, 185

Bethany, 283

Bethel,

altar at, 196

Bethesda, pool at, 277

Bethlehem, Birth at, 391

'Beyond Jordan', 156

Bible, mistakes in O. Test., 170

-- in N. Test., 268

-- inspiration, 437

Bible and Nat. Religion, 200

Blasphemy against Spirit, 460

-- Christ charged with, 412

Blood and water, 343, 385

Book of the Law, 162

Books buried in temples, 163

Bread, miracle as to, 108

Bricks with straw, 144

Brotherhood of man, 48

Butler, 431

By-product, pain is a, 60

C?sar, no early MSS., 253

C?sarea, Philip at, 295

Calmness of Evangelists, 317

Canaan, its peculiarities, 148

Canaanites destroyed, 209

-- but done gradually, 163

Cannibalism at Jerusalem, 192

Capernaum, centurion at, 360

Cats and mice, 70

Cause, must be free, 33

Cells of bees, 52

-- built by workers, 53

Celsus, Christ's miracles, 367

Cenis, tunnel in Mont, 102

Census of Israelites, 171

-- at Christ's birth, 266

Centurion at Capernaum, 360

Certainty not necessity, 27

Chabas, 143

Chance, really impossible, 21

Change of place in Acts I, 310

Changelessness, moral, 111

Character of God, 58

-- of man, 39

-- its permanence, 88

Chiefman of Malta, 290, 361

Child of God, man is a, 236

Child's belief, 478

-- temptations, 87

Chorazin, its significance, 350

Christ, His character, 396

-- teaching, 397

-- sinlessness, 400

-- in Old Test, 380, 388

-- always pleasing God, 401

-- claims, 401

-- sufferings unmerited, 241

-- His temptations, 447

-- foretold Resurrection, 317

-- beginning of creation, 409

-- seeing Him seeing God, 404

-- influence in world, 434

-- prophecies as to, 374

-- the perfect Example, 236

-- the Jewish Messiah, 375

-- the Paschal Lamb, 380

-- the One Mediator, 454

-- the only Saviour, 476

-- (see Divinity), 403, 459

Christiana, sand storm, 146

Christianity, meaning of, 3, 221

-- its leading doctrines, 222

-- its improbability, 249, 488

-- preparation for, 422

-- based on miracles, 435

-- and the Resurrection, 302

-- its early triumphs, 416

-- its later history, 425

-- effect on world, 426

-- future prospects, 430

-- its indestructibility, 432

-- and prayer, 437

-- and human nature, 445

-- and other religions, 452

-- its evidences, 483

-- unspeakable grandeur, 485

-- no half measures, 488

Classical writers, miracles, 368

-- no early MSS., 253

Clement of Rome, Gospels, 261

Cleopas, 276

Clock and magnet, 107

Closed questions, 481

Coincidences, superhuman, 100

Communion, Holy, 386, 402

Conscience, man has a, 50

-- the Voice of God, 50

Conservation of energy, 46

Constantine's vision, 335

Conversion, St. Paul's, 306

-- effect on companions, 339

-- Christ unrecognised, 340

Converts, early, 418

Crabs, and sense of pain, 70

Creation, 4

-- account of, in Genesis, 117

-- days of, 119

-- on three occasions, 123, 136

-- and evolution, 24

Creator, meaning of term, 8

Credentials, of messenger, 98

Credible, meaning of, 99

Creeping things, 131

Crispus of Corinth, 418

Crucifixion, Psalm of the, 384

-- no Jewish punishment, 388

Cyprus, proconsul at, 288

Cyrenius (see Quirinius), 266

Damnatory clauses, 473

Dana on Genesis I, 136

Daniel, Book of, 174

Darkness over land, 368

Darwin, 71

David, his character, 208

-- not subject of Ps. 22, 388

Days of creation, 119

Dead body of Christ, 337

-- offerings for, 147

Death, 448

Decalogue, its excellence, 211

-- preserved in temple, 215

Definitions, credible, 99

-- design, 10

-- dogmatism, 479

-- evolution, 20

-- free force, 4

