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The Travels of Marco Polo, Volume 2 By Marco Polo and Rustichello of Pisa Characters: 573739

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57.-2. The first Booke of Marcvs Pavlvs Venetvs, or of Master Marco Polo,

a Gentleman of Venice, his Voyages. (Purchas, His Pilgrimes. London,

Printed by William Stansby for Henrie Fetherstone, … 1625, Lib. I.

Ch. 1111. pp. 65-108.)

After Ramusio.

58.-3. The Travels of Marco Polo, or Mark Paul, the Venetian, into Tartary, in 1272. (Astley's Collection of Travels, IV. pp. 580-619).

French translation in l'Hist. Gén. des Voyages.

59.-4. Harris's Navigantium atque Itin. Bib., ed. of 1715 and of 1744.

60.-5. The curious and remarkable Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo, a Gentleman of Venice who in the Middle of the thirteenth Century passed through a great part of Asia, all the Dominions of the Tartars, and returned Home by Sea through the Islands of the East Indies. [Taken chiefly from the accurate Edition of Ramusio, compared with an original Manuscript in His Prussian Majesty's Library and with most of the Translations hitherto published.] (Pinkerton, VII. p. 101.)

61.-6. Marco Polo. Travels into China and the East, from 1260 to 1295. (Robert Kerr, A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels…. Edinburgh, 1811-1824, vol. i.)

62.-7. The || Travels || of || Marco Polo, || a Venetian, || in the

Thirteenth Century: || being a || Description, by that early

traveller, || of || remarkable places and things, || in || the ||

Eastern Parts of the World. || Translated from the Italian, || with ||

Notes, || by William Marsden, F.R.S., &c. || With a Map. || London: ||

M. DCCC. XVIII., large 4to, pp. lxxx.-782 + 1 f. n. ch. for the er.

The first 80 pages are devoted to a remarkable Introduction, in

which are treated of various subjects enumerated on p. 782: Life of

Marco Polo; General View of the Work; Choice of Text for Translation;

Original Language, etc. There is an index, pp. 757-781.

63.-8. The Travels of Marco Polo, the Venetian. The Translation of

Marsden revised, with a Selection of his Notes. Edited by Thomas

Wright, Esq. M.A., etc. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854, small 8vo, pp.


64.-9. The Travels of Marco Polo … By Hugh Murray … Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd … M. DCCC. XLIV, 8vo, pp. 368.

Vol. 38 of the Edinburgh Cabinet Library, published at 5s.

-Second Edition, … Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd … M DCCC XLIV, 8vo.

-The Travels of Marco Polo, greatly amended and enlarged from valuable early manuscripts recently published by the French Society of Geography, and in Italy by Count Baldelli Boni. With copious Notes, illustrating the routes and observations of the author and comparing them with those of more recent Travellers. By Hugh Murray, F.R.S.E. Two Maps and a Vignette. New York, Harper, 1845, 12mo, pp. vi-326.

-4th ed., Edinburg, s.a.

65.-10. The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, Concerning the

Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. Newly Translated and edited, with

Notes. By Colonel Henry Yule, C.B., late of the Royal Engineers

(Bengal), Hon. Fellow of the Geographical Society of Italy. In two

volumes. With Maps, and other Illustrations. London, John Murray,

Albemarle Street, 1871, 2 vol. 8vo.

66.-11. The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, Concerning the Kingdoms

and Marvels of the East. Newly translated and edited, with Notes,

Maps, and other Illustrations. By Colonel Henry Yule, C.B., late of

the Royal Engineers (Bengal) … In two volumes. Second edition,

revised. With the addition of new matter and many new illustrations.

London: John Murray, 1875, 2 vols. 8vo.

-Marco Polo e il suo Libro del Colonnello Henry Yule, C.B. Por Guglielmo

Berchet. (Archivio Veneto, II. 1871, pp. 124-174, 259-350.)

Contains a Translation of the Introductory Essay, etc.

-The Story of Marco Polo. With Illustrations. London, John Murray, 1898, 8vo, pp. xiv.-247.

Preface by Noah Brooks. "In his comments … the author has made use of the erudite notes of Colonel Henry Yule…."

67.-12. Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo.-London, Cassell, 1886, 16mo,

pp. 192.

The Preface is signed H. M[osley].-From Pinkerton.-Popular Edition. Cassell's National Library.


-Die nieuvve vveerelt der Landtschappen ende Eylanden … Gheprint

Thantwerpen … Anno. M.D. LXIII. folio.

Marcus Pauwels, f. xxvii.

68.-1. MARKUS PAULUS VENETUS || Reisen, || En || Beschryving || Der || oostersche || Lantschappen; || Daar in hy naaukeuriglijk veel Landen en Steden, die hy zelf ten meestendeel || bereist en bezichtigt heeft, beschrijft, de zeden en gewoonten van die Vol-||ken, tot aan die tijt onbekent, ten toon stelt, en d'opkoomst van de Heer-||schappy der Tartaren, en hun ver?vering van verscheide landen in Sina, || met ander namen genoemt, bekent maakt. || Beneffens de || Historie || Der || oostersche Lantschappen, || Door HAITHON van ARMENIEN te zamen gestelt. || Beide nieuwelijks door J.H. GLAZEMAKER vertaalt. || Hier is noch by gevoegt De Reizen van Nicolaas Venetus, en || Jeronymus van St. Steven naar d'oostersche Landen, en || naar d'Indien. Door P.P. vertaalt. || Als ook een Verhaal van de verovering van 't Eilant Formosa, door || de Sinezen; door J.V.K.B. vertaalt. || Met Kopere Platen verciert. || t' Amsterdam, || Voor Abraham Wolfgang, Boekverkoper, aan d'Opgang van de || Beurs, by de Beurstooren, in 't Geloof, 1664. 4to, 6 ff. not numbered for the tit., prf. + pp. 99 + 4 ff. not numbered for the tab. etc. of Marco Polo.

The other works have a special pagination.


69.-1. Million Marka Pavlova. Fragment of the tchèque translation of the Berlin Museum. Prague, No. 3 F. 26, XVth cent., by an Anonym, Moravian? (Vybor z Literatury ceské II. v Praze, 1868.)

70.-2. Pohledy do Velkorise mongolské v cas nejmocnejsího rozkvetu jejího za Kublaje kána. Na základe cestopisu Marka Polova podává A.J. Vrtatko. (Vynato z Casopisu Musea král. Ceského 1873.) V Praze, J. Otto, 1873, 8vo, pp. 71.

M.A. Jarosl. Vrtatko has translated the whole of Marco Polo, but he has published only this fragment.


71.-1. [Russian: Marko Polo puteshestvie v' 1286 godu po Tatarii i

drugim' stranam' vostoka venetsianskago dvoryanina Marko Polo,

proevannago Millionerom',-Tri chasti.]-St. Petersburg, 1873, 8vo,

pp. 250.

72.-2. [Russian: I.P. Minaev'.-Puteshestvie Marko Polo perevod'

starofrantsueskago teksta.-Izdanie Imp. Rysskago Geog. Ouschestva

pod' redaktsiei d'istvitel'nago chlena V.V. Bartol'da.]-St.

Petersburg, 1902, 8vo, pp. xxix + 1 f. + pp. 355.

Vol. xxvi. of the Zapiski of the Russian Geog. Society, translated from the French.


73.-The Gaelic Abridgment of the Book of Ser Marco Polo. By Whitley Stokes. (Zeit. f. Celtische Philologie, 1 Bd., 2 & 3 Hft. Halle a. S. 1896-7, 8vo, pp. 245-273, 362-438.)

Book of Lismore.-See our Introduction, I. p. 103, note.


74.-1. The edition of Marco Polo in preparation by Klaproth is announced in the part of June, 1824 of the Journal Asiatique pp. 380-381.

"M. Klaproth vient de terminer son travail sur Marco Polo, qui l'a occupé depuis plusieurs années….

"La nouvelle édition de Marco Polo, que notre confrère prépare, contiendra l'italien de Ramusio, complété, et des Notes explicatives en bas des pages. Elle sera accompagnée d'une Carte représentant les pays visités ou décrits par le célèbre Vénitien."

-See also on this edition of Klaproth, the Bulletin des Sciences historiques, antiquités etc., juin 1824, art. 580; the Jour. des Savans, juillet 1824, pp. 446-447, and the Jour. As. of 1824-1828: Recherches sur les Ports de Gampou. Klaproth's materials for this edition were sold after his death Fr.200 to the bookseller Duprat; See Cat. des Livres composant la Bib. de M.K., II'e Partie, No. 292.

75.-2. Marco Polos Beskrivelse af det ostlige asiatiske Hoiland, forklaret ved C.V. Rimestad. Forste Afdeling, indeholdende Indiedningen og Ost-Turkestan. Indbydelseskrift til den aarlige offentlige Examen i Borgerdydskolen i Kjobenhavn i Juli 1841. Kjobenhavn, Trykt hos Bianco Luno. 1841, 8vo, pp. 80.

76.-3. Marco Polo's Resa i Asien.

Small ppt. square 12mo, pp. 16; on p. 16 at foot: Stockholm, tryckt hos

P.G. Berg, 1859.

On the title-page a cut illustrating a traveller in a chariot drawn by elephants.


1. SALVIATI, Cavalier LIONARDO. Degli Avvertimenti delta Lingua sopra'l Decamerone. In Venezia, 1584.

Has some brief remarks on Texts of Polo, and on references to him or his story in Villani and Boccaccio.

2. MARTINI, MARTINO. Novus Atlas Sinensis. Amstelodami, 1655.

The Maps are from Chinese sources, and are surprisingly good. The Descriptions, also from Chinese works but interspersed with information of Martini's own, have, in their completeness, never been superseded. This estimable Jesuit often refers to Polo with affectionate zeal, identifying his localities, and justifying his descriptions. The edition quoted in this book forms a part of Blaeu's Great Atlas (1663). It was also reprinted in Thévenot's Collection.

3. KIRCHER, ATHANASIUS. China Illustrata. Amstelodami, 1667.

He also often refers to Polo, but chiefly in borrowing from Martini.

4. MAGAILLANS, GABRIEL DE (properly Magalhaens). Nouvelle Description de la Chine, contenant la description des Particularités les plus considérables de ce Grand Empire. Paris, 1688, 4to.

Contains many excellent elucidations of Polo's work.

5. CORONELLI, VINCENZO. Atlante Veneto. Venezia, 1690.

Has some remarks on Polo, and the identity of Cathay and Cambaluc with

China and Peking.

6. MURATORI, LUD. ANT. Perfetta Poesia, con note di SALVINI. Venezia, 1724.

In vol. ii. p. 117, Salvini makes some remarks on the language in which he supposes Polo to have composed his Book.

7. FOSCARINI, MARCO. Delia Letteratura Veneziana. Padova, 1752. Vol. i. 414 seqq.

8. FOSCARINI, MARCO. Frammento inedito di, intorno at Viaggiatori Veneziani; accompanied by Remarks on Bürck's German edition of Marco Polo, by TOMMASO GAR (late Director of the Venice Archives). In Archivio Storico Italiano, Append. tom. iv. p. 89 seqq. [See Bibliography, supra 8-8, p. 557.]

9. ZENO, APOSTOLO, Annotazioni sopra la Biblioteca dell' Eloquenza Italiana di Giusto Fontanini. Venezia, 1753.

See Marsden's Introduction, passim.

10. TIRABOSCHI, GIROLAMO. Storia della Letteratura Italiana. Modena, 1772-1783.

There is a disquisition on Polo, with some judicious remarks (iv. pp. 68-73).

11. TOALDO, GIUSEPPE. Saggi di Studj Veneti nell' Astronomia e nella Marina. Ven. 1782.

This work, which I have not seen, is stated to contain some remarks on Polo's Book. The author had intended to write a Commentary thereon, and had collected books and copies of MSS. with this view, and read an article on the subject before the Academy of Padua, but did not live to fulfil his intention (d. 1797).

[See Cicogna, II. p. 386; vi. p. 855.]

12. LESSING. Marco Polo, aus einer Handschrift erg?nzt, und aus einer andern sehr zu verbessern: (Zur Geschichte und Litteratur … von G.E. Lessing. II. Beytrag. Braunschweig, 1773, 8vo, pp. 259-298.)

13. FORSTER, J. REINHOLD. H. des Découvertes et des Voyages faits dans le Nord. French Version. Paris, 1788.

14. SPRENGEL, MATHIAS CHRISTIAN. Geschichte der wichtigsten geographischen Entdeckungen &c. 2nd Ed. Halle, 1792.

This book, which is a marvel for the quantity of interesting matter which it contains in small space, has much about Polo.

15. ZURLA, Abate PLACIDO. Life of Polo, in Collezione di Vite e Ritratti d'Illustri Italiani. Padova, 1816.

This book is said to have procured a Cardinal's Hat for the author. It is a respectable book, and Zurla's exertions in behalf of the credit of his countrymen are greatly to be commended, though the reward seems inappropriate.

16. --, --. Dissertazioni di Marco Polo e degli altri Viaggiatori Veneziani, &c. Venezia, 1818-19, 4to.

17. 18, 19. QUARTERLY REVIEW, vol. xxi. (1819), contains an Article on Marsden's Edition, written by John Barrow, Esq.; that for July, 1868, contains another on Marco Polo and his Recent Editors, written by the present Editor; and that for Jan. 1872, one on the First Edition of this work, by R.H. Major, Esq.

20. ASIA, Hist. Account of Discovery and Travels in. By HUGH MURRAY Edinburgh, 1820.

21. STEIN, C.G.D. Rede des Herrn Professor Dr. Christian Gottfried Daniel

Stein. (Gesprochen den 29sten September, 1819.) Ueber den Venetianer Marco

Polo. Pages 8-19 of Einladung zur Ged?chtniszfeier der Wohlthater des

Berlinisch-K?llnischen Gymnasiums … von dem Direktor Johann Joachim

Bellermann. Sm. 8vo, s.d. [1821].

22. KLAPROTH, JULIUS. A variety of most interesting articles in the Journal Asiatique (see sér. I. tom. iv., tom. ix.; sér. II. tom. i. tom. xi. etc.), and in his Mémoires Relatifs à l'Asie. Paris, 1824.

Klaproth speaks more than once as if he had a complete Commentary on Marco Polo prepared or in preparation (e.g., see J. As., sér. i. tom. iv. p. 380). But the examination of his papers after his death produced little or nothing of this kind.-[Cf. supra, p. 573.]

23. CICOGNA, EMMANUELE ANTONIO. Delle Iscrizioni Veneziane, Raccolte ed Illustrate. Venezia, 1824-1843.

Contains valuable notices regarding the Polo family, especially in vol. ii.

24. RéMUSAT, JEAN PIERRE ABEL. Mélanges Asiatiques. Paris, 1825. Nouveaux Mélanges As. Paris, 1829.

The latter contains (i. 381 seqq.) an article on Marsden's Marco Polo, and one (p. 397 seqq.) upon Zurla's Book.

25. ANTOLOGIA, edited by VIEUSSIEUX. Tom. xix. B. pp. 92-124. Firenze, 1825.

A review of the publication of the old French Text by the Soc. de


26. ANNALI UNIVERSALI DI STATISTICA. Vol. xvi. p. 286. Milano. 1828. Article by F. CUSTODI.

27. WALCKENAER, Baron C. Vies de plusieurs Personnages Célèbres des temps anciens et modernes. Laon, 1830, 2 vol. 8vo.

This contains a life of Marco Polo, vol. ii. pp. 1-34.

28. ST. JOHN, JAMES AUGUSTUS. Lives of Celebrated Travellers. London (circa 1831).

Contains a life of Marco Polo, which I regret not to have seen.

29. COOLEY, W.D. Hist. of Maritime and Inland Discovery. London, (circa 1831).

This excellent work contains a good chapter on Marco Polo.

30. RITTER, CARL. Die Erdkunde von Asien. Berlin, 1832, seqq.

This great work abounds with judicious comments on Polo's Geography, most of which have been embodied in Bürck's edition.

31. DELECLUZE, M. Article on Marco Polo in the Revue des Deux Mondes for 1st July, 1832. Vol. vii. 8vo, pp. 24.

32. PAULIN PARIS. Papers of much value on the MSS. of Marco Polo, etc., in Bulletin de la Soc. de Géographie for 1833, tom. xix. pp. 23-31; as well as in Journal Asiatique, sér. II. tom. xii. pp. 244-54; L'Institut, Journal des Sciences, &c., Sect. II tom. xvi. Jan, 1851.

33. MALTE-BRUN. Précis de la Géog. Universelle, 4th Ed. par HUOT. Paris, 1836.

Vol. i. (pp. 551 seqq.) contains a section on Polo, neither good nor correct.

34. DE MONTéMONT, ALBERT. Bibliothèque Universelle des voyages.

In vol. xxxi. pp. 33-51 there is a Notice of Marco Polo.

35. PALGRAVE, Sir FRANCIS. The Merchant and the Friar. London, 1837.

The Merchant is Marco Polo, who is supposed to visit England, after his return from the East, and to become acquainted with the Friar Roger Bacon. The book consists chiefly of their conversations on many subjects.

It does not affect the merits of this interesting book that Bacon is believed to have died in 1292, some years before Marco's return from the East.

36. D'AVEZAC, M. Remarks in his most valuable Notice sur les Anciens Voyages de Tartarie, &c., in the Recueil de Voyages et de Mémoires publié par la Société de Géographie, tom. iv. pp. 407 seqq. Paris,1839. Also article in the Bulletin de la Soc. de Géog., &c., for August, 1841; and in Journal Asiat. sér. II. tom. xvi. p. 117.

37. PARAVEY, Chev. DE. Article in Journ. Asiatique, sér. II. tom. xvi. 1841, p. 101.

38. HAMMER-PURGSTALL, in Bull. de la Soc. de Géog., tom. iii. No. 21, p. 45.

39. QUATREMèRE, éTIENNE. His translations and other works on Oriental subjects abound in valuable indirect illustrations of M. Polo; but in Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliothèque du Rio, tom. xvi. Pt. i. pp. 281-286, Paris, 1843, there are some excellent remarks both on the work itself and on Marsden's Edition of it.

40. MACFARLANE, CHARLESE Romance of Travel. London, C. Knight. 1846.

A good deal of intelligent talk on Marco Polo.

41. MEYER, ERNST H.F. Geschichte der Botanik. K?nigsberg, 1854-57.

In vol. iv, there is a special chapter on Marco Polo's notices of plants.

42. THOMAS, Professor G.M. Zu Marco Polo, aus einem Cod. ital. Monacensis in the Sitzungsberichten der Münchner Akademie, 4th March, 1862, pp. 261-270

43. KHANIKOFF, NICOLAS DE. Notice sur le Livre de Marco Polo, édité et commenté par M.G. Pauthier. Paris, 1866. Extracted from the Journal Asiatique. I have frequently quoted this with advantage, and sometimes have ventured to dissent from it.

44. CAHIER, Père. Criticism of Pauthier's Marco Polo, and reply by G. Pauthier, in études Littéraires et Religieuses of 1866 and 1867. Paris.

45. BARTHéLEMY ST. HILAIRE. A series of articles on Marco Polo in the Journal des Savants of January-May, 1867, chiefly consisting of a reproduction of Pauthier's views and deductions.

46. DE GUBERNATIS, Prof. ANGELO. Memoria intorno ai Viaggiatori italiani nelle Indie Orientali, dal secolo XIII. a tutto il XVI. Firenze, 1867.

47. BIANCONI, Prof. GIUSEPPE. Degli Scritti di Marco Polo e dell' Uccello RUC da lui menzionato. 2 parts large 8vo. Bologna, 1862 and 1868, pp. 64, 40.

A meritorious essay, containing good remarks on the comparison of different


48. KINGSLEY, HENRY. Tales of Old Travel renarrated. London, 1869.

This begins with Marco Polo. The work has gone through several editions, but I do not know whether the author had corrected some rather eccentric geography and history that were presented in the first. Mr. Kingsley is the author of another story about Marco Polo in a Magazine, but I cannot recover the reference.

49. NOTES AND QUERIES for CHINA AND JAPAN. This was published from January, 1867, to November, 1870, at Hong-Kong under able editorship, and contained some valuable notes connected with Marco Polo's chapters on China.

50. GHIKA, Princess ELENA (Dora d'Istria). Marco Polo, Il Cristoforo Colombo dell' Asia. Trieste, 1869, 8vo, pp. 39.

51. BUFFA, Prof. GASPARE. Marco Polo, Orazione commemorativa, Letta nel R. Liceo Cristoforo Colombo il 24 marzo 1872. Genova, 8vo, pp. 18.

52. EDINBURGH REVIEW, January, 1872, pp. 1-36. A review of the first edition of the present work, acknowledged by SIR HENRY RAWLINSON, and full of Oriental knowledge. (See also No. 19 supra.)

53. OCEAN HIGHWAYS, for December, 1872, p. 285. An interesting letter on Marco Polo's notices of Persia, by Major OLIVER ST. JOHN, R.E.

54. RICHTHOFEN, Baron F. VON. Das Land und die Stadt Caindu von Marco Polo, a valuable paper in the Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Erdkunde zu Berlin. No. 1 of 1874, p. 33.

55. BUSHELL, Dr. S.W., Physician to H.M.'s Legation at Peking. Notes of a Journey outside the Great Wall of China, embracing an account of the first modern visit to the site of Kúblái's Palace at Shang-tu. Appeared in J.R.G.S. vol. xliv. An abstract was published in the Proc. R.G.S. xviii., 1874, pp. 149-168.

56. PHILLIPS, GEORGE, of H.M.'s Consular Service in China.-Marco Polo and Ibn Batuta in Fookien (Chinese Recorder, III., 1870-1871, pp. 12, 44, 71, 87, 125); Notices of Southern Mangi, with Remarks by COLONEL HENRY YULE, C.B. (from the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society); Notices of Southern Mangi [Abridgment] (Proc. R. Geog. Soc., XVIII., 1873-1874, pp. 168-173); Zaitun Researches (Chin. Rec., V. pp. 327-339; VI. 31-42; VII. pp. 330-338, 404-418; VIII. 117-124); Changchow, the Capital of Fuhkien in Mongol Times, read before the Society, 19th November, 1888 (Jour. C.B.R.A.S., XXIII. N.S., n'o 1, 1888, pp. 23-30); The Identity of Marco Polo's Zaitun with Chang-chau, with a sketch-map of Marco-Polo's route (T'oung Pao, I., Oct. 1890, pp. 218-238); Two Mediaeval Fuh-kien Trading Ports, Chüan-chow and Chang-chow.-Part I. Chang-chow (T'oung-Pao, VI. No. 5, déc. 1895, pp. 449/463).-Part II. Chüan-Chow (Ibid., VII. No. 3, Juillet 1896 pp. 223/240, with 3 photog.).

57. WHEELER, J. TALBOYS. History of India (vol. iii. pp. 385-393) contains a résumé of, and running comment on, Marco Polo's notices of India.

Mr. Wheeler's book says; "His travels appear to have been written at Comorin, the most southerly point of India" (p. 385). The words that I have put in Italics are evidently a misprint, though it is not clear how to correct them.

58. DE SKATTSCHKOFF, CONSTANTIN. Le Vénitien Marco Polo, et les services qu'il a rendus en faisant conna?tre l'Asie. Read before the Imp. Geog. Society at St. Petersburg, 6/18 October, 1865; translated by M. Emile Durand in the Journ. Asiatique, sér. VII. tom. iv. pp. 122-158 (September, 1874).

The Author expresses his conviction that Marco Polo had described a number of localities after Chinese written authorities; for in the old Chinese descriptions of India and other transmarine countries are found precisely the same pieces of information, neither more nor fewer, that are given by Marco Polo. Though proof of this would not be proof of the writer's deduction that Marco Polo was acquainted with the Chinese language, it would be very interesting in itself, and would explain some points to which we have alluded (e.g., in reference to the frankincense plant, p. 396, and to the confusion between Madagascar and Makdashau, p. 413). And Mr. G. Phillips has urged something of the same kind. But M. de Skattschkoff adduces no proof at all; and for the rest his Essay is full of inaccuracy.

59. CANTù, CESARE. Italiani Illustri Ritratti, 1873, vol. i. p. 147.

60. MARSH, JOHN B. Stories of Venice and the Venetians … illustrated by C. Berjeau. London, 1873, 8vo, pp. vii.-418.

Chaps, VI., VII. and VIII. are devoted to Marco Polo.

61. KINGSMILL, THOS. W. Notes on the Topography of some of the Localities in Manji, or Southern China mentioned by Marco Polo. (Notes and Queries on China and Japan, vol. i. pp. 52-54.)

-- Notes on Marco Polo's Route from Khoten to China. (Chin. Recorder, VII. 1876, pp. 338-343.)

62. PAQUIER, J.B. Itinéraire de Marco Polo à travers la région du Pamir au XIII'e siècle. (Bull. Soc. Géog., 1876, ao?t, pp. 113-128.)

63. PALLADIUS, ARCHIMANDRITE. Elucidations of Marco Polo's Travels in North-China, drawn from Chinese Sources. (Jour. N.C.Br.R.As.Soc., x. 1876, pp. 1-54.)

Translated into English by A. Wylie and E. Bretschneider. The Russian text has just been published (T. xxxviii. 1902, of the Isviestiya) by the Imp. Russian Geog. Society.

Sir Henry Yule wrote in the Addenda of the second edition:

"And I learn from a kind Russian correspondent, that an early number of the J. N. China Branch R. Asiatic Society will contain a more important paper, viz.: Remarks on Marco Polo's Travels to the North of China, derived from Chinese Sources; by the ARCHIMANDRITE PALLADIUS. This celebrated traveller and scholar says (as I am informed): 'I have followed up the indications of Marco Polo from Lobnor to Shangdu, and in part to Peking…. It would seem that I have been so fortunate as to clear up the points that remained obscure to Yule.' I deeply regret that my book cannot now profit by these promised remarks. I am not, however, without hope, that in the present edition, with its Appendices, some at least of the Venerable Traveller's identifications may have been anticipated."

The greater part of the notes of my late friend, the Archimandrite

Palladius Katharov, have been incorporated in the present edition of Marco


64. JIRECEK, JOSEF. Básen o pobití Tataruv a "Million" Marka Pavlova, (Casopis Musea království ceského, 1877, pp. 103-119).

65. GEBAUER, J. Ein Beitrag zur Erkl?rung der K?niginhofer Handschrift. (J. Gebauer, in Archiv für Slavische Philologie, Berlin, 1877, ii. pp. 143-155.)

66. ZANETTI, V. Quattro Documenti inediti dell' Archivio degli Esposti in Venezia (Marco Polo e la sua Famiglia-Marin Falier). Por V. Zanetti. (Archivio Veneto, xvi. 1878, pp. 95-110.)

See Calendar, Nos. 6, 19, and 20 for the three Documents relating to the

Polo Family.

-Marco Polo e la sua famiglia. (Ibid., xvii. 1879, pp. 359-362.) Letters of Comm. G. Berchet and Yule regarding these documents.

67. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, Gen. Notes on Marco Polo's Itinerary in Southern Persia (Chapters xvi. to xxi., Col. Yule's Translation). (Jour. R. As. Soc., N.S., vol. xiii. Art. XX. Oct. 1881, pp. 490-497.)

-- Marco Polo's Camadi. (Ibid., Jan. 1898, pp. 43-46.)

68. THOMSON, J.T. Marco Polo's Six Kingdoms or Cities in Java Minor, identified in translations from the ancient Malay Annals, by J.T.T., Commissioner of Crown Lands, Otago, 1875. (Proc.R.G.Soc., XX. 1875-1876, pp. 215-224.)

Translation from the "Salafat al Salatin perturan segala rajaraja," or

Malay Annals.

69. K.C. AMREIN. Marco Polo: Oeffentlicher Vortrag, gehalten in der Geographisch-Kommerziellen Gesellschaft in St. Gallen. Zurich, 1879, 8vo.

70. VIDAL-LABLACHE, PAUL. Bibliothèque des écoles et des Families.-Marco Polo, son temps et ses voyages. Paris, 1880, 8vo, pp. 192.

There is a second edition.

71. G.M. URBANI DE GHELTOF. III. Congresso Geografico Internazionale in Venezia.-La Collezione del Doge Marin Faliero e i tesori di Marco Polo. Venezia, 1881, 8vo, pp. 8.

From the Bulletino di Arti, industrie e curiosità veneziane III. pp. 98-103.-See Int. p. 79.

72. SEGUSO, L. La Casa dei Milioni o labitazione di Marco Polo. (Venezia e il Congresso, 1881.)

73. CORDIER, HENRI. Maison de Marco Polo [à Venise.] (Revue de l'Extrême-Orient, i. No. 1, p. 157); Statue de Marco Polo. (Revue de l'Extrême-Orient, i. No. 1, pp. 156-157.)

74. Illustrazione Italiana, No. 38, Sept. 18, 1881.

75. YULE, Sir HENRY. Marco Polo. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1885, 9th ed., xix. pp. 404-409.)

76. SCHUMANN, Dr. K. Marco Polo, ein Weltreisender des XIII. Jahrhunderts. Berlin, 1885. 8vo, pp. 32.

Sammlung gemeinverst?ndlicher wissenschaftlicher Vortr?ge, herausgegeben von Rud. Virchow und Fr. von Holtzendorff. XX. Serie. Heft 460.

77. Marco Polo. (Blackwood's Mag., clxii. Sept. 1887, pp. 373-386.) (Rep. in Littell's Living Age, Boston, CLXXV., p. 195.)

78. EDKINS, JOSEPH. Kan Fu. (China Review, xv. pp. 310-331.)

79. OLIPHANT, Mrs.-The Makers of Venice. London, 1887, 8vo. Part II.-Chap. i. The Travellers: Niccolo, Matteo, and Marco Polo, pp. 134-157.

80. DUCLAU, S.-La Science populaire-Marco Polo, sa Vie et ses Voyages. Par S. Duclau. Limoges, Eugène Ardant, s.d. [1889], 8vo, pp. 192.

81. PARKER, E.H. Charchan. (China Review, xviii. p. 261); Hunting Lodges (Ibid., p. 261); Barscol. (Ibid.); Life Guards (p. 262); Canfu or Canton (Ibid., xiv. pp. 358-359); Kaunchis (Ibid., p. 359); Polo (Ibid., xv., p. 249); Marco Polo's Transliterations (Ibid., xvi., p. 125); Canfu (Ibid., p. 189).

82. SCHALLER, M.-Marco Polo und die Texte seiner "Reisen".-Programm der Kgl. Studien-Anstalt Burghausen für das Studienjahr 1889-90 von Michael Schaller, Kgl. Studienlehzer f.n. Sprachen. Burghausen, Russy, 8vo, pp. 57.

83. SEVERTZOW, Dr. NICOLAS. Etudes de Géographie historique sur les anciens itinéraires à travers le Pamir, Ptolémée, Hiouen-Thsang, Song-yuen, Marco Polo. (Bul. Soc. Géog., 1890, pp. 417-467, 553-610.)

(Marco Polo, pp. 583 seqq.)

84. AMENT, W.S. Marco Polo in Cambaluc: A Comparison of foreign and native Accounts. (Journ. Peking Orient. Soc., III. No. 2, 1892, pp. 97-122.)

85. COLLINGRIDGE, GEORGE. The Early Cartography of Japan. By George Collingridge. (Geographical Journal, May, 1894, pp. 403-409.)-Japan or Java? An Answer to Mr. George Collingridge's Article on "The Early Cartography of Japan," by F.G. Kramp. Overgedrukt uit het "Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, Jaargang 1894." Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1894, 8vo, pp. 14. The Early Cartography of Japan. By H. Yule Oldham. (Geographical Journal, Sept. 1894, pp. 276-279.)

86. HIRTH, FRIED. Ueber den Schiffsverkehr von Kinsay zu Marco Polo's Zeit. (T'oung Pao, Dec. 1894, pp. 386-390.)

87. DRAPEYRON, LUDOVIC.-Le Retour de Marco Polo en 1295. Cathay et Sypangu. (Revue de Géographie, Juillet, 1895, pp. 3-8.)

88. CORDIER, HENRI. Centenaire de Marco Polo. Paris, 1896, 8vo.

A Lecture with a Bibliography which is the basis of the list of this edition of Marco Polo.

89. MANLY.-Marco Polo and the Squire's Tale. By John Matthews Manly. (Publications of the Modern Language Association of America, vol. xi. 1896, pp. 349-362.)

Cf. our Introduction, p. 128.

90. SUEZ, IUMING C. Marco Polo. (St. John's Echo, Shangha?, Nov. 1899.)

91. NORDENSKI?LD, A.E.-Om det inflytande Marco Polos reseber?ttelse ut?fvat p? Gastaldis kartor ?fver Asien. (ur Ymer, Tidskrift utgifven af Svenska S?llskapet f?r Antropologi och Geografi, ?rg. 1899, H. 1, pp. 33 to 42).

-- The Influence of the "Travels of Marco Polo" on Jacobo Gastaldi's Map of Asia. (Geog. Journal, April, 1899, pp. 396 to 406.)

See Introduction, p. 137.

92. CHAIX, PAUL. Marco Polo. (Le Globe, Soc. Géog. Genève, fév.-avril, 1900, pp. 84-94.)

93. LE STRANGE, GUY. The Cities of Kirman in the time of Hamd-Allah Mustawfi and Marco Polo. (J. R. As. Soc., April, 1901, pp. 281-290.)

94. MURET, ERNEST. Un fragment de Marco Polo. Paris, 1901, 8vo., pp. 8.

From Romania, tom. xxx. See p. 547, App. F., 65.

95. GREAT EXPLORERS.-Marco Polo, Ferdinand Magellan, Mungo Park, Sir John Franklin, David Livingstone, Christopher Columbus, etc., etc. Thomas Nelson, London, 1902, 8vo, pp. 224.

Marco Polo, pp. 7-21.

[1] [Sir Henry Yule expressed his regret to me that he had not the facility at Palermo to undertake this Bibliography which I consider as a legacy from the first and illustrious editor of this book.-H.C.]

APPENDIX I.-Titles of Works which are cited by abbreviated References in this Book.

ABDALLATIF. Relation de l'Egypte. Trad. par M. Silvestre de Sacy.

Paris, 1810.

ABULPHARAGIUS. Hist. Compend. Dynastiarum, etc., ab Ed.

Pocockio. Oxon. 1663.

ABR. ROGER. See La Porte ouverte.

ACAD. Mém. de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.

AIN-I-AKBARI or AIN. AKB. BL. refers to Blochmann's Translation in Bibliotheca Indica. Calcutta, 1869, seqq.

ALEXANDRIADE, ou Chanson de Geste d'Alexandre-le-Grand, de Lambert

Le Court et Alex. de Bernay. Dinan et Paris, 1861, 12mo.

ALPHABETUM TIBETANUM Missionum Apostolicarum commodo editum; A.A.

Georgii. Romae, 1762, 4to.

AM. EXOT. Engelbert Kaempfer's Amoenitatum Exoticarum Fasciculi V.

Lemgoviae, 1712.

AMYOT. Mémoires concernant les Chinois, etc. Paris v. y.

ARABS., ARABSHAH. _Ahmedis Arabsiadis Vitae …. Timuri …. Historia.

Latine vertit … _S.H. Manger. Franequerae, 1767.