-- instinct, 52

-- law of nature, 19

-- material universe, 4

-- miracles, 101

-- natural force, 20

-- omnipotence, 32

-- omniscience, 32

-- origin, 4

-- personal being, 30

-- revelation, 82

-- supernatural force, 9

Degradation of energy, 7

Delphi, inscription at, 289

Demoniacal possession, 351

Desert, of Shur, 143

-- laws suitable for, 149

-- journeys in, 165

-- wind, 145

Design, meaning of, 10

-- evidence in a watch, 12

-- in an eye, 14

-- throughout nature, 18

-- beneficent, 59

-- need not be desire, 74

-- man can, 47

-- animals cannot, 52

-- and instinct, 52

Destruction of Canaanites, 209

-- done gradually, 163

-- of wicked, 471

Determinism, 43

Deuteronomy, finding of, 162

Dial, shadow on, 196

Diana of Ephesus, 292

Diatessaron of Tatian, 257

Diet in Egypt, 147

Difficulties not explained

-- as to Adam and Eve, 132

-- number of Israelites, 171

-- swine at Gadara, 352

-- vows in Ps. 22, 386

-- virginity, 399

-- endless misery, 470

-- known and unknown, 494

Dionysius the Areopagite, 418

Discoveries, modern, 172

Discrepancies in Gospels, 268

-- in Fourth Gospel, 282

-- as to Resurrection, 309

-- essential agreement, 315

Diseases of Egypt, 148, 193

Dishonesty in E, J, P, and D, 158

Dispersion of Jews, 189, 217

Divinity of Christ, 403, 459

-- witness of Synoptists, 407

-- of St. John, 407

-- of Acts, 407

-- of Revelation, 408

-- of St. Paul's Epistles, 409

-- of Hebrews, 410

-- of Aristides, 365

-- of Christ's foes, 411

-- of Pliny, 418

-- of Jewish prophecies, 390

-- of Holy Spirit, 459

Dogmatism, objection to, 479

Dogs, term for Gentiles, 385

Doors of the sea, 126

Doubts of Resurrection, 334

Dreams, 92

-- of Pharaoh, 140

Driver, 157, 159

Dry land, appearance of, 127

Dualism in old religions, 119

-- unknown to Jews, 213

-- and endless misery, 466

Eagle, Roman ensign, 191

Earth likened to machine, 22

Earthquakes, 74

Edersheim and Isaiah, 53, 381

-- and Psalm 22, 387

Edomite kings, list of, 159

Effect, the world is an, 37

Egypt, prophecies as to, 188

-- magicians of, 182

-- diseases of, 148, 193

-- gods of, 146

-- religion of, 454

-- and the Pentateuch, 138

-- return of Jews to, 194

-- periodical census, 267

Elephantine, temple at, 162

Eleven, the, ancient term, 322

Elijah's sacrifice, 100, 183

Elisha, trivial miracles of, 181

Elohim, plural word, 393

Embalming Christ's body, 334

Emperor called lord, 289

Encyclop?dia Britannica, 15, 53

End of the world, 437

Endless happiness, 470

-- misery, 464

Enemies, doing good to, 211

Energy, degradation of, 7

-- conservation of, 46

Ephesus, riot at, 292

-- St. Paul's discussions, 418

-- farewell to friends, 299

Epistles of St. Paul, four admittedly genuine, 282

-- accuracy of Acts, 293

-- the Resurrection, 303

-- St. Paul's sufferings, 328

-- Christian miracles, 363

-- Divinity of Christ, 410

-- doctrine of Trinity, 462

-- spread of Christianity, 418

Erastus of Corinth, 418

Erech, inscription at, 174

Erect position, man's, 65

Eternal punishment, 464

Eternity, 450

Ether, 226, 246

Euclid,

40

Eusebius, as to Papias, 259

-- Quadratus, 364

-- Jews going to Pella, 275

Evangelists educated, 275

-- had known Christ, 302

Everlasting Father and Son, 225

-- in Isaiah, 391

Everyone's work no one's, 348

Evidences, Christian, 483

Evil, existence of, 69

-- physical, 69, 72

-- moral, 75

-- Jewish idea of, 213

-- men, 77

-- spirits, 351

Evolution, meaning of, 20

-- requires a Cause, 7

-- requires a Designer, 23

-- requires a motive, 84

-- implies involution, 23

-- and mind, 65

-- and immortality, 85

-- a form of creation, 24

-- leads up to man, 65

-- and the Incarnation, 239

-- in revelation, 93, 206

-- in prophecies, 375

-- in account of Creation, 122

Experience and miracles, 103

Eye, its marks of design, 14

-- shows beneficence, 59

Ezekiel, prophecy of Egypt, 188

Faith, faculty of, 485

-- and miracles, 358

Falsehood Theory, the, 326

-- not now adopted, 329

Famines in Egypt, 141

-- at Jerusalem, 192

Farewell, Christ's double, 309

Feeding the 5,000 credible, 108

-- in triple tradition, 269

-- undesigned coincidence, 284

-- public miracle, 361

-- rationalistic view, 370

Feet pierced, 343

Felix and Festus, 289

'Fellow,' meaning of, 392

Fellowship and personality, 229

Fig-tree, the barren, 354

Final state of wicked, 463

Firmament, or expanse, 125

Firstborn from dead, 245

-- of Creation, 409

-- death of the, 146

First Cause single, 8

-- supernatural, 9

-- needed no cause, 8

First Witnesses, the, 325

Fishes and birds, 130

Five hundred, appearance, 307

-- explains Gospels, 321

Flesh and blood, 304

Flood, parallel passages, 159

Forces and causes, 33

Foreknowledge, free will, 26

-- and omniscience, 32

-- and prophecies, 99

-- and prayer, 439

-- and endless misery, 468

-- differs from foresight, 11

-- from foreordaining, 78

-- in man, foreguessing, 26

Forgiveness of sins, 242

Fourth Gospel, authorship, 277

-- and other three, 280

-- and Revelation, 285

Free force, meaning of a, 4

Free will, foreknowledge, 26

-- of man, 43

-- of animals, 52

-- of angels, 203

-- source of all force, 46

-- its introduction, 123

-- makes evil possible, 76

-- difficulties as to, 466

-- in religious belief, 487

Fruit-trees making fruit, 122

Fulfilled among us, 276

Future life (see Immortality and Resurrection).

Gabriel, man and angel, 311

Gadara, miracle at, 269, 352

Galilee, appearance in, 307

Gallio, proconsul, 289

Generations, meaning, 122

Genesis, the Creation in, 117

-- refers to Egypt, 138

-- partly written there, 142

Gentiles, conversion, 380, 388, 393

-- called dogs, 385

Geography of Palestine, 173

Gibbon and Christianity, 420

Gifts brought to the altar, 272

God, meaning of term, 30

-- argument from causation, 4

-- from design, 10

-- moral argument, 58

-- three combined, 81, 229

-- no physical proof, 31

-- a Personal Being, 30

-- who loves man, 234

-- Power, 32, 213, 228, 440, 465

-- Wisdom 32, 213, 228, 441

-- Goodness, 79, 214, 228, 242, 441

-- bearing on miracles, 112

-- and on the Trinity, 229

-- emphasized by Christianity, 235

-- three attributes combined, 80, 112, 199, 235, 488

-- Justice, 204, 466

-- and Mercy, 468

-- bearing on Atonement, 241

-- Love, 229

-- bearing on Trinity, 229

-- Greatness, 61

-- Omnipresence, 33, 213

-- Unknowable, 33, 214, 226

-- bearing on revelation, 94

-- Unchangeable, 110, 214

-- bearing on miracles, 110

-- and the Incarnation, 231

-- Omnipotent, 32

-- Eternal, 213

-- Creator of Universe, 8

-- and its Preserver, 33

-- Jewish idea of, 204

-- faith in, 486

-- (see Immanence)

-- (see Trinity)

Goodness, God's, 80, 214, 228

-- not below man's, 80, 235

-- man's, 48

-- depends on free will, 76

-- its infinite value, 76

Gospels, the Four, 252

-- external testimony, 252

-- internal evidence, 265

-- evidence of Acts, 287

-- probable date, 300

-- (see Synoptics, Fourth)