ARCH. STOR. ITAL. Archivio Storico Italiano. Firenze, v. y.

ASSEMANI, Bibliotheca Orientalis. Romae, 1719-28.

ASTLEY. A New General Collection of Voyages, etc. London, 1745-1747.

AVA, MISSION TO, Narrative of Major Phayre's. By Capt. H. Yule. London, 1858

AYEEN AKBERY refers to Gladwin's Transl., Calcutta, 1787.

BABER, Memoir of. Transl. by Leyden and Erskine. London, 1826.

BABER, E. COLBORNE. Travels and Researches in Western China.

London, 1882, 8vo.

Vol. i. Pt. I. Supp. Papers R. Geog. Society.

BACON, ROGER. Opus Majus. Venet. 1750.

BAER UND HELMERSEN. Beitr?ge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches,

etc. St. Petersburg, 1839, seqq.

BAUDUIN DE SEBOURC. Li Romans de Bauduin de S., III'e Roy de

Jherusalem. Valenciennes, 1841, 2 vol. large 8vo.

BENJAMIN OF TUDELA. Quoted from T. Wright's Early Travels in

Palestine. Bohn, London, 1848.

BRETSCHNEIDER, DR. E. Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the

West. Shanghai, 1875, 8vo.

-- Archaeological and Historical Researches on Peking and its Environs. Shanghai, 1876, 8vo.

-- Mediaeval Researches from Eastern Asiatic Sources. London, 1888, 2 vol. 8vo.

-- History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. London [St. Petersburg], 1898, 2 Pts. 8vo. Begins with Marco Polo, pp. 1-5.

All these works are most valuable.

BRIDGMAN, Rev. Dr. Sketches of the Meaou-tszé, transl. by. In J.

N. Ch. Br. R. As. Soc. for Dec. 1859.

BROWNE'S Vulgar Errors, in Bohn's Ed. of his Works. London, 1852.

BUCHON. Chroniques étrangères relatives aux Expéditions Fran?aises pendant le XIII'e Siècle. Paris, 1841.

BURNES, ALEX. Travels into Bokhara. 2nd Ed. London, 1835.

BüSCHING'S Magazin für die neue Historie und Geographie. Halle, 1779, seqq.

CAHIER ET MARTIN. Mélanges d'Archéologie. Paris, v. y.

CAPMANY, ANTONIO. Memorias Historicas sobre la marina … de

Barcelona. Madrid, 1779-1792.

CARP., CARPINI. As published in Recueil de Voyages et de Mémoires de la

Soc. de Géog. Tom. iv. Paris, 1839.

CATHAY, and the Way Thither. By Col. H. Yule. Hakluyt Society, 1866.

CHARDIN, Voyages en Perse de. Ed. of Langlès. Paris, 1811.

CHAVANNES, EDOUARD. Mémoire composé à l'époque de la grande dynastie

T'ang sur les Religieux éminents qui allêrent chercher la loi dans les

Pays d'Occident par I-TSING. Paris, 1894, 8vo.


CHINE ANCIENNE. By Pauthier, in L'Univers Pittoresque. Paris, 1837.

-- MODERNE. By do. and Bazin, in do. Paris, 1853.

CHIN. REP. Chinese Repository. Canton, 1832, seqq.

CLAVIJO. Transl. by C.R. Markham. Hak. Society, 1859.

CONSULAR REPORTS. (See this vol. p. 144.)

CONTI, Travels of Nicolo. In India in the XVth Century. Hak.

Society, 1857.

CORDIER, HENRI. Les Voyages en Asie au XIV'e Siècle du Bienheureux

Frère Odoric de Pordenone. Paris, 1891, 8vo.

--. L'Extrême-Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan de Charles V., Roi de France. Paris, 1895, 8vo.

CURZON, GEORGE N. Persia and the Persian Question. London, 1892, 2 vol. 8vo.

D'AVEZAC. See App. H., III., No. 36.

DAVIES'S REPORT. Rep. on the Trade and Resources of the Countries on the N.W. Boundary of Br. India (By R.H. Davies, now (1874) Lieut.-Governor of the Panjáb).

DEGUIGNES. Hist. Gén. des Huns, etc. Paris, 1756.

-- (the Younger). Voyage à Peking, etc. Paris, 1808.

DELLA DECIMA, etc. Lisbone e Lucca (really Florence) 1765-1766. The 3rd volume of this contains the Mercantile Handbook of Pegolotti (circa 1340), and the 4th volume that of Uzzano (1440).

DELLA PENNA. Breve Notizia del Regno del Thibet. An extract from the Journal Asiatique, sér. II. tom. xiv. (pub. by Klaproth).

DELLA VALLE, P. Viaggi. Ed. Brighton, 1843.

DE MAILLA. H. Générale de la Chine, etc. Paris, 1783.

DEVéRIA, G. La Frontière Sino-Annamite. Paris, 1886, 8vo.

-- Notes d'épigraphie mongole-chinoise. Paris, 1897, 8vo. From the Jour. As.

-- Musulmans et Manichéens chinois. Paris, 1898, 8vo. From the Jour. As.

-- Stèle Si-Hia de Leang-tcheou. Paris, 1898, 8vo. From the Jour. As.

DICT. DE LA PERSE. Dict. Géog. Hist. et Litt. de la Perse, etc.; par Barbier de Meynard. Paris, 1861.

D'OHSSON. H. des Mongols. La Haye et Amsterdam, 1834.

DOOLITTLE, Rev. J. The Social Life of the Chinese. Condensed Ed.

London, 1868.

DOUET D'ARCQ. Comptes de l'Argenterie des Rois de France au XV'e

Siècle Paris, 1851.

DOZY AND ENGELMANN. Glossaire des Mots Espagnols et Portugais dérivés de l'Arabe. 2de. Ed. Leyde, 1869.

DUCHESNE, ANDRé, Historiae Francorum Scriptores. Lut. Par. 1636-1649.

EARLY TRAVELS in Palestine, ed. by T. Wright, Esq. Bohn, London, 1848.

EDRISI. Trad. par Amédée Jaubert; in Rec. de Voy. et de

Mém., tom. v. et vi. Paris, 1836-1840.

éLIE DE LAPRIMAUDAIE. études sur le Commerce au Moyen Age. Paris, 1848.

ELLIOT. The History of India as told by its own Historians. Edited from the posthumous papers of Sir H.M. Elliot, by Prof. Dowson. 1867, seqq.

ERDMANN, Dr. FRANZ v. Temudschin der Unerschütterliche. Leipzig, 1862.

ERMAN. Travels in Siberia. Transl. by W.D. Cooley. London, 1848.

ESCAYRAC DE LAUTURE. Mémoires sur la Chine. Paris, 1865.

éTUDE PRATIQUE, etc. See Hedde.

FARIA Y SOUZA. History of the Discovery and Conquest of India by the

Portuguese. Transl. by Capt. J. Stevens. London, 1695.

FERRIER, J.P. Caravan Journeys, etc. London, 1856.

FORTUNE. Two Visits to the Tea Countries of China. London, 1853.

FRANCISQUE-MICHEL. Recherches sur le Commerce, la fabrication, et l'usage des étoffes de Soie, etc. Paris, 1852.

FRESCOB. Viaggi in Terra Santa di L. Frescobaldi, etc. (1384).

Firenze, 1862.

GARCIA DE ORTA. Garzia dall' Horto, Dell' Istoria dei semplici ed altre cose che vengono portate dall' Indie Orientali, etc. Trad. dal Portughese da Annib. Briganti. Venezia, 1589.

GARNIER, FRANCIS. Voyage d'Exploration en Indo-Chine. Paris, 1873.

GAUBIL. H. de Gentchiscan et de toute la Dinastie des Mongous.

Paris, 1739.

GILDEM., GILDEMEISTER. Scriptorum Arabum de Rebus Indicis, etc.

Bonn, 1838.

GILL, CAPT. WILLIAM. The River of Golden Sand … With an Introductory

Essay by Col. HENRY YULE…. London, 1880, 2 vol. 8vo.

GODINHO DE EREDIA. Malaca l'Inde méridionale et le Cathay reproduit en facsimile et traduit par M. LéON JANSSEN. Bruxelles, 1882, 4to.

GOLD. HORDE. See Hammer.

GRENARD, F. J.-L. Dutreuil de Rhins-Mission scientifique dans la Haute

Asie, 1890-1895. Paris, 1897-1898, 3 vol. 4to and Atlas.

GROENEVELDT, W.P. Notes on the Archipelago and Malacca. Compiled from

Chinese Sources. [Batavia, 1877] 8vo.

Rep. by Dr. R. Rost in 1887.

-- Supplementary Jottings to the Notes. T'oung Pao, VII., May, 1896, pp. 113-134.

HAMILTON, A. New Account of the East Indies. London, 1744.

HAMMER-PURGSTALL. Geschichte der Goldenen Horde. Pesth, 1840.

-- Geschichte der Ilchane. Darmstadt, 1842.

HEDDE ET RONDOT. étude Pratique du Commerce d'Exportation de la Chine, par I. Hedde. Revue et complétée par N. Rondot. Paris, 1849.

HEYD, Prof. W. Le Colonie Commerciali degli Italiani in Oriente nel

Media Evo; Dissert. Rifatt. dall' Autore e recate in Italiano dal

Prof. G. Müller. Venezia e Torino, 1866.

-- Histoire du Commerce du Levant au Moyen Age … éd. fran?aise … par Furcy Raynaud. Leipzig, 1885-6, 2 vol. 8vo.

HOSIE, ALEXANDER. Three Years in Western China; a Narrative of three

Journeys in Ssu-ch'uan, Kuei-chow, and Yún-nan. London, 1890, 8vo.

H.T. or HIUEN TSANG. Vie et Voyages, viz. Hist. de la Vie de

Hiouen Thsang et de ses Voyages dans l'Inde, &c. Paris, 1853.

-- or --. Mémoires sur les Contrées Occidentales, &c. Paris, 1857. See Pèlerins Bouddhistes.

HUC. Recollections of a Journey through Tartary, &c. Condensed

Transl. by Mrs. P. Sinnett. London, 1852.

I.B., IBN. BAT., IBN BATUTA. Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah par Defrémery et

Sanguinetti. Paris, 1853-58, 4 vol. 8vo.

IBN KHORDDHBEH…. Cum versione gallica edidit…. M.J. de Goeje.

Lug. Bat., 1889, 8vo.



IND. ANT., INDIAN ANTIQUARY, a Journal of Oriental Research. Bombay, 1872, seqq.

J.A.S.B. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

J. As. Journal Asiatique.

J.C.BR.R.A.S. Journal of the China Branch of the R. Asiatic Society,


J. IND. ARCH. Journal of the Indian Archipelago.

J.N.C.BR.R.A.S. Journal of the North China Branch of the R.

Asiatic Society, Shanghai.

J.R.A.S. Journal of the Royal As. Society.

J.R.G.S. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.

JOINVILLE. Edited by Francisque-Michel. Firmin-Didot: Paris, 1867.

KAEMPFER. See Am. Exot.

KHANIKOFF, NOTICE. See App. H., III., No. 43.

-- MéMOIRE sur la Partie Méridionale de l'Asie Centrale, Paris, 1862.

KIRCHER, Athanasius. China, Monumentis, &c., Illustrata. Amstelod. 1667.

KLAP. MéM. See App. H., III., No. 22.

KOEPPEN, Die Religion des Buddha,, von Carl Friedrich. Berlin, 1857-59

LA PORTE OUVERTE, &c., ou la Vraye Representation de la Vie, des Moeurs, de la Religion, et du Service Divin des Bramines, &c., par le Sieur Abraham Roger, trad. en Francois. Amsterdam, 1670.

LADAK, &c. By Major Alex. Cunningham. 1854.

LASSEN. Indische Alterthumskunde. First edition is cited throughout.

LECOMTE, Père L. Nouveaux Mémoires sur la Chine. Paris, 1701.

LEVCHINE, ALEXIS DE. Desc. des Hordes et des Steppes des Kirghiz

Ka?ssaks; trad. par F. de Pigny. Paris, 1840.

LINSCHOTEN. Hist. de la Navigation de Jean Hugues de Linschot. 3ièm ed. Amst., 1638.

MAGAILLANS. See App. H., III., No. 4.

MAKRIZI. See Quat. Mak.

MAR. SAN., MARIN. SANUT., MARINO SANUDO. Liber Secretorum Fidelium

Crucis, in Bongarsii Gesta Dei per Francos. Hanoviae, 1611.

Tom. ii.

MARTèNE ET DURAND. Thesaurus Novus Anecdotorum. Paris, 1717.

MARTINI. See App. H., III., No. 2.

MAS'UDI. Les Prairies d'Or, par Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de

Courteille. Paris, 1861, seqq.

MATTHIOLI, P.A. Commentarii in libros VI. Pedacii Dioscoridis de

Medica Materia. Venetiis, 1554; sometimes other editions are cited.

MAUNDEVILE. Halliwell's Ed. London, 1866.

MéM. DE L'ACAD. See Acad.

MENDOZA. H. of China. Ed. of Hak. Society, 1853-54.

MERVEILLES DE L'INDE. Livre des Merveilles de l'Inde … Texte arabe par P.A. Van der Lith. Trad. fran?aise par L. Marcel Devic. Leide, 1883-1886, 4to.

MICHEL. See Francisque-Michel.

MID. KINGD. See Williams.

MOORCROFT and Trebeck's Travels; edited by Prof. H.H. Wilson, 1841.

MOSHEIM. Historia Tartarorum Ecclesiastica. Helmstadt, 1741.

MUNTANER, in Buchon, q.v.

N. & E., NOT. ET EXT. Notices et Extraits des MSS. de la Bibliothèque du Roy. Paris, v. y.

N. & Q. Notes and Queries.

N. & Q.C. & J. Notes and Queries for China and Japan.

NELSON, J.H. The Madura Country, a Manual. Madras, 1868.

NEUMANN, C.F. His Notes at end of Bürck's German ed. of Polo.

NOVUS ORBIS Regionum &c. Veteribus incognitarum. Basil. Ed. 1555.

P. DE LA CROIX. PéTIS DE LA CROIX, Hist. de Timurbec, &c. Paris, 1722.

P. DELLA V. See Della Valle.

P. VINC. MARIA, P. VINCENZO. Viaggio all' Indie Orientali del P.F.V.

M. di S. Catarina da Siena. Roma, 1672.

PALLAS. Voyages dans plusieurs Provinces de l'Empire de Russie, &c.

Paris, Pan XI.

PAOLINO. Viaggio alle Indie, &c. da Fra P. da S. Bartolomeo. Roma, 1796.

PEGOLOTTI. See Della Decima.

PèLERINS BOUDDHISTES, par Stan. Julien. This name covers the two works entered above under the heading H.T., the Vie et Voyages forming vol. i., and the Mémoires, vols. ii. and iii.

PEREG. QUAT. Peregrinatores Medii Aevi Quatuor, &c. Recens. J.M.

Laurent. Lipsiae, 1864.


PRAIRIES D'OR. See Mas'udi.


Q.R., QUAT. RASHID. H. des Mongols de la Perse, par Raschid-ed-din, trad. &c. par M. Quatremère. Paris, 1836.

QUAT. MAK., QUATREMèRE'S MAK. H. des Sultans Mamlouks de l'égypte, par

Makrizi. Trad. par Q. Paris, 1837, seqq.

RAS MALA, or Hindoo Annals of Goozerat. By A.K. Forbes. London, 1856.

REINAUD, REL. Relations des Voyages faits par les Arabes dans l'Inde et la Chine, &c. Paris, 1845.

--, INDE, Mém. Géog. Histor. et Scientifique sur l', &c. Paris, 1849.

RELAT., RELATIONS. See last but one.

RICHTHOFEN, Baron F. VON. Letters (addressed to the Committee of the Shanghai Chamber of Commerce) on the Interior Provinces of China. Shanghai, 1870-72.

ROCKHILL, W.W. The Land of the Lamas. London, 1891, 8vo.

-- Diary of a Journey through Mongolia and Tibet in 1891 and 1892. Washington, 1894, 8vo.

-- The Journey of William of Rubruck. London, Hakluyt Society, 1900, 8vo.

ROMAN., ROMANIN, Storia Documentata di Venezia. Venezia, 1853, seqq.

RUB., RUBRUQUIS. Cited from edition in Recueil de Voyages et de

Mémoires, tom. iv. Paris, 1839. See ROCKHILL.

S.S., SAN. SETZ., SS. SSETZ. See Schmidt.

SANTAREM, Essai sur l'Hist. de la Cosmographie, &c. Paris, 1849.

SANUDO. See Mar. San.

SCHILTBERGER, Reisen des Johan. Ed. by Neumann. München, 1859.

SCHLEGEL, G. Geographical Notes, I.-XVI., in T'oung Pao,

Leiden, 1898-1901.

SCHMIDT. Geschichte der Ost-Mongolen, &c., verfasst von Ssanang-Ssetzen

Chungtaidschi. St. Petersburg, 1829.

SONNERAT. Voyage aux Indes Orientales. Paris, 1782.

SPRENGER. Post und Reise Routen des Orients. Leipzig, 1864.

ST. MARTIN, M.J. Mémoires Historiques et Géographiques sur l'Arménie, &c. Paris, 1818-19.

SYKES, MAJOR PERCY MOLESWORTH. Ten Thousand Miles in Persia, or Eight

Years in Irán. London, 1902, 8vo.

Chap, xxiii. Marco Polo's Travels in Persia.

-- Recent Journeys in Persia. (Geog. Journal, X, 1897, pp. 568-597.)

TEIXEIRA, Relaciones de Pedro, del Origen Descendencia y Succession de los Reyes de Persia, y de Harmuz, y de un Viage hecho por el mismo aotor, &c. En Amberes, 1670.

TIMKOWSKI. Travels, &c., edited by Klaproth. London, 1827.

UZZANO. See Della Decima.

VARTHEMA'S Travels. By Jones and Badger. Hak. Soc., 1863.

VIGNE, G.T. Travels in Kashmir, &c. London, 1842.

VIN. BELL., VINC. BELLOV. Vincent of Beauvais' Speculum Historiale,

Speculum Naturale, &c.

VISDELOU. Supplément to D'Herbelot. 1780.

WILLIAMS'S Middle Kingdom. 3rd. Ed. New York and London, 1857.

WILLIAMSON, Rev. A. Journeys in N. China, &c. London, 1870.

WEBER'S Metrical Romances of the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth Centuries

Edinburgh, 1810.

WITSEN. Noord en Oost Tartaryen. 2nd Ed. Amsterdam, 1785.

APPENDIX K.-Values of certain Moneys, Weights, and Measures, occurring in this Book.


The LIVRE TOURNOIS of the period may be taken, on the mean of five valuations cited in a footnote at p. 87 of vol. i., as equal in modern silver value to … 18.04 francs.

Say English money … 14_s._ 3.8_d._

The LIVRE PARISIS was worth one-fourth more than the Tournois,[1] and therefore equivalent in silver value to … 22.55 francs.

Say English money … 17_s._ 10.8_d._

(Gold being then to silver in relative value about 12:1 instead of about 15:1 as now, one-fourth has to be added to the values based on silver in equations with the gold coin of the period, and one-fifth to be deducted in values based on gold value. By oversight, in vol. i. p. 87, I took 16:1 as the present gold value, and so exaggerated the value of the livre Tournois as compared with gold.)

M. Natalis de Wailly, in his recent fine edition of Joinville, determines the valuation of these livres, in the reign of St. Lewis, by taking a mean between a value calculated on the present value of silver, and a value calculated on the present value of gold,[2] and his result is:

LIVRE TOURNOIS = 20.26 francs.


Though there is something arbitrary in this mode of valuation, it is, perhaps, on the whole the best; and its result is extremedy handy for the memory (as somebody has pointed out) for we thus have

One LIVRE TOURNOIS = One Napoleon.

" " PARISIS = One Sovereign.


The MARK of Silver all over Europe may be taken fairly at 2_l._ 4_s._ of our money in modern value; the Venetian mark being a fraction more, and the marks of England, Germany and France fractions less.[3]

The Venice GOLD DUCAT or ZECCHIN, first coined in accordance with a Law of 31st October 1283, was, in our gold value, worth … 11.82 francs.[4] or English … 9_s._ 4.284_d._

The Zecchin when first coined was fixed as equivalent to 18 grossi, and on this calculation the GROSSO should be a little less than 5_d._ sterling.[5] But from what follows it looks as if there must have been another grosso, perhaps only of account, which was only 3/4 of the former, therefore equivalent to 3-3/4_d._ only. This would be a clue to difficulties which I do not find dealt with by anybody in a precise or thorough manner; but I can find no evidence for it.

Accounts were kept at Venice not in ducats and grossi, but in Lire, of which there were several denominations, viz.:

1. LIRA DEI GROSSI, called in Latin Documents Libra denariorum Venetorum grosorum.[6] Like every Lira or Pound, this consisted of 20 soldi, and each soldo of 12 denari or deniers.[7] In this case the Lira was equivalent to 10 golden ducats; and its Denier, as the name implies, was the Grosso. The Grosso therefore here was 1/240 of 10 ducats or 1/24 of a ducat, instead of 1/18.

2. LIRA AI GROSSI (L. den. Ven. ad grossos). This by decree of 2nd June, 1285, went two to the ducat. In fact it is the soldo of the preceding Lira, and as such the Grosso was, as we have just seen, its denier; which is perhaps the reason of the name.

3. LIRA DEI PICCOLI (L. den. Ven. parvulorum). The ducat is alleged to have been at first equal to three of these Lire (Romanin, I. 321); but the calculations of Marino Sanudo (1300-1320) in the Secreta Fidelium Crucis show that he reckons the Ducat equivalent to 3.2 lire of piccoli.[8]

In estimating these Lire in modern English money, on the basis of their relation to the ducat, we must reduce the apparent value by 1/5. We then have:

1. LIRA DEI GROSSI equivalent to nearly 3_l._ 15_s._ 0_d._ (therefore exceeding by nearly 10_s._ the value of the Pound sterling of the period, or Lira di Sterlini, as it was called in the appropriate Italian phrase).[9]

2. LIRA AI GROSSI … 3_s._ 9_d._

3. LIRA DEI PICCOLI … 2_s._ 4_d._

The TORNESE or TORNESEL at Venice was, according to Romanin (III. 343) = 4 Venice deniers: and if these are the deniers of the Lira ai Grossi, the coin would be worth a little less than 3/4_d._, and nearly the equivalent of the denier Tournois, from which it took its name.[10]

* * * * *

The term BEZANT is used by Polo always (I believe) as it is by Joinville, by Marino Sanudo, and by Pegolotti, for the Egyptian gold dínár, the intrinsic value of which varied somewhat, but can scarcely be taken at less than 10_s._ 6_d._ or 11_s._ (See Cathay, pp. 440-441; and see also J. As. sér. VI. tom. xi. pp. 506-507.) The exchange of Venice money for the Bezant or Dinar in the Levant varied a good deal (as is shown by examples in the passage in Cathay just cited), but is always in these examples a large fraction (1/6 up to 1/3) more than the Zecchin. Hence, when Joinville gives the equation of St. Lewis's ransom as 1,000,000 bezants or 500,000 livres, I should have supposed these to be livres Parisis rather than Tournois, as M. de Wailly prefers.

There were a variety of coins of lower value in the Levant called

Bezants,[11] but these do not occur in our Book.

* * * * *

The Venice SAGGIO, a weight for precious substances was 1/6 of an ounce, corresponding to the weight of the Roman gold solidus, from which was originally derived the Arab MISKáL And Polo appears to use saggio habitually as the equivalent of Miskál. His POIS or PESO, applied to gold and silver, seems to have the same sense, and is indeed a literal translation of Miskál. (See vol. ii. p. 41.)

* * * * *

For measures Polo uses the palm rather than the foot. I do not find a value of the Venice palm, but over Italy that measure varies from 9-1/2 inches to something over 10. The Genoa Palm is stated at 9.725 inches.

Jal (Archéologie Nav. I. 271) cites the following Table of

Old Venice Measures of Length.

4 fingers = 1 handbreadth. 4 handbreadths = 1 foot. 5 feet = 1 pace. 1000 paces = 1 mile. 4 miles = 1 league.

[1] See (Dupré de St. Maur) Essai sur les Monnoies, &c. Paris, 1746, p. xv; and Douet d'Arcq, pp. 5, 15, &c.

[2] He takes the silver value of the gros Tournois (the sol of the system) at 0.8924 fr., whence the Livre = 17.849 fr. And the gold value of the golden Agnel, which passed for 12-1/2 sols Tournois, is 14.1743 fr. Whence the Livre = 22.6789 fr. Mean = 20.2639 fr.

[3] The Mark was 2/3 of a pound. The English POUND STERLING of the period was in silver value = 3_l._ 5_s._ 2_d._ Hence the MARK = 2_l._ 3_s._ 5.44_d._ The Cologne Mark, according to Pegolotti, was the same, and the Venice Mark of silver was = 1 English Tower Mark + 3-1/2 sterlings (i.e. pence of the period), = therefore to 2_l._ 4_s._ 4.84_d._ The French Mark of Silver, according to Dupré de St. Maur, was about 3 Livres, presumably Tournois, and therefore 2_l._ 2_s._ 11-1/2_d._

[4] Cibrario, Pol. Ec. del Med. Evo. III. 228. The GOLD FLORIN of Florence was worth a fraction more = 9_s._ 4.85_d._

Sign. Desimoni, of Genoa, obligingly points out that the changed relation of Gold ducat and silver grosso was due to a general rise in price of gold between 1284 and 1302, shown by notices of other Italian mints which raise the equation of the gold florin in the same ratio, viz. from 9 sols tournois to 12.

[5] For 1/18 of the florin will be 6.23_d._, and deducting 1/6, as pointed out above, we have 4.99_d._ as the value of the grosso.

I have a note that the grosso contained 42-88/144 Venice grains of pure silver. If the Venice grain be the same as the old Milan grain (.051 grammes) this will give exactly the same value of 5_d._

[6] Also called, according to Romanin, Lira d'imprestidi. See

Introd. Essay in vol. i. p. 66.

[7] It is not too universally known to be worth noting that our £. s. d.

represents Livres, sois, deniers.

[8] He also states the grosso to have been worth 32 piccoli, which is consistent with this and the two preceding statements. For at 3.2 lire to the ducat the latter would = 768 piccoli, and 1/24 of this = 32 piccoli. Pegolotti also assigns 24 grossi to the ducat (p. 151).

The tendency of these Lire, as of pounds generally, was to

degenerate in value. In Uzzano (1440) we find the Ducat equivalent to

100 soldi, i.e. to 5 lire.

Everybody seems to be tickled at the notion that the Scotch Pound or

Livre was only 20 Pence. Nobody finds it funny that the French or

Italian Pound is only 20 halfpence, or less!

[9] Uzzano in Delia Decima, IV. 124.

[10] According to Galliccioli (II. 53) piccoli (probably in the vague sense of small copper coin) were called in the Levant [Greek: tornésia].

[11] Thus in the document containing the autograph of King Hayton, presented at p. 13 of Introductory Essay, the King gives with his daughter, "Damoiselle Femie," a dowry of 25,000 besans sarrazinas, and in payment 4 of his own bezants staurats (presumably so called from bearing a cross) are to count as one Saracen Bezant. (Cod. Diplomat. del S. Mil. Ord. Gerosolim. I. 134.)

APPENDIX L.-Sundry Supplementary Notes on Special Subjects.-(H.C.)

1.-The Polos at Acre.

2.-Sorcery in Kashmir.



5.-Number of Pamirs.

6.-Site of Pein.


8.-La Couvade.



11.-Ruck Quills.

12.-A Spanish Edition of Marco Polo.

13.-Sir John Mandeville.

1.-THE POLOS AT ACRE. (Vol. i. p. 19. Int.)

M. le Comte Riant (Itin. à Jérusalem, p. xxix.) from various data thinks the two sojourns of the Polos at Acre must have been between the 9th May, 1271, date of the arrival of Edward of England and of Tedaldo Visconti, and the 18th November, 1271, time of the departure of Tedaldo. Tedaldo was still in Paris on the 28th December, 1269, and he appears to have left for the Holy Land after the departure of S. Lewis for Tunis (2nd July, 1270).-H.C.

2.-SORCERY IN KASHMIR. (Vol. i. p. 166.)

In Kalhanda's Rajatarangini, A Chronicle of the Kings of Kásmir translated by M.A. Stein, we read (Bk. IV. 94, p. 128): "Again the Brahman's wife addressed him: 'O king, as he is famous for his knowledge of charms (Kharkhodavidya), he can get over an ordeal with ease.'" Dr. Stein adds the following note: "The practice of witchcraft and the belief in its efficiency have prevailed in Kásmir from early times, and have survived to some extent to the present day; comp. Bühler, Report, p. 24…. The term Kharkhoda, in the sense of a kind of deadly charm or witchcraft, recurs in v. 239, and is found also in the Vijayésvaramah (Adipur.), xi. 25. In the form Kharkota it is quoted by the N. P.W. from Caraka, vi. 23. Kharkhota appears as the designation of a sorcerer or another kind of uncanny persons in Haracar., ii. 125, along with Krtyas and Vetalas…."

3.-PAONANO PAO. (Vol. i. p. 173.)

In his paper on Zoroastrian Deities on Indo-Scythians' Coins (Babylonian and Oriental Record, August, 1887, pp. 155-166; rep. in the Indian Antiquary, 1888), Dr. M.A. Stein has demonstrated that the legend PAONANO PAO on the coins of the Yue-Chi or Indo-Scythian Kings (Kanishka, Huvishka, Vasudeva), is the exact transcription of the old Iranian title Shahanan Shah (Persian Shahan-shah), "King of Kings"; the letter P, formerly read as P(r), has since been generally recognised, in accordance with his interpretation as a distinct character expressing the sound sh.

4.-PAMIR. (Vol. i. pp. 174-175.)

I was very pleased to find that my itinerary agrees with that of Dr. M.A. Stein; this learned traveller sends me the following remarks: "The remark about the absence of birds (pp. 174-175) might be a reflex of the very ancient legend (based probably on the name zend Upairi-saena, pehlevi Aparsin, 'higher than the birds') which represents the Hindu Kush range proper as too high for birds to fly over. The legend can be traced by successive evidence in the case of the range north of Kabul."- Regarding the route (p. 175) from the Wakhjir (sic) Pass down the Taghdum-bash Pamir, then via Tash-kurghan, Little Karakul, Bulun Kul, Gez Daria to Tashmalik and Kashgar, Dr. Stein says that he surveyed it in July, 1900, and he refers for the correct phonetic spelling of local names along it to his map to be published in J.R.G.S., in December, 1902. He says in his Prel. Report, p. 10: "The Wakhjir Pass, only some 12 miles to the south-west of K?k-t?r?k, connects the Taghdumbash Pamir and the Sarikol Valleys with the head-waters of the Oxus. So I was glad that the short halt, which was unavoidable for survey purposes, permitted me to move a light camp close to the summit of the Wakhjir Pass (circ. 16,200 feet). On the following day, 2nd July, I visited the head of Ab-i-Panja Valley, near the great glaciers which Lord Curzon first demonstrated to be the true source of the River Oxus. It was a strange sensation for me in this desolate mountain waste to know that I had reached at last the eastern threshold of that distant region, including Bactria and the Upper Oxus Valley, which as a field of exploration had attracted me long before I set foot in India. Notwithstanding its great elevation, the Wakhjir Pass and its approaches both from west and east are comparatively easy. Comparing the topographical facts with Hiuen-Tsiang's account in the Si yu-ki, I am led to conclude that the route followed by the great Chinese Pilgrim, when travelling about A.D. 649 from Badakshan towards Khotan, through 'the valley of Po-mi-lo (Pamir)' into Sarikol, actually traversed this Pass."

Dr. Stein adds in his notes to me that "Marco Polo's description of the forty days' journey to the E.N.E. of Vokhan as through tracts of wilderness can well be appreciated by any one who has passed through the Pamir Region, in the direction of the valleys W. and N. of Muztagh Ata. After leaving Táshkurghan and Tagharma, where there is some precarious cultivation, there is no local produce to be obtained until the oasis of Tashmalik is reached in the open Kashgar plains. In the narrow valley of the Yamanyar River (Gez Defile) there is scarcely any grazing; its appearance is far more desolate than that of the elevated Pamirs."-"Marco Polo's praise (p. 181) of the gardens and vine-yards of Kashgar is well deserved; also the remark about the trading enterprise of its merchants still holds good, if judged by the standard of Chinese Turkestan. Kashgar traders visit Khotan far more frequently than vice versa. It is strange that no certain remains of Nestorian worship can be traced now."-"My impression [Dr. Stein's] of the people of the Khotan oasis (p. 188) was that they are certainly a meeker and more docile race than e.g. the average 'Kashgarlik' or Yarkandi. The very small number of the Chinese garrison of the districts Khotan and Keria (only about 200 men) bears out this impression."

We may refer for the ancient sites, history, etc., of Khotan to the Preliminary Report of Dr. Stein and to his paper in the Geographical Journal for December, 1902, actually in the press.

5.-NUMBER OF PAMIRS. (Vol. i. p. 176.)

Lord Curzon gives the following list of the "eight claimants to the distinction and title of a Pamir": (1) Taghdumbash, or Supreme Head of the Mountains Pamir, lying immediately below and to the north of the Kilik Pass. (2) The Pamir-i-Wakhan. (3) The Pamir-i-Khurd, or Little Pamir. (4) The Pamir-i-Kalan, or Great Pamir. (5) The Alichur Pamir. (6) The Sarez Pamir. (7) The Rang Kul Pamir. (8) The Khargosh or Hare Pamir, which contains the basin of the Great Kara Kul. See this most valuable paper, The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus, reprinted from the Geographical Journal of 1896, in 1896, 1898, and 1899.

[Illustration: Some of the objects found by Dr. M.A. Stein in Central


6.-PEIN. (Vol. i. p. 192.)

Dr. M.A. Stein, of the Indian Educational Service, appears to have exactly identified the site of Pein, during his recent archaeological researches in Central Asia; he writes (Prel. Report on a Journey of Archaeological and Topog. Exploration in Chinese Turkestan, Lond., 1901, pp. 58-59): "Various antiquarian and topographical considerations made me anxious to identify the position of the town of Pi-mo, which Hiuen-Tsiang describes as some 300 li to the east of the Khotan capital. It was probably the same place as the Pein, visited by Marco Polo. After marching back along the Keriya River for four days, I struck to the south-west, and, after three more marches, arrived in the vicinity of Lachin-Ata Mazar, a desolate little shrine in the desert to the north of the Khotan-Keriya route. Though our search was rendered difficult by the insufficiency of guides and the want of water, I succeeded during the following few days in tracing the extensive ruined site which previous information had led me to look for in that vicinity. 'Uzun-Tati' ('the distant Tati,') as the débris-covered area is locally designated, corresponds in its position and the character of its remains exactly to the description of Pi-mo. Owing to far-advanced erosion and the destruction dealt by treasure-seekers, the structural remains are very scanty indeed. But the débris, including bits of glass, pottery, china, small objects in brass and stone, etc., is plentiful enough, and in conjunction with the late Chinese coins found here, leaves no doubt as to the site having been occupied up to the Middle Ages."