Governor, title of, 289

Grape-juice in Egypt, 140

Grave-clothes at tomb, 345

-- by themselves, 318

Gravity, force, universal, 8

-- known by effects, 35

-- an assumption, 46

Great ambition, 451

-- alternative, 413

-- surprise, 449

Greek philosophy, 423

Green grass, mentioned, 284

Guard at the tomb, 337

Harnack, unity of Acts, 295

-- date of Gospels, 300

-- as to Town Clerk, 292

Healing, gifts of, 370

Hebrews, Christ's Divinity, 410

-- land of the, 156

Hengstenberg, 387

Herod, Agrippa, death of, 288

Herod, called king, 289

Hezekiah, his sickness, 196

-- not subject of Ps. 22, 388

Hittites, 174

Holy Communion, 386, 402

Holy Spirit, the, 230

-- Divinity of, 459

Horses, time of Joseph, 141

Horus myth, and Christ, 454

Human sacrifices in O.T., 210

-- and Atonement, 240

Hume on experience, 104

Hurtful organs in nature, 59

Huxley on the Creeds, 249

Iconium, 291

Ignatius, 261

-- knowing, believing, 263

Illusions, not simultaneous, 335

Illyricum, 293

Image and likeness, 134

Immanence, God's, 109

-- and Evolution, 23

-- and secondary forces, 33

-- and miracles, 109

-- and the Incarnation, 239

-- and prayer, 440

Immortality, man's, 83

-- from unique position, 84

-- unjust treatment, 87

-- vast capabilities, 88

-- inherent belief, 90

-- counter-arguments, 91

-- and human nature, 448

-- in Egyptian religion, 455

Incarnation, doctrine of, 230

-- its difficulties, 231

-- its motive, 233

-- historical position, 238

-- and evolution, 239

-- and human nature, 447

-- and other religions, 452

Indian Mutiny, 299

Infinitely little, 64

Inhabitants, other planets, 67

Inherent convictions, man's, 39

-- as to mind, 41

-- free will, 44

-- responsibility, 47

-- sin, 48

-- immortality, 90

-- prayer, 438

Inscriptions at Erech, 174

-- Mugheir, 174

-- Khorsabad, 176

-- Tivoli, 266

-- Antioch, 267

-- Baalbec, 268

-- Abila, 268

-- Soli, Cyprus, 289

-- Delphi, 289

-- Malta, 290

-- Thessalonica, 290

-- Lystra, 291

-- Ephesus, 292

Insignificance of man, 60

-- counter-arguments, 61

-- real importance, 64

Instincts of animals, 52

Invertebrates, in Genesis, 131

Involution and evolution, 23

Iren?us and Gospels, 254

-- Polycarp, 254

-- Papias, 258

-- date of Revelation, 285

-- value of prophecy, 367

Isaac, sacrifice of, 210

Isaiah, mentions Sargon, 176

-- test of a prophet, 199

-- prophecy of Babylon, 187

-- of Jerusalem, 196

-- of the Messiah, 377

-- of His Divinity, 391

-- implies the Trinity, 394

Israel, God's selection of, 204

-- going through cities of, 273

Israelites, great number, 171

Jacob's character, 208

Jairus' daughter, 353, 358, 360

James, St., Christ's brother, 272

-- unbeliever, 325

Japan, becoming Christian, 430

Jehovah adored by millions, 218

-- identified with Christ, 407

-- and with Holy Spirit, 460

Jehu not son of Omri, 176

Jephthah's daughter, 210

Jericho, discoveries at, 173

Jeroboam's rebellion, 195

Jerusalem, first destruction foretold, 196

-- accuracy of date, 177

-- and second, 191, 274

-- later than Gospels, 275

-- later than Acts, 299

-- hint to leave, 274

Jewish Prophecies, Egypt, 188

-- Assyria, 187

-- Babylonia, 187

-- dispersion of Jews, 189

-- the Messiah, 374

Jewish Religion, its origin, 137

-- its partiality, 204

-- its miracles, 177

-- its prophecies, 186

-- influence in world, 217

-- and Natural Religion, 216

Jews, dispersion of, 189

-- a peculiar people, 217

-- all from one man, 216

-- use of term, 280

John, St., his call, 278

-- author of Gospel, 279

-- the Baptist, 279

-- and Christ's miracles, 350

Jordan, beyond, 156

Joseph in Egypt, 139

Josephus, witness to Acts, 289

-- as to Sennacherib, 185

-- as to crucifixion, 342

-- siege of Jerusalem, 191

-- date of the taxing, 266

Josiah and Deuteronomy, 162

Journeys in Desert, 165

Jubilee, year of, 150

Judges and Pentateuch, 160

Justice, God's, 204, 466

Justin, witness to Gospels, 255

-- Book of Revelation, 285

-- guard at tomb, 337

-- Christ's miracles, 365

-- prefers prophecy, 365

-- the Name, persecuted, 434

-- Acts of Pilate, 365

King of the Jews, 392

Kings did not use plural, 393

Korah, rebellion of, 169

Koran, Christ's miracles, 424

-- authorises force, 428

Krishna myth, and Christ, 452

Lamb of God, 286

-- Paschal, 380

Land animals, 131

Laws, of nature, 19

-- in Pentateuch, 149

Laymen offering sacrifice, 162

Lazarus, raising of, 370

-- only in one Gospel, 283

-- well-known man, 360

-- case of resuscitation, 245

Lecky, on Christ's teaching, 398

Legend Theory, the, 329

-- disproved by Gospels, 329

-- and St. Paul's Epistles, 330

Legislation, Jewish, 149

Levi ben Gershon, 180

Levites, 150, 162

Life, origin of, in Genesis, 128

-- science and, 122

-- forms three groups, 55

Light before the sun, 129

Logos in Revelation, 286

-- among Greeks, 423

Lord, and God, 407

-- title or emperor, 289

Lord's Day, 303

-- Servant, the, 376

Lost Gospel, 262

Love, of God, 229

-- must be free, 235

-- motive of Religion, 451

Luke, St., a doctor, 296

-- wrote Gospel, 275

-- wrote Acts, 294

-- perhaps at Emmaus, 276

-- witnessed miracles, 362

Lycaonia, the cities of, 291

Lysanias, 268

Lystra, inscriptions at, 291

Magicians of Egypt, 182

Magnet and clock, 107

Mohammedanism, 213

-- unlike Christianity, 424

-- and Christ's miracles, 424

-- authorises force,

428

Malchus, 360

Malta, title 'chiefman', 290

Man, mental attributes, 39

-- moral attributes, 41

-- memory, 41

-- free will, 43

-- responsibility, 47

-- moral sense, 48

-- conscience, 50

-- personal being, 47

-- moral being, 49

-- bearing on Christianity, 239

-- his Unique position, 45, 65

-- due to mind, and spirit, 66

-- greater than stars, 66

-- bearing on revelation, 94

-- each man unique, 62, 133

-- and irreplaceable, 63

-- character, permanent, 88

-- tripartite nature, 55

-- end of creation, 65, 84

-- also its first thought, 66

-- his probation, 85

-- scandal of universe, 244

-- seems insignificant, 60

-- real importance, 64

-- bearing on Incarnation, 239

-- immortality of spirit, 83

-- resurrection of body, 247

-- creation in Genesis, 132

-- not created good, 86, 133

-- antiquity, 132

-- differs from animals, 51

-- his erect position, 65

-- resembles God, 56, 133, 234

-- child of God, 236

-- bearing on Incarnation, 232

-- his ignorance, 6, 17, 34

-- bearing on miracles, 108

-- and on Christianity, 249

Manaen, 418

Marcion, Luke's Gospel, 257

Mardukshazzar, 175

Mark, St., wrote Gospel, 275

-- interpreter of Peter, 259

-- earliest of Four, 269

-- at Gethsemane, 275

-- witness to miracles, 355

-- their sitting at meat, 320

Martha, 283

Mary Magd. first witness, 316

-- not expecting it, 334

Material universe, meaning, 4

Materialism, 40

Materials, same everywhere, 68

Matter, perhaps eternal, 6

-- certainly a mystery, 34

-- indestructible, 83

-- not solid, 245

Matthew, St., wrote Gospel, 275

Mediator, Christ the, 454

Medical language in Acts, 296

Memory, and materialism, 41

-- in heaven, 470

Menephthah, 143

Mercy, God's, 468

Mesmerism, 351

Messiah, Jewish, 374

Meteorite, 100, 292

Micah, prophecy of, 391

Michael, 203

Microscope, 64

Mill, on Christ's teaching, 397

Mind of man, 39

-- shows his importance, 66