Our itinerary should therefore run from Khotan to Uzun Tati, and thence to Nia, leaving Kiria to the south; indeed Kiria is not an ancient place.-H.C.


Mr. E.J. Rapson, of the British Museum, with the kind permission of Dr. Stein, has sent me a photograph (which we reproduce) of coins and miscellaneous objects found at Uzun Tati. Coin (1) bears the nien-hao (title of reign) Pao Yuen (1038-1040) of the Emperor Jen Tsung, of the Sung Dynasty; Coin (2) bears the nien-hao, K'ien Yuen (758-760) of the Emperor Su Tsung of the T'ang Dynasty; Coin (3) is of the time of the Khan of Turkestan, Muhammad Arslan Khan, about 441 A.H. = 1049 A.D. From the description sent to me by Mr. Rapson and written by Mr. Andrews, I note that the miscellaneous objects include: "Two fragments of fine Chinese porcelain, highly glazed and painted with Chinese ornament in blue. That on the left is painted on both sides, and appears to be portion of rim of a bowl. Thickness 3/32 of an inch. That to the right is slightly coarser, and is probably portion of a larger vessel. Thickness 1/4 inch (nearly). A third fragment of porcelain, shown at bottom of photo, is decorated roughly in a neutral brown colour, which has imperfectly 'fluxed.' It, also, appears to be Chinese. Thickness 1/8 inch (nearly).-A brass or bronze object, cast. Probably portion of a clasp or buckle.-A brass finger ring containing a piece of mottled green glass held loosely in place by a turned-over denticulated rim. The metal is very thin."-H.C.

7.-FIRE-ARMS. (Vol. i. p. 342.)

From a paper on Siam's Intercourse with China, published by Lieutenant-Colonel Gerini in the Asiatic Quarterly Review for October, 1902, it would appear that fire-arms were mentioned for the first time in Siamese Records during the Lau invasion and the siege of Swankhal?k (from 1085 to 1097 A.D.); it is too early a date for the introduction of fire-arms, though it would look "much more like an anachronism were the advent of these implements of warfare [were] placed, in blind reliance upon the Northern Chronicles, still a few centuries back. The most curious of it all is, however, the statement as to the weapons in question having been introduced into the country from China." Following W.F. Mayers in his valuable contributions to the Jour. North-China B.R.A.S., 1869-1870, Colonel Gerini, who, of course, did not know of Dr. Schlegel's paper, adds: "It was not until the reign of the Emperor Yung Lê, and on occasion of the invasion of Tonkin in A.D. 1407, that the Chinese acquired the knowledge of the propulsive effect of gunpowder, from their vanquished enemies."

8.-LA COUVADE. (Vol. ii. p. 91.)

Mr. H. Ling Roth has given an interesting paper entitled On the Signification of Couvade, in the Journ. Anthropological Institute, XXII. 1893, pp. 204-243. He writes (pp. 221-222):-"From this survey it would seem in the first place that we want a great deal more information about the custom in the widely isolated cases where it has been reported, and secondly, that the authenticity of some of the reported cases is doubtful in consequence of authors repeating their predecessors' tales, as Colquhoun did Marco Polo's, and V. der Haart did Schouten's. I should not be at all surprised if ultimately both Polo's and Schouten's accounts turned out to be myths, both these travellers making their records at a time when the Old World was full of the tales of the New, so that in the end, we may yet find the custom is not, nor ever has been, so widespread as is generally supposed to have been the case."

I do not very well see how Polo, in the 13th and 14th centuries could make his record at a time when the Old World was full of the tales of the New, discovered at the end of the 15th century! Unless Mr. Ling Roth supposes the Venetian Traveller acquainted with the various theories of the Pre-Columbian discovery of America!!

9.-ALACAN. (Vol. ii. pp. 255 and 261.)

Dr. G. Schlegel writes, in the T'oung Pao (May, 1898, p. 153): "Abakan or Abachan ought to be written Alahan. His name is written by the Chinese Ats'zehan and by the Japanese Asikan; but this is because they have both confounded the character lah with the character ts'ze; the old sound of [the last] character [of the name] was kan and is always used by the Chinese when wanting to transcribe the title Khan or Chan. Marco Polo's A_b_acan is a clerical error for A_l_acan."

10.-CHAMPA. (Vol. ii. p. 268.)

In Ma Huan's account of the Kingdom of Siam, transl. by Mr. Phillips (Jour. China B.R.A.S., XXI. 1886, pp. 35-36) we read: "Their marriage ceremonies are as follows:-They first invite the priest to conduct the bridegroom to the bride's house, and on arrival there the priest exacts the 'droit seigneurial,' and then she is introduced to the bridegroom."

11.-RUCK QUILLS. (Vol. ii. p. 421.)

Regarding Ruck Quills, Sir H. Yule wrote in the Academy, 22nd March, 1884, pp. 204-405:-

"I suggested that this might possibly have been some vegetable production, such as a great frond of the Ravenala (Urania speciosa) cooked to pass as a ruc's quill. (Marco Polo, first edition, ii. 354; second edition, ii. 414.) Mr. Sibree, in his excellent book on Madagascar (The Great African Island, 1880) noticed this, but said:

"'It is much more likely that they [the ruc's quills] were the immensely long midribs of the leaves of the rofia palm. These are from twenty to thirty feet long, and are not at all unlike an enormous quill stripped of the feathering portion'" (p. 55).

In another passage he describes the palm, Sagus ruffia (? raphia):

"The rofia has a trunk of from thirty to fifty feet in height, and at the head divides into seven or eight immensely long leaves. The midrib of these leaves is a very strong, but extremely light and straight pole…. These poles are often twenty feet or more in length, and the leaves proper consist of a great number of fine and long pinnate leaflets, set at right angles to the midrib, from eighteen to twenty inches long, and about one and a half broad," etc. (pp. 74, 75).

When Sir John Kirk came home in 1881-1882, I spoke to him on the subject, and he felt confident that the rofia or raphia palm-fronds were the original of the ruc's quills. He also kindly volunteered to send me a specimen on his return to Zanzibar. This he did not forget, and some time ago there arrived at the India Office not one, but four of these ruc's quills. In the letter which announced this despatch Sir John says:-

"I send to-day per s.s. Arcot … four fronds of the Raphia palm, called here 'Moale.' They are just as sold and shipped up and down the coast. No doubt they were sent in Marco Polo's time in exactly the same state, i.e. stripped of their leaflets, and with the tip broken off. They are used for making stages and ladders, and last long if kept dry. They are also made into doors, by being cut into lengths, and pinned through. The stages are made of three, like tripods, and used for picking cloves from the higher branches."

The largest of the four midribs sent (they do not differ much) is 25 feet 4 inches long, measuring 12 inches in girth at the butt, and 5 inches at the upper end. I calculate that if it originally came to a point the whole length would be 45 feet, but, as this would not be so, we may estimate it at 35 to 40 feet. The thick part is deeply hollowed on the upper (?) side, leaving the section of the solid butt in form a thick crescent. The leaflets are all gone, but when entire, the object must have strongly resembled a Brobdingnagian feather. Compare this description with that of Padre Bolivar in Ludolf, referred to above.

"In aliquibus … regionibus vidi pennas alae istius avis prodigiosae, licet avem non viderim, Penna illa, prout ex forma colligebatur, erat ex mediocribus, longitudine 28 palmorum, latitudine trium. Calamus vero a radice usque ad extremitatem longitudine quinque palmorum, densitatis instar brachii moderati, robustissimus erat et durus. Pennulae inter se aequales et bene compositae, ut vix ab invicem nisi cum violentia divellerentur. Colore erant valdè nigro, calamus colore albo." (Ludolfi, ad suam Hist. Aethiop., Comment., p. 164.)

The last particular, as to colour, I am not able to explain: the others correspond well. The palmus in this passage may be anything from 9 to 10 inches.

I see this tree is mentioned by Captain R.F. Burton in his volume on the

Lake Regions (vol. xxix. of the Journal of the Royal Geographical

Society, p. 34),[1] and probably by many other travellers.

I ought to mention here that some other object has been shown at Zanzibar as part of the wings of a great bird. Sir John Kirk writes that this (which he does not describe particularly) was in the possession of the Roman Catholic priests at Bagamoyo, to whom it had been given by natives of the interior, who declared that they had brought it from Tanganyika, and that it was part of the wing of a gigantic bird. On another occasion they repeated this statement, alleging that this bird was known in the Udoe (?) country near the coast. These priests were able to communicate directly with their informants, and certainly believed the story. Dr. Hildebrand, also, a competent German naturalist, believed in it. But Sir John Kirk himself says that "what the priests had to show was most undoubtedly the whalebone of a comparatively small whale."


As we go to press we receive the newly published volume, El Libro de Marco Polo-Aus dem verm?chtnis des Dr. Hermann Knust nach der Madrider Handschrift herausgegeben von Dr. R. Stuebe. Leipzig, Dr. Seele & Co., 1902, 8vo., pp. xxvi.-114. It reproduces the old Spanish text of the manuscript Z-I-2 of the Escurial Library from a copy made by Se?or D. José Rodriguez for the Society of the Spanish Bibliophiles, which, being unused, was sold by him to Dr. Hermann Knust, who made a careful comparison of it with the original manuscript. This copy, found among the papers of Dr. Knust after his death, is now edited by Dr. Stuebe. The original 14th century MS., written in a good hand on two columns, includes 312 leaves of parchment, and contains several works; among them we note: 1°, a Collection entitled Flor de las Ystorias de Oriente (fol. 1-104), made on the advice of Juan Fernandez de Heredia, Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (1377), of which Marco Polo (fol. 50-104) is a part; 2° and Secretum Secretorum (fol. 254 r-fol. 312 v.); this MS. is not mentioned in our List, App. F., II. p. 546, unless it be our No. 60.

The manuscript includes 68 chapters, the first of which is devoted to the City of Lob and Sha-chau, corresponding to our Bk. I., ch. 39 and 40 (our vol. i. pp. 196 seqq.) ch. 65 (p. 111) corresponds approximatively to our ch. 40, Bk. III. (vol. ii. p. 451); chs. 66, 67, and the last, 68, would answer to our chs. 2, 3, and 4 of Bk. I. (vol i., pp. 45 seqq.). A concordance of this Spanish text, with Pauthier's, Yule's, and the Geographic Texts, is carefully given at the beginning of each of the 68 chapters of the Book.

Of course this edition does not throw any new light on the text, and this volume is but a matter of curiosity.


One of the last questions in which Sir Henry Yule[2] took an interest in, was the problem of the authorship of the book of Travels which bears the name of SIR JOHN MANDEVILLE, the worthy Knight, who, after being for a long time considered as the "Father of English Prose" has become simply "the name claimed by the compiler of a singular book of Travels, written in French, and published between 1357 and 1371."[3]

It was understood that "JOHAN MAUNDEUILLE, chiualer, ia soit ceo qe ieo ne soie dignes, neez et norriz Dengleterre de la ville Seint Alban," crossed the sea "lan millesme ccc'me vintisme et secund, le jour de Seint Michel,"[4] that he travelled since across the whole of Asia during the 14th century, that he wrote the relation of his travels as a rest after his fatiguing peregrinations, and that he died on the 17th of November, 1372, at Liège, when he was buried in the Church of the Guillemins.

No work has enjoyed a greater popularity than Mandeville's; while we describe but eighty-five manuscripts of Marco Polo's, and I gave a list of seventy-three manuscripts of Friar Odoric's relation,[5] it is by hundreds that Mandeville's manuscripts can be reckoned. As to the printed editions, they are, so to speak, numberless; Mr. Carl Sch?nborn[6] gave in 1840, an incomplete bibliography; Tobler in his Bibliographia geographica Palestinae (1867),[7] and R?hricht[8] after him compiled a better bibliography, to which may be added my own lists in the Bibliotheca Sinica[9] and in the T'oung-Pao.[10]

Campbell, Ann. de la Typog. néerlandaise, 1874, p. 338, mentions a Dutch edition: Reysen int heilighe lant, s.l.n.d., folio, of which but two copies are known, and which must be dated as far back as 1470 [see p. 600], I believed hitherto (I am not yet sure that Campbell is right as to his date) that the first printed edition was German, s.l.n.d., very likely printed at Basel, about 1475, discovered by Tross, the Paris Bookseller.[11] The next editions are the French of the 4th April, 1480,[12] and 8th February of the same year,[13] Easter being the 2nd of April, then the Latin,[14] Dutch,[15] and Italian[16] editions, and after the English editions of Pynson and Wynkin de Worde.

In what tongue was Mandeville's Book written?

The fact that the first edition of it was printed either in German or in Dutch, only shows that the scientific progress was greater and printing more active in such towns as Basel, Nuremberg and Augsburg than in others. At first, one might believe that there were three original texts, probably in French, English, and vulgar Latin; the Dean of Tongres, Radulphus of Rivo, a native of Breda, writes indeed in his Gesta Pontificum Leodiensium, 1616, p. 17: "Hoc anno Ioannes Mandeuilius natione Anglus vir ingenio, & arte medendi eminens, qui toto fere terrarum orbe peragrato, tribus linguis peregrinationem suam doctissime conscripsit, in alium orbê nullis finibus clausum, l?geque hoc quietiorem, & beatiorem migrauit 17. Nouembris. Sepultus in Ecclesia Wilhelmitarum non procul à moenibus Ciuitatis Leodiensis." The Dean of Tongres died in 1483;[17] Mr. Warner, on the authority of the Bulletin de l'Inst. Archéol. Liégeois, xvi. 1882, p. 358, gives 1403 as the date of the death of Radulphus. However, Mandeville himself says (Warner, Harley, 4383) at the end of his introduction, p. 3:-"Et sachez qe ieusse cest escript mis en latyn pur pluis briefment deuiser; mes, pur ceo qe plusours entendent mieltz romantz qe latin, ieo lay mys en romance, pur ceo qe chescun lentende et luy chiualers et les seignurs et lez autres nobles homes qi ne sciuent point de latin ou poy, et qount estee outre meer, sachent et entendent, si ieo dye voir ou noun, et si ieo erre en deuisant par noun souenance ou autrement, qils le puissent adresser et amender, qar choses de long temps passez par la veue tornent en obly, et memorie de homme ne puet mye tot retenir ne comprendre." From this passage and from the Latin text: "Incipit itinerarius a terra Angliae ad partes Iherosolimitanas et in ulteriores transmarinas, editus primo in lingua gallicana a milite suo autore anno incarnacionis Domini m. ccc. lv, in civitate Leodiensi, et paulo post in eadem civitate translatus in hanc formam latinam." (P. 33 of the Relation des Mongols ou Tartars par le frère Jean du Plan de Carpin, Paris, 1838). D'Avezac long ago was inclined to believe in an unique French version. The British Museum, English MS. (Cott., Titus. C. xvi.), on the other hand, has in the Prologue (cf. ed. 1725, p. 6): "And zee schulle undirstonde, that I have put this Boke out of Latyn into Frensche, and translated it azen out of Frensche into Englyssche, that every Man of my Nacioun may undirstonde it…."[18]

But we shall see that-without taking into account the important passage in French quoted above, and probably misunderstood by the English translator-the English version, a sentence of which, not to be found in the Latin manuscripts, has just been given, is certainly posterior to the French text, and therefore that the abstract of Titus C. xvi, has but a slight value. There can be some doubt only for the French and the Latin texts.

Dr. Carl Sch?nborn[19] and Herr Eduard M?tzner,[20] "respectively seem to have been the first to show that the current Latin and English texts cannot possibly have been made by Mandeville himself. Dr. J. Vogels states the same of unprinted Latin versions which he has discovered in the British Museum, and he has proved it as regards the Italian version."[21]

"In Latin, as Dr. Vogels has shown, there are five independent versions. Four of them, which apparently originated in England (one manuscript, now at Leyden, being dated in 1390) have no special interest; the fifth, or vulgate Latin text, was no doubt made at Liège, and has an important bearing on the author's identity. It is found in twelve manuscripts, all of the 15th century, and is the only Latin version as yet printed."[22]

The universal use of the French language at the time would be an argument in favour of the original text being in this tongue, if corrupt proper names, abbreviations in the Latin text, etc., did not make the fact still more probable.

The story of the English version, as it is told by Messrs. Nicholson and Warner, is highly interesting: The English version was made from a "mutilated archetype," in French (Warner, p. x.) of the beginning of the 15th century, and was used for all the known English manuscripts, with the exception of the Cotton and Egerton volumes-and also for all the printed editions until 1725. Mr. Nicholson[23] pointed out that it is defective in the passage extending from p. 36, l. 7: "And there were to ben 5 Soudans," to p. 62, l. 25: "the Monkes of the Abbeye of ten tyme," in Halliwell's edition (1839) from Titus C. xvi, which corresponds to Mr. Warner's Egerton text, p. 18, l. 21: "for the Sowdan," and p. 32, l. 16, "synges oft tyme." It is this bad text which, until 1725,[24] has been printed as we just said, with numerous variants, including the poor edition of Mr. Ashton[25] who has given the text of East instead of the Cotton text under the pretext that the latter was not legible.[26]

Two revisions of the English version were made during the first quarter of the 15th century; one is represented by the British Museum Egerton MS. 1982 and the abbreviated Bodleian MS. e. Mus. 116; the other by the Cotton MS. Titus C. xvi. This last one gives the text of the edition of 1725 often reprinted till Halliwell's (1839 and 1866).[27] The Egerton MS. 1982 has been reproduced in a magnificent volume edited in 1889 for the Roxburghe Club par Mr. G.F. Warner, of the British Museum;[28] this edition includes also the French text from the Harley MS. 4383 which, being defective from the middle of chap. xxii. has been completed with the Royal MS. 20 B.X. Indeed the Egerton MS. 1982 is the only complete English manuscript of the British Museum,[29] as, besides seven copies of the defective text, three leaves are missing in the Cotton MS. after f. 53, the text of the edition of 1725 having been completed with the Royal MS. 17 B.[30]

Notwithstanding its great popularity, Mandeville's Book could not fail to strike with its similarity with other books of travels, with Friar Odoric's among others. This similarity has been the cause that occasionally the Franciscan Friar was given as a companion to the Knight of St. Albans, for instance, in the manuscripts of Mayence and Wolfenbüttel.[31] Some Commentators have gone too far in their appreciation and the Udine monk has been treated either as a plagiary or a liar! Old Samuel Purchas, in his address to the Reader printed at the beginning of Marco Polo's text (p. 65), calls his countryman! Mandeville the greatest Asian traveller next (if next) to Marco Polo, and he leaves us to understand that the worthy knight has been pillaged by some priest![32] Astley uses strong language; he calls Odoric a great liar![33]

Others are fair in their judgment, Malte-Brun, for instance, marked what Mandeville borrowed from Odoric, and La Renaudière is also very just in the Biographie Universelle. But what Malte-Brun and La Renaudière showed in a general manner, other learned men, such as Dr. S. Bormans, Sir Henry Yule, Mr. E.W.B. Nicholson,[34] Dr. J. Vogels,[35] M. Léopold Delisle, Herr A. Bovenschen,[36] and last, not least, Dr. G.F. Warner, have in our days proved that not only has the book bearing Mandeville's name been compiled from the works of Vincent of Beauvais, Jacques of Vitry, Boldensel, Carpini, Odoric, etc., but that it was written neither by a Knight of St. Albans, by an Englishman, or by a Sir John Mandeville, but very likely by the physician John of Burgundy or John a Beard.

In a repertory of La Librairie de la Collégiale de Saint Paul à Liège au

XV'e. Siècle, published by Dr. Stanislas Bormans, in the Bibliophile

Belge, Brussels, 1866, p. 236, is catalogued under No. 240: Legenda de

Joseph et Asseneth ejus uxore, in papiro. In eodem itinerarium Johannis de

Mandevilla militis, apud guilhelmitanos Leodienses sepulti.

Dr. S. Bormans has added the following note: "Jean Mandeville, ou Manduith, théologien et mathématicien, était né à St. Alban en Angleterre d'une famille noble. On le surnomma pour un motif inconnu, ad Barbam et magnovillanus. En 1322, il traversa la France pour aller en Asie, servit quelque temps dans les troupes du Sultan d'Egypte et revint seulement en 1355 en Angleterre. Il mourut à Liège chez les Guilhemins, le 17th Novembre, 1372. Il laissa au dit monastère plusieurs MSS. de ses oeuvres fort vantés, tant de ses voyages que de la médecine, écrits de sa main; il y avait encore en ladite maison plusieurs meubles qu'il leur laissa pour mémoire. Il a laissé quelques livres de médecine qui n'ont jamais été imprimés, des tabulae astronomicae, de chorda recta et umbra, de doctrina theologica. La relation de son voyage est en latin, fran?ais et anglais; il raconte, en y mêlant beaucoup de fables, ce qu'il a vu de curieux en Egypte, en Arabie et en Perse."

Then is inserted, an abstract from Lefort, Liège Herald, at the end of the 17th century, from Jean d'Outremeuse, which we quote from another publication of Dr. Bormans' as it contains the final sentence: "Mort enfin, etc." not to be found in the paper of the Bibliophile Belge.

In his introduction to the Chronique et geste de Jean des Preis dit d'Outremeuse, Brussels, F. Hayez, 1887 (Collection des Chroniques belges inédites), Dr. Stanislas Bormans writes, pp. cxxxiii.-cxxxiv.: "L'an M.CCC.LXXII, mourut à Liège, le 12 Novembre, un homme fort distingué par sa naissance, avant de s'y faire conno?tre sous le nom de Jean de Bourgogne dit à la Barbe. Il s'ouvrit néanmoins au lit de la mort à Jean d'Outremeuse, son compère, et institué son exécuteur testamentaire. De vrai il se titra, dans le précis de sa dernière volonté, messire Jean de Mandeville, chevalier, comte de Montfort en Angleterre, et seigneur de l'isle de Campdi et du chateau Perouse. Ayant cependant eu le malheur de tuer, en son pays, un comte qu'il ne nomme pas, il s'engagea à parcourir les trois parties du monde. Vint à Liège en 1343. Tout sorti qu'il étoit d'une noblesse très-distinguée, il aima de s'y tenir caché. Il étoit, au reste, grand naturaliste, profond philosophe et astrologue, y joint en particulier une connoissance très singulière de la physique, se trompant rarement lorsqu'il disoit son sentiment à l'égard d'un malade, s'il en reviendroit ou pas. Mort enfin, on l'enterra aux F.F. Guillelmins, au faubourg d'Avroy, comme vous avez vu plus amplement cydessous."

It is not the first time that the names Jean de Mandeville and Jean à la Barbe are to be met with, as Ortelius, in his description of Liège, included in his Itinerary of Belgium, has given the epitaph of the knightly physician:[37(1)]

"Leodium primo aspectu ostentat in sinistra ripa (nam dextra vinetis plena est,) magna, & populosa suburbia ad collium radices, in quorum iugis multa sunt, & pulcherrima Monasteria, inter quae magnificum illud ac nobile D. Laurentio dicatum ab Raginardo episcopo, vt habet Sigebertus, circa ann. sal. M XXV aedificatum est in hac quoq. regione Guilelmitaru Coenobium in quo epitaphiu hoc Ioannis à Mandeuille excepimus: Hic iacet vir nobilis Dns Ioes de Mandeville al Dcus ad barbam miles dns de Capdi natus de Anglia medicie pfessor deuotissimus orator et bonorum largissimus paupribus erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato leodii diem vite sue clausit extremum ano Dni M CCC° LXXI°[37(2)] mensis novebr die XVII.[37(3)]

"Haec in lapide, in quo caelata viri armati imago, leonem calcantis, barba bifurcata, ad caput manus benedicens, & vernacula haec verba: vos ki paseis sor mi pour lamour deix proies por mi. Clypeus erat vacuus, in quo olim laminam fuisse dicebant aeream, & eius in ea itidem caelata insignia, leonem videlicet argenteum, cui ad pectus lunula rubea, in campo caeruleo, quem limbus ambiret denticulatus ex auro, eius nobis ostendebat & cultros, ephippiaque, & calcaria, quibus vsum fuisse asserebat in peragrando toto fere terrarum orbe, vt clarius eius testatur itinerarium, quod typis etiam excusum passim habetur."[37]

Dr. Warner writes in the National Biography:

"There is abundant proof that the tomb of the author of the Travels was to be seen in the Church of the Guillemins or Guillelmites at Liège down to the demolition of the building in 1798. The fact of his burial there, with the date of his death, 17th November, 1372, was published by Bale in 1548 (Summarium f. 149 b), and was confirmed independently by Jacob Meyer (Annales rerum Flandric. 1561, p. 165) and Lud. Guicciardini. (Paesi Bassi, 1567, p. 281.)"

In a letter dated from Bodley's Library, 17th March, 1884, to The Academy, 12th April, 1884, No. 623, Mr. Edward B. Nicholson drew attention to the abstract from Jean d'Ontremeuse, and came to the conclusion that the writer of Mandeville's relation was a profound liar, and that he was the Liège Professor of Medicine, John of Burgundy or à la Barbe. He adds: "If, in the matter of literary honesty, John a Beard was a bit of a knave, he was very certainly no fool."

On the other hand, M. Léopold Delisle,[38] has shown that two manuscripts, Nouv. acq. fran?. 4515 (Barrois, 24) and Nouv. acq. fran?. 4516 (Barrois, 185), were part formerly of one volume copied in 1371 by Raoulet of Orleans and given in the same year to King Charles V. by his physician Gervaise Crestien, viz. one year before the death of the so-called Mandeville; one of these manuscripts-now separate-contains the Book of Jehan de Mandeville, the other one, a treatise of "la preservacion de epidimie, minucion ou curacion d'icelle faite de maistre Jehan de Bourgoigne, autrement dit à la Barbe, professeur en médicine et cytoien du Liège," in 1365. This bringing together is certainly not fortuitous.

Sir Henry Yule traces thus the sources of the spurious work: "Even in that part of the book which may be admitted with probability to represent some genuine experience, there are distinct traces that another work has been made use of, more or less, as an aid in the compilation, we might almost say, as a framework to fill up. This is the itinerary of the German knight William of Boldensele, written in 1336 at the desire of Cardinal Talleyrand de Perigord. A cursory comparison of this with Mandeville leaves no doubt of the fact that the latter has followed its thread, using its suggestions, and on many subjects its expressions, though digressing and expanding on every side, and too often eliminating the singular good sense of the German traveller. After such a comparison we may indicate as examples Boldensele's account of Cyprus (Mandeville, Halliwell's ed. 1866, p. 28, and p. 10), of Tyre and the coast of Palestine (Mandeville, 29, 30, 33, 34), of the journey from Gaza to Egypt (34), passages about Babylon of Egypt (40), about Mecca (42), the general account of Egypt (45), the pyramids (52), some of the particular wonders of Cairo, such as the slave-market, the chicken-hatching stoves, and the apples of Paradise, i.e. plantains (49), the Red Sea (57), the convent on Sinai (58, 60), the account of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (74-76), etc."

He adds: "It is curious that no passage in Mandeville can be plausibly traced to Marco Polo, with one exception. This is (Halliwell's ed., p. 163) where he states that at Ormus the people, during the great heat, lie in water,-a circumstance mentioned by Polo, though not by Odoric. We should suppose it most likely that this fact had been interpolated in the copy of Odoric used by Mandeville; for, if he had borrowed it direct from Polo, he would have borrowed more." (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 474.)

"Leaving this question, there remains the more complex one whether the book contains, in any measure, facts and knowledge acquired by actual travels and residence in the East. We believe that it may, but only as a small portion of the whole, and that confined entirely to the section of the work which treats of the Holy Land, and of the different ways of getting thither, as well as of Egypt, and in general of what we understand by the Levant." (Ibid. p. 473.)

Dr. Warner deals the final blow in the National Biography: "The alphabets which he gives have won him some credit as a linguist, but only the Greek and the Hebrew (which were readily accessible) are what they pretend to be, and that which he calls Saracen actually comes from the Cosmographia of aethicus! His knowledge of Mohammedanism and its Arabic formulae impressed even Yule. He was, however, wholly indebted for that information to the Liber de Statu Saracenorum of William of Tripoli (circa 1270), as he was to the Historiae Orientis of Hetoum, the Armenian (1307), for much of what he wrote about Egypt. In the last case, indeed, he shows a rare sign of independence, for he does not, with Hetoum, end his history of the sultanate about 1300, but carries it onto the death of En-Násir (1341), and names two of his successors. Although his statements about them are not historically accurate, this fact and a few other details suggest that he may really have been in Egypt, if not at Jerusalem, but the proportion of original matter is so very far short of what might be expected that even this is extremely doubtful."

With this final quotation, we may take leave of John of Mandeville, aliàs

John a Beard.


[1] "The raphia, here called the 'Devil's date,' is celebrated as

having the largest leaf in the vegetable Kingdom," etc. In his

translation of Lacerda's journey he calls it Raphia vinifera.

[2] MANDEVILLE, Jehan de [By Edward Byron Nicholson, M.A., and Colonel

Henry Yule, C.B.] Ext. from the Encyclopaed. Britan. 9th ed.,

xv. 1883, ppt. 4to., pp. 4.

[3] Encyclop. Brit. xv. p. 473.

[4] British Museum, Harley, 4383, f. 1 verso.

[5] Les Voyages en Asie an XIV'e siècle du Bienheureux frère Odoric de Pordenone. Paris, 1891, p. cxvi.

[6] Bibliographische Untersuchungen über die Reise-Beschreibung des Sir John Maundeville.-Dem Herrn Samuel Gottfried Reiche, Rector und Professor des Gymnasiums zu St. Elisabet in Breslau und Vice-Pr?ses der Schlesischen Gesellschaft für Vaterl?ndische Cultur, Ritter des rothen Adlerordens, zur Feier Seines Amts-Jubelfestes am 30. October 1840 im Namen des Gymnasiums zu St. Maria Magdalena gewidmet von Dr. Carl. Sch?nborn, Director, Rector und Professor.-Breslau, gedruckt bei Grass, Barth und Comp., ppt. 4to. pp. 24.

[7] Bibliographia geographica Palaestinae. Zun?chst kritische Uebersicht gedruckter und ungedruckter Beschreibungen der Reisen ins heilige Land. Von Titus Tobler.-Leipzig, Verlag von S. Hirzel. 1867, 8vo., pp. iv.-265.: C. 1336 (1322-1356). Der englische ritter John Maundeville, pp. 36-39.

[8] Bibliotheca geographica Palestinae. Chronologisches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des Heiligen Landes bezüglichen Literatur von 333 bis 1878 und Versuch einer Cartographie. Herausgegeben von Reinhold R?hricht. Berlin, H. Reuther, 1890, 8vo, pp. xx-742.

[9] Bibliotheca Sinica.-Dictionnaire bibliographique des ouvrages relatif sà l'empire chinois par Henri Cordier. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1878-1895, 3 vol. 8vo. col. 943-959, 1921-1927, 2201.

[10] Jean de Mandeville. Ext. du T'oung Pao, vol. ii. No. 4, Leide, E.J. Brill, 1891, 8vo, pp. 38.

[11] Jch Otto von diemeringen ein || Thumherre zu Metz in Lothoringen. han dises buch verwandelvsz || welschs vnd vsz latin zu tütsch durch das die tütschen lüte ouch mogent || dar inne lesen von menigen wunderlichen sachen die dor inne geschribe || sind. von fremden landen vn fremden tieren von fremden lüten vnd von || irem glouben von. iren wesen von iren kleidern. vnd vo vil andern wun || deren als hie noch in den capitelen geschriben stat. Und ist das buch in || fünf teil geteilt vnd saget das erst buch von den landen vnd von den we || gen vsz tütschen nider landen gen Jerusalem zu varen. vnd zu sant Ka | || therine grab vnd zu dem berg Synai. vnd von den landen vnd von den || wundern die man vnterwegen do zwischen vinden mag. Jtem von des || herren gewalt vnd herrschafft der do heisset der Soldan vnd von sinem || wesen. Das ander buch saget ob ymant wolt alle welt vmbfaren was || lands vnd was wunders er vinden mocht. Jn manchen steten vn in vil || insulen dor inne er kame. vnd saget ouch von den wegen vnd von den la || den vn lüten was in des grossen herre land ist. & do heisset zu latin Ma || gnus canis | das ist zu tütsch der grosz hunt. der ist so gar gewaltig vnd || so rich das im vff erden an gold an edlem gestein vnan anderm richtum || niemant gelichen mag. on allein priester Johann von Jndia. Das drit || buch saget von des vor genanten herren des grossen hunds glowben vn || gewonheit vnd wie er von erst her komen ist vnd von andern sachen vil || Das vierde buch saget von jndia vnd von priester Johann vnd von siner || herschafft. von sinem vrsprung vnd von siner heiligkeit von sinem glou | || ben von siner gewonheit vnd vil andern wundern die in sinem lande sind || Das fünfft buch saget von manchen heydischen glouben vnd ir gewon | || heit vn ouch von menigerlei cristen glouben die gensit mers sint die doch || nit gar vnsern glouben hand. Jtem von menigerlei Jüden glouben vnd || wie vil cristen land sint vnd doch nicht vnsern glouben haltend noch re | || chte cristen sind. Folio; black letter.

[12] Ce liure est eppelle ma // deuille et fut fait i compose // par monsieur iehan de man // deuille cheualier natif dagle // terre de la uille de saict alei // Et parle de la terre de pro // mission cest assavoir de ieru // salem et de pluseurs autres // isles de mer et les diuerses i // estranges choses qui sont es // dites isles.

Ends recto f°. 88: Cy finist ce tres plaisant // liure nome Mandeville par // lanc moult autentiquement // du pays et terre d'oultre mer // Et fut fait La Mil cccc // lxxx le iiii lour dauril, s.l., without any printer's name; small folio; ff. 88; sig. a (7 ff.)-l. (9 ff.); others 8 ff.-Grenville Library, 6775.

[13] F. 1 recto: Ce liure est appelle // mandeuille et fut fait et // compose par monsieur // iehan de mandeuille che // ualier natif dangleterre // de la uille de sainct alein // Et parle de la terre de // promission cest assavoir // de iherusalem et de plu // seurs autres isles de mer // et les diuerses et estran // ges choses qui sont esd' // isles.-Ends verso f. 93: Cy finist ce tresplay // sant liure nome Mande // cccclxxx le viii iour de // freuier a la requeste de // Maistre Bartholomieu // Buyer bourgoys du dit // lyon. Small folio.

[14] F. 1 recto. Jtinerarius domi//ni Johanis de ma//deville militis.-F. 2 recto: Tabula capitulorum in // itinerarium ad partes Jhe=// rosolimitanas. & ad vlterio // res trasmarinas domini Jo//hannis de Mandeville mili//tis Jncipit feliciter.-F. 4. recto: Jncipit Itinerarius a ter//ra Anglie in ptes Jherosoli =//mitanas. & in vlteriores tras//marinas. editus primo in li//gua gallicana a milite suo au//tore Anno incarnatonis dni //M. ccc. lv. in ciuitate Leodi // ensi. & paulo post in eade ciui//tate traslatus in hanc forma // latinam. //

Ends f. 71 verso: Explicit itinerarius domini // Johannis de Mandeville // militis. Small 4to, black letter, ff. 71 on a col., sig. a-i iij; a-h by 8 = 64 ff.; i, 7 ff.

[15] Reysen.-s.l.n.d., without printer's name; fol. 108 ff. on 2 col. black letter, without sig., etc.

F. 1 recto: Dit is die tafel van // desen boecke // (D)at eerste capittel van // desen boeck is Hoe dat Jan va//mandauille schyet wt enghe//lat…. f. 108 v° 26th line: regneert in allen tiden // Amen // ? Laus deo in altissimo //.

See Campbell, supra, p. 599.

[16] F. 1 verso: Tractato de le piu marauegliose cosse e piu notabile che // se trouano in le parte del modo redute & collecte soto bre//uita in el presente copedio dal strenuissimo caualer spero // doro Johanne de Mandauilla anglico nato ne la Cita // de sancto albano el quale secodo dio pr?cialmente uisi // tato quali tute le parte habitabel de el modo cossi fidelm // te a notato tute quelle piu degne cosse che la trouato e ve//duto in esse parte & chi bene discorre qsto libro auerra p // fecta cognitione de tuti li reami puincie natione e popu//li gente costumi leze hystorie & degne antiquitate co bre//uitade le quale pte da altri non sono tractate & parte piu // cosusamete dalchu gran ualente homini son state tocate & amagiore fede el psato auctore in psona e stato nel 1322. in//yerusalem Jn Asia menore chiamata Turchia i Arme//nia grande e in la picola. Jn Scythia zoe in Tartaria in // persia Jn Syria o uero suria Jn Arabia in egipto alto // & in lo inferiore in libia in la parte grande de ethiopia in // Caldea in amazonia in india mazore in la meza & in la // menore in div'se sette de latini greci iudei e barbari chri//stiani & infideli & i molte altre prouincie como appare nel // tractato de sotto.-Ends f. 114 verso: Explicit Johannes d'Madeuilla impressus Medio//lani ductu & auspicijs Magistri Petri de corneno pre // die Callendas augusti M.CCCCLXXX. Joha//ne Galeazo Maria Sfortia Vicecomitte Duce no // stro inuictissimo ac principe Jucondissimo. Small 4to; ff. 114; sig. a-o × 8 = 112 ff.; 1 f. between a and b.

[17] Gesta Pont. Leodiensium.-Vita Radvlphi de Rivo ex eius

scriptis: "Obijt Radulphus anno, 1483."

[18] This passage is not to be found in the Egerton MS. 1982, nor in the

Latin versions.

[19] Bib. Untersuchungen.

[20] Altenglische Sprachproben nebst einem W?rterbuche unter Mitwirkung von Karl Goldbeck herausgegeben von Eduard M?tzner. Erster Band: Sprachproben. Zweite Abtheilung: Prosa. Berlin. Weidmannsche Buchhandlung. (Vol. i. 1869, large 8vo, pp. 415; vol. i., John Maundeville, pp. 152-221.)

[21] Encyclopaedia. Brit., p. 475.

[22] Nat. Biog. p. 23-24.

[23] The Academy, x. p. 477.-Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., XV., p. 475.

[24] The // Voiage // and // Travaile // of // Sir John Maundevile, kt. // Which Treateth of the // Way to Hierusalem; and of // Marvayles of Inde, // With other // Ilands and Countryes. //-Now publish'd entire from an Original MS. // in the Cotton Library. //-London: // Printed for J. Woodman, and D. Lyon, in // Russel-Street, Covent-Garden, and C. Davis, // in Hatton-Garden. 1725, 8vo, 5. ff. n. c.+pp. xvi.-384+4 ff. n. c.

[25] The Voiage and Travayle of Sir John Maundeville Knight which treateth of the way towards Hierosallun and of marvayles of Inde with other ilands and countreys. Edited, Annotated, and Illustrated in Facsimile by John Ashton…. London, Pickering & Chatto, 1887, large 8vo., pp. xxiv.-289.

[26] L.c. p. vi.

[27] The Voiage and Travaile of Sir John Maundevile, Kt. which treateth of the way to Hierusalem; and of Marvayles of Inde, with other ilands and countryes. Reprinted from the Edition of A.D. 1725. With an introduction, additional notes, and Glossary. By J.O. Halliwell. Esq., F.S.A., F.R.A.S. London: Published by Edward Lumley, M.D.CCC.XXXIX., 8vo, pp. xvii.-xii.-326.

The Voiage and Travaille of Sir John Maundevile … By J.O.

Halliwell, London: F.S. Ellis, MDCCCLXVI., 8vo, pp xxxi.-326.

[28] The Buke of John Maundeuill being the Travels of sir John Mandeville, knight 1322-1356 a hitherto unpublished English version from the unique copy (Egerton Ms. 1982) in the British Museum edited together with the French text, notes, and an introduction by George F. Warner, M.A., F.S.A., assistant-keeper of Manuscripts in the British Museum. Illustrated with twenty-eight miniatures reproduced in facsimile from the additional MS. 24,189. Printed for the Roxburghe Club. Westminster, Nichols and Sons…. MDCCCLXXXIX., large 4to, pp. xlvi.+232+28 miniatures.

[29] There are in the British Museum twenty-nine MSS. of Mandeville, of which ten are French, nine English, six Latin, three German, and one Irish. Cf. Warner, p. x.

[30] Cf. Warner, p. 61.

[31] Mayence, Chapter's Library: "Incipit Itinerarius fidelis Fratris

ODERICI, socii Militis Mendavil, per Indiam."-Wolfenbüttel,

Ducal Library, No. 40, Weissemburg: "Incipit itinerarius fratris

ODERICI socii militis Mandauil per Indiam."-HENRI CORDIER, Odoric

de Pordenone, p. lxxii. and p. lxxv.

[32] Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 3rd Pt., London, 1625: "and, O that it

were possible to doe as much for our Countriman Mandeuil, who next (if

next) was the greatest Asian Traueller that euer the World had, &

hauing falne amongst theeues, neither Priest, nor Leuite can know him,

neither haue we hope of a Samaritan to releeue him."

[33] Astley (iv. p. 620): "The next Traveller we meet with into Tartary, and the Eastern Countries, after Marco Polo, is Friar Odoric, of Udin in Friuli, a Cordelier; who set-about the Year 1318, and at his Return the Relation of it was drawn-up, from his own Mouth, by Friar William of Solanga, in 1330. Ramusio has inserted it in Italian, in the second Volume of his Collection; as Hakluyt, in his Navigations, has done the Latin, with an English Translation. This is a most superficial Relation, and full of Lies; such as People with the Heads of Beasts, and Valleys haunted with Spirits: In one of which he pretends to have entered, protected by the Sign of the Cross; yet fled for Fear, at the Sight of a Face that grinned at him. In short, though he relates some Things on the Tartars and Manci (as he writes Manji) which agree with Polo's Account; yet it seems plain, from the Names of Places and other Circumstances, that he never was in those Countries, but imposed on the Public the few Informations he had from others, mixed with the many Fictions of his own. He set out again for the East in 1331; but warned, it seems, by an Apparition a few Miles from Padua, he returned thither, and died." And a final blow in the index: "Oderic, Friar, Travels of, iv. 620 a. A great liar!!"

[34] E.B. Nicholson.-Letters to the Academy, 11th November, 1876; 12th February, 1881. E.B.N. and Henry Yule, MANDEVILLE, in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed., 1883, pp. 472-475.

[35] Die ungedruckten Lateinischen Versionen Mandeville's. (Beilage zum Programm des Gymnasiums zu Crefeld.) 1886.

[36] Untersuchungen über Johan von Mandeville und die Quellen seiner

Reisebeschreibung. Von Albert Bovenschen. (Zeitschrift d. Ges. für

Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXIII. Bd., 3 u. 4 Hft. No. 135, 136, pp.


[37] (1) Itinerarivm // per nonnv. las // Galliae Belgicae partes,

// Abrahami Ortelii et // Ioannis Viviani. // Ad Gerardvm Mercatorem,

// Cosmographvm. // Antverpiae, // Ex officina Christophori Plantini.

// clo. lo. lxxxiv. // small 8vo, pp. 15-16.

(2) Read 1372.

(3) Purchas, His Pilgrimes, 3rd Pt., Lond., 1625, reproduces it on p. 128: "Hic jacet vir nobilis, D. Ioannes de Mandeville, aliter dictus ad Barbam, Miles, Dominus de Campdi, natus de Anglia, Medicinae Professor, deuotissimus, orator, & bonorum largissimus pauperibus erogator qui toto quasi orbe lustrato, Leodij diem vitae suae clausit extremum. Anno Dom. 1371, Mensis Nouembris, die 17."

[38] Bibliothèque nationale:-Catalogue des manuscrits des fonds Libri et Barrois. Paris, 1888. 8vo. cf. pp. 251-253.


Aás, Asu, see Alans. Abacan, a Tartar general. ábah, see ávah. Abaji, Kúblái's son. Abáka (Abaga), Khan of Persia. Abano, Pietro of, his notice of Polo. Abash (Habsh), see Abyssinia. Abba Gregory. Abbás, Sháh. Abbott, Consul Keith E.. Abdul Kuri islands. -- Mejid. Abeskun (Baxon), on the Caspian. Abher. Abkashian forests, boxwood of the. Abnús, ebony. Abraha, ruler of Yemen. Abraiaman, see Brahmans. Abubakr, Atabeg of Fars. -- Ibrahim, and Mahomed, engineers employed by Kúblái. Abu'l Abbas Ahmed VII., Khalif of Baghdad. -- Fázl Abulfeda, his geography; at the siege of Acre. Abulfiez Khan, king of Bokhara. Abu Nasr Mohammed IX., Khalif of Baghdad. -- Sa?d. Abyssinia (Abash), its king's punishment of Soldan of Aden; dominion on the coast, mediaeval history and chronology; table of kings; wars with Mahomedan states. Acbalec Manzi, "White City of the Manzi frontier". Acbalec or Acbaluc (Cheng-ting fu). Accambale, king of Champa. Achar. Achin, Acheh, Achem, its gold and lign-aloes; conversion of; its great power at one time; elephants at. -- Head. Achmath, the Bailo, see Ahmad. Acomat Soldan (Ahmad Sultan), seizes throne of Tabriz; goes to encounter Argon; rejects his remonstrance; defeats and takes him; hears of Argon's escape, is taken and put to death; notes on the history. Acorn bread. Acqui, Friar Jacopo d', his notice of Polo. Acre, Broils at, between Venetians and Genoese; plan of; captured by Saracens; wickedness of; Polos at. Adam, Bishop and Pope of China. -- Seth, and the Tree of Life, legend of. Adamodana, Castle of. Adam's Apple. -- sepulchre on mountain (Adam's Peak) in Ceylon, rubies; his teeth, hair, etc.; the footmark. Adel, apparently confused with Aden. Aden, Horse and other Trade with India, Soldan's treatment of a bishop; Vengeance of King of Abyssinia on him; confused with Adel; account of Kingdom; the Sultan; intercourse and trade with China, tanks; view of. Adoration of the Emperor. Adulis, inscription of. Aegae, Ayas on the site of ancient. Aepyornis and its eggs. A?tius, his prescription of musk, of camphor. Afghans, their use of the fat-tailed sheep. Africa, Sea surrounding to the South. Agassiz, Professor. Agathocles, Coins of. [Greek: Agatho? daímonos], island. Agha Ali Sháh, present representative of the Old Man of the Mountain. -- Khan Meheláti, late representative of the Old Man. Aghrukji or Ukuruji, Kúblái's son. Agricola, Governor of Cappadocia, etc. Aguil, Mongol general. Ahmad (Achmath), the Bailo, of Fenaket, his power, oppressions, death, etc. -- Sultan, Khan of Persia, see Acomat. Ahwaz, province. Aidhab. Aidhej, or Mal-Amir. Aijaruc, Kaidu's daughter, her strength and prowess; her name. Aikah Nowin, Engineer in Chief of Chinghiz. Ai-lao (afterwards Nan-chao), ancient name of the Shans. Aín Akbari (Ayeen Akbery). Ajmir. Akbar and Kúblái, a parallel. Ak Bulák salt mines. Akhaltziké (Western Georgia). Akhtuba River. Ak-khoja. Aksarai, or Ghori River. Aksu River. Aktár. Aktásh Valley. Alabastri. Alacou, see Hulákú. Aladja, striped cotton cloth. Alamút, Castle of the Ismailites. Alan country, Alania. Alans, or Aas, massacre at Chang-chau of, employed under Mongols. Alaone, the name. Alarm Tower, at Cambaluc, at Kinsay. Alatcha, cotton stuff with blue and red stripes. Alau, see Hulákú. Alá'uddin (Alaodin), see Old Man of the Mountain. -- (Alawating of Mufali), an engineer in Kúblái's service. -- Khilji, Sultan of Delhi. Albenigaras, Mt. Al Biruni. Alboquerque, see D'Alboquerque. Alchemy, Kúblái's. Aleppo. Alexander the Great, allusions to legends and romances about, his rampart (Iron Gate); the curtains at a banquet given by; and the ferrum candidum; site of his battle with Darius; his wife Roxana; kills a lion; Princes claiming descent from (Zulcarniain); his horse Bucephalus; fixes chains on Adam's Peak; said to have colonised Socotra; his tower on the border of Darkness. Alexander III., Pope. Alexander IV., Pope. Alexandria, trade from India to. Alhinde, Alfinde, Alinde, Al-hint. 'Ali and Aliites. Alidada. Alihaiya, Kúblái's general. Alinak. Alligator, in Carajan, mode of killing; eaten; prophecy of Bhartpúr about. Almalik. Almanacs, Chinese (Tacuin). Almonds. Aloes, Socotrine. -- wood, see Lign-aloes. Alor, war cry. Al-Ramni, Al-Ramin, see Sumatra. Altai (Altay) Mountains, the Khan's burial-place; used for the Khingan range. Altun-Khan, Mountain. -- sovereign. Amazons, fable of. Ambergris, how got. Amber-rosolli. Amda Zion, king of Abyssinia, his wars v. Mahomedans; not the king mentioned by Polo. Ament, Rev. W.S. Ameri, a kind of Brazil wood. Amhara. Amien, Mien (Burma). Amita Buddha. Ammianus Marcellinus. Amoy, harbour; languages. Amphora, Anfora. Amu, Aniu, see Anin. Amuki, devoted comrades of the king. Anamis (Minao) River. Ananda, Kúblái's grandson. Anár. Anaurahta, king of Burma. Ancestor Worship. Anchors, Wooden. Andaine, andena, andanicum, see Ondanique. Andaman (Angamanain) island, described; people; form of the word. Andan, andun, Wotiak for steel. Andragiri. Andreas, king of Abyssinia. Andrew, Bishop of Zayton. -- Grand Duke of Rostof and Susdal. Andromeda ovalifolia, poisonous. Angamanain, see Andaman. Angan, or Hamjám. 'Angka, gryphon, see Ruc. Angkor, ruins of. Ani in Armenia. Animal Patterns, see Patterns. Anin, province. Annals of the Indo-Chinese States. 'An-nam, or Tong-king. Anselmo, Friar. Anthropoides Virgo, the demoiselle. Antioch. Antongil Bay, Madagascar. Aotonomoff, Spasski, his ascent of Ararat. Apostoille, word used for Pope. Apples of Paradise (Konars). Apricots. 'Apuhota (Kapukada?). Apushka (Apusca), Tartar envoy from Persia. Arababni. Arab geography. -- colonies in Madagascar. -- horses, early literary recognition of. trade in, see Horses. -- merchants, in Southern India. -- Seamen's Traditions about Java. Arabi (Arabs). Arabia. Arabic character. Arachosía,arachoti. Araines. Arakan. Aram (Harám), Place of the. Ararat, Mount, ascents of. Arblasts, crossbows. Arbre Sol, or Arbre Sec, Region of the (Khorasan), tree described-Chínár or Oriental plane; various readings; Arbre seul, a wrong reading; Tree of the Sun legend; Christian legend of the Dry Tree; engrafted on legends of Alexander; Trees of Grace in Persia; Dry Trees in Mahomedan legend; in Rabbinical and Buddhist stories, and legends of the Wood of the Cross; Polo's Arbre Sec to be sought near Damghan; Sabaean apologue; clue to the term Arbre Sec. Arcali, Arculin, see Erculin. Architectural remains in Indo-China. Ardeshír Bábekán, first Sassanian king. Ardeshír, last sovereign of Shabánkára. Areca. Areng Saccharifera. Arezzo. Argaeus, Mount. Argali. Arghún, Khan of Persia (Polo's Argon, Lord of the Levant), sends an embassy to Kúblái for a wife; is dead when she arrives; his unhappy use of the elixir vitae; advances against his uncle Ahmad; harangues his chiefs; sends Ahmad a remonstrance; is taken prisoner; released by certain chiefs; obtains sovereignty; his death; his beauty. Argons (Arghún), half-breeds. Arii, Ariana. Arikbuga, Kúblái's brother. Arimaspia. Arimaspian gold. Ariora-Keshimur, meaning of Ariora. Ariosto. Aripo. Aristotle. Arjish (Arzizi). Arkasun Noian. Arkhaiun, applied to Oriental Christians or their Clergy. Armenia, Greater. Armenia (Hermenia), Lesser or Cilician. Armenian Christians. Armenians. Armillary Zodiacal Sphere. Armour of boiled leather, see Cuirbouly. Arms of Kerman, of the Tartars. Arredon River. Arrow Divination. Arrows, Tartar. Artacki. Arts, the Seven. Aru, Cumaha. Arucki. Aruk. Arulun Tsaghan Balghasun (Chagan-Nor). Arya Chakravarti. Aryavartta, the Holy Lands of Indian Buddhism. Arzinga (Erzingan). Arziron (Erzrum). Arzizi (Arjísh). Asbestos, and the Salamander. Asceticism of the Sensin, of the Jogis. Asedin Soldan (Ghaiassuddin Balban, Sultan of Delhi). Ashar (Asciar), king of Cail. Ashishin, see Assassins. Ashod, founder of the Bagratid dynasty. Ashurada. Asikan, Mongol general. Asoka. Asper, or akché about a groat. Assai River. Assassins (Ashishin, Hashíshin), Ismailites, how the Old Man trained them; murders by; their destruction; survival and recent circumstances of the sect. Asses, in Persia, in Mongolia; in Madagascar; in Abyssinia; in Far North. Asterius, Bishop of Amasia in Pontus. Astrakhan (Gittarchan). Astrolabe. Astrology, -ers, in Tangut, of Chinghiz; at Kúblái's Court; at Cambaluc; of Tibet; at Kinsay; in Maabar; in Coilum. Astronomical instruments, ancient Chinese. Atabegs, of Mosul, of Lúr; of Fars; of Yezd; of Kerman. Atjeh, see Achin. Atkinson's Narratives, and their credibility. Atlas, Chinese, in Magliabecchian Library. [Greek: Attagàs] (Black Partridge). Attalus, King. At-Thaibi family. Auberoche, Siege of. Audh (Oudh). Aufat, Ifat. Augury, see Omens. Aung Khan (Unc Can), see Prester John. Aurangzib. Aurora, Ibn Fozlán's account of. Aussa. 'Avah, Abah, Ava, one of the cities of the Magi. Avarian, epithet of S. Thomas. Avebury, Lord, on couvade. Avicenna's classification of Iron. Avigi, 'af?i (falco montanus). Axum, Inscription, Church of; Court of. Ayas (Layas, Aiazzo, etc.), port of Cilician Armenia, Sea fight at. Ayuthia. Azumiti. Azure, Ultramarine (lapis armenus) Mines in Badakhshan, in Tenduc; ore.

Baba Buzurg, worshipped by the Lurs. Baber, E. C, on Ch'êng-tú, on wild oxen of Tibet; Lolos; Gold River (Brius); the word Caindu; Talifu; Mekong River; Zardandan; site of battle between Kúblái and king of Mien; descent of Mien. Baboons, etymology Báb-ul-abwáh, "The Gate of Gates," Pass of Derbend. Babylon, Babylonia (Cairo or Egypt), Sultan of. Babylonish garments. Baccadeo, indigo. Baccanor. Bacon, Roger, as geographer. Bacsi, see Bakhshi. Bactria, its relation to Greece. Bacu, Sea of (Caspian). Badakhshan (Badashan), its population; capitals of; Mirs of; legend of Alexandrian pedigree of its kings; depopulation of; scenery; dialects; forms of the name; great river of (Upper Oxus). Badáún. Badger, Rev. Dr. G.P. Badghís. Badgír, Wind-catchers. Badruddín Lú-lú, last Atabeg of Mosul. Báfk (Báft). Baghdad (Baudas), Baldac, taken by Alau, Hulákú, its Khalif; the miracle of the mountain. -- Archbishop of. -- its indigo (baccadeo). Bagratidae, of Armenia, of Georgia. Bagration-Mukransky, Prince. Bahar. Bahárak, plain. Bahá-uddin Ayaz, Wazir of Kalháat. Bahá-ul-hakh, the Saint of Multán. Bahrámábád. Bahránjird Village. Bahrein. Baiberdon. Baiburt (Paipurth), Castle of. Baidu Khan, seizes throne of Persia; displaced and killed by Gházán; alleged to be a Christian. Bailo, the title, etymology of. Bakhshi (Bacsi), Lamas, their enchantments; various meanings of the word. Bakhtyáris of Luristán, the. Baku, oil fields of, Sea of (Caspian). Balad-ul-Falfal (Malabar). Baladi. Balalaika, a two-stringed Tartar instrument. Balanjaríyah, devoted lieges. Bala-Sagun. Balas rubies. Baldac, see Baghdad. Baldacchini (Baudekins), brocades made at Baghdad. Baldwin II. (de Courtenay), last Latin Emperor of Constantinople. Bali, Island of. -- in Abyssinia. Balios. Balish (a money of account). Balista, always a crossbow in mediaeval times. Balkh (Balc). Balkhash Lake. Ballads, Genoese, on sea-fights at Ayas and Curzola. Ballard, Mr.. Balor, Balaur, Bilaur, Malaur, Bolor. Bálos, Malacca boats with two rudders. Balsamodendron Mukul. Balthazar, of the Magi. Bálti. Balustrade, etymology of the word. Bamboo (always called canes by Polo), its multifarious uses; Kúblái's Chandu Palace made of; great, on banks of Caramoran river; explode loudly when burning; large in Tibet; ropes of; in Che kiang. Bamian, caves at, huge recumbent image at. Bám-i-Duniah, "Roof of the World". Bamm. Bandar Abbás (Bandar-Abbási). Bandith. Bangala, see Bengal. Banzaroff, Dorji, on Shamanism. Baptism, accompanied by branding, in Abyssinia. Bara. Barac (Borrak), Khan of Chagatai, his war with Arghún. Baradaeus, Jacob, or James Zanzale, Bishop of Edessa. Barbaro, Josafat. Barbarossa, Frederic. Barberino, Francesco da. Barda'at, saddle-cloths. Bardesir. Bardshír, Bardsír, Bard-i-Ardeshír. Bargu (Barguchin Tugrum, or Barguti), plain. Barguerlac, Syrrhaptes Pallasii, a kind of sand grouse, its migration into England. Barguzinsk. Barin, Mongol tribe. Bark, money made from, fine clothes from. Barka (Barca), Khan, ruler of Kipchak, his war with Hulákú. Barkul. Barkút, búrgút (bearcoote), eagle trained to the chase. Barlaam and Josaphat, Story of Saints, from Legend of Buddha. Barley, huskless. Baroch. Baron-tala, name applied by Mongols to Tibet. Barons (Shieng or Sing), Kaan's twelve. Barozzi, Nicolo. Barros, John de, geography of. Barsauma (St. Barsamo). Barskul (Barscol), "Leopard Lake". Bartizan, Kúblái's wooden. Barus, Barros (Sumatra), its camphor. Barussae insulae. Barygaza. Bashai (Pashai). Bashkirds, (Hungarians). Bashpah, Lama, and the Mongol character called after him. Basma, see Pasei. Basmuls (Guasmuls), half-breeds. Basra (Bastra), noted for its date-groves. Bathang. Baths, natural hot, near Hormuz, in Cathay; public at Kinsay. Batigala, Batticalla. Batochina. Bats, large, in India. Battas of Sumatra, and cannibalism. Batthala, Bettelar (Patlam in Ceylon). Battles, Kúblái v. Nayan, Tartars v. king of Mien; Caidu v. Khan's forces; Borrak and Arghún; Arghún and Ahmad; Hulákú and Barka; Toktai and Nogai. Bátú, Khan of Kipchak, founder of Sarai, invades Russia; made by Polo into two kings-Sain and Patu; his character and cruelty. Baudas, see Baghdad. Baudekins (baldacchini), brocades made at Baghdad. Bauduin de Sebourc. Bavaria, Duke Ernest of, a mediaeval Romance. Bawárij, corsairs. Bayan Chingsian, Kúblái's greatest Captain, prophecy connected with his name; his conquest of Manzi or South China; his history and character; his exceptional cruelty at Chang-chau. Bayan, Khagan of the Avars. Bayan (Baian), Kúblái's Master of the Hounds. Bayan, son of Nasruddin. Bayezid Ilderim. Bdellium. Beads, Hindu. Bears, white in Far North. Beast and bird patterns, see Patterns. Beaten gold. Beaujeu, William de, Master of the Temple. Beauty of-Georgians, Khorasan women; Kashmir women; Sinju women; Argons, or half-breeds; the Ungrat or Kungurat tribe; people of Coloman; Kinsay women; Kaidu's daughter; Arghún Khan; the Russians. Beds, their arrangement in India. Beef, not eaten in Maabar, except by the Govi, formerly eaten in India. Bejas of the Red Sea Coast. Belgutai, Chinghiz's stepbrother. "Belic" for "Melic". Bell at Cambaluc, great. Bellal Rajas. Belledi, balladi, ginger so called, Spanish use of the word. Benares, brocades of. Bendocquedar, see Bundúkdári, Bíbars. Benedict XII., Pope. Bengal (Bangala), king of Mien (Burma) and; why Polo couples these; relations between Burma and; claim asserted by king of Burma to; alleged Mongol invasion of; its distance from Caugigu; its currency; confused with Pegu by Polo. Beni Búya dynasty. Benjamin of Tudela, on Alexander's Rampart, on the Gryphon. Benzoin, etymology of. Berard, Thos., Master of the Temple. Berbera, Sea of. Berchet, G. Bereké, Bátu Khan's brother. Bernier, on Kashmir women's beauty. Berrie, the Arabic Baríya, a desert. Bettelar, rendezvous of Pearl Fishers. Beyamini, wild oxen of Tibet. Bezant, value of. Bhagavata. Bhamó, and River of. Bhartpúr, prophecy about. Bhattis, the. Bháwalpúr. "Bhim's Baby," colossal idol at Dhamnár caves. Bianco's, Andrea, maps. Biar. Bibars Bundúkdári, see Bundúkdári. Bielo Osero. Bigoncio, a firkin. Bilúchis, their robber raids; Lumri or Numri. Binh Thuan (Champa). Binkin. Bintang (Pentam). Birch-bark vessels, books. Bír-dhúl, or Bujardawal, cap. of Ma'bar. Bird-hunts. Birdwood, Sir G. Birhors of Chuta Nagpúr. Bir-Pandi, or Pira-Bandi. Birthday, celebration of Kúblái's. Bishbalik (Urumtsi). Bishop, of Male Island, story of an Abyssinian. Bitter bread. -- water. Blac, Blachia (Lac, Wallach). Black-bone, Chinese name for Lolos. Black Crane (Kará Togorü). -- Saints, White Devils in India. -- Sea, M. Maurum v. Nigrum. -- Sect of Tibet. Blacker, the more beautiful. Blaeuw, map. Blochmann, Professor H. Block-books, supposed to have been introduced from China,. Block-printing in Persia.. Blood-sucking, Tartar. Blous, bloies. Boar's tusks, huge (Hipp.). Boccassini. Bode, Baron de. Bodhisatva Avalok. Bodleian MS. of Polo, list of miniatures in. Boeach, mistake for Locac, and its supposed position. Boemond, Prince of Antioch and Tripoli, letter of Bibar to. Boga (Buka), a great Mongol officer, delivers Arghún. Boghra Khan. Bohea country. Bohra, sect of W. India. Boikoff, Russian Envoy. Bokhara (Bocara). Boleyn, Anne, her use of buckram. Bolgana, Queen, see Bulughán. Bolgarskoye (called also Uspenskoye). Bolghar, borgal, borghal, Russia leather. Bolghar (Bolgara), on the Volga, ruins of; court of. Bolivar, Padre, S.J., his account of the Condor (Rukh) of Africa. Bolor. Bombay. Bonaparte, Prince Roland, Recueil des Documents de l'époque Mongole. Bonga. Bonheur, Rosa. Boniface VIII., Pope. Bonin, C.E. Bonoccio di Mestro. Bonpos, old Tibetan Sect. Bonús, ebony. Bonvalot. Book of Marco Polo, its contents; original language, French; oldest Italian MS.; "Geographic Text," in rude French; various types of Text- (1) "Geographic,". (2) Pauthier's MSS. (3) Pipino's Latin, Preface to; Grynaeus' Latin; Müllers' reprint. (4) Ramusio's Italian edition, its peculiarities; probable truth about it; bases of it. MS. and some of its peculiarities; general view of the relations of the texts; notice of an old Irish version; geographical data; how far influenced in form by Rustician; perhaps in description of battles; diffusion and number of MSS.; basis of present version; specimens of different recensions of text; distribution of MSS.; miniatures in; list of MSS.; Tabular view of the filiation of chief MSS.; Bibliography; titles of works cited; Spanish edition. Bore in Hang-chau Estuary. Borgal, see Bolghar. Bormans, Stanislas. Born, Bertram de. Borneo, camphor, see Camphor. -- tailed men of. Boro Bodor, Buddhist Monument, Java. Borrak, Amir, Prince of Kerman (Kutlugh Sultan?). -- Khan of Chaghatai, see Barac. Borùs, the. Bostam. Boswellia thurifera, serrata; Carterii; Bhauda-jiana; papyrifera; Frereana; glabra. Bouqueran, see Buckram. Bourne, F.S.A. Boxwood forests in Georgia. Bozzí. Bra, the word. Bracelets, in Anin. Bragadino, Marco, husband of Marco Polo's daughter, Fantina. -- Pietro. Brahmanical thread. Brahmans (Abraiaman), fish-charmers to the pearl fishery; their character and virtues; their king; their omens; longevity; Chughi; Palladian legend of. Brahma's temple, Hang-chau. Brahuis. Brakhimof, early capital of Bulgaria. Brambanan, ruins at. Bran (Tibetan tsamba), parched barley. Brazil wood, in Locac, in Sumatra; manner of growth; in Ceylon; in Coilum (Coilumin); different kinds; vicissitudes of the word; its use prohibited by Painters' Guild. Bread, bitter. Brephung monastery. Bretesche. Bretschneider, Dr. Emil (Medical Researches), ruins of Bolghar, the Uíghúr character; Caucasian Wall; use of muslin in Samarkand; on nakh and nachetti; Húlakú's expedition to West Asia; an extract from the Yüan Si; Badakhshan; Kashgar; Shachau; Kamul; Chingintalas; the Stipa inebrians; the Utiken Uígúrs; Erdenidso Monastery; Belasagun; death of Chinghiz; tung lo or kumiz; Kúblái's death; Peking; verniques; clepsydra; the Bularguchi; Achmath's biography; paper-money; post stations; Chinese intoxicating drinks; regulations for time of dearth; Lu-Ku-K'iao Bridge; introduction of plants from Asia into China; morus alba; Tibet; bamboo explosions; the Si-fans; Cara-jang and Chagan-jang; Nasr-uddin; the Alans; rhubarb in Tangut; Polo's "large pears"; on galangal; on sugar; on Zayton; on wood-oil; on ostrich; on Si-la-ni; on frankincense; on Magyars; on Mongol invasion of Poland and Silesia. Brichu (Brius, the Upper Kiang). Bridges of Pulisanghin, Sindafu (Ch'êngtu); Suchau; Kinsay; Kien-ning fu; Fuchau; Zayton, or Chinchau. Brine-wells, see Salt. Brius River (Kin-sha Kiang, Gold River). Brown, G.G. -- Sir Thomas, on Polo. Bruce's Abyssinian Chronology. Brunetto Latini's Book, Li Tresor. Brunhilda. Bruun, Professor Ph., of Odessa. Bucephala, of Alexander. Bucephalus, breed of. Buckrams, of Arzinga, described; etymology; at Mardin; in Tibet; at Mutfili; Malabar. Buddha, see Sakya Muni. Buddhism, Buddhists, see Idolatry, Idolaters. Buddhist Decalogue. Buffaloes in Anin. Buffet and vessels of Kúblái's table. Bugaei. Buka (Boga), a great Mongol chief. Buka Bosha, 1st Mongolian Governor of Bokhara. Búkú Khan, of the Hoei-Hu, or Uighúrs. Bularguji (Bularguchi), "The Keeper of Lost Property". Bulgaria, Great. Bulughán (Bolgana), Queen. -- another. Bundúkdár, Amír Aláuddín Aidekín ("The Arblaster"). Bundúkdári, Malik Dáhir Ruknuddín Bíbars (Bendocquedar), Mameluke Sultan of Egypt, killed by kumiz. Buraets, or Burgats, the. Búrkán Káldún. Burma (or Ava), King of (See also Mien.). Burnell, Arthur. Burning the Dead, see Cremation. -- heretical books. -- paper-money, etc., at funerals. -- Widows in South India. Burrough, Christopher. Burton, Captain R.F. Bushell, Dr. S.W., his visit to Shang-tu, on the Khitan Scripts; Tangut rulers; orders for post-horses. Butchers, in Kashmir, Tibet; S. India. Butiflis (Mutfili). Butler, Hudibras. Buyid dynasty.