Miracles, 101

-- as marvels, 103

-- and experience, 103

-- as special works, 106

-- as signs, 110

-- not mere wonders, 101, 103

-- natural means supernaturally applied, 107

-- in Jewish religion, 177

-- to benefit mankind, 200

-- their publicity, 185

-- some seem trivial, 181

-- in Christian religion, 349

-- their credibility, 349

-- not worked to order, 350

-- their truthfulness, 353

-- their naturalness, 355

-- their number, 355

-- their variety, 355

-- their suddenness, 356

-- their permanence, 356

-- order to keep secret, 358

-- on the Sabbath, 359

-- their publicity, 360

-- names often given, 360

-- caused astonishment, 361

-- peculiarity of Christ's, 357

-- conditional on faith, 358

-- publicly admitted, 362

-- St. Peter's appeal to, 362

-- and Acts of Pilate, 365

-- how explained away, 369

-- Apostolic, St. Paul's, 363

-- witnessed by St. Luke, 362

-- in Christ's name, 408

-- helped Christianity, 421

-- Mohammed did none, 424

-- not to be prayed for, 443

-- later Christian, 371

Missionaries and prayer, 438

-- of the Resurrection, 347

Missions, 430

Mistakes in O. Test., 170

-- in N. Test., 268

Monkey and evolution, 23

Monotheism, of Jews, 212

-- in account of creation, 118

Moral sense, 48

-- perfection, 67

-- difficulties in O. Test., 208

-- in N. Testament, 399

Morality, Christian, 422

Moses wrote Pentateuch, 164

-- an Egyptian name, 143

Mugheir, inscription at, 174

Mutiny, Indian, 299

Mutual explanations, 317

Myrrh, 345

Nabonidus, 174

Name of Christ persecuted, 434

Names, Egyptian, 142

-- of God in O. Test., 158

-- in N. Test. miracles, 360

-- of eminent converts, 418

-- and titles in Acts, 288

Napoleon, on Christianity, 251

Nathaniel, 279

Natural means, supernaturally applied, 107

Natural forces, 20

-- Selection, 20

-- Rejection, 21

-- Religion, depends on, probability, 36, 96, 487

-- only partly known, 35

-- in Jewish religion, 216

-- in Egyptian religion, 455

-- in other religions, 457

-- in prehistoric times, 238

-- moral difficulties, 69

-- and the Bible, 200

-- and unity of God, 227

-- leads to Revelation, 39

Nature, its unity, 8, 18

-- its laws, 19

-- its forces, 20

-- acting rationally, 100

-- its uniformity, 106

-- its mysteries, 250

-- its perfection, 61

-- care of individuals, 62

-- a means to an end, 85

-- bearing on miracles, 112

-- immanence in God, 109

-- forgets nothing, 466

-- analogy, as to angels, 202

-- man's future life, 89

-- man's resurrection, 247

-- short probation, 468

-- his destruction, 472

Naville, 164

-- unity of Genesis, 142

Nazareth, dry ground, 377

Nebuchadnezzar, 174, 184

Nebula theory, 124

Necessity, doctrine of, 43

-- and certainty, 27

Nero addressed as Lord, 289

-- his persecution, 298

Nineveh, men of, 269

Numbers in O. Test., 171

Obedience and sacrifice, 161

Old Testament, genuine, 167

-- alleged mistakes, 170

-- miracles, 177

-- prophecies, 186

-- moral defects, 208

Omnipotence, 32, 213

Omnipresence, 33, 213

Omniscience, 32, 213

Origen and Celsus, 367

Origin of universe, 4

-- in Genesis, 118

-- of life, 123

-- of Jewish religion, 137

-- of Christian religion, 301

Osiris, 454

Pain, 69, 71

-- not always an evil, 72

Paley, watch argument, 11

Pantheism, 119

Papias as to Gospels, 258

Papyri, Egyptian, 271, 289

Papyrus used for writing, 253

Parables, teaching by, 273

-- some objected to, 399

-- Unrighteous Steward, 399

-- Wedding Garment, 400

Partiality in revelation, 95

-- to Jews, 204

Paul, St., conversion, 305, 339

-- teaching not new, 409

-- the two essentials, 476

-- (see Epistles)