Ca' Polo, Ca' Milion, Corte del Millioni, the house of the Polos at Venice. Caaju, castle of. Cabs, Peking. Cacanfu (Hokiang-fu). Cachanfu (P'uchau-fu, Ho-chung-fu). Cachar Modun. Cachilpatnam. Cadmia. Caesalpinia; and see Brazil. Caesarea of Cappadocia (Casaria, Kaisaríya). Caichu, castle of (Kiai-chau, or Hiai-chau?). Caidu, see Kaidu. Caiju, on the Hwang-Ho. -- on the Kiang, Kwachau. Cail (Káyal), a great port of Commerce; the king; identified; meaning of name; remains of. Caindu (K'ien-ch'ang), a region of Eastern Tibet. Caingan (Ciangan, Kiahing). Cairo, museum at; ventilators at. (See Babylon.). Caiton, see Zayton. Cala Ataperistan (Kala' Atishparastán), "Castle of the Fire Worshippers". Calachan (Kalaján). Calaiate, Calatu, see Kalhat. Calamanz, the word. Calamina, city. Caldwell, Rev. Dr. R., on devil-dancing among the Shanars, on name of Ceylon; on Shahr-Mandi and Sundara Pandi; on the Tower at Negapatam; etymology of Chilaw; on Pacauta; Govis; singular custom of arrest; rainy season; food of horses; Shanar devil-images; choiach; Cail, or Kayál city; Kolkhoi; King Ashar of Cail; Kollam; Pinati; etymology of Sapong; Cape Comorin. Calendar, Ecclesiastical Buddhist, the Tartar; of Brahmans; of Documents relating to Marco Polo and his family. Calicut, King of, and his costume. Calif, see Khalif. Caligine, Calizene (Khálij, a canal from Nile). Camadi (City of Dakiánús) ruined. Cambaluc (Khanbaligh, or Peking), capital of Cathay, Kúblái's return thither after defeating Nayan; the palace; the city; its size, walls, gates, and streets, the Bell Tower, etc.; period of khan's stay there; its suburbs and hostelries; cemeteries, women, patrols; its traffic; the Emperor's Mint; palace of the Twelve Barons; roads radiating from; astrologers of. Cambay (Cambaet, Cambeth, Kunbáyat), kingdom of. Cambuscan, of Chaucer, corruption of Chinghiz. Camel-bird, see Ostrich. Camels, mange treated with oil, camlets from wool of; white; incensing; alleged to be eaten in Madagascar; really eaten in Magadoxo; ridden in war. Camexu, Kamichu, see Campichu. Camlets (cammellotti). Camoens. Camphor (Laurus Camphora) trees in Fo-kien. -- of Sumatra, Fansuri; earliest mention of: superstitions regarding; description of the tree, Dryabalanops Camphora; value attached by Chinese to; recent prices of; its use with betel. -- oil. Campichu (Kanchau), city of. Camul (Kamul), province. Camut, fine shagreen leather. Canal, Grand, of China. construction of. Canale, Cristoforo, MS. by. -- Martino da, French Chronicle of Venice by. Cananor, kingdom. Cananore. Canara. Cancamum. Canela brava. Canes, Polo's name for bamboos. Cannibalism, ascribed to Tibetans, Kashmiris, etc; to Hill-people in Fo-kien; to islanders in Seas of China and India; in Sumatra; regulations of the Battas; ascribed to Andaman islanders. Cannibals, i.e. Caribs. Canonical Hours. Cansay, see Kinsay. Canton. Cape Comorin, see Comari; Temple at. -- Corrientes (of Currents). -- Delgado. -- of Good Hope. Capidoglio (Capdoille), sperm-whale. Cappadocian horses. Capus, G. Caracoron (Kará Korum). Carajan (Caraian, Karájang, or Yun-nan), province. Caramoran River (Hwang-Ho). Carans, or Scarans. Caraonas (Karaunahs), a robber tribe. Carats. Carbine, etymology of. Cardinal's Wit. Caribs, i.e. cannibals. Carpets, of Turcomania (Turkey); Persian; Kerman. Carriages, at Kinsay; Chinese. Carrion, shot from engines. Carta Catalana, Catalan Map of 1375. Carte, à la. Carts, Mongol. Casan, see Gházán Khan. Casaria (Caesarea of Cappadocia). Cascar (Kashgar), Chaukans of. Casem, see Kishm. Caspian Sea (Sea of Ghel or Ghelan), ancient error about; its numerous names. Cassay, see Kinsay. Cassia. -- buds. -- fistula. Castaldi, Panfilo, his alleged invention of movable types. Castambol. Castelli, P. Cristoforo di. Casvin (Kazvín), a kingdom of Persia. Catalan Navy. Cathay (Northern China), origin of name; coal in; idols; Cambaluc, the capital of, see Cambaluc; Cathayans, v. Ahmad; their wine; astrologers; religion; politeness, filial duty, gaol deliveries, gambling. Catholics, Catholicos, of Sis; of the Nestorians. Cators (chakors), great partridges. Cat's Head Tablet. Cats in China. Caucasian Wall. Caugigu, province. Caulking, of Chinese ships. Cauly, Kauli (Corea). Causeway, south of the Yellow River. Cauterising children's heads. Cave-houses. Cavo de Eli. -- de Diab, ii. 417_n_. Cayu (Kao-yu). Celtic Church. Census, of houses in Kinsay, tickets. Ceremonial of Mongol Court, see Etiquette. Ceylon (Seilan), circuit of; etymology of; customs of natives; mountain of Adam's (alias Sagamoni Borcan's) Sepulchre; history of Buddha; origin of idolatry; subject to China. Ceylon, King of, his pearl-ponds. Chachan (Charchan, Charchand). Chagatai (Sigatay), Kúblái's uncle, son of Chinghiz. Chaghán-Jáng. Chaghan-Kuren. Chaghan-Nor ("White Lake"), N.E. of Kamul. -- (Chaghan, or Tsaghan Balghasun), site of Kúblái's palace. Chairs, silver. Chakor (cator), great partridges. Chalcedony and jasper. Chalukya Malla kings. Champa (Chamba), kingdom of, Kúblái's expedition; the king and his wives; products; locality; invaded by king of Lukyn. Chandra Banu. Chandu (Shangtu), city of peace of Kúblái. Changan. Chang-chau (Chinginju). -- in Fo-kien, Zayton (?); Christian remains at. Ch'ang Ch'un, travels. Changgan (Chang-ngan). Chang-kia-Kau, the gate in the Great Wall. Chang K'ien. Chang-shan (Chanshan). Ch'ang Te (the Chinese traveller), Si Shi Ki. Chang Te-hui, a Chinese teacher. Chang-y (Chenchu). Chang Yao, Chinese general. Cháo de Bux (Cavo di Bussi), boxwood. Chaohien, Sung Prince. Cháo-Khánahs, bank-note offices in Persia. Cháo Naiman Sumé Khotan, or Shangtu, "city of the 108 temples". Cháo, paper-money. Cháo, title of Siamese and Shan Princes. Chaotong. Chapu. Characters, written, four acquired by Marco Polo, one in Manzi, but divers spoken dialects. Charchan (Chachan of Johnson, Charchand). Charcoal, store in Peking, palace garden of. Charities, Kúblái's, Buddhistic and Chinese; at Kinsay. Charles VIII., of France. Chau dynasty. Chaucer, quoted. Chaukans, temporary wives at Kashgar. Chaul. Cheapness in China. Cheetas, or hunting leopards. Cheh-kiang, cremation common during Sung dynasty in, roads into Fo-kien from. Cheinan, Gulf of. Chenchau, or Iching hien. Chenching (Cochin-China). Chenchu (Chang-y), conspires with Vanchu v. Ahmad. Ch'eng-ting fu. Ch'êng-Tsu (Yung-lo), Emperor. Ch'êng-tu (Sze-ch'wan). Ch'êngtu-fu (Sindafu). Cheu, the Seven. Chibai and Chiban. Chichiklik Pass. Chien-ch'ang (Caindu). (See K'ien ch'ang.). Chihli, plain of. Chilaw. Chiliánwála, battlefield of. Chilu-ku, last Karakhitai king. Chin, Sea of. China, Imperial Maritime Customs Returns for 1900; Dominicans in; paved roads in; relations with Korea and Japan; the name; king of Malacca at Court of; trade from Arabia to; from Sofala in Africa. (See also Cathay and Manzi.). Chinangli (T'sinan-fu). Chinár, Oriental planes. Chinchau, Chincheo, Chinchew, Chwanchew, Tswanchau, see Zayton. Chinese, Polo ignorant of the languages; epigrams; funeral and mourning customs; feeling towards Kúblái; religion and irreligion; their politeness and filial piety; gambling; character for integrity; written character and varieties of dialect; ships; pagodas at Negapatam and elsewhere; coins found in Southern India; pottery; trade and intercourse with Southern India. Chinghian-fu (Chinkiang-fu). Chinghiz Khan, reported to be a Christian; Aung Khan's saying of; his use of Uíghúr character; Erzrum taken by; harries Balkh; captures Talikan; ravages Badakhshan; his respect for Christians; subjugates Kutchluk Khan; his campaigns in Tangut; Rubruquis' account of; made king of the Tartars; his system of conquests; and Prester John; divining by twigs-presage of victory; defeats and slays Prester John; his death and burial-place; his aim at conquest of the world; his funeral; his army; defeats the Merkits; relations between Prester John's and his families; the Horiad tribe; his prophecy about Kúblái; rewards his captains; captures Peking; defeats and slays Taiyang Khan; his alleged invasion of Tibet; his mechanical artillery; his cruelty; Table of Genealogy of his House. Chinghiz Tora. Ching-hoang tower at Hangchau-fu. Chinginju (Chang-chau). Chingintalas, province, its identification. Chingkim, Chinkin, Chimkin, Kúblái's favourite son and heir-apparent, his palace. Chingsang, Ching-siang (Chinisan), title of a Chief Minister of State. Chingting-fu (Acbaluc). Chingtsu, or Yung-lo, Emperor. Chíní, coarse sugar. Chinju (Tinju). Chin-tan, or Chínasthána, Chinese etymology of. Chinuchi, Cunichi, Kúblái's Masters of the Hounds. Chipangu (Japan), account of Kúblái's expedition v.; its disasters; history of expedition; relations with China and Korea. Chitral. Chloroxylon Dupada. Cho-chau (Juju). Choiach, the term. Chola, or Sola-desam (Soli, Tanjore). Chonka (Fo-kien), kingdom of, explanation of name. Chonkwé Chorcha, see Churchin Christian, astrologers; churches in China, early; inscription of Singanfu; Alans in the Mongol service. Christianity, attributed to Chinghizide princes, Kúblái's views on. -- former, of Socotra. Christians, of the Greek rite, Georgians, and Russians; Jacobite and Nestorian, at Mosul; among the Kurds; and the Khalif of Baghdad-the miracle of the mountain and the one-eyed cobbler; Kashgar; in Samarkand; the miracle of the stone removed; Yarkand; Tangut; Chingintalas; Suh-chau; Kan-chau; in Chinghiz's camp; Erguiul and Sinju; Egrigaia; Tenduc; Nayan and the Khan's decision; at Kúblái's Court; in Yun-nan; Cacanfu; Yang-chau; churches at Chin-kiang fu; at Kinsay; St. Thomas'; Coilum; Male and Female Islands; Socotra; Abyssinia and fire baptism; of the Girdle; in Lac (Wallachia). Chrocho, the Rukh (q.v.). Chronology and chronological data discussed, first journey of the Polos; war between Barka and Húlakú; Polos' stay at Bokhara; their departure and their second journey from Acre; their return voyage and arrival in Persia; story of Nigudar; Hormuz princes; destruction of Ismailites; history of Chinghiz; Kúblái's birth and accession; Nayan' rebellion; visit to Yun-nan; battle with the king of Mien; wars between China and Burma; value of Indo-Chinese; conquest of S. China; capture of Siang-yang; Kúblái's dealings with Japan; with Champa; Marco's visit to Japan; Kúblái's Java expedition; review of the Malay; events in Ma'bar; King Gondophares; cessation of Chinese navigation to India; Abyssinia; Kaidu's wars; Mongol revolutions in Persia, notes from; wars of Toktai and Noghai. (see also Dates.) Chrysostom. Chuchu, in Kiang-si. Chughis, see Jogis. Chung-Kiang. Chungkwé, "Middle Kingdom". Chung-tu, or Yen-King (Peking, see Cambaluc). Ch'ura. Churches, Christian, in Kashgar, Samarkand; Egrigaia; Tenduc; early, in China; Yang-chau; Chin-kiang fu; Kinsay; Zayton; St. Thomas's; Coilum; Socotra. Churchin, or Niuché, Churché, Chorcha (the Manchu Country). Cielstan, Suolstan (Shúlistán). Cinnamon, Tibet, Caindu; Ceylon; story in Herodotus of; Malabar. Circumcision of Socotrans, forcible, of a bishop; of Abyssinians. Cirophanes, or Syrophenes, story of. Civet, of Sumatra. Clement IV., Pope. Clepsydra. Cloves, in Caindu. Coal (Polo's blackstone), in Scotland in Middle Ages; in Kinsay. Cobbler, the one-eyed, and the miracle of the mountain. Cobinan (Koh-Banán). Cocachin (Kúkáchin), the Lady. Cochin-China, the mediaeval Champa (q.v.). Coco-nut (Indian nut). Coco Islands, of Hiuen T'sang. Cocos Islands. Coeur de Lion, his mangonels. Coffins, Chinese, in Tangut. Cogachin (Hukaji), Kúblái's son, King of Carajan. Cogatai. Cogatal, a Tartar envoy to the Pope. Coiganju (Hwaingan-fu). Coilum (Kollam, Kaulam, Quilon), kingdom of, identity of meaning of name; Church of St. George at; modern state of; Kúblái's intercourse with. Coilumin, columbino, colomní, so-called Brazil-wood, ginger. Coins of Cilician Armenia, of Mosul; Agathocles and Pantaleon; Seljukian with Lion and Sun; found at Siang-Yang; King Gondophares; Tartar heathen princes with Mahomedan and Christian formulae. Coja (Koja), Tartar envoy from Persia to the Khan. Cold, intense, in Kerman, in Russia. "Cold Mountains". Coleridge, verses on Kúblái's Paradise. Coloman, province. Colombino, see Coilumin. Colon, see Coilum. Colossal Buddhas, recumbent. Columbum, see Coilum. Columbus, Polo paralleled with, remarks on. Comania, Comanians. Comari, Comori (Cape Comorin, Travancore), temple at. Combermere, Lord, prophecy applied to. Comercque, Khan's custom-house. Compartments, in hulls of ships. Compass, Mariner's. Competitive Examinations in beauty. Conchi, King of the North. Concubines, how the Khan selects. Condor, its habits, Temple's account of; Padre Bolivar's of the African. Condur and Sondur. Condux, sable or beaver. Conia, Coyne (Iconium). Conjeveram. Conjurers, the Kashmirian, weather-; Lamas' ex-feats. (see also Sorcerers.). Conosalmi (Kamasal). Constantinople, Straits of. Convents, see Monasteries. Cookery, Tartar horse. Cooper, T.T., traveller on Tibetan frontier. Copper, token currency of Mahomed Tughlak, imported to Malabar; to Cambay. Coral, valued in Kashmir, Tibet, etc. Corea (Kauli). Corn, Emperor's store and distribution of. Coromandel (Maabar), see Mabar. Corsairs, see Pirates. Corte del Milione, see Ca' Polo. -- Sabbionera at Venice. Cosmography, mediaeval. Costus. Cotan, see Khotan. Cotton, stuffs of, at Merdin; in Persia; at Kashgar; Yarkand; Khotan; Pein; Bengal; bushes of gigantic size. Counts in Vokhan, at Dofar. Courts of Justice, at Kinsay. Couvade, custom of. Cow-dung, its use in Maabar. Cowell, Professor. Cowries (porcelain shells, pig shells), used for money, etc., procured from Locac. Cralantur, its meaning (?). Cramoisy (quermesis). Cranes, five kinds of. Crawford, John. Cremation, in Middle Ages. Cremesor, Hot Region (Garmsir). ?ribh?ja (?ribh?dja), country. Crocodiles, see Alligators. Cross, legend of the Tree of the, gibes against, on Nayan's defeat; on monument at Singanfu. Crossbows. Cruelties, Tartar. Crusca MS. of Polo. Cubeb pepper. Cubits, astronomical altitude estimated by. Cublay, see Kúblái. Cucintana. Cudgel, Tartars' use of. Cuiju (Kwei-chau), province. Cuinet, Vital, on Turkman villages, on Mosul Kurds. Cuirbouly. Cuju. Cuncun (Han-Chung) province. Cunningham, General A. Cups, flying. Curds and Curdistan. Currency, copper token, in India, salt; leather; Cowrie, see Cowries. Currency, paper, in China, attempt to institute in Persia; alluded to. Current, strong south along East Coast of Africa. Currents, Cape of, or Corrientes. Curtains, Persian. Curzola Island, Genoese victory at, Polo's galley at; map of. Curzon, Lord, list of Pamirs. -- Hon. R., on invention of printing. Customs, Custom-houses. Cutch pirates. Cuxstac, Kuhestec. Cuy Khan (Kuyuk). Cycle, Chinese. Cynocephali, the. Cypresses, sacred, of the Magians. Cyprus. Cyrus, his use of camels in battle near Sardis.


Dadián, title of Georgian kings.

Da Gama.

Dagroian, kingdom of, in Sumatra,

probable position of.

Dailiu (Tali).

Da?tu, Taidu, Tatu (Peking), Kúblái's new city of Cambaluc.

Dakiánus, city of (Camadi).

Dalada, tooth relique of Buddha.

Dalai Lama, with four hands.


Dalivar, Dilivar, Diláwar (Lahore), a province of India.




siege of.

Damasks, with cheetas in them,

with giraffes.

(see also Patterns.).


Dancing dervishes.

Dancing girls, in Hindu temples.

Dandolo, Andrea, Admiral of Venetian fleet at Curzola,

his captivity and suicide;

funeral at Venice.

D'Anghieria, Pietro Martire.


Dante, number of MSS.,

does not allude to Polo;


D'Anville's Map.




Dardas, stuff embroidered in gold.

Dariel, Pass of (Gate of the Alans).


the Golden King.

Dark Ocean of the South.

Darkness, magical.

-- land of,

how the Tartars find their way out;

the people and their peltry;

Alexander's legendary entrance into;

Dumb trade of.

Darráj, black partridge, its peculiar call.

Darúná, salt mines.


Dasht, or Plain, of Bahárak.

Dashtáb, hot springs.

Dasht-i-Lut (Desert of Lút).

Dashtistan tribe and district.

Dates (chronology) in Polo's book, generally erroneous.

-- (trees or fruit),



Reobarles, province;

Formosa Plain;


wine of;

diet of fish, etc.

Daughters of Marco Polo.

D'Avezac, M.

David, king of Abyssinia.

David, king of Georgia (Dawith).

Davids, Professor T.W. Rhys, Buddhist Birth Stories.

Davis, Sir John F.



Dead, disposal of the, in Tangut,

at Cambaluc;

in Coloman;

in China;

in Dagroian;

by the Battas.

-- burning of the, see Cremation.

eating the, see Cannibalism.

De Barros,

on Java;



Debt, singular arrest for.

Decima, or Tithe on bequest.

Decimal organisation of Tartar armies.

Decius, Emperor.

Degháns, Dehgáns.

Dehánah, village.

Deh Bakri.

De la Croix, Pétis.

Delhi, Sultans of.

D'Ely, Mount, see Eli.

Demoiselle Crane, anthropoides virgo.


Derbend, Wall of (see also Iron Gate of.).

Deserts, haunted.

Deserts of Kerman or of Lút,

of Khorasan;

of Charchan;

Lop (Gobi);


Desgodins, Abbé.

Despina Khatun.



Devéria, G.


Devil trees.

Devils, White.

D'Evreux, Father Yves.

Dhafar (Dofar, Thafar),

its incense;

two places of the name.

Dhárani, mystic charms.

Dhúlkarnain (Alex.), see Zulkarnain.

Dialects, Chinese.

Diamonds in India, how found,

mines of;

diffusion of legend about.

"Diex Terrien".

Diláwar, Polo's Dihar.

Dimitri II., Thawdadebuli, king of Georgia.

Dínár, see Bezant.

Dinár of Red Gold.

Dinh Tiên-hwàng, king of An-nam.


Dioscorides insula.

Dir, chief town of Panjkora.



Diráwal, ancient capital of the Bhattis.

Dirhem-Kub, Shah Mahomed, founder of Hormuz dynasty.

Dish of Sakya or of Adam.

Diu City.

Diul-Sind, Lower Sind.

Divination by twigs or arrows.

Dixan, branding with cross at.

Dizabulus, pavilion of.

Dizful River.

Djao (Chao) Namian Sumé (Kaipingfu).

Djaya, turquoises.

Doctors at Kinsay.

Dofar, see Dhafar.


conjectures as to.

Doghábah River.

Dog-headed races.

Dogs, the Khan's mastiffs,

of Tibet;

fierce in Cuiju.

Dog-sledging in Far North,

notes on dogs.

Dolfino, Ranuzzo, husband of Polo's daughter, Moreta.


Dominicans, sent with Polos but turn back.

D' or plain, the expression.

Dorah Pass.

Doria, family at Meloria.

-- Lampa,

Admiral of Genoese Fleet sent to Adriatic;

his victory;

his tomb and descendants;

at Meloria with six sons.

-- Octaviano, death of.

-- Tedisio, exploring voyage of.


D'Orléans, Prince Henri.

Douglas, Rev. Dr. C.

Doyley, Sir Fulke.

Dragoian (Ta-hua-Mien).

Draps entaillez.

Drawers, enormous, of Badakhshan women.

Dreams, notable.

Drums, sound of in certain sandy districts.

Dryabalanops Camphora.

Dua Khan.

Du Bose, Rev. H.C.

Ducat, or sequin.

Dudley, Arcano del Mare.

Duel, mode in S. India of.

Dufour, on mediaeval artillery.

Duhalde, Plan of Ki-chau,

or T'si-ning chau.

Dukuz Khatun.

Dulcarnon (Zulkarnain).


Dumas, Alexander.

Dumb trade.

Duncan, Rev. Moir.

Dungen (Tungani), or converts.

Duplicates in geography.


Dürer's Map of Venice, so-called.

Durga Temple.


Dúsháb, sweet liquor or syrup.


Duties, on Great Kiang,

on goods at Kinsay and Zayton;

on horses;

at Hormuz.

(See also Customs.).

Dutthagamini, king of Ceylon.

Dwara Samudra.

Dzegun-tala, name applied to Mongolia.


Eagle mark on shoulder of Georgian kings.

Eagles, trained to kill large game.

-- white, in the Diamond Country.

Eagle-wood, origin of the name. (See Lign-aloes.).

Earth honoured.

East, its state, circa, 1260.

Ebony (bonus).

Edkins, Rev.

Edward I.

Edward II., correspondence with Tartar princes.

Effeminacy, in Chinese palaces.

Eggs of Ruc and Aepyornis.

Egrigaia, province.

Ela (cardamom).




Elephants, Kúblái carried on a timber bartizan by four,


the king of Mien's;

numbers of men alleged to be carried by;

how the Tartars routed;


in Caugigu;




Madagascar and Zanghibar;

trade in teeth of;

carried off by the Ruc;

in Zanghibar;

used in war;

an error;


fable about;

not bred in Abyssinia;

training of African;

war of the.

Eli, Ely, Elly (Hili), kingdom of.

Elias, Ney.

Elixir vitae of the Jogis.

Elliot, Sir Walter.

Emad, Ed-din Abu Thaher, founder of the Kurd dynasty.

Embroidery of silk at Kerman,

leather in Guzerat.

Empoli, Giovanni d'.

Empusa, the Arabian Nesnás.

Enchanters, at Socotra.

Enchantments, of the Caraonas.

(See also Conjurers, Socerers.).

Engano Island, legend.

Engineering feat.

Engineers, their growing importance in Middle Ages.

England, Kúblái's message to king of,

correspondence of Tartar princes with kings of.

English trade and character in Asia.

Enlightenment, Land of.

Erba, poisonous plant or grass.

Erculin, Arculin (an animal).

Erdeni Tso (Erdenidsu), or Erdeni Chao Monastery.

Eremites (Rishis), of Kashmir.

Erguiul, province.


Erkeun, (Ye li ke un), Mongol for Christians.


Erzinjan, Erzinga, Eriza (Arzinga).

Erzrum (Arziron).

Eschiel, the word.

Esher (Shehr, Es-shehr),

trade with India, incense, Ichthyophagi;

singular sheep.

Essentemur (Isentimur), Kúblái's grandson, king of Carajan.

Estimo, Venetian, or forced loan.

Etchmiadzin Monastery.

Ethiopia and India, confused.

Ethiopian sheep.

Etiquette of the Mongol Court.





Geliz (Ghellé);










azure and lazuli;


Mawmet and Mummery;










Jádú and Yadah;








camut, borgal, shagreen;

Chinuchi or Chunichi;









Manjanik, mangonel, mangle, etc.;


Chini and Misri;


eagle-wood, aloes-wood;

Bonús, Calamanz;


china pagoda;


Balanjar, a-muck;







Tembul and Betel;

Sappan and Brazil;



Indigo baccadeo;

Gatpaul, baboon;

Salami cinnamon;

[Greek: kómakon];

rook (in chess);


Erculin and Vair;


-- (of Proper Names),


















Punnei-Káyal, Káyal;

Kollam (Coilum);

Hili (Ely);


Mangla and Nebila;






-- Chinese.



procured from Bengal.


said to flow into the Caspian.


Euxine, see Black Sea.

Evelyn's Diary.

Execution of Princes of the Blood, mode of.


Facen, Dr. J. Faghfur (Facfur, Emperor of Southern China), meaning of title; his effeminate diversions; decay of his palace. Faizabad in Badakhshan. Fakanúr. Fakata. Fakhruddin Ahmad, Prince of Hormuz. Falconers, Kúblái's. Falcons, of Kerman, Saker and Lanner; peregrine; Kúblái's. Famine, horrors. Fanchán, P'ingchang, title of a second class Cabinet Minister. Fanchan Lake. Fan-ching, siege of. Fandaraina. Fang, see Squares. Fansur, in Sumatra, kingdom of. Fansuri camphor. Fan Wen-hu, or Fan-bunko, a General in Japanese Expedition. Fariab, or Pariab. Faro of Constantinople. Farriers, none in S. India. Fars, province. Fashiyah, Atabeg dynasty. Fassa. Fasting days, Buddhist. Fattan, in Ma'bar. Fatten, 'Ali Sháh. Fausto, Vettor, his Quinquereme. Fazl, Ibn Hassan (Fazlu?eh-Hasun?eh). Feili, Lurs dynasty. Female attendants on Chinese Emperors. Ferlec, in Sumatra, kingdom of (Parlák), Hill people. Fernandez, or Moravia, Valentine. Ferrier, General. Festivals, Order of the Kaan's. Fiag, or Pog River. Ficus Vasta. Fidáwí, Ismailite adepts. Filial Piety in China. Filippi, Professor F. de, Silk industry in Ghílán. Finn. Fiordelisa, daughter of younger Maffeo Polo. -- supposed to be Nicolo Polo's second wife. -- wife of Felice Polo. Firando Island. Firdús, Ismailite Castle. Firdúsí. Fire, affected by height of Pamir Plain, regulations at Kinsay. Fire-baptism, ascribed to Abyssinians. Fire-Pao (cannon?). Fire-worship, or rockets, in Persia, by the Sensin in Cathay. Firishta, the historian. Fish miracle in Georgia, in the Caspian; and date diet; supply at Kinsay; food for cattle; stored for man and beast. Fish-oil, used for rubbing ships. Florin, or ducat. Flour (Sago), trees producing. Flückiger, Dr. Fog, dry. Fo-kien, see Fu-chau. Folin (Byzantine Empire). Fondaco. Foot-mark on Adam's Peak, q.v.. Foot-posts in Cathay. Forg. Formosa, Plain (Harmuza). Forsyth, Sir T. Douglas. Fortune, R. Foundlings, provision for. Four-horned sheep. Fowls with hair. Foxes, black. Fozlán, Ibn. Fra terre (Interior). Fracastoro, Jerome. Franciscan converts, in Volga region at Yang-chau; Zayton. Francolin (darráj of the Persians), black partridge. Frankincense, see Incense. Frederic II., Emperor, his account of the Tartars; story of implicit obedience; his cheetas; his leather money; his giraffe. French, the original language of Polo's Book; its large diffusion in that age. French Expedition up the Kamboja River. Frenchmen, riding long like. French mission and missionaries in China. Frère charnel. Frere, Sir B. Froissart. Fu-chau (Fo-kien, Fuju), paper-money at; wild hill people of; its identity; language of; tooth relique at. Fuen (Fen) ho River. Funeral rites, Chinese, in Tangut; of the Kaans; at Kinsay. (See also Dead.). Fungul, city of. Furs, of the Northern Regions. Fusang, Mexico (?). Fuyang. Fuzo, see Fu-chau.

Gabala, Bishop of.

Gagry, maritime defile of.

Gaisue, officer of Kúblái's Mathematical Board. Galeasse, Venetian gallery. Galingale. Galletti, Marco. Galleys of the Middle Ages, war, arrangement of rowers; number of oars; dimensions; tactics in fight; toil in rowing; strength and cost of crew; staff of fleet; Joinville's description of; customs of. Galley-slaves not usual in Middle Ages. Gambling, prohibited by Kúblái. Game, see Sport. Game Laws, Mongol. Game, supplied to Court of Cambaluc. Ganapati Kings. Gandar, Father. Gandhára, Buddhist name for Yun-nan. Ganfu, port of Kinsay. Ganja, gate of. Gan-p'u. Gantanpouhoa, Kúblái's son. Gant?r. Gardenia, fruit and dyes. Gardiner's (misprinted Gardner's) Travels. Gardner, C. Garmsir, Ghermseer (Cremesor), Hot Region. Garnier, Lieut. Francis (journey to Talifu). Garrisons, Mongol, in Cathay and Manzi, disliked by the people. Garuda. Gate of Iron, ascribed to Derbend. Gates, of Kaan's palace, of Cambaluc; of Somnath. Gat-pauls, Gatopaul, Gatos-paulas. Gatto maimone. Gauenispola Island. Gaur (Bos Gaurus, etc.). Gauristan. Gavraz villages. Gazaria. Gedrosi. Gelath in Imeretia, Iron Gate at. Geliz, Spanish for silk dealer. Genealogy of Polos, errors as given by Barbaro, etc., in; tabular; of House of Chinghiz. Genoa, Polo's captivity at. -- and Pisa, rivalry, and wars of. -- and Venice, rivalry and wars of. Genoese, their growth in skill and splendour, character as seamen by poet of their own; character by old Italian author; capture of Soldaia; their navigation of the Caspian; trade in box-wood; their merchants at Tabriz; in Fo-kien. Gentile Plural names converted into local singulars. Geographical Text of Polo's Book constantly quoted, its language; proofs that it is the original; tautology; source of other texts. George (Jirjis, Yurji, Gurgán), king of Tenduc, of the time of Prester John; a possible descendant of. Georgia (Georgiana), beauty of, and its inhabitants; their kings. Gerfalcons (Shonkár); tablets engraved with. Gerini, Colonel. German Follower of the Polos. Ghaissuddin Balban (Asedin Soldan), Sultan of Delhi. Gháran country, ruby mines in. Gházán (Casan) Khan of Persia, son of Arghún, his regard for the Polos; marries the Lady Kukachin; his mosque at Tabriz; set to watch the Khorasan frontier; obtains the throne; his object and accomplishments. Ghel, or Ghelan (Ghel-u-chelan), Sea of, Caspian Sea. Ghellé (Gílí), silk of the Gíl province. Ghes, or Kenn (formerly Kish or Kais). Ghez tree. Ghiuju. Ghiyas ed-din, last Prince of Kurd dynasty. Ghori, or Aksarai River. Ghúls, goblins. Ghúr. Giglioli, Professor H. Gíl, or Gílán, province. Gilgit. Gill, Captain (River of Golden Sand). Ginao, Mt. and Hot Springs. Gindanes of Herodotus. Ginger, Shan-si; Caindu; alleged to grow in Kiangnan; Fuju; Coilum; different qualities and prices of; Ely; Malabar; Guzerat. Giraffes, mediaeval notices of. Girardo, Paul. Girdkuh, an Ismailite fortress, its long defence. Girls, consecrated to idols in India. Gittarchan, see Astrakhan. Glaza (Ayas, q.v.). Gleemen and jugglers, conquer Mien. Goa. Gobernador, Straits of. Go?s, Benedict. Gog and Magog (Ung and Mungul), legend of; rampart of; country of; name suggested by Wall of China. Gogo. Go?tre at Yarkand. Golconda diamond mines. Gold, Frankincense, and Myrrh, their mystic meaning. Gold dust in Tibet, exchanged for salt in Caindu; Brius River; in Kin-shia-Kiang; and nuggets in Carajan; abundant in Yun-nan; Caugigu; Coloman; infinite in Chipangu; in Sea of Chin Islands; dust in Gulf of Cheinan Islands; not found in Java; in Locac; the Malayo-Siamese territories; Sumatra; vast accumulations in South India; imported into Malabar; and into Cambay; purchased in Socotra. Gold and silver towers of Mien. -- cloths of. (See Silk and Gold.). -- of the Gryphons in Herodotus. -- Teeth (Zardandan), Western Yun-nan. -- to silver, relative value of. Golden King and Prester John, tale of the. -- Island. -- Horde (kings of the Ponent). Golfo, Indigo di. Gomispola, Gomispoda, see Gauenispola. Gomushtapah, Wall of. Gomuti palm. Gondophares, a king in the St. Thomas legends. Gordon's "Ever Victorious Army". Gordun Sháh. G?ring, F. Goriosan. Gor Khar, wild ass. Goshawks, black. Gothia (Crimean), its limit and language. Govy, a low caste in Maabar. Goza. Gozurat, see Guzerat. Grail, Buddhist parallel to the Holy. Granaries, Imperial. Grapes in Shan-si. Grass-cloths. Grasso, Donato. Great Bear (Meistre), and Little, force of, and application of these epithets. Great, or Greater Sea (Black Sea). Greece, Bactria's relation to. Greek fire. Greeks, in Turcomania, and Greek tongue in Socotra; possible relic of. Green, Rev. D.D. -- Island, legendary. -- Islands. -- Mount, Cambaluc. -- R., see Tsien Tang. Gregorieff, his excavations at Sarai. Gregory X., Pope, see Theobald of Piacenza. Grenard. Grioni, Zanino. Griut (kurut), sour-curd. Groat, Venetian grosso. Groot, Professor, J.J.M. de. Grote, Arthur. Grueber and Dorville, Jesuit travellers. Grus, cinerea, antigone, leucogeranus, monachus. Gryphon, see Rue. Guasmul (Basmul), half-breeds. Guchluk. Gudar (village). Gudderi, musk animals, Tibet. Gudran. Guebers, the. Gujáh, Húlákú's chief secretary. Gugal, bdellum. Guilds of craftsmen at Kinsay. -- Venetian. Guinea-fowl. Guions, a quasi-Tibetan tribe. Gumish-Khának, silver mines. Gunpowder. Gurgan, a Tartar chief. Gurgan, son-in-law, a title. Gur-Khan of Karacathay. Gutturals, Mongol elision of. Guz=100. Guzerat (Gozurat), products, mediaeval architecture and dress; work.

Haast, Dr., discovers a fossil Rue. Habíb-ullah of Khotan. Habsh (Abash), see Abyssinia. Hadhramaut (Sessania Adrumetorum). Hadiah. Haffer. Hai-nan, Gulf of. -- language of. Hairy men in Sumatra. Hajji Mahomed. Hakeddin. Half-breeds, see Argon. Hamd Allah Mastaufi, the geographer. Hamilton, Captain Alexander. Hammer-Purgstall on Marco Polo. Hamúm Arabs. Hamza of Ispahan. Hamza Pantsúri, or Fantsúri. Hanbury, D. Han-chung (Cuncun). Hang-chau fu, see Kinsay. Han dynasty. -- River. Hanjam. Han-kau. Hansi. Han Yu. Harám. Harhaura, W. Panjáb. Harlez, Mgr. de. Hármozeia. Harpagornis, fossil Ruc. Harran. Harshadeva, king of Kashmir. Harsuddi, temple of. Haru, or Aru. Hashíshín, see Assassins. Hasik. Hassán Kalá, hot springs at. Hassan, son of Sabah, founder of the Ismailites. Hastings, Warren, letter of. Hatan, rebellion of. Haunted deserts. Havret, Father H. Hawáríy (Avarian), the term. Hawks, hawking in Georgia, Yezd and Kerman; Badakhshan; Etzina; among the Tartars; on shores and islands of Northern Ocean Kúblái's sport at Chagannor; in mew at Chandu; trained eagles; Kúblái's establishment of; in Tibet; Sumatra; Maabar. Hayton I. (Hethum), king of Lesser Armenia, his autograph. Hazáras, the, Mongol origin of, lax custom ascribed to. Hazbana, king of Abyssinia. Heat, great at Hormuz, in India. Heaven, City of (Kinsay). Hedin, Dr. Sven. Heibak, caves at. Height, effects on fire of great. Heikel, Professor Axel, on Buddhist monasteries in the Orkhon. Hei-shui (Mongol Etsina) River. Hel, Ela (Cardamom). Helena, Empress. Helli, see Eli. He-lung Kiang. Hemp of Kwei-chau. Henry II., Duke of Silesia. Henry III. Heraclius, Emperor, said to have loosed the shut-up nations. Herat. Hereditary trades. Hereford, Map. Hermenia, see Armenia. Hermits of Kashmir. Herodotus. Hethum, see Hayton. Hiai- or Kiai-chau (Caichu?). Hides (See Leather.). Hili, Hili-Marawi, see Ely. Hill-people of Fo-kien, wild. Hinaur, see Hunáwar. Hind. Hindu character, remarks on frequent eulogy of. -- Kush. Hindus, their steel and iron. -- in Java. Hing-hwa, language of. Hippopotamus' teeth. Hips, admiration of large. Hirth, Dr. F. Hiuan-Tsung, Emperor. Hiuen Tsang, Dr., a Buddhist monk. Hochau, in Sze-chwan, Mangku Khan's death at. -- in Kansuh. Hochung-fu (Cachanfu). Hodgson, Mr. Hoernle, Dr. Hojos. Hokien-fu (Cacanfu). Hokow, or Hokeu. Holcombe, Rev. C., on Hwai-lu; on Yellow River; on Pia-chau fu; on road from T'ung-kwan to Si-ngan fu. Hollingworth, H.G. Holy Sepulchre, oil from lamp of. Homeritae. Homi-cheu, or Ngo-ning. Homme, its technical use. Hondius map. Ho-nhi, or Ngo-ning (Anin) tribe (See Homi-cheu.). Hooker, Sir Joseph, on bamboo explosion. Horiad (Oirad, or Uirad) tribe. Hormuz (Hormos, Curmosa), trade with India; a sickly place; the people's diet; ships; great heat and fatal wind; crops, mourning customs; the king of; another road to Kerman from; route from Kerman to; site of the old city; foundation of; history of; merchants; horses exported to India from; the Melik of. -- Island, or Jerun, Organa of Arian. Hormuzdia. Horns of Ovis Poli. Horoscopes, in China, in Maabar. Horse-posts and Post-houses. Horses, Turkish, Persian; of Badakhshan, strain of Bucephalus; sacrificed at Kaans' tombs; Tartar; and white mares; presented to Kaan on New Year's Day; of Carajan; their tails docked; of Anin; tracking by; decorated with Yaks' tails; now bred in S. India. -- great trade and prices in importing to India from Persia, modes of shipment; from Carajan; from Anin; from Kis, Hormuz, Dofar, Soer, and Aden; Esher; Dofar; Calatu. -- duty on, captured by pirates; their extraordinary treatment and diet in India. Horse-stealing, Tartar laws. Hosie, A., on Ch'êng-tu; brine-wells of Pai-yen-ching; on the Si-fan; on Caindu Lake. Hospitals, Buddhist. Hostelries, at Cambaluc, on the Cathay post-roads; at Kinsay. Hot springs in Armenia, near Hormuz. Hounds, Masters of Kaan's. Hours, struck from Cambaluc bell-tower, at Kinsay; unlucky; canonical. Hsi Hsia dynasty. Hsiang-chên, Hsiang, wood. Hu-chau fu (Vuju). Hui-hui, white and black capped, two Mohammedan sects. Hukaji (Hogáchi, Cogachin), Kúblái's son. Hukwan-hien. Húlakú Khan (Alau, Alacan), Kúblái's brother, and founder of Mongol dynasty in Persia, war with Barka Khan; takes Baghdad and puts Khalif to death; the Ismailites and the Old Man. -- his treachery, his descendants; battle with Barca; his followers. Hullukluk, village, near Sivas. Human fat, used for combustion in war. -- sacrifices. Humáyún, Emperor. Humboldt. Hunáwar (Onore, Hinaur). Hundred Eyes, prophecy of the. Hundwáníy (ondanique), Indian steel. Hungary, Hungarians. Hung Hao, Chinese author. Hun-ho (Sanghin River). Hunting equipment and Expedition, Kúblái's, Kang-hi's. -- preserves. (See also Sport.). Hutton, Captain. Hwa-chau. Hwai-lu, or Hwo-lu-h'ien (Khavailu), the Birmingham of N. Shansi. Hwai-ngan-fu (Coiganju). Hwai River. Hwang-ho (Yellow River), changes in its courses; its embankments. Hwan-ho. Hyena. Hyrcania, king of.



Ibn Batuta (Moorish traveller, circa A.D. 1330-1350),

his account of Chinese juggling;

his account of Khansa (Kinsay);

of Zayton;

in Sumatra;

on Camphor;

in Ceylon;

at Kaulam;

in Malabar;

sees Rukh;

his account of Maldives;


Market in Land of Darkness;

on Silver Mines of Russia.

Ibn Fozlán, see Fozlán.


Ichthyophagous cattle and people.

Icon Amlac, king of Abyssinia.

Iconium (Kuniyah, Conia).

Idolatry (Buddhism) and Idolaters,

in Kashmir;

their decalogue;







Etzina, their fasting days;

Tartars and Cathayans;





at Kúblái's birthday feast;



Acbalec Manzi;































Far North.

-- Origin of,

of Brahmans;

of Jogis.

Idols, Tartar,



of Cathay;

of Bacsi or Lamas;

of Sensin;

of East generally;

in India.

[Greek: Ieródouloi].

Ieu, Gnostics of.

Ifat, Aufat.

Ig, Ij, or Irej, capital of the Shawánkárs.

Igba Zion, Iakba Siun, king of Abyssinia.

Ilchi, commissioner.

Ilchi, modern capital of Khotan.

Ilchigadai Khan.

Ilija, hot springs at.

Ilkhan, the title.

Ilyáts, nomads of Persia.

Imáms of the Ismailites.

Im Thurn, Everard, on Couvade.

Incense, Sumatran,

brown in West India;

white (i.e. frankincense), in Arabia.


horse trade to;

trade to Manzi or China from;

believed to breed no horses;

trade with Persia and Arabia;

western limits of;

islands of;

division of;

sundry lists of States;

trade with Aden and Egypt;

with Arabian ports;

confusion of Ethiopia and.

India, the Greater.

-- its extent.

-- the Lesser.

-- Middle (Abyssinia).

-- remarks on this title.

-- Maxima.

-- Tertia.

-- Superior.

-- Sea of.

Indian drugs to prolong life.

-- geography, dislocation of Polo's.

-- nuts, see Cocoa-nuts.

-- steel (ondanique).

Indies, the Three, and their distribution.

Indifference, religious, of Mongol Emperors.

Indigo, mode of manufacture at Coilum,

in Guzerat;


prohibited by London Painters' Guild.



Indragiri River.

Infants, exposure of.

Ingushes of Caucasus.

Innocent IV., Pope.

Inscription, Jewish, at Kaifungfu.

Insult, mode of, in South India.

Intramural interment prohibited.

Invulnerability, devices for.



Irish, accused of eating their dead kin.

-- M.S. version of Polo's Book.

Iron, in Kerman,

in Cobinan.

Iron Gate (Derbend Pass), said to have been built by Alexander,

gate ascribed to.

Irtish River.

Isaac, king of Abyssinia.

Isabel, queen of Little Armenia.


Isentemur (Sentemur, Essentemur), Kúblái's grandson.

Ish, the prefix.




Iskandar, Shah of Malacca.

Islands, of the Indian Sea,

of China;

in the Gulf of Cheinan;

Male and Female.

Isle d'Orleans.

Isle of Rubies (Ceylon).

Isma?l, Shah of Persia.

Ismailites, see Assassins.

Ispahan (Istanit, Istan, Spaan), kingdom of Persia.

Israel in China, see Jews.

Iteration, wearisome.



Ivory trade.

Izzuddin Muzaffar, suggests paper-money in Persia.


Jacobite Christians, at Mosul,

at Tauris;


perhaps in China.

Jacobs, Joseph, Barlaam and Josaphat.

Jadah or Yadah-Tásh.

Jade stone (jasper) of Khotan.

Jaeschke, Rev. H.A.

Jaffa, Count of, his galley.

Jaipál, Raja.


Jaláluddín of Khwarizm.

Jamáluddín-al-Thaibi, Lord of Kais.

Jamaluddin, envoy from Ma'bar to Khanbaligh.

Jambi River.

James of Aragon, king.

Jámisfulah (Gauenispola).

Jamúi Khátún,

Kúblái's favourite Queen;

her kindness to the captured Chinese princesses.

Jangama sect.

Janibeg, Khan of Sarai.

Japan, see Chipangu.

Japanese paper-money.


Jase, stitched vessel.

Jaspar (Gaspar), one of the Magi.

Jasper and chalcedony.

Jatolic, Játhalík, Jaselic, Gáthalík ([Greek: katholikós]).


Jaúzgún, former captain of Badakhshan.

Java, the Great,


circuit, empires in;

Kúblái's expedition against.

Java, the Greater and Lesser, meaning of these terms.

Java, the Less, see Sumatra.

Jawa, Jáwi,

applied by Arabs to islands and products of the Archipelago generally.

Jaya-Sinhavarman II., king of Champa.


Jehangír (Jehan, Shah).

Jenkinson, Anthony.

Jerún (Zarun), island, site of the later Hormuz.


Jesuit maps.

Jesujabus, Nestorian Patriarch.

Jews, their test of Mahomed's prophetic character,

shut up by Alexander;

their connection with the Tartars;

in China, their inscription at Kaifungfu;

in Coilum;

in Abyssinia.


-- Nakús, or "Hill of the Bell," Sinai desert.

Jibal-ul-Thabúl, "Hill of Drums," near Mecca.


Jogis (Chughi).

John XXII., Pope.

Johnson, his visit to Khotan.

Johnston, Keith.

Johore, Sultan of.

Jon (Jihon, or Oxus) River.

Jordanus, Friar.

Jor-fattan (Baliapatan).


Jubb River.

Judi, Mount.

Jugglers, at Khan's feasts,

and gleemen conquer Mien.

Juggling extraordinary.

Juji, eldest son of Chinghiz.

Juju (Cho-chau).


Junghuhn, on Batta cannibalism,

on camphor trees.

Junks. (See also Ships.).


Justice, administration of Tartar.

Justinian, Emperor.

Juzgána (Dogana).

Kaan, and Khan, the titles. Kaan, the Great, see Kúblái. Kaans, the series of, and their burial place, massacre of all met by funeral party. Kabul. Kachkár (Ovis Vignei), wild sheep. Kadapah. Kafchi-kúe. Káfirs of Hindu Kush, their wine. Kahgyur, Tibetan Scripture. Kahn-i-Panchur. Kaidu (Caidu) Khan, Kúblái's cousin and life-long opponent, plots with Nayan; his differences with Kúblái; and constant aggressions; his death; his victorious expedition v. Kúblái; Kúblái's resentment; his daughter's valour; sends a host v. Abaga. Kaifung-fu, Jews and their synagogues there, siege of. Kaikhátu (Kiacatu), Khan of Persia, seizes throne, his paper-money scheme; his death; his dissolute character. Kaikhosru I. and III., Seljukian dynasty. Ka?kobad I. and III. Kaikus, Izz ed-din. Káil, see Cail. Ká?n (Gháín), a city of Persia. Kaipingfu (Keibung, Kaiminfu, Kemenfu). Kairat-ul-Arab. Kais, see Kish. Kaisaríya (Caesaraea, Casaria). Kajjala, or Khajlak, a Mongol leader. Kakateya, dynasty. Kakhyens, Kachyens, tribe in Western Yun-nan. Kakula. Kala' Atishparastan (Cala Ataperistan), "The Castle of the Fire-Worshippers". Kala' Safed. Kalajan (Calachan). Kalámúr. Kalantan. Kalchi, Kalakchi. Kales Devar, king of Ma'bar, his enormous wealth. Kalgan, or Chang-kia-keu. Kalhát (Kalhátú, Calatu, Calaiate), described; idiom of. Kalidása, the poet, on the Yak. Kálikút. Kálín, marriage prices. Kalinga. Kalinjar. Kalmia angustifolia, poisonous. Kamál Malik. Kamárah, Komar. Kamasal (Conosalmi), Kahn-i-asal, "The honey canal". Kambala, Kúblái's grandson. Kambáyat (Cambay). Kamboja (Chinla). Kampar, district and River, Buddhist ruins. Kamul (Komal, Camul), the Mongol Khamil, Chinese Hami. Kanat, or Karez, underground stream. Kanát-ul-Shám (Conosalmi). Kanauj. Kanbalu Island. Kancháu (Campichu). Kandahár, Kandar, Ghandhára. Kandy. Kanerkes, or Kanishka, kingdom, coins of. Kang-hi, Emperor. Kank. Kanp'u (Ganpu), old Port of Hang-chau. Kansan, see Shensi. Kansuh. Kao Hoshang. Kao-Tsung, Emperor. Kao-yu (Cayu). Kapilavastu. Kapukada, Capucate. Karábughá, Carabya, Calabra, a military engine. Kará Hulun. Karájáng (Carajan, or Yun-nan). Karákásh ("black jade") River. Karákhitaian Empire. -- Princes of Kerman. Kará Khoja. Karakorum (Caracoron). Kara Kumiz, special kind of Kumiz. Karámúren (Caramoran) River, Mongol name for the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River. Karana, meaning of. Karáni (vulgo Cranny). Karanút, a Mongol sept. Karaún Jidun, or Khidun. Karaunahs (Caraonas), a robber tribe. Karavat, an instrument for self-decollation. Karens. Karmathian, heretics. Karnúl. Karrah. Karra-Mánikpúr. Kartazonon, Karkaddan, rhinoceros. Kasaidi Arabs. Kash, jade. Kashan. Káshgar (Cascar), Chankans of. Kashísh (Casses). Kashmír (Keshimur), Buddhism; beauty of the women; conjurers; the language of; sorcery in. Kashmiris. Kasia, people and hills. Kasyapa Buddha. Kataghan, breed of horses. Katar pirates. Katif. Kattiawár, pirates. Kaulam, see Coilum. Kaulam-Malé. Kauli (Cauly), Corea. Kaunchi (Conchi), Khan. Káveripattanam. Káveri River, delta of. Kavir, saline swamp. Kavváyi. Káyal, Káil, see Cail. -- Pattanam. -- Punnei. Kayten. Kazan. Kazáwinah. Kazbek. Kazvín (Casvin). Keary, C.F. Kebteul, night-watch. Kehran. Keiaz tribe. Keibung (Kaipingfu). Kelinfu (Kienning-fu), City, its bridges. Kemenfu, see Kaipingfu. Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu). Keraits, a great Tartar tribe. Kerala. Keria, see Kiria. Keriza River. Kermán, route to Hormus from; steel manufacture, its industries; king of, Atabeg of; stitched vessels of; desert of. Kerulen (K'i-lien) valley, the Khans' burial-ground. Keshican (Keshikten), Kúblái's life-guard. Kesmacoran (Kij Makrán), Kij-Makrán. Keuyung Kwan, village. Khakán, the word. Khalif (Calif) Mosta'Sim Billah of Baghdad, taken by Húlakú and starved to death; plot v. the Christians laid by a former-the miracle of the mountain; becomes secretly a Christian. Khálij. Khàm, stuff made with cotton thread. Khambavati (Cambay). Khanabad (Dogana?). Khán Bádshah of Khotan. Khánbalík, see Cambaluc. Khanfu. Khanikoff, N. de (travels in Persia). Khanjár-i-Hundwán, hanger of Indian steel. Khán-khánán, a title. Khanoolla (Mount Royal), site of Chinghiz's tomb. Khansa. Kharesem, Mount. Khato-tribe. Khátún-gol, or "Lady's River," i.e. Hwang-ho. Khatun title of Khan's wives. Khavailu (Hwo-lu h'ien). Khazars, the. Khilak. Khimka. Khinsa, Khingsai, Khinzai. (See Kinsay.). Khitan, Khitai. -- character. -- dynasty of Liao. Khmer. Khodabanda, Ilkhan of Kermán. Khojas, name of modern Ismailite sect. Khorasan, province, turquoises of. Khormuzda, supreme deity of the Tartars. Khotan (Cotan), fruits; routes between China and; buried cities of; its jade. Khumbavati (Cambay). Khumdán. Khusrú, Amír, Indian poet. Khutuktai Setzen, Prince of the Ordos. Khwarizm. Kiacatu, see Kaikhátu. Kiahing (Ciangan, Canigan). Kiai- or Hiai-chau (Caichu). Kiakhta. Kia-k'ing, Emperor. Kiang, the Great (Kian and Kian-Suy, and in its highest course Brius, the Kinsha Kiang), its vastness, and numerous craft; steamers on; its former debouchure to the south, and changes. Kiang-Ché, limits of. Kiang-Hung, Xieng-Hung. Kiangka. Kiang-mai, Xieng-mai, Zimmé. Kiangshan. Kiangsi. Kiang-su. Kiang-suy (-shui) River. Kiangtheu. Kiang-Tung. Kiao-chi (Tungking), Chinese etymology of. Kia Tsing, Emperor, a great bridge builder. Kichau Castle. Kieh-Ch'a. K'ien-ch'ang, Kiung-tu (Caindu). Kien-chau. Kien-kwé. Kien-lung, Emperor. Kien-ning fu (Kelinfu). Kiepert, Map of Asia. Kij-Makrán (Kesmacoran). Kila'-i-Gabr, "Gueber Castle". Kilimanchi River. Kiming shan Mountains, gold and silver mines. Kimiz, kumiz (kemiz), mare's milk,-Tartar beverage. Kin, or Golden Dynasty in N. China, their paper-money; story of their Golden King. Kincha, Chinese name for Kipchak. Kin-Chi, or Gold-Teeth (Zardandan). King of the Abraiaman. -- of England, Kúblái's message to, intercourse with Mongol princes. -- of France, Kúblái's message to. -- of Spain, Kúblái's message to. -- Rev. C.W. Kings of Maabar, the five brothers, their mother's efforts to check their broils. -- subordinate, or Viceroys, in China. -- Tartar, of the Ponent. Kingsmill, T.W. King-tê-chên, porcelain manufacture. K'ing-yüan (Ning-po). Kin-hwa fu. Kinki, Kimkhá. Kinsay (King-szé, or "Capital," Khansá, Khinsá, Khingsai, Khanzai, Cansay, Campsay), formerly Lin-ngan now Hang-chau fu; its surrender to Bayan; extreme public security; alleged meaning of the name; described; bridges; hereditary trades, guilds and wealthy craftsmen and their dainty wives; the lake, islands and garden-houses; stone-towers-inhabitants' clothing and food; guards and police regulations; fires; alarm towers, paved streets; revenue; pavements, public baths, port of Ganfu; the province and other provinces of Manzi, garrisons; horoscopes, funeral rites; palace of the expelled king; church, house registers; hostel regulations; canals; markets and squares; fruits and fish shops; women of the town, physicians and astrologers, courts of justice; vast consumption of pepper; inhabitants' character-their behaviour to women and foreigners; hatred of soldiers; pleasures on the lake and in carriage excursions; palace of the king; the king's effeminacy and ruin; tides; plan of; notices by various writers of; wealth of; ships. Kin-sha Kiang, "River of Golden Sands" (upper branch of Great Kiang, Brius). Kinshan, see Golden Island. Kinto, or Hintu, Mongol general. Kipchak (Ponent), Southern Russia, events related by Polo in; sovereigns; people of; extent of empire. Kirghiz Kazak. Kirghiz, the. Kiria. Kirk, Sir John, and Raphia palm. Kis, Kish, or Kais (Kisi), now Ghes, or Kem, island in Persian Gulf, merchants; described. Kishik, Kishikan, Kizik, Keshikchi, see Keshican. Kishm (Casem). -- or Brakht (Oaracta), island in the Persian Gulf. Kistna River. Kitubuka, General. Kiu-chau. Kiulan (Quilon), see Coilum. Kizil Irmak, the. Kizil River. Kneeling oxen. Kobad, the Sassanian. Kobdo. Koh-Banán (Cobinan). Koja (Coja), a Tartar envoy from Persia. Kokcha River. Kok-Tash, greenstone of Samarkand. Kolastri, or Kolatiri Rajas. Ko-li-ki-sze. Kolkhoi of Ptolemy, identified. Kollam, see Coilum. Koloman, see Coloman. Kolyma, bird-hunting at. [Greek: Kómakon]. Komár. [Greek: Komária ákron]. Konár tree, Marco Polo's apples of Paradise. Kondachi. Konkan, Konkan-Tana. Korano, epithet on Indo-Scythic coins. Korea, History of. Koresh king. Kornish, or K'o-tow (Khén-théu). Kosakio, a general against Japan. Kosseir. Kotcheres, Kurds of Mosul. Kotlogh, or Kutlugh, Sultan of Kerman. Kotlogh Shah, the Chaghataian prince. Kotrobah Island. Kouyunjik, sculptures at. Kozlov, Lieutenant K.P., on the Lob-nor. Kuang-chou. Kúbenán (Cobinan), a Kuh-banán "Hill of the Terebinths or Wild Pistachios". Kúblái (Cublay), Káán, the Great Khán, his envoys meet the two elder Polos; receives and questions the Polos; sends them as envoys to the Pope; his desire for Christian teachers, and for oil from the lamp in the Holy Sepulchre; gives them a Golden Tablet; his reception of the three Polos; sends Marco on an embassy; Marco grows in favour; allows the Polos to depart with Tablets of Authority; rumour of his death; sends a napkin of asbestos to the Pope; his greatness and power; his milk libations; his inscription at Shangtu; Chinghiz's prophecy; his lineage, age, and accession; Nayan's revolt; Nayan's defeat and death; rebukes anti-Christian gibes; returns to Cambaluc; treats four religions with equal respect; his views on Christianity; how he rewards his captains; his personal appearance; his wives and ladies-in-waiting; his palace at Cambaluc; builds Cambaluc city; his bodyguard; order of his feasts; celebration of his birthday; his distribution of robes; his New Year's feast; his elephants; the K'o-tow; adopts Chinese ancestor-worship; his game laws; his hunting establishment; his masters of hounds; how he goes a-hunting; how his year is spent; Ahmad's influence, oppression, and death; his treatment of Mahomedans; his mint and paper-money; his purchase of valuables; his twelve great Barons; his posts and runners; remission of taxes; his justice; a tree planter; his store of corn; charity to the poor; his astrologers; gaol deliveries, and prohibition of gambling; his early campaign in Yun-nan; and the king of Mien and Bangala; Litan's plot; sends Bayan to invade Manzi; his dealings with Bayan; satisfied with the Polo's mangonels; appoints Mar Sarghis governor of Chinghian-fu; the city of Kinsay; his revenue from Kinsay; from Zayton; his expedition against Chipangu (Japan); sends force against Chamba; attempts to gain Java; his death; sends to buy Ceylon ruby; sends for religions of Sakya; testifies to miraculous powers of Sakya's dish; intercourse with Ma'bar; with Kaulam; missions to Madagascar; Kaidu's wars with him. -- Khan, territories and people subject to (Turkistan), (Tangut and Mongolia); (Tibetan frontier and Yun-nan); (Western China); (N. Eastern China); (Manzi); (Sinju); (Caiju); Chinghian-fu; (Chinginju); (Suju); (Tanpigu); (Chonka); (Zayton); (Chamba); (Sumatra). Kuché character. Kudatku Bilik, an Uíghúr poem. Kuhistan, or Hill country of Persia. Kúkachin, see Cocachin. Kukin-Tána. Kukju (Genkju), Kúblái's son. Kuku-Khotan (Blue Town), dep?t for Mongolian trade with China. Ku-kwan, Customs' Barrier. Kuláb, lions in, Salt Mines. Kulán, Asinus Onager, the Gor Khar of Persia. Kulasaikera. Kumár, see Komár. Kumhari, Kumari, see Comari. Kumiz, kimiz (kemiz), Mare's milk, Tartar beverage, sprinkling of. Kummájar. Kúnbúrn Monastery. Kunduz. Kunduz (beaver or sable). Kunduz-Baghlán. Kung-ki-cheng (Fei-ch'eng). Kunguráts, Kunkuráts (Ungrat), a Mongol tribe. Kunichi (Cunichi, or Chinuchi), "The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs". Kuniyah (Conia), Iconium, Koniah. Kunlun (Pulo Condore). Kurd dynasty. Kurdistan (Curdistan). Kurds, the. Kúreh-i-Ardeshír (Kuwáshír). Kuria Maria Islands. Kuridai, Kúblái's son. Kúrkah, great drum. Kurmishi. Kurshids of Lùristán. Kurut (Curd). Kus, Cos (in Egypt). Kushluk, the Naiman. Kutan, son of Okkodai. Kutchluk Khan (Buddhist), Chief of the Na?mans. Kutuktemur, Kúblái's son. Kutulun, Princess. Kuwinji, see Kaunchi. Kuyuk Khan. Kwa-chau (Caiju), at mouth of Great Canabon Yang-tse-Kiang. Kwan Hsien. Kwansinfu. Kwawa, i.e. Java, etymology. Kwei-chau (Cuiju). Kwei-hwa-ch'eng, or Kuku Khotan. Kweilei River. Kyung-sang province.

Lac (Wallachia), Lacz.

Ladies' dresses in Badakhshan.

Ladies of Kinsay.


Lahore (Dalivar, Dilivar).


Lájwurd mines.

Lake, Caindu.

-- Fanchau.

-- Kinsay.

-- of Palace at Cambaluc.

-- Pleasure parties on.

-- Talifu.

-- Yunnan-fu.


Lakshamana Deva, king of Kashmír.

Lamas of Tibetan Buddhism;

their superstitions and rites;

their monasteries;

marriage. (See also Bakhshi.).


kingdom of;

situation of.

Lances of Sago Palm.


Land of Darkness,

market in.


Langting Balghasun.

Languages used in Mongol Court and administration.


Lanja Bálús, or Lankha bálús.

Lanka (Ceylon).

Lan Ki Hien (Nan-Che-hien).

Lanner Falcons.

Lan-tsang kiang (Mekong) River.

Lao-Kiun, or Lao-Tseu, the Philosopher.

Laos, people of.

Lar, or Lát-Desa.

-- province.

Latin version of Polo's Book.

Latins, the term.

Latsé, Tibetan for musk.

Lauredano, Agnes.

Laurus Camphora.

Lawek, Lawáki.

Laxities of marriage customs, see Marriage.

Layard, Mr.

Layas, see Ayas.

-- Gulf of.


embroidered mats of Guzerat.


used for plates;

green leaves said to have a soul.

Lecomte on Chinese war vessels.

Lembeser, Ismaelite fortress.


Leon I., king of Lesser Armenia.

Leon II., king of Lesser Armenia.

Leon III., king of Lesser Armenia.

Leon VI., last king of Lesser Armenia.


taught to sit on horseback;

(Cheetas) kept for the Chase by Kúblái.

Lepechin, Professor.

Le Strange, Guy.

Leung Shan.

Levant, term applied by Polo to the kingdom of the Mongol Khans.


Lewis, see St. Lewis.

Lewis XI. and XII. (France).

Lew-sha, old Chinese name for Lop Desert.

Leyes, see Ayas.


Labrang Monastery at.

Li, Chinese measure,

supposed to be confounded with miles.

Liampo (Ningpo).

Liang, or tael.

Liang-chau in Kansuh.

Liao dynasty.


Libanos, [Greek: Libanophóros] and [Greek: libanotophóros chóra].

Libro d'Oro.

Licinius, Emperor.

Lidé (Liti).

Lieuli Ho.

Lign-aloes (eagle-wood),


in Sumatra.


Ligurium, the precious stone, Liguire.

Li H'ien, Tartar ruler of Tangut.

Likamankwas of Abyssinian kings.

Li-kiang fu.



Lindsay, Hon. R.



Lin-ngan (Hang-chau).

Lin-ngan in Yun-nan.

Lintching-y, or Linchinghien.

Lin-t'sing chau.

Lion and Sun.

Lions, black.

-- on the Oxus,

Chinese notion of.

-- (apparently for tigers) kept for the chase by Kúblái,

skins of striped;

how hunted with dogs (See also Tigers.).

Lion's Head Tablets.

Lire, various Venetian.

-- of gold.


Lissu, or Lisau tribe.


Litán, rebellion of.


Little Orphan Rock.

Liu Pang, founder of 1st Han dynasty.

Liu Pei (Luo Pé), of the Han dynasty.

Livre des Merveille.

Livres of gold.

-- Parisis.

-- Tournois.

Li Yuan-hao, founder of the Hsi Hsia dynasty, Tangut.

Lo, tribes of S.W. China so-called.

-- Chinese name of part of Siam.

Lob, see Lop.

Locac, kingdom of.

Lockhart, Dr. W.


Lolo tribes.

Longevity of Brahmins and Jogis.


Lop, city and lake,




Lor, see Lúristan.

Lord, Dr. Percival.

L?ss, brownish-yellow loam.

Loups cerviers (lynx).

Low castes.

Lowatong River.

Loyang, Bridge of.





Lucky and unlucky hours and days.

Luddur Deo.

Luh-ho-ta Pagoda, Hang-chau.

Lukon-Kiao (Hun-ho, Pulisanghin River).

Lukyn Port.


Lúristan (Lor, Lur),

kingdom of Persia;

Great and Little;

character of Lurs or people of.

Lusignan, John de.

Lút, Desert of (Dasht-i-Lut).

Lu-tzu tribe.

Lynxes, trained to hunt,

in Cuncun.

Ma Twan-lin, the Chinese Pliny. Maaden, turquoise mines at. Maatum, or Nubia. Ma'bar (Maabar, i.e. Coromandel coast), province of India; its brother kings; pearl fishery; etymology; limits; obscurity of history; port visited by Polo; nakedness of people, king, his jewels; his wives, "Trusty Lieges," treasure; horses imported; superstitious customs; ox-worship; Govis, Ib.; no horses bred; other customs; mode of arrest for debt; great heat; regard for omens; astrology, treatment of boys; birds, girls consecrated to idols; customs in sleeping; ships at Madagascar. Macartney's Map. Macgregor, Sir C, "Journey through Khorasan". Máchin, city of (Canton). Máchin, Maháchin (Great China), used by Persian writers as synonymous with Manzi. Maclagan, Major-General (R.E.). Madagascar (Madeigascar), confused with Magadoxo; etymology; traces of ancient Arab colonisation. Mádái, Madavi, Maudoy. Madjgars. Madar-Des, Eastern Pánjáb. Madras. Madura. Maestro, or Great Bear, said to be invisible in Sumatra. Magadha. Magadoxo, confused with Madagascar. Magapatana, near Ceylon. Magi, the three, legend as told by Mas'udi; source of fancies about; names assigned to. Magic, of Udyana, Lamaitic, (See also Sorcerers.). Magical darkness (dry fog and dust storms). Magnet, Mount. Magyars. Mahar Amlàk, king of Abyssinia. Mahavan. Mahmúd Kalháti, prince of Hormuz. Mahmúd of Ghazni. Mahmudiah Canal. Mahomed (Mahommet), his account of Gog and Magog; his Paradise; his alleged prophecy of the Mongols; his use of mangonels. Mahomed, supposed worship of idols of. -- II., uses the old engines of war. -- Tarahi. -- Tughlak of Delhi, his copper token currency. -- Shah of Malacca. Mahomedan revolts in China. -- conversion of Malacca. -- conversion of states in Sumatra. -- butchers in Kashmir. -- butchers in Maabar. -- king of Kayal. -- merchants at Kayal. -- settlements on Abyssinian coast. Mahomedans (Saracens), in Turcomania; in and near Mausul; their universal hatred of Christians; in Tauris; in Persia; their hypocrisy about wine; at Yezd; Hormuz; Cobinan; Tonocain; Sapurgan; Taican; Badakhshan, Wakhan, etc.; Kashgar; strife with Christians in Samarkand; Yarkand; Khotan; Pein; Charchan; Lop; Tangut; Chingintalas; Kanchau; Sinju; Egrigaia; Tenduc, their half-breed progeny; in northern frontier of China, alleged origin of: their gibes at Christians; Kúblái's dislike of; in Yun-nan; in Champa; in Sumatra; troops in Ceylon; pilgrims to Adam's Peak; honour St. Thomas; in Kesmacoran; in Madagascar; in Abyssinia; in Aden; outrage by; at Esher; Dufar; Calatu; Hormuz; Ahmad Sultan one. Mailapúr (Shrine of St. Thomas). Maiman. Maistrè, the word. Maitreya Buddha. Majapahit, empire of (Java). Majar (Menjar). Major, R.H., on Australia. Makdashan, see Magadoxo. Malabar, Melibar, Malibar, Manibar, fleets; products; imports, Chinese ships in. Malacca, foundation of; chronology. Malacca, Straits of. Malaiur, island and city. Mal-Amir, or Aidhej. Malasgird. Malay Peninsula, invasion of Ceylon; chronicle; language; origin of many geographical names. Malayo, or Tana Malayu. Malcolm, Sir John. Maldive Islands. Malé in Burma. Male and Female Islands, legend widely diffused. Malifattan. Malik al Dháhir, king of Samudra. -- al Mansúr. -- al Sálih, king of Samudra. -- Kafur. Malli, the. Malpiero, Gasparo. Malte-Brun. Malwa. Mamaseni. Mamre, tree of. Mán, barbarians. Man, Col. Henry. Manchu dynasty. Mancopa. Mandalé in Burma. Mandarin language. Mangalai, third son of Kúblái, his palace. Mangalore. Mangla and Nebila Islands. Mangonels made by Polos for attack of Saianfu, etymology; account of; a barbarous lubricant for. Mangu (Mangkú, Mongu) Khan, Kúblái's elder brother; his death; reign; massacre at his funeral. Mangu-Temur (Mungultemur). Manjáník (Manjaniki). -- Kumghá. Manjanikis (Mangonellas). (See Mangonels.). Manji, see Manzi. Manjushri, Bodhisatva. Manphul, Pandit. Mansur Shah. Mantzé, Man-tzu, Mantszi, Aborigines. Manuel, Comnenus, Emperor. Manufactures, Kúblái's. Manuscripts of Polo's Book. Manzi (Facfur), king of, his flight; his charity; his effeminacy; his death; his palace at Kinsay. (See Faghfur.) -- (Mangi) province, White City of the Frontier; entrance to; conquest of; character of the people; its nine kingdoms, 1200 cities and squares; its bamboos; no sheep in; dialects; called Chin; ships and merchants in India, -- queen of, surrenders; her report of Kinsay. Map, constructed on Polo's data, Hereford; Roger Bacon's; Marino Sanudo's; Medicean; Catalan; Fra Mauro's; Ruysch's; Mercator's; Sanson's. Mapillas, or Moplahs. Maps, allusions to, in Polo's book, early mediaeval; of the Arabs; in the palace at Venice. Marabia, Maravia, Maravi. Marah Silu. Maramangalam, site of Kolkhoi. Marash. Maratha. Mardin (Merdin). Mare's milk, see Kumiz. Margaritone. Marignolli, John. Market days. Markets in Kinsay. -- Squares in Kinsay. Marks of Silver. Marriage customs in Khotan. -- customs in Kanchau. -- customs of the Tartars. -- (posthumous) amongst Tartars. -- laxities of different peoples. -- laxities in Thibet. Mar Sarghis. Marsden's edition of Polo. Martin, Dr. Ernest, of French Legation at Pekin. Martini, his Atlas Sinensis; his account of Kinsay. Martyrs, Franciscan. Masálak-al-Absár. Mashhad (Meshed), or Varsach River. Mashiz. Maskat. Mastiff Dogs, Keepers of the. Mastiffs of Tibet, see Dogs. Mastodon, bogged. Mas'ud II., Ghiath ed-din-Seljuk dynasty. Mas'udi. Masulipatam. Matchlocks, manufacture at Kerman, at Taianfu. Ma-t'eu (Matu). Mati Dhivaja, see Bashpah Lama. Matitánana. Matityna (Martinique). M?tzner, Eduard. Maundevile, Sir John (John a Beard), on lying in water; Cloths of Tartary; Trees of the Sun; Dry Tree; his Book of Travels; English version; his tomb. Maung Maorong, or Pong, Shan kingdom. Mauro, Fra, his map. Mausul (Mosul), kingdom of. Mauvenu (Malvennez), the phrase. Mayers, W.F. Mayhew, A.L., on Couvade. Mazandéran, province. Mecchino, Ginger. Medressehs at Sivas. Mekhitar. Mekong River (Lan-tsang kiang). Mekrán, often reckoned part of India. Mekránis. Melchior, one of the Magi. Melibar, see Malabar. Melic, the title. Melons, dried, of Shibrgán. Menangkabau. Mendoza. Menezes, Duarte. Mengki, envoy to Java. Menjar (Májar?). Menuvair and Grosvair. Merghuz Boirúk Khan. Merkit (Mecrit, Mescript), a Tartar tribe. Meshid (more correctly Mashhad). Messengers, Royal Mongol. Mexico. Meyer, Paul, Alexandre le Grand. Miafarakain. Miau-tzu. Mien, Amien, Ava (Burma), king of, his battle with Tartars; City of; its gold and silver towers; how it was conquered; communications and war with Mongols; Chinese notices. Mikado. Military engines of the Middle Ages, dissertation on; two classes; Trébuchets; Balista; shot used, carrion, live men, bags of gold; Mangonel; Napoleon's experiments with heavy shot; size and accuracy; length of range (Sanudo on); effect of Mangonel on Saracens; procured by Kúblái for siege of Siang-yang; Chinese and Persian histories on; known to Mongols and Chinese; the Karabugha, or Calabra; the P'ao. Milk, portable, or curd. Milk, rite of sprinkling Mare's. Million, use of the numeral. Millione, Millioni, nickname for Polo and his book. Millioni, Corte del. Milne. Minao district. Mines and Minerals, see Iron, Silver, etc. Minever, see Menuvair. Ming, the Chinese dynasty which ousted the Mongols, A.D. 1368, their changes in Peking; their paper-money; their effeminate customs; expeditions to India; annals. Mingan, Khan's Master of Hounds. Ming-ti, Emperor. Minján, dialect of. Minotto, Professor A.S. Min River (in Fokien). -- River (in Szech'wan). Mint, the Khan's. Mintsing-hien. Mious River. Miracle Stories, fish in Lent; Mountain moved; St. Barsamo's girdles; Holy Fire; Stone at Samarkand; at St. Thomas' Shrine.