Peace be unto you, twice, 320

Peculiar people, Jews a, 217

Pella, Christians go to, 275

Pentateuch, importance, 138

-- claims to be Mosaic, 164

-- language, 155

-- Egyptian references, 138

-- laws, 149

-- date and author, 164

-- excellent morality, 211

-- theory of late date, 155

Perish, its meaning, 475

Persecution for Name, 434

Persecutions, religious, 427

-- of Jews, 190

-- of Christians, 328

-- implied in Creed, 475

Person, not in N. Test, 460

Personal Being, meaning, 30

-- God is a, 30

-- man is a, 47

-- animals are not, 54

-- implies fellowship, 229

Persons and things, 67

Peter, St., called Simon, 321

-- connection with Mark, 259

-- appeal to miracles, 362, 408

Petrie, as to Exodus, 171

Peyreyrius, 132

Pharaoh's dreams, 140

-- heart hardened, 209

Philip, one of the Seven, 295

Philippi, gaoler at, 477

Philo, days of Genesis, 121

Pilate, Acts of, 365

Pinches, Book of Daniel, 175

Pithom, discoveries at, 144

Plagues, the ten, 144

-- superhuman coincidences, 178

-- and magicians, 182

Planets, inhabited (?), 67

-- not by sinners (?), 232

Pliny, numerous letters, 369

-- spread of Christianity, 418

-- Christ's Divinity, 418

Plural of majesty, 393

-- in P and J, 159

Politarchs, 290

Polycarp of Smyrna, 254

-- witness to Gospels, 261

Polytheism, 119, 212

Pomponia Gr?cina, 419

Prayer, subject of, 437

-- and experiment, 444

-- and observation, 444

-- a simple, 480

-- after the event, 439

-- for others, 442

Pre-existence of Christ, 404

-- in O. Test., 391

Prehistoric men, future life, 90, 238

Priests and Levites, 162

Probability, guide of life, 487

Proconsul and other terms, 288

Prophecy, credible, 99

-- in Old Testament, 186

-- word of Jehovah, 389

-- as to Christ, 374

-- His Resurrection, 317

-- why not plainer, 394

-- His own influence, 434

Prospective organs, 16

Psalm of the Crucifixion, 384

Publius, chief man, 290, 361

Pul of Assyria, 176

'Q' (Quelle) and Gospels, 270, 350, 361

Quadratus, as to miracles, 364

Quirinius, his census, 266

Quotations, Barnabas, 261

-- Butler, 431

-- Clement, 261

-- Dana, 136

-- Darwin, 71

-- Eusebius, 259, 364

-- Huxley, 249

-- Ignatius, 261

-- Iren?us, 254

-- Justin, 365

-- Lecky, 398

-- Mill, 397

-- Napoleon, 250

-- Naville, 142

-- Papias, 258

-- Pinches, 175

-- Polycarp, 261

-- Quadratus, 364

-- Ramsay, 272

-- Renan, 397

-- Romanes, 87, 135

-- Teaching of Twelve, 261

-- Wallace, 71

Radium, 7

Ramsey, as to the census, 267

-- Lysanias, 268

-- early Gospels, 272

-- Lycaonia, 291

Rationalism, spread of, 430

-- and miracles, 369

Rawlinson, 176

Reason cannot judge of Christian doctrines, 249

Recognition, hereafter, 448

Recorders in O. Test., 173

Recurring series of events, 5

Red Sea, passage of, 178

Relics, resurrection of, 248

Remorse, 51

Renan, raising of Lazarus, 370

-- Christ's character, 397

Repentance, 243

Responsibility of man, 47

Resurrection, doctrine of, 244

-- applies to a body, 303

-- not resuscitation, 245, 323

-- Christ's, 301

-- falsehood theory, 326

-- legend theory, 329

-- vision theory, 331

-- swoon theory, 341

-- wanted missionaries, 347

-- a physical fact, 304

-- not really unique, 245

-- table of appearances, 308

-- three groups, 307

-- the narratives, 305

-- their discrepancies, 309

-- their agreements, 315

-- omissions, 312

-- signs of early date, 321

-- the real difficulty, 346

-- in other religions, 455

-- man's, 247

-- need not be of relics, 248

-- the period of life, 449

-- the great surprise, 449

-- and human nature, 448

-- terms not literal, 464

Resuscitation, 245, 323

Revelation, meaning of, 82

-- possible,

83

-- probable, 92

-- progressive, 93

-- after writing, 93

-- must be partial, 95, 204

-- evidence inconclusive, 95

-- miraculous, 98

-- Book of, and Gospel, 285

-- Divinity of Christ, 408

Risen Body difficulties, 245

-- record of eyewitnesses, 323

Roman provinces, 288

-- siege of Jerusalem, 191

-- State and Christians, 298

Romanes, man's probation, 87

-- accuracy of Genesis, 135

Sabbath, miracles on, 359

Sacrifices, heathen, 447

-- human, in O. Test., 210

Salvation, not selfishness, 451

Samaria, date of fall, 177

Samuel and Pentateuch, 160

Sanctuary, the one, 161

Sand-storms and darkness, 146

Sargon, named in Isaiah, 176

Satan, 203

Saurians, 131

Secondary forces, 33

Secrecy in Christ's miracles, 358

Seed, may be disciples, 378, 387

Selfishness, objection as to, 451

Sennacherib, 184

Sentry, pain a kind of, 72

Sergius Paulus, 289, 361

Servant, the Lord's, 376

Seventh day, the, 119

Shadow on dial, 196

Shaving in Egypt, 141

Shepherd, the Lord's, 391

-- kings, foreign, 139

Shur, desert of, 143

Siege of Jerusalem foretold by Moses, 191

-- and by Christ, 274

Signet ring, in Egypt, 141

Signs, superhuman, 99

-- supernatural, 101

Silence, argument from, 368

-- of sun and moon, 179

Simon, shows early date, 321

Simultaneous visions, 335

Sin, its meaning, 48

-- reason for it, 76

-- necessary for some virtues, 78

-- its universality, 447