Mire French for leech.



Miskál, a weight. (See also Saggio.).

Misri, sugar-candy.

Missionary Friars, powers conferred on,

in China in 14th century.

-- Martyrs.

Moa of New Zealand.

Modhafferians, the.

Modun Khotan ("Wood-ville").


Mohammed, son of Yusuf Kelefi, founder of Shíráz.



Mokli, the Jelair.


Molebar, see Malabar.


Molière, Pastorale Comique.




Monasteries of Idolaters (Buddhists).

Money, paper.

-- values.

Mongol conquests,

capture Soldaia;


treachery and cruelty;

their inroads;

Bakh city;

invade Balakhshán;

invasion of Poland and Silesia.

Mongon Khan, see Mangu.

Mongotay (Mangkutai), a Mongol officer.


passed off as pygmies.

Monks, idolatrous. (See Monasteries.).

Monnier, Marcel, his visit to Karakorum,

on the Ch'êng-tu Suspension Bridge.

Monoceros and Maiden, legend of.



Montecorvino, John, Archbishop of Cambaluc.

Monte d'Ely.

Montgomerie, Major T.G. (R.E.) (Indian Survey),

on fire at great altitudes;

position of Kashgar and Yarkund.

Monument at Si-ngan fu, Christian.

Moon, Mountains of the.

Moore, Light of the Harem.

Moplas, see Mapillas.

Morgan, E. Delmar.

Mortagne, siege of.

Morus alba, silk-worm tree.

Moscow, Tartar Massacre at.

Mosolin, or Muslin (Mosolini), Mo-sze, Arab Mau?ili.

Mossos, a tribe.

Mosta'sim Billah, last Abbaside Khalif of Baghdad,

story of his avarice and death.


Mosul (Mausul).

Motapallé, see Mutfili.

Motawakkil, Khalif.

Moule, Bishop G.E.

Mount, Green, in Palace grounds at Peking.

-- St Thomas.

-- D'Ely, see Monte d'Ely.

Mountain, Old Man of the, see Old Man of the.

-- Miracle of the.

-- Road in Shensi, extraordinary.

Mourning customs,

at Hormuz;

in Tangut;

at Kinsay.

Mozambique Channel.

Muang, term applied in Shan countries (Laos and W. Yunnan) to fortified.

towns, as:-


Muang, or Maung Maorong;

Muang Shung;

Muang Yong.

Muláhidah (Mulehet, Alamút, Chinese Mulahi), epithet of Ismaelites.

Mulberry Trees.


Müller, F.W.K.

Müller, Professor Max,

on Couvade;

on stories of Buddha and St. Josafat.


Múnál pheasant (Lopophorus impeyanus), described by Aelian.

Mung (Nicaea).

Mungasht, hill fort, stronghold of the Atabegs.

Mungul, name applied to Tartars. (See Mongol.).

Mungul-Temur and Mongo-Temur, see Mangu-Temur.

Murad Beg, of Kunduz.

Murghab River.

Murray, Dr. J.A.H., on Couvade.

-- Hugh.

Murus Ussu (Brius, Upper Kiang).

Mus, Merdin (Mush, Mardin).

Musa'úd, Prince of Hormuz.

Musk, animal (Moschus).

-- earliest mention of and use in medicine.

Muslin, see Mosolin.

Mutfili (Motapallé for Telingana),

its diamonds;





Mystic number, see Numbers.

Nac, Nasich, Naques (Nakh), a kind of brocade.

Nachetti, silk stuff interwoven with gold.

Nakhut, gold brocade.

Nakkára (Naccara, Nacaires), the great kettledrum signalling action.



Nan-Chao, formerly Ai-Lao, Shan dynasty in Yun-nan.


Nanghin (Ngan-king).

Nangiass, Mongol name of Manzi.

Nankau, archway in Pass of, with polyglot inscription.

Nanking, not named by Polo.




Naphtha in the Caucasian country.

-- Fire used in war by the Karaunahs.

Napier, Sir C.

Napoleon III.,

his researches and experiments on mediaeval engines of war.


Narin-Kaleh, fortress.

Narkandam, volcanic island.

Narsinga, King of.

Narwhal tusk, mediaeval Unicorn's Horn.

Nasich, see Nac.

Nasruddin (Nescradin), officer in the Mongol Service.

Nassir-uddin, Mahmud, Sultan of Delhi.

Natigay, Tartar idol.

Nava-Khanda, or Nine Divisions of Ancient India.

Navapa (Lop?).

Naversa (ancient Anazarbus), in Cilicia, under Taurus.

Nayan, Kúblái's kinsman, his revolt,

Kúblái marches against;

routed in battle;

put to death by Kúblái.

earchus at Hormuz.

Nebila and Mangla islands.


Necklaces, precious.

Necuveran, see Nicobar.

Negapatam, Chinese Pagoda at.

Negroes described.



Nemej, Niemicz ("Dumb"), applied to Germans by Slavs.

Nerghi, Plain of.

Neri (pigs).

Nescradin, see Nasruddin.

Nesnás (a goblin).

Nestorian Christians, at Mosul,









Kampichu, Kan-chau;

their diffusion in Asia;

among the Mongols;

Erguiul and Sinju;




Yachi, or Yun-nan fu;



one in Polo's suite;

churches at Chinghianfu;

church at Kinsay;

at St. Thomas;

Patriarch of;


Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople.

Nevergún Pass.

New Year Festival at Kúblái's Court.

Neza Tash Pass.

Ngan-king (Nanghin).

Ngan-ning-ho River.

Ngantung, Mongol general.

Ngo-ning, or Ho-nhi.

Nia (ancient Ni-jang), in Khotan.

Nias Island.

Nibong Palm.

Nicaea of Alexander.

Nicholson, Edward B.

Nicobar (Necuveran) Islands,

etymology and people.

Nicolas of Pistoia.

Nicolas, Christian name of Ahmad Sultan.

-- Friar, of Vicenza.

Nicolas IV., Pope.


Nigudar (Nogodar), Mongol princes.

Nigudarian bands.

Nilawár (Nellore).

Nile, sources of.


Nímchah Musulmán, "Half-and-Halfs".

Nine, auspicious number among Tartars.

Nine Provinces (India),


Ning-hsia, or hia (Egrigaia).


Ning-yuan fu.

Niriz, steel mines of.

Nirvana, figures of Buddha in.


Niuché (Yuché), Chinese name for the Churchés or race of Kin Empire.

Noah's Ark in Armenia.

Nobles of Venice,

Polo's claim to be one.

Nochdarizari, mountains north of Kabul.

Nogai Khan,

his intrigues and wars;

his history;

wars with Toctai.

Nogodar (Nigudar), King of the Caraonas, story of.

Nomad tribes of Persia.

Nomogan (Numughan), Kúblái's son.

None, Nono, Nuna, title given to younger brothers or subordinate


North, regions of the Far.

North Star, see Pole-Star.

Note Book, Polo's.


Nubia, St. Thomas,

alleged use of elephants in.

Nukdaris, tribe west of Kabul.

Nuksán Pass.

Numbers, mystic or auspicious,


one hundred and eight.

Nuna, see None.



Nyuché, or Churché, race of Kin Emperors, see Niuché.

Oak of Hebron, see Terebinth. Oaracta (Kishm, or Brakht). Obedience of Ismaelites, extraordinary. Obi River. Observatory at Peking. Ocean Sea, other seas, parts of. Ocoloro Island. Odoric, Friar, on Kinsay; on Fu-chau; Zayton; Java; Champa; Sumatra; on sago tree; on products of Ceylon; St. Thomas's; Pepper Forest; brazil-wood; Thána. Oger, the Dane. Ogotai Khan, see Okkodai. Oil from the Holy Sepulchre, fountain of (Naphtha) at Baku; whale. -- head (Capidoglio, or Sperm whale). -- walnut and Sesamé. Oirad, or Uirad (Horiad), a great Tartar tribe. Okkodai Khan, third son of Chinghiz. Olak, Illuk, Aulak, see Lac. Old Man of the Mountain (Aloadin), his envoys to St. Lewis; account of; how he trained his Assassins; the Syrian; his subordinate chiefs; his end; modern representative. Olja?tu Khan, his correspondence with European princes, his tomb. Oman. Omens, much regarded in Maabar, by the Brahmans. Onan Kerule, near Baikal. Ondanique (fine kind of steel), Andaine, Andanicum, Hundwáníy, in Kerman; Chingintalas. Oppert, Dr. Gustavus, Book on Prester John, Der Presbyter Johannes in Sage und Geschichte. Orang Gugu. Orang Malayu River. Or Batuz. Orbelian, John, identified by Bruun with Prester John. Ordos, the Mongols of. Organa (Jerún), Persian Gerún. Oriental phrases in Polo's dictation. Orissa. Orkhon River. Orleans, defence of. -- Isle d'. Orloks, or Marshals of the Mongol Host. Oroech. Oron, Mongol for a region or realm. Orphani, strange customs of the. Osci, the word. Ostriches. Ostyaks. Otto, Bishop of Freisingen. Oulatay (Uladai), Tartar envoy from Persia. Ovis Poli, see Sheep. Oweke, see Ucaca. Owen, Professor. Owen, Rev. Gray, on the Lolos. Owo, Mongol for Musk. Oxen, humped, in Kerman, wild, shaggy (Yaks). -- wild (Beyamini), in East Tibet; Burma; in Bengal; Anin; worshipped; figures of, worn. Oxenham, Atlas. Oxydracae, the. Oxyrhynchus. Oxus Valley and River. Ozene.

Pacamuria (Baccanor). Pacauta! (an invocation). Pacem, see Pasei. Paddle-wheel barges. Paderin, Mr., visits Karákorum. Pádishah Khátún of Kerman. Padma Sambhava. Pagán (in Burma), ruins at; empire of. -- Old (Tagaung). Pagaroyang, inscriptions from. Paggi Islands. Pagodas, Burmese, alleged Chinese in India. Pahang. Pa?, or Peyih tribe. Paipurth (Baiburt). Pai-yen-ching. Paizah, or Golden Tablet of Honour. -- and Yarligh. Pakwiha, China ware. Pala, a bird. Palace of Khan at Chagannor, at Chandu (Shangtu); of cane; at Langtin; Cambaluc; on Green Mount; at Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu); of the Empire of Manzi at Kinsay; in Chipangu, paved and roofed with gold. Palembang. Paliolle, Or de, for gold dust. Palladius, the Archimandrite. Palm (Measure). Palm Wine, see Wine of Palm. Pamier (Pamir), Plain of, its wild sheep; great height; pasture, etc.; described by Hiuen Tsang, Wood, Go?s, Abdul Mejid, Colonel Gordon and others; Dr. M.A. Stein on; Lord Curzon on number of. Pan-Asiatic usages. Pandarani, or Fandaraina. Pandit Manphul. Pandrethan in Kashmir, Buddhist temple at. Pandyan kings. Panja River, or Upper Oxus. Panjáb. Panjkora. Panjshir. Pantaleon, coins of. Panthé, or Mahomedan Kingdom in Yun-nan. Panya (or Pengya), in Burma. Pao-ki h'ien. Paonano Pao. Papé, Papesifu. Paper-money (Chao), Kúblái's made from bark, modern. (See also Currency.). Papien River. Paquier, Professor. Paradise, Apples of. -- in legend of the Cross. -- of Persia. -- of the Old Man of the Mountain, destroyed. -- Rivers of. Parákráma Bahu I. Paramisura, founder of Malacca. Parapomisadae. Parasol. Paravas. Parez, Pariz, turquoise mines of. -- falcons of. Pariahs (Paraiyar), etymology of. Parker, E.H. Parlák, or Perlak, see Ferlec. -- Tanjong. Parliament, Tartar. Parpa iron mines. Parrot, Professor, first to ascend Mount Ararat. Parrots. Partridges, black; Jiruftì; great (Chakors); in mew. (See also Francolin.). Parwana, a traitor eaten by the Tartars. Paryán silver mines. Pascal of Vittoria, Friar. Pasei, Pacem (Basma), a kingdom of Sumatra. -- Bay of. -- History of. Pasha-Afroz. Pasha and Pashagar tribes. Pashai, what region intended. -- Dir. Passo (or Pace), Venetian. Patarins, heretics. Patera, debased Greek, from Badakhshán. Patlam. Patra, or Alms-dish of Buddha, miraculous properties; Holy Grail of Buddhism. Patriarchs of Eastern Christians. (See also Catholicos and Nestorian.). Patteik-Kará. Patterns, beast and bird, on silk, etc. Patu, see Batu. Paukin (Pao-ying). Pauthier, G., remarks on text of Polo. Paved roads in China. -- streets of Kinsay. Payan, see Bayan. Payangadi. Pa-yi writing, specimen of. Peaches, yellow and white (apricots). Peacocks at St. Thomas's, special kind in Coilum. Pearls, in Caindu; rose-coloured in Chipangu; fishery of; pearls and precious stones of kingdom of Maabar. Pears, enormous. Pedir. Pedro, Prince of Portugal. Pegu and Bengal confounded. Pei-chau (Piju). Pein (Pim), province, site of. Peking, white pagoda at. (See Cambaluc.). Pelly, Col. Sir Lewis, British Resident at Bushire. Pema-ching. Pemberton, Captain R. Pentam (Bintang). Pepper, daily consumption of, at Kinsay, change in Chinese use of; great importation at Zayton, duty on; white and black; in Coilum; Eli and Cananore; Melibar; Guzerat; trade in, to Alexandria. Pepper Country. Peregrine falcons. Perla (Ferlec). Persia, extent of name to Bokhara, spoken of; three Magi of; its eight kingdoms. Persia and India, boundary of. Persian applied to language of foreigners at Mongol Court. Persian Gulf (Sea of India?). Pesháwar. Peter, Tartar slave of Marco Polo's. Pharaoh's rats (Gerboa). Phayre, Major-General Sir Arthur. Pheasants, large and long tailed, Reeves's. Pheng (the Rukh). Philip the Fair. Philip III. and IV. of France. Philippine Islands. Phillips, G. Phipps, Captain. Phra Rama, Siamese kings so-called. Phungan, Phungan-lu (Fungul?). Physician, a virtuous. Physicians. Pianfu (P'ing-yang fu). Piccoli. Pichalok. Pievtsov, General, expedition. Pigeon posts. Pig-shells. Piju (Pei-chau). Pilgrimage, to Adam's Sepulchre in Ceylon, to Shrine of St. Thomas. "Pillar Road". Pima (Pim). Pinati, king of Kaulam. Pine woods in Mongolian desert. -- in South China. P'ing-chang, Fanchán, or second class Minister. P'ing-yang fu (Pianfu). Pinna-Cael (Punnei-Káyal). Pipino, Friar Francesco. Pirabandi or Bir Pandi (Vira Pandi). Pirada. Pirates of Malabar, Guzerat; Tana; Somnath; Socotra. Piratical customs at Eli. Pistachioes. Plane, Oriental or Chinár. Plano Carpini. Pog, or Fiag River. Poison, antidote to. Poisoning guests, custom of. Poisonous pasturage. Poison wind. Poland, Mongol invasion of. Pole, or Jackdaw on Polo's scutcheon. Pole-star, invisible in Java the Less, visible again in India. Police, of Cambaluc; Kinsay. Politeness of Chinese. Polo, Andrea, grandfather of Marco. -- Antonio, illegitimate son of Elder Marco. -- Bellela, second daughter, died before 1333. -- Donata, wife of Traveller, sale of property to her husband; death between 1333-1336; before Council; may have been Loredano. -- or Bragadino, Fantina, eldest daughter of Traveller. -- Felice, a cousin. -- Fiordelisa, wife of last. Polo, Fiordelisa, daughter of Maffeo the Younger. -- Maffeo, brother of Nicolo, in Kan-chau; time of death between 1309 and 1318. -- Maffeo, brother of Traveller, probabilities as to birth; will of; abstract from. -- Marco, the elder son of Andrea, Uncle of the Traveller, his will. -- Marco, the Traveller, veracity; perplexities in his biography; Ramusio's notices, extracts from; recognition of his names of places, paralleled with Columbus; nicknamed Millioni; story of his capture at Curzola; writes his book in prison at Genoa; release and marriage; arms; claim to nobility; supposed autograph; his birth, circumstances of; is taken to East; employed by Kúblái, mentioned in Chinese Records; mission to Yun-nan; governor of Yang-chau; employed at Kan-chau, Kara Korum, Champa and Indian Seas; returns home; mentioned in his Uncle Marco's will; commands a galley at Curzola; taken prisoner and carried to Genoa; his imprisonment there; dictates his book to Rusticiano; release and return to Venice; evidence as to story of capture; dying vindication of his book; executor to his brother Maffeo; record of exemption from municipal penalty; gives copy of book to T. de Cepoy; marriage and daughters; lawsuit with Paulo Girardo, proceeding regarding house property; illness and last will; probable date of death; place of burial; professed portraits of; alleged wealth; estimate of him and of his book; true claims to glory; faint indications of personality; rare indications of humour; absence of scientific notions; geographical data in book; his acquisition of languages, ignorance of Chinese, deficiencies in Chinese notices; historical notices; allusions to Alexander; incredulity about his stories; contemporary recognition; by T. de Cepoy, Friar Pipino; J. d'Acqui, Giov. Villani, and P. d'Abano; notice by John of Ypres; borrowings in poem of Bauduin de Sebourc; Chaucer and; influence on geography, obstacles to its effect; character of mediaeval cosmography; Roger Bacon as geographer; Arab maps; Marino Sanudo's map; Medicean; Carta Catalana largely based on Polo's book; increased appreciation of Polo's book; confusions of nomenclature; introduction of block-printing into Europe and Polo; dictates his narrative; found at Venice; his age; noticed and employed by Kúblái; grows in favour, many missions; returns from one to India; escapes from the Karaunas; hears of breed of Bucephalus; recovers from illness in hill climate; hears from Zulficar about Salamander; at Kan-chau; brings home hair of yak; and head and feet of musk deer; witnesses events connected with Ahmad's death; noticed in Chinese annals; whether he had to do with Persian scheme of paper currency in; sent by Khan into Western provinces; governor of Yang-chau; probable extent of his authority; aids in constructing engines for siege of Siang-yang; difficulties as to this statement; on number of vessels on Great Kiang; ignorant of Chinese; on greatness of Kinsay; his notes; sent to inspect amount of revenue from Kinsay; his great experience; never in islands of Sea of Chin; in kingdom of Chamba; historical anecdotes; detained five months in Sumatra, stockade party against wild people; brings Brazil seed to Venice; partakes of tree-flour (sago); takes some to Venice; in six kingdoms of Sumatra; witnesses arrest for debt in Maabar; his erroneous view of Arabian coast; Indian geography; his unequalled travels; Venetian documents about him. -- Marco, called Marcolino, son of Nicolo the Younger. -- Marco, last male survivor. -- Marco, others of this name. -- Maroca, sister of Nicolo the Younger. -- or Delfino, Moreta, youngest daughter. Polo, Nicolo and Maffeo, sons of Andrea, their first journey; cross Black Sea to Soldaia; visit Volga country, etc.; go to Bokhara; join envoys to Khan's Court; Kúblái's reception of; sent back as envoys to Pope; receive a Golden Tablet; reach Ayas; Acre; Venice; find young Marco there -- Nicolo, Maffeo and Marco, proceed to Acre; set out for East, recalled from Ayas; set out again with Pope's letters, etc.; reach Kúblái's Court; are welcomed; see on their journey outward; their alleged service in capture of Siang-yang; Khan refuses them permission to return home; allowed to go with ambassadors; receive Golden Tablets; on return; story of their arrival at Venice; scheme to assert their identity. -- Nicolo, his alleged second marriage and sons; probable truth as to time of; his illegitimate sons; approximate time of his death; his tomb. -- Nicolo the Younger, cousin of traveller. -- Stefano and Giovannino, illegitimate brothers of Traveller. -- (?), or Trevisano (?), Fiordelisa, perhaps second wife of Nicolo Polo the Elder, and mother of Maffeo the Younger. -- or Trevisano, Maria, last survivor of the family, doubts as to her kindred. -- Family, its duration and end, according to Ramusio, origin; last notices of. (For relationship of different Polos, see table). -- Family, branch of S. Geremia. Po-lut (Pa-lut), incense. Polygamy, supposed effect on population. Pomilo (Pamir). Pompholyx. Ponent, or West, term applied by Polo to Kipchak, the Mongol Khanate of the Volga, see Kipchak. Pong (Mediaeval Shan State). Poods, Russian. Popinjays. Population, vast, of Cathay. Porcelain manufacture, fragments found at Kayál; Chinese. -- shells, see Cowries. Porcupines. Pork, mention of, omitted. Postín, sheep-skin coat. Posts, post-houses and runners, in Siberia. Po-sz' (Persia). Potala at L'hasa. Pottinger. Poultry, kind of, in Coilum, in Abyssinia (guinea-fowl?). Pound, sterling. Pourpre, or Purpura. P'o-yang Lake. Pozdneiev, Professor. Precious stones or gems, how discovered by pirates. Prester John (Unc Can, Aung or Ung Khan), Tartar tribute to; account of; marriage relations with Chinghiz; insults Chinghiz' envoys; "these be no soldiers"; marches to meet Chinghiz; real site of battle with Chinghiz; his real fate; slain in battle; his lineage in Tenduc; and the Golden King. Prices of horses, see Horses. Printing, imaginary connection of Polo's name with introduction of. Private names supposed. Prjevalsky, Colonel N.M. Probation of Jogis, parallel. Prophecy regarding Bayan. Proques, the word. Prostitutes; at Cambaluc, Kinsay. Provinces, thirty-four of Kúblái's Empire. Pseudo-Callisthenes. Ptolemies' trained African elephants. Ptolemy, Sarmatic Gates. P'u-chau fu. Pu-ch'eng. Puer and Esmok. Pukan Mien-Wang. Pulad Chingsang. Pulisanghin, River and Bridge. Pulo Bras. Pulo Condore (Sondur and Condur). Pulo Gommes (Gauenispola). Pulo Nankai, or Nási. Pulo Wé, Wai, or Wey. Punnei-Káyal. Puránas, the. Purpura, see Pourpre. Putchok. Putu-ho, "Grape R.". Pygmies, factitious (?).

Qal'ah Asgher, hot springs at.

Qara Ars-lán Beg, king of Kermán.

Quails in India.

Queen of Mutfili.

Quicksilver and sulphur potion.

-- as regarded by alchemists.

Quills of the Ruc, see Ruc.

Quilon, Kaulam, etc., see Coilum.

Qumadin (Camadi)

Rabelais. Rabbanta, a Nestorian monk. Radloff, Dr. W., map. Ráin. Rainald, of Dassel, Archbishop. Rain-makers, see Conjurers. Rainy season. Rajkot leather-work. Rakka, Rákshasas. Rama Kamheng, king. Rameshwaram. Ramnad. Rampart of Gog and Magog. Ramusio, Giov. Battista, passim, his biographical notices of Polo; his edition of Polo. Ráná Paramitá's Woman Country. Ranking, John. Raonano-Rao. Rapson, E.J. Ras Haili. -- Kumhari. Rashíduddín, alias Fazl-ulla Rashid, Persian statesman and historian of the Mongols, frequently quoted in the Notes. Ravenala tree (Urania speciosa). Raw meat eaten. Rawlinson, Sir H. Reclus, Asie russe, on Caspian Sea fisheries. Red gold and red Tangas. Re Dor. Red Sea, trade from India to Egypt by, described in some texts as a river; possible origin of mistake. Red sect of Lamas. Refraction, abnormal. Reg Ruwán, of Kabul. -- of Seistán. Reindeer ridden. Religion, indifference of Chinghizide Princes to, occasional power of among Chinese. Remission of taxation by Kúblái Rennell, Major James. Reobarles (Rúdbár, etc.). Revenue of Kinsay. Rhinoceros (Unicorn), in Sumatra, habits; four Asiatic species. -- Tichorinus. Rhins, Dutreuil de. Rhubarb, Rheum palmatum. Riant, Comte. Ricci, Matteo. Rice. Rice-wine, at Yachi. -- trade on Grand Canal. Richard II. Richthofen, Baron F. von, on Fungul; on Tanpiju. Right and Left, ministers of the. Rio Marabia. Rishis (Eremites) of Kashmir. "River of China". Roads radiating from Cambaluc. Robbers in Persia. Robbers' River. Robes distributed by Kúblái. Roborovsky, Lieutenant. Rochefort, "faire la couvade". Rockets. Rockhill (Rubruck and Diary of a Journey), on the titles Khan, Khatun, etc.; on horn horse-shoes; earliest mention of name Mongol in Oriental works; Mongol storm-dispellers; charge of cannibalism against Tibetans; on Bonbo Lamas; Tablets (hu); mechanical contrivances at E. Court; Mongol etiquette; Chinese leather-money; Mongol post-stations; pocket-spittoons; from Peking to Si-ngan fu; descent of Yellow River; road between T'ung-kwan and Si-ngan fu; two famous Uigur Nestorians; on the word Salar; on the Hui-hui sects; on the Alan; on branch of Volga Bulgars. Rofia palm (sagus ruffia). Roiaus dereusse (?). Rome, the Sudarium at. Rondes, ingenious but futile explanation of. Rook, in Chess. Rori-Bakkar, Sepoy name for Upper Sind. Rosaries, Hindu. Rostof and Susdal, Andrew, Grand Duke of. Roth, H. Ling, on couvade. Rouble. Roxana, daughter of Darius, wife of Alexander. Roze de l'A?ur. Rubies, Balas, of Ceylon; of Adam's Peak. Rubruquis, or Rubruc, Friar William de. Ruby mines in Badakhshan. Ruc (Rukh), or Gryphon, bird called, described, its feathers and quills; wide diffusion and various forms of fable; eggs of the Aepyornis; Fra Mauro's story; genus of that bird, condor; discovery of bones of Harpagornis in New Zealand; Sindbad, Rabbi Benjamin, romance of Duke Ernest; Ibn Batuta's sight of Ruc; rook in chess; various notices of. Rúdbár-i-Lass, Robbers' River. -- (Reobarles), district and River. Rudder, single, noted by Polo as peculiar, double, used in Mediterranean. Rúdkhánah-i-Duzdi (Robbers' River). Rúdkhánah-i-Shor (Salt River). Rudra Deva, King of Telingana. Rudrama Devi, Queen of Telingana. Rukh, Shah. Rukhnuddin, Mahmud, Prince of Hormuz. -- Masa'úd. -- Khurshah, son of Alaodin, Prince of the Ismaelites. Rúm. Runiz. Ruomedam-Ahomet, King of Hormuz. Rupen, Bagratid, founder of Armenian State in Cilicia. Rupert, Prince. Rüppell's Table of Abyssinian kings. Russia (Rosia), annexes Georgia, great cold, Arab accounts of; silver mines; subject to Tartars; conquered by Batu. -- leather, clothes of. Russians, trusty lieges of king. Rusták. Rusticiano of Pisa, introduces himself in prologue; writes down Polo's book; extracts and character of his compilation; his real name; his other writings. Ruysch's map.


Saba (Sava, Savah), city of the Magi.

Sabaste, see Sivas.

Sable, its costliness.



Sachiu (Sha-chau).

Sacrifices of people of Tangut.

-- human.

Sadd-i-Iskandar, rampart of Alexander.

Saffron, fruit-serving purposes of.

Sagacity of sledge-dogs.

Sagamon Borcan, see Sakyamuni Buddha.

Sagatu, general of Kúblái's.

Saggio (1/6 oz.).


Saianfu, see Siang-yang-fu.

Saif Arad, king of Abyssinia.

Saifuddin Nazrat, ruler of Hormuz.

Saimur (Chaul).

Sain Khan (or Batu).

St. Anno of Cologne.

St. Barlaam and St. Josafat, story of Buddhist christianised.

St. Barsauma (Barsamo, Brassamus), and monastery of.

St. Blasius (Blaise), Church at Sivas.

St. Brandon.

St. Buddha!

St. Epiphanius.

St. George, Church of, in Sivas,

at Quilon.

St. Helena.

St. James' Shrine, Gallicia.

St. John the Baptist, Church of, in Samarkand.

-- Major Oliver.

St. Leonard's Convent in Georgia, and the fish miracle.

St. Lewis,

his campaign on the Nile.

St. Martin, Vivien de, Map.

St. Mary's Island, Madagascar.

St. Matthew, Monastery near Mosul.

St. Matthew's Gospel, story of the Magi.

St. Nina.

St. Sabba's at Acre.

St. Thomas, the Apostle,

his shrine in India;

his murderers, and their hereditary curse;

reverenced by Saracens and heathen;

miracles in India;

story of his death;

tradition of his preaching in India;

translation of remains to Edessa;

King Gondopharus of legend a real king;

Roman Martyrology;

the localities;

alleged discovery of reliques;

the Cross;

church ascribed to;

in Abyssinia.

St. Thomas's Isle.

-- Mounts.

Saker falcons.

Sakta doctrines.

Sakya Muni (Sagamon Borcan) Buddha,

death of;

recumbent figures of;

story of;

his footmark on Adam's Peak;

Alms dish, Holy Grail;

tooth relique.

Salamander, the.

Salar (Ho-chau).

Salem, dragoman, explores Rampart of Gog.

Salghur, Atabegs of Fars.

Sálih, Malik, son of Badruddin Lúlú.

Salsette Island.

Salt, H., his version of Abyssinian chronology.

-- rock,

in Badakhshan;

used for currency;

extracted from deep wells;

in Carajan province;

manufactured in Eastern China;

manufacture, revenue and traffic in;

trade on the Kiang;

junks employed therein.

-- stream.

Salwen River, or Lu-Kiang.



Samara, kingdom of, see Sumatra.

Samarkand (Samarcan),

story of a miracle at;

colony near Peking from.

Sampson, Theos., on grapes in China.

Sámsúnji Báshi.

Samudra, see Sumatra.

Samuel, his alleged tomb at Sávah.

San Giovanni Grisostomo,

parish in Venice where the Ca' Polo was;


San Lorenzo, Venice, burial place of Marco and his father.

Sandu, see Chandu.

Sanf, see Champa.

Sangín, Sangkan River.

Sanglich, dialect of.

Sang-Miau, tribe of Kwei-chau.

Sangon, the Title (Tsiang-kiun).

Sanitary effects of Mountain air.

Sanjar, sovereigns of Persia.

Sankin Hoto, Dalai.

Sanuto of Torcelli, Marino,

his World Map;

on long range.

Sappan wood, see Brazil.


Sapurgan (Sabúrkán, Shabúrkán, Shibrgán).

Saputa, S?ue, peculiar use of.

Saracanco (Saraichik), on the Yaik.

Saracens, see Mahomedans.

Sarai (Sara), capital of Kipchak,

city and its remains;

perhaps occupied successive sites.

-- Sea of (Caspian).

Sáras, crane (Grus antigone).


Sarbizan Pass.


Sárdú Pass.

Sarghalan River.

Sarha, Port of Sumatra.

Sarhadd River.

Sar-i-kol, Lakes.


Sartak, the Great Khan's ambassador to Húlakú.

Sassanian dynasty.

Sati, see Suttee.

Satin, probable origin of word.

Saum, Sommo,

silver ingots used in Kipchak;

apparently the original rouble.


Sávah (Saba).

Savast (Siwas).

Scanderoon, Gulf of.


Scherani, bandits.

Schiltberger, Hans.

Schindler, General Houtum-.

Schlegel, Dr. G.

Schmidt, Professor I.J.

Sch?nborn, Carl.

Schuyler, Eugene.

Scidmore, Miss E., on the Tide.

Scotra, see Socotra.

Sea of Chin.

-- England.