-- its remedy, 244

-- eternal, 467

Sinai, 147

Sinlessness of Christ, 400

-- foretold by Isaiah, 380

-- implied in Ps. 22, 388

Slaughter of animals, 150

Slavery in early times, 211

Soli, inscription at, 289

Son of God, means God the Son, 407

-- of Man in Gospels, 281

Sorrow, human, 446

Sources of Gospels, 269, 413

South, Queen of the, 269

Spectroscopes, 64

Spirit, man's, 55, 66

-- master of body, 91

Spiritual beings, 202, 351

Standing still of sun, 179

Steward, the Unrighteous, 399

Stone at Tomb, 336

Straw in brick making, 144

Struggle for life, 71

Substance, meaning of, 222

Suetonius, 417

Sufferings of animals, 69

-- of men, 72

-- and future happiness, 88

-- of Jews, 190

-- of Christians, 328

Sun and moon formation, 129

-- silence of, 179

Sunday, 303

Superhuman signs, 99

-- coincidences, 100

-- passage of Red Sea, 178

-- destruction of Korah, 169

-- of Assyrian army, 184

-- silence of sun, 179

-- Elijah's sacrifice, 183

-- shadow on dial, 196

-- and prayer, 439

Supernatural, force, 9

-- man partly, 45

-- signs, 101

Surprise, the great, 449

Survival of fittest, 20

Swine at Gadara, 269, 352

Swoon Theory, the, 341

Sword, any violent death, 386

Synoptic Gospels, accuracy, 266

-- discrepancies, 266

-- sources, 269

-- ministry in Jud?a, 282

-- probable date, 272, 300

-- authors, 275

-- and Fourth, 280

Table of Appearances, 308

Tacitus, and Christianity, 417

-- his contempt for it, 368

Tatian, the Diatessaron, 257

Teaching of Twelve, 261

-- and the Trinity, 461

Tel-el-Muskhuta, ruins, 144

Telepathy, 40

Telephone, 105

Telescope and eye, 14

-- discoveries of, 64

Ten, Commandments, 211

-- Plagues, 144

-- superhuman coincidences, 178

-- and the magicians, 182

Tertullian, 257

Testimony and experience, 104

-- its value, 325

Theophilus and Gospel, 275

-- and Acts, 297

-- things taught to, 271

-- prominent convert, 418

Thessalonica, politarchs, 290

Theudas, date of, 288

Third Day, importance, 303

Thomas, St., Resurrection, 336

-- Christ's Divinity, 407

Thousands or families, 171

Three, Creeds, 458

-- men in furnace, 103

Tisdall, 453, 456

Titles of various rulers, 288

Tomb, the empty, 338

-- visit of disciples, 318

-- guard at, 337

-- angels at, 310, 345

Town Clerk of Ephesus, 292

Trajan, decree of, 267

Transfiguration, 270

Trials here, future reward, 88

Trinity, doctrine of the, 222

-- its probability, 228

-- peculiarly Christian, 452

-- hinted at in Old Test., 393

-- contained in N. Test., 459

-- implied by Teaching, 461

Triple tradition in Gospels, 269

Tr?lstra, 158

True belief, importance, 473

-- a virtue, 487

Undesigned agreements, 168

-- examples, Korah, 169

-- call of St. John, 278

-- destroying temple, 283

-- feeding the 5,000, 284

-- Acts and Epistles, 293

-- mocking the Crucified, 390

-- baptismal formula, 461

Uniformity of nature, 106

-- and prayer, 438

Uniqueness of man, 65

-- of each man, 62

-- of the Incarnation, 233

Unitarianism, 228

Unity of nature, 8

Universalism, 470

Universe, its origin, 4, 118

-- its magnitude, 64

-- bearing on man, 60

-- an effect, 37

Unknowable, everything is, 34

Unrighteous Steward, 399

Vellum used for writing, 253

Veracity of the witnesses, 326

Verbal inspiration, 437

Vessels of wood, 145

Vesuvius, eruption of, 74

'Victoria Institute,' pain, 70

-- Pithom, 144

-- Belshazzar, 175

-- Red Sea, 179

-- earliest Gospel, 272

-- Horus myth, 455

-- Krishna myth, 453

Virgin Birth, unique, 233

-- and Aristides, 365

-- not said of Krishna, 452

Virtue, the highest, 78, 211

Vision Theory, the, 331

-- arguments in favour, 332

-- arguments against, 332

-- does not explain facts, 336

-- real visions, 340

Voice from heaven, 268

Voyage, St. Paul's, 294

Walking on sea, Christ's, 370

Wallace, 71

Warnings of the Creed, 473

Wars of the Lord, quoted, 159

Waste and void, in Gen., 124

Waste in nature, 68

Watch showing design, 12

Water-wheels, Egyptian, 149

'We' sections of Acts, 294

Wedding Garment, the, 400

West, use of term, 156

Wheat, several ears, 140

Whirlpool, 248

Wicked men, their use, 77

-- not machines, 48

-- final state, 463

Will, man's, its action, 42, 45

-- its freedom, 43

Windows of heaven, 126

Wisdom, God's, 32, 213, 441

Word or Logos in Revelation, 286

-- among Greeks, 423

World, creation of the, 4, 117

-- end of the, 437

Wounded means pierced, 377

Writing, early use of, 138, 172

-- wanted for revelation, 93

X-rays, 246

Zeal of early Christians, 420

Zebulon, prophecy as to, 391

Zechariah, prophecies of, 392

Zeus and Hermes, 291

PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN. WELLS GARDNER, DARTON AND CO., LTD., LONDON.

Transcriber's Notes

Some punctuation has been inserted to maintain consistency.

The reference in the index to page 541 was corrected to 441.

Spelling and hyphenation match the original text and may vary within the book.

Footnotes have been placed, for the most part, at the end of the paragraphs in which they appear.

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