-- Ghel, or Ghelan.

-- India.

-- Rochelle.

-- Sarain.

Seal, Imperial.

Sebaste, see Sivas.

Sebourc, Bauduin de, see Bauduin de Sebourc.

Sees of Latin Church.

-- Nestorian Church.

Sefavíehs, the.

Seilan, see Ceylon.


Selitrennoyé Gorodok (Saltpetre Town).

Seljukian dynasty.

-- Turks.

Selles, chevaux à deux, the phrase.

Semal tree.


Semenat, see Somnath.

Sempad, Prince, High Constable of Armenia.

Sendal, a silk texture.

Sendaus, generally Taffetas.

Sendemain, king of Seilan.

Seneca, Epistles.

Senecherim, king of Armenia.

Seni, Verzino.


Sensin, ascetics, devotees living on bran.


Sepulchre of Adam, see Adam's Sepulchre.

-- of our Lord,

oil from.

Serano, Juan de.

Serazi (Shíráz), kingdom of Persia.


Seres, Sinae,

their tree wool;

ancient character of the.

Serpents, great, i.e. alligators.



Sesnes, mediaeval form of cygnet, cigne.

Seta Ghella, seta Leggi (Ghellé), silk.

Seth's mission to Paradise.

Sevan Lake.

Seven Arts, the.

Severtsoff, shoots the Ovis Poli,

on the name Bolor.

Seyyed Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar.

Shabankara, or Shawankára (Soncara).

Shabar, son of Kaidu.

Sha-chau (Sachin), "Sand-district".

Shadow, augury from length of

Shah Abbas,

his Court.

-- Jahan.

Shahr-i-Babek, turquoise mine at.

Shahr-i-Nao (Siam).

Shahr Mandi, or Pandi.

Shah Werdy, last of the Kurshid dynasty.

Shaibani Khan.


Shaikhs (Esheks), in Madagascar.

Shakespeare, on relation of gold to silver.


Shamanism. (See also Devil-Dancing.).

Shampath, ancestor of Georgian kings.

Shamsuddin Shamatrani.

Shamuthera, see Sumatra.

Shan (Laotian, or Thai).

-- race and country.

-- dynasty in Yun-nan.

-- ponies.

-- state of Pong, see Pong.

Shanars of Tinnevelly,

their devil-worship.



Shangtu, Shangdu (Chandu),

Kúblái's City and Summer Palace;

Dr. Bushell's description of;

Kúblái's annual visit to.

Shangtu Keibung.


Shankárah, Shabankára (Soncara).



silk in;

pears from.


Shao-ling, pariah caste of.


Shara-ul-buks (Forest of box on the Black Sea).

Sharks and shark charmers.

Shauls, or Shúls, the.

Shawánkára (Soncara).

Shaw, R.B.

Shawls of Kerman.

Sheep, fat-tailed in Kerman.

-- four-horned at Shehr.

-- large Indian.

-- none in Manzi.

-- of Pamir (Ovis Poli).

-- wild, of Badakhshan (Kachkar, Ovis Vignei).

-- with trucks behind.

-- Zanghibar.

Sheep's head given to horses.

Shehr, or Shihr, see Esher.

Shehrizor (Kerkuk).



Shentseu tribe.


Shewá, cool plateau of.

Shibrgán (Sapurgan).

Shieng, Sheng, or Sing, the Supreme Board of Administration.

Shien-sien, Shin-sien.

Shighnan (Syghinan), ruby mines.

Shijarat Malayu, or Malay Chronicle.

Shikárgáh, applied to animal pattern textures, Benares brocades.

Shing-king, or Mukden.

Ships, of the Great Khan,

of India at Fuju;

of Manzi described;

mediaeval, accounts of;

in Japan;

in Java Seas;

at Eli.

Shíráz (Cerazi).




Shi-tsung, Emperor.


Shob'aengs of Nicobar.

Shodja ed-din Kurshid, Kurd.

Shor-Rud (Salt River).

Shot of Military Engines.


Shúlistán (Suolstan).

Shúls of Shauls, people of Persia.

Shut up nations, legend of the.

Shwéli River.


king of.

Siang-yang-fu (Saianfu),

Kúblái's siege of;

Polo's aid in taking;

difficulties in Polo's account;

not removed by Pauthier, notice by Wassáf, Chinese account,


treasure buried.


Sibree, on rofia palm.

Sick men put to death and eaten by their friends.

Siclatoun, kind of texture.


Sidi Ali.

Sien, Sien-Lo, Sien-Lo-Kok (Siam, Locac).


Sigatay, see Chagatai.

Sighelm, envoy from King Alfred to India.

Si Hia, language of Tangut.

Si-hu, Lake of Kinsay or Hang-chau.


Siju (Suthsian).

Sikintinju (Kien-chow).

Silesia, Mongol invasion of.

Silk, called Ghellé (of Gilan),

manufacture at Yezd;

at Taianfu;

in Shan-si and Shen-si;

in Kenjanfu;














-- cotton tree.

-- duty on.

-- and gold stuffs.

-- stuffs and goods, Turcomania,





Tenduc province;









in animal patterns;

with Cheetas;

of Kelinfu;

with giraffes.

Silk, tent ropes,

bed furniture.

-- trade at Cambaluc,

at Kinsay.

-- worms.

Silver chairs.

-- imported into Malabar,


-- Island.

-- mines at Baiburt,


in Badakhshan;

in N. Shansi;



-- plate in Chinese taverns.

Simon, Metropolitan of Fars.

-- Magus.

Simúm, effects of.



his story of the diamonds;

of the Rukh.

Sind (Sindhu-Sauvira).

Sindábúr (Goa).

Sindachu (Siuen-hwa fu).

Sindafu (Chengtu-fu).

Sindhu-Sauvira (Sindh-Ságor).

Si-ngan fu (Kenjanfu),

Christian inscription at.

Singapore, Singhapura.




Singtur, Mongol Prince.

Singuyli (Cranganor).

Sinhopala (Accambale), king of Chamba.

Sinju (Si-ning fu).

-- (Ichin-hien).


Sínkalán, Sín-ul-Sín, Mahá-chin, or Canton.


Síráf (Kish, or Kais?).


Sirikol, Lake and River.

Sírján or Shirján.



Sitting in air.

Siu chau.

Siuen-hwa-fu, see Sindachu.


Sivas, Siwas, Sebaste, Sevasd (Savast).


Siwi, gigantic cotton in.

Sixtus V., Pope.

Siya-gosh, or lynx.


Sladen, Major.

Slaves in Bengal.

Sledges, dog-.

Sleeping-mats, leather.

Sluices of Grand Canal.

Smith, G., Bishop of Hongkong.

Smith (R.E.), Major R.M.

Sneezing, omen from.

Socotra (Scotra), island of,

history of;

Christian Archbishop;

aloes of.

Soer (Suhar).

Sofala, trade to China from.

Sogoman Borcan, see Sakya Muni.

Sol, Arbre, see Arbre.

Soldaia, Soldachia, Sodaya (the Oriental Sudák).

Soldan, a Melic.

Soldurii, trusty lieges of Celtic kings.

Soli, Solli (Chola, or Tanjore), kingdom of.

Solomon, house of, in Abyssinia.

Soltania, Archbishop of (See Sultaniah.).

Somnath (Semenat),

gates of.


Soncara (Shawankára).

Sender Bandi Davar, see Sundara Pandi.

Sondur and Condur (Pulo Condore Group).

Sorcerers, sorceries of Pashai (Udyana),


Lamas and Tibetans.

-- Dagroian,

Socotra (See also Conjurers.).

Sornau (Shahr-i-Nau), Siam.

Sotiates, tribe of Aquitania.


Southey, St. Romuald.

Spaan, Ispahan.

Sposk, district.


Spice, Spicery.

Spice wood.

Spices in China, duty on.


Spinello Aretini, fresco by.

Spirit drawings and spiritual flowers.

Spirits haunting deserts.

Spiritualism in China.

Spittoons, pocket.

Spodium (Spodos).

Sport and game,

in Shan-si;



Acbalec Manzi;



















Springs, hot.

Sprinkling of drink, a Tartar rite.

Squares at Kinsay.



Sse River.

Stack, E., visits Kuh Banán.

Star Chart.

Star of Bethlehem, traditions about.

Steamers on Yangtse-kiang.

Steel mines at Kermán,

in Chingintalas;


Asiatic view of.

Stefani, Signor.

Stein, Dr. M.A., on Sorcery in Kashmir,

on Paonano Pao;

on Pamirs;

on site of Pein.

Stiens of Cambodia.

Stirrups, short and long.

Stitched vessels.

Stockade erected by Polo's party in Sumatra.

Stone, miracle of the, at Samarkand.

-- the green.

-- towers in Chinese cities.

-- umbrella column.

Stones giving invulnerability.


Submersion of part of Ceylon.

Subterraneous irrigation.

Suburbs of Cambaluc.

Subutai, Mongol general.

Su-chau (Suju),

plan of.

Suchnan River.

Sudarium, the Holy.


Sugar, Bengal,


art of refining;

of Egypt and China.

Suh-chau (Sukchur).

Suicides before an idol.

Sukchur, province Sukkothai.


Suklát, broadcloth.

Sukum Kala'.

Suleiman, Sultan.

Sulphur and quicksilver, potion of longevity.

Sultaniah, Monument at (See Soltania.).

Sultan Shah, of Badakhshan.

Sumatra (Java the Less),

described, its kingdoms;


Sumatra, Samudra,

city and kingdom of (Samara for Samatva);

legend of origin;

Ibn Batuta there;

its position;

latest mention of;



Summers, Professor.

Sumutala, Sumuntala, see Sumatra.

Sun and moon, trees of the.

Sundara Pandi Devar, Sondar Bandi Davar, king in Ma'bar,

his death;

Dr. Caldwell's views about.

Sundar Fúlát (Pulo Condore Group).

Sung, a native dynasty reigning in S. China till Kúblái's conquest,

their paper-money, effeminacy;


Kúblái's war against;

end of them.

Sunnis and Shias.

Suolstan (Shulistan), a kingdom in Persia.

Superstitions in Tangut, the devoted sheep or ram (Tengri Tockho),

the dead man's door;

as to chance shots;

in Carajan;


property of the dead;



as to omens.


Survival, instances of.

Sushun, Regent of China, execution of.

Su-tásh, the Jadek.

Suttees in S. India,

of men.

Svastika, sacred symbol of the Bonpos.

Swans, wild, at Chagan-Nor.


-- River.


Sword blades of India.

Syghinan, see Shighnan.

Sykes, Major P. Molesworth.

Sylen (Ceylon).

Symbolical messages, Scythian and Tartar.

Syrian Christians.

Syrrhaptes Pallasii, see Barguerlac.

Szechényi, Count.

Sze-ch'wan (Ch'eng-tu),


Tabashir. Tabbas. Table of the Great Khan. Tables, how disposed at Mongol feasts. Tablet, Emperor's, adored with incense. Tablets of Authority, Golden (Páizah), presented by Khan to Polos; lion's head and gerfalcon; bestowed on distinguished captains, inscription; cat's head; granted to governors of different rank. -- worshipped by Cathayans. Tabriz (Tauris). Tachindo, see Ta-ts'ien-lu. Tacitus, Claustra Caspiorum, Pass of Derbend. Tactics, Tartar. Tacuin. Tadinfu. Taeping Insurrection and Devastations. Taeping, or Taiping, Sovereigns' effeminate customs. Taffetas. Taft, near Yezd, turquoise at. Tafurs. Tagachar. Tagaung. Tagharma Pass. Taghdúngbásh River. Taianfu (T'ai-yuan-fu), king of N. China. Taiani. Taican, see Talikan. Taichau (Tigu). T'aiching-Kwan. Taidu, Daitu, Tatu, Kúblái's new city of Cambaluc. Taikung, see Tagaung. Tailed men, in Sumatra, elsewhere; English. Tailors, none in Maabar. Taimúni tribe. Taiting-fu (Tadinfu), or Yenchau. Taitong-fu, see Tathung. Tai-tsu, Emperor. T'ai Tsung, Emperor. Tatyang Khan (Great King), king of the Naimans. Tajiks of Badakhshan, great topers. Takfúr. Takhtapul. Táki-uddin, Abdu-r Rahmán. Takla-Makan. Talains. Talas River. Tali, gold mines. Talifu (Carajan). Talikan, Thaikan (Taican). Tallies, record by. Tamarind, pirates use of. Tamerlan. Tana (Azov). -- near Bombay, kingdom of Tana-Maiambu. Tana-Malayu. Tánasi cloth. Tanduc, see Tenduc. T'ang dynasty. Tangnu Oola, branch of Altai. Tangut province, Chinese Si Hia, or Ho Si, five invasions of. Tangutan, term applied to Tibetan speaking people round the Koko-nor. Tanjore, Suttee at; Pagoda at; fertility of. Tánkíz Khan, applied to Chinghiz. Tanpiju (Shaohing?). Tantras, Tantrika, Tantrists. Tao-lin, a Buddhist monk. Tao-sze (Taossé), sect, female idols of the. Ta-pa-Shan range. Taprobana, mistakes about. Tarakai. Tarantula. Tarcasci. Tarem, or Tarum. Tares of the parable. Taríkh-i-Rashídí. Tarmabala, Kúblái's grandson. Tarok, Burmese name for Chinese. Tarok Man and Tarok Myo. Tartar language, on Tartar, its correct form; misuse by Ramusio. Tartars, different characters used by; identified with Gog and Magog; ladies; their first city; original country, tributary to Prester John; revolt and migration; earliest mention of the word; make Chinghiz their king; his successors; their customs and religion; houses; waggons; chastity of their women; polygamy, etc.; their gods and idols; their drink (Kumiz); cloths; arms, horses, and war customs; military organization; sustenance on rapid marches; blood-sucking; portable curd; tactics in war; degeneracy; administration of justice; laws against theft; posthumous marriage; the cudgel; Rubruquis' account of; Joinville's; custom before a fight; want of charity to the poor; conquerors of China, history of; excellence in archery; objection to meddling with things pertaining to the dead; admiration of the Polo mangonels; employment of military engines; their cruelties; arrows; marriage customs. -- in the Far North. -- of the Levant, see Levant. -- of the Ponent, see Ponent. Tartary cloths. Tarungares, tribe. Tásh Kurgán. Tataríya coins. Tathung, or Taitongfu. Ta-t'sien-lu, or Tachindo, Tartsédo. Ta Tsing River. Tattooing, artists in. Tatu (Taichu). -- River. Tauris, see Tabriz. Taurizi, Torissi. Tawálisi. Taxes, see Customs, Duties. Tchakiri Mondou (Modun). Tchekmen, thick coarse cotton stuff. Tea-houses at Kingszé. Tea trees in E. Tibet. Tebet, see Tibet. Tedaldo, see Theobald. Teeth, custom of casing in gold. -- of Adam or of Buddha. -- conservation of, by Brahmans. Tegana. Teghele, Atabeg of Lúr. Teimur (Temur), Kúblái's grandson and successor. Tekla, Hamainot. Tekrit. Telingana, see Tilinga. Telo Samawe. Tembul (Betel), chewing. Temkan, Kúblái's son. Temple, connection of Cilician Armenia with Order of. -- Master of the. Temple's account of the Condor. Temujin, see Chinghiz. Tenduc, or Tanduc, plain of, province of. Tengri, Supreme deity of Tartars. Tennasserim, (Tanasari). Tents, the Khan's. Terebinth, of Mamre. Terlán, goshawk. Terra Mountains. Terra Australis. Te-Tsung, Emperor. Thai, Great and Little, race. Thaigin. Thai-yuanfu (Taianfu). Thard-wahsh, see Patterns, Beast and Bird. Theft, Tartar punishment of. Theistic worship. Thelasar. Theobald, or Tedaldo of Piacenza, chosen Pope as Gregory X.; sends friars with the Polos and presents. Theodorus, king of Abyssinia. Theodosius the Great. Theophilus, Emperor of Constantinople. -- missionary. Thévenot, Travels. Thian Shan. Thianté-Kiun. Thin l'Evêque, siege of. Thinae of Ptolemy. Tholoman, see Coloman. Thomas, Edward. -- of Mancasola, Bishop of Samarcand. Thread, Brahmanical. Three kingdoms (San-Kwé). Threshold, a great offence to step on the. Thurán Shah's History of Hormuz. Tibet (Tebet) province, boundary of; its acquisition by Mongols; organisation under Kúblái; dogs of. Tibetan language and character, origin of the Yue-chi. Tibetans, superstitions of; and Kashmiris (Tebet and Keshimur), sorceries of; accused of cannibalism. Tides in Hang-chau estuary. Tierce, half tierce, etc., hours of. Tiflis. Tigado, Castle of. Tigers (called lions by Polo), trained to the chase; in Cuncun; in Caindu; Kwei-chau. (See also Lions.). Tigris River (Volga), at Baghdad. Tigúdar (Acomat Soldan). Tiju. Tiles, enamelled. Tilinga, Telingana, Tiling, Telenc. Tiling. Timur of Toumen, chief of the Nikoudrians. Timur the Great. Timurids, the. Ting, 10 taels of silver = tael of gold. Tinju. Tinnevelly. Tithe on clothing material. Tithing men, Chinese (Pao-kia). Titus, Emperor. Tjajya, see Choiach. Toba race. Toctai, king, see Toktai. Tod, Colonel James. Toddy, see Wine of Palm. Togan. Toghontemur, last Mongol Emperor, his wail. Toghrul I. -- Shah of Kermán. Togrul Wang Khan, see Prester John. Toka Tumir. Tokát. Toktai Khan (Toctai, Lord of the Ponent), wars with Noghai; his symbolic message. Tolan-nur (Dolonnúr). Toleto, John de, Cardinal Bishop of Portus. Tolobuga. Toman (Tuman, etc.), Mongol word for 10,000. Tongking, Tungking. Tooth-relique of Buddha, history of. Torchi, Dorjé, Kúblái's first-born. Tornesel. Toro River. Torshok. Torture by constriction in raw hide. Toscaul, toskáúl (toscaol), watchman. Tournefort, on cold at Erzrum. Tower and Bell Alarm at Peking, at Kinsay. Toyan (Tathung?). Trade at Layas, by Baghdad; at Tauris; at Cambaluc; in Shan-si; on the Great Kiang; at Chinangli; at Sinju Matu; Kinsay; Fu-chau; Zayton; Java; Malaiur; Cail; Coilum; Melibar; Tana; Cambaet; Kesmacoran; Socotra. -- of India with Hormuz, with Egypt by Aden; with Esher; with Dofar; with Calatu. Trades in Manzi, alleged to be hereditary. Tramontaine. Transmigration. Traps for fur animals. Travancore, Rajas of. Treasure of Maabar kings. Trebizond, Emperors of, and their tails. Trebuchets. Trees, of the Sun and Moon, superstitions about; by the highways; camphor; producing wine; producing flour (sago). Tregetoures. Trench, Archbishop. Trevisano, Azzo. -- Marc' Antonio, Doge. Trincomalee. Tringano. Trinkat. 'Trusty lieges,' devoted comrades of king of Maabar. T'sang-chau. T'siang-kiun ('General'). T'sien T'ang River, bore in. T'si-nan-fu (Chinangli). T'sing-chau. T'sing-ling range. T'si-ning-chau. Tsin-tsun. Tsiuan-chau, T'swanchau, see Zayton. Tsongkhapa, Tibetan Reformer. Ts'uan-chou, see Zayton. Tsukuzi in Japan. Tsung-ngan-hien. Tsushima, Island. Tuan, Prince, chief of the Boxers. Tuc, tuk, tugh, commanders of 100,000, horse-tail or yak-tail; standard. Tudai, Ahmad Khan's wife. Tudai-Mangku (Totamangu or Totamangul). Tu-fan, ancient name of Tibet. Tughan, Tukan, Kúblái's son. Tughlak Shah, of Delhi (a Karaunah). Tuktuyai Khan. Tu-ku-hun. Tuli, or Tulin, fourth son of Chinghiz. Tuman, see Toman. Tumba, Angelo di, Marco di. Tún, city of E. Persia. Tung-'an in Fokien. Tungani, or Converts, Mahomedans in N. China and Chinese Turkestan. Tung-chau (Tinju). Tung-hwang-hien, ancient Shachau. Tung-kwan, fortress of the Kin sovereigns. Tung-lo (Kumiz). Tunguses. Tunny fish. Tun-o-kain (Tunocain), kingdom of Persia. Turbit (radex Turpethi). Turcomania (Anatolian Turkey). Turgaut, day-watch. Turkey, Great (Turkestan). Turkistan chiefs send mission to kings of India. Turkmans and Turks, distinction between, horses. Turks, ancient mention of, friend of Polo's; and Mongols. Turmeric. Turner, Lieutenant Samuel, describes Yak of Tartary. Turquans, Turkish horses. Turquoises in Kermán, in Caindu. Turtle doves. Turumpak, Hormuz. Tutia (Tutty), preparation of. Tuticorin. Tu T'song, Sung Emperor of China. Tver. Twelve, a favourite round number. -- Barons over Khan's Administration. Twigs or arrows, divination by. Tyuman. Tyunju, porcelain manufacture. Tylor, Dr. E.B., on Couvade. Tzarev. Tzaritzyn.

Ucaca (Ukak, Ukek, Uwek),

Ukák of Ibn Batuta, a different place.



Udoe country.



Ughuz, legend of.

Uighúr character, parent of present Mongol writing.

Uighúrs, the.


Uirad, see Oirad.

Ujjain, legend of,


Ukak. (See Ucaca.).

Ulatai (Oulatay), Tartar envoy from Persia.


Ulan Muren (Red River).

Ulugh Bagh, on Badakhshan border.

-- Mohammed.

Ulús, the.

U-man and Pe-man (Black and White Barbarians).


Unc Can (Aung Khan), see Prester John

Ung (Ungkút), Tartar tribe..

Ungrat (Kungurat), Tartar tribe.

Unicorn (Rhinoceros), in Burma,


legend of Virgin and;

horns of.

Unken, City.

Unlucky hours.

U-nya-Mwezi superstition.

Urduja, Princess.


Uriangkút (Tunguses).

Urianhai, the.



Uspenskoye (called also Bolgarskoye).

Uttungadeva, king of Java.

Uwek, see Ucaca.

Uzbeg Khan of Sarai.

Uzbegs of Kunduz.

Uzun Tati, coins, Chinese porcelain from.

Vair, the fur and animal. -- as an epithet of eyes. Valaghir district. Vámbéry, Prof. Hermann. Vanchu (Wangchu), conspires with Chenchu against Ahmad. Van Lake. Varaegian, Varangian. Varaha Mihira, astronomer. Vardoj River. Varini. Varsach, or Mashhad River. Vasmulo. Vateria Indica. Veil of the Temple, [Greek: péplos babylónios]. Vellalars. Venádan, title of king of Kaulam. Venetians, factory at Soldaia, expelled from Constantinople. Venice, return of Polos to; its exaltation after Latin conquest of Constantinople; its nobles; Polo's mansion at; galleys; archives at; articles brought from East by Marco to. Ventilators at Hormuz. Verlinden, Belgian missionary. Verniques. Verzino Colombino. (See also Brazil.). Vessels, war, stitched of Kermán ([Greek: ploiária rhaptá]). (See also Ships.). Vial, Paul, French missionary. Vijayanagar. Vikramajit, legend of. Vikrampúr. Villard de Honnecourt, Album of. Vincent of Beauvais. Vincenzo, P. Vineyards, in Taican, Kashgar; Khotan; in N. China. Vinson, Prof., on Couvade. Virgin of Cape Comorin. Visconti, Tedaldo, or Tebaldo, see Theobald of Piacenza. Vissering, on Chinese Currency. Vochan (Unchan, Yungchan), battle there. Vogels, J. Vokhan, see Wakhán. Volga, called Tigris. Vos, Belgian Missionary. Vughin. Vuju in Kiangnan. -- in Chekiang.

Wadoe tribe. Wakf. Wakhán (Vokhan), dialect. -- Mountains. Wakhjír Pass. Wakhijrui Pass, see Wakhjír Pass. Wakhsh, branch of the Oxus. Wakhtang II., king of Georgia. Walashjird. Wallachs. Wall of Alexander (or Caucasian). -- of Gog and Magog (i.e. China). Walnut-oil. Wami River. Wang, Chinese silk. Wang, king of Djungar. Wangchu, see Vanchu Wapila. Warangol Ku. Warangs. Warner, Dr. War vessels, Chinese. Wassáf, the historian, his character of the Karaunahs; notices of Hormuz; eulogy of Kúblái; story of Kúblái; his style; account of taking of Siang-yang; of Kinsay; Maabar; horse trade to India; treatment of them there; extract from his history. Water, bitter. -- custom of lying in, consecration by Lamas. -- Clock. Wathek, Khalif. Wa-tzu, Lolo slaves. Weather-conjuring. Wei dynasty. Weights and measures. Wei-ning. Wei River in Shen-si. -- in Shan-tung. Wen River. Wen-chow. Westermarck, Human Marriage. Whale oil, including spermaceti. Whales, in Socotra; Madagascar; species of Indian Ocean; sperm (Capdoille). Wheaten bread not eaten, at Yachi. White bears. -- bone, Chinese for Lolos. -- camels. -- City, meaning of term among Tartars. -- City, of Manzi frontier. -- Devils. -- Feast at Kúblái's City. -- Horde. -- horses and mares, offered to Khan. Whittington and his cat in Persia. Wild asses and oxen, see Asses and Oxen. William of Tripoli, Friar, his writings. Williams, Dr. S.W., on the Chinese year, on elephants at Peking. Williamson, Rev. A. Wilson, General Sir C. Wind, poison (Simúm), monsoons. Wine, of the vine, Persians lax in abstaining from, -- boiled. -- of ancient Kapisa, Khotan; at Taianfu; imported at Kinsay. -- rice (Samshu or darásún), and of wheat; at Yachi; spices, etc., in Caindu; Kien-ch'ang; Cangigu; Coloman; Kinsay. -- Palm (toddy). -- from sugar. -- date. -- (unspecified), at Khan's table, not used in Ma'bar; nor by Brahmans. "Winter" used for "rainy season". Wo-fo-sze, "Monastery of the lying Buddha". Wolves in Pamir. Women, Island of. Women, of Kerman, their embroidery; mourners; of Khorasan, their beauty; of Badakhshan; Kashmir; Khotan; Kamul, fair and wanton; Tartar good and loyal; Erguiul, pretty creatures; of the town; of Tibet, evil customs; Caindu; Carajan; Zardandan, couvade; Anin; Kinsay, charming; respectful treatment of; Kelinfu, beautiful; Zanghibar, frightful. Wonders performed by the Bacsi. Wood, Lieutenant John, Indian Navy, his elucidations of Polo in Oxus regions. Wood-oil. Wool, Salamander's. Worship of Mahomet (supposed). -- of fire, Tartar; Chinese. -- of first object seen in the day. Worshipping the tablets. Wu-chau (Vuju). Wukiang-hien (Vughin). Wüsus, or Wesses, people of Russia. Wu-ti, Emperor. Wylie, Alexander.

Xanadu. Xavier, at Socotra. Xerxes.


Yachi (Yun-nan-fu), city.

Yadah, Jadagari, Jadah-tásh, science and stone of weather-conjurer.

Yaik River.

Yájú, and Májúj, see Gog and Magog.

Yak (dong),

their tails carried to Venice;

used in India for military decorations.

Ya'kúb Beg of Kasghar.


Yalung River.

Yam, or Yamb (a post-stage or post-house).


Yang-chau (Yanju), city,

Marco's government there.

Yarbeg of Badakhshan.

Yarkand (Yarcan).

Yarligh and P'aizah.

Yasdi (Yezd).

-- silk tissue.

Yashm, jade.

Yasodhara, bride of Sakya Sinha.




Year, Chinese,

Mongol and Chinese cycle.

Yelimala, see Monté d'Ely.

Yeliu Chutsai, statesman and astronomer.

Yellow, or orthodox Lamas.

Yemen (See also Aden.).

Yeng-chau (in Shan-tung).

-- (in Che-kiang).

Yen-king (Old Peking).





Yesugai, father of Chinghiz.

Yetsina (Etzina).

Yezd (Yasdi),

silk fabrics of.

Yiu-ki River.

Yoritomo, descendants of.

Yonting Ho River.

Yotkàn, village.

Youth, Island of.

Yrac, province.

Ysemain of Hiulie, western engineer.

Yu, see Jade.

Yuan Ho.

Yu-chow, gold and silver mines.


Yuen, Mongol Imperial dynasty, so styled.

Yuen-hao, kingdom of Tangut.

Yuen ming-yuen, palace.

Yuen shi, History of Mongol Dynasty in China.

Yugria, or Yughra, in the Far North.


Yule, Sir Henry,

on Ravenala;

on Maundeville.

Yun-Hien, a Buddhist Abbot.

Yung-chang fu (Shen-si).

-- (Yun-nan, Vochan).

Yung Lo, Emperor.

Yun-nan (Carajan), province,

conquerors of;


Yun-nan-fu city, see Yachi.

Yurungkásh (white Jade) River.

Yusuf Kekfi.

Yuthia, Ayuthia (Ayodhya), mediaeval capital of Siam.

Yvo of Narbonne.

Zabedj. Zaila. Zaitúníah, probable origin of satin. Zampa, see Champa. Zanghibar (Zangibar, Zanjibar, Zanzibar), currents off; Ivory trade; its blacks, women. Zanton (Shantung ?). Zanzale, James, or Jacob Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa. Zapharan, monastery near Baghdad. Zardandan, or "Gold Teeth," a people of W. Yun-nan, identity doubtful; characteristic customs. Zarneke, Fr. Zayton, Zaitún, Zeiton, Cayton, (T'swan-chau, Chwan-chau, or Chinchew of modern charts); the great mediaeval port of China; Khan's revenue from; porcelain; language; etymology; mediaeval notices; identity; Chinchew, a name misapplied; Christian churches at; ships of. Zayton, Andrew, Bishop of. Zebák Valley. Zebu, humped oxen. Zedoary. Zenghi. Zerms (Jerms). Zerumbet. Zettani. Zhafar, see Dhafar. Zic (Circassia). Zikas. Zimmé, see Kiang-mai. Zinc. Zinj, Zinjis. Zobeidah, the lady. Zorza, see Chorcha. Zu-'lkarnain (Zulcarniain), "the Two Horned," an epithet of Alexander. Zurficar (Zúrpica, Zulficar), a Turkish friend of Marco Polo's.






There is no need of a long Preface to this small book. When the third edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo was published in 1903, criticism was lenient to the Editor of YULE'S grand work, and it was highly satisfactory to me that such competent judges as Sir Aurel STEIN and Sven HEDIN gave their approval to the remarks I made on the itineraries followed in Central Asia by the celebrated Venetian Traveller.

Nevertheless occasional remarks having been made by some of the reviewers, proper notice was taken of them; moreover, it was impossible to avoid some mistakes and omissions in a work including several hundreds of pages. As years went on, extensive voyages were undertaken by travellers like Sir Aurel STEIN, Sven HEDIN, PELLIOT, KOZLOV, and others, who brought fresh and important information. I had myself collected material from new works as they were issued and from old works which had been neglected. In the mean time I had given a second edition of Cathay and the Way Thither, having thus an opportunity to explore old ground again and add new commentaries to the book.

All this material is embodied in the present volume which is to be considered but as a supplementary volume of "Addenda" and "Corrigenda" to the Book itself. I have gathered matter for a younger editor when a fourth edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo is undertaken, age preventing the present editor to entertain the hope to be able to do the work himself.

To many who lent their aid have I to give my thanks: all are named in the following pages, but I have special obligation to Sir Aurel STEIN, to Dr. B. LAUFER, of Chicago, to Sir Richard TEMPLE, and to Prof. Paul PELLIOT, of the College de France, Paris, who furnished me with some of the more important notes. A paper by Prof. E.H. PARKER in the Asiatic Quarterly Review proved also of considerable help.



11th of November, 1919.


-- Notes [miscellaneous] by H. Yule, Palermo, August 28th, 1872.

(Indian Antiquary, I. 1872, pp. 320-321.)

-- "Discovery of Sanskrit." By H. Yule, Palermo, Dec. 26th, 1872.

(Indian Antiquary, II. 1873, p. 96.)

-- "Sopeithes, King of the [Greek: Kaekeoí]." By H. Yule. (Indian

Antiquary, II. 1873, p. 370.)

-- The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels in India. By Col. H. Yule,

Palermo. (Indian Antiquary, III. 1874, pp. 114-117, 209-212.)

-- The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels. By Col. H. Yule, C.B.

(Ibid. pp. 242-244.)

-- Mediaeval Ports of Western and Southern India, etc., named in the

Tohfat-al-Majahid?n. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (Indian

Antiquary, III. 1874, pp. 212-214.)

-- Malifattan. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (Indian Antiquary,

IV. 1875, pp. 8-10.)

-- Champa. By H. Yule. (Indian Antiquary, VI. 1877, pp. 228-230.)

From the Geog. Mag., March, 1877, IV. pp. 66-67. Written for

the Encyclopaedia Britannica, but omitted.

-- Specimen of a Discursive Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms. By H.Y. and

A.C.B. (Indian Antiquary, VIII. 1879, pp. 52-54, 83-86,

173-176, 201-204, 231-233.)







Sarai-Shang tu-Khitán inscription


Baudas-Nasich-Death of Mostas'im-Tauris-Cala Ataperistan-Persia-

Fat-tailed sheep-The Caraunas Robbers-Pashai-Hormos-Tun-o-Kain-

Tutia-Arbre sec-Old Man of the Mountain-Road to Sapurgan-Dogana-

Badakhshan-Wakhan-Plateau of Pamir-Paonano Pao-Yue Chi-Bolor-

Khotan-Pein-City of Lop-Great Desert-Camul-Chingintalas-Sukchur

-Campichu-Etzina-Tatar-Karacathayans-Keraits-Death of Chingiz

Khan-Tailgan-Marriage-Tengri-Coats of Mail-Reindeer-

Sinju-Gurun-King George-Tenduc-Christians.


Nayan-P'ai Tzu-Mongol Imperial Family-Hunting Leopard- Cachar Modun-Bark of Trees-Value of Gold-Ch'ing siang-Cycle of Twelve-Persian.


Wine and Vines-Christian Monument at Si-ngan fu-Khumdan-Mubupa-

Chien tao-Sindafu-Tibet-Wild Oxen-Kiung tu-Karajang-

Zardandan-Couvade-King of Mien-Burma-Nga-tshaung-gyan-Caugigu.


Ch'ang Lu Salt-Sangon-Li T'an-Sinjumatu-Great Canal-Caiju

-Lin Ngan-Yanju-Yang Chau-Siege of Saianfu-P'ao-Alans-

Vuju-Kinsay-Silky Fowls-Sugar-Zaitun.


Náfún-Japanese War-Chamba-Pulo Condore-Locac-Lawaki-Pentam-

Tana-Malayu-Malacca-Sumatra-Ferlec-Sago Tree-Angamanain-

Dog-headed Barbarians-Ceylon-Sagamoni Borcan-Barlaam and Josaphat-

Tanjore-Chinese Pagoda at Negapatam-Suttees in India-Maabar-St.

Thomas-Calamina-Cail-Sappan-Fandaraina-Gozurat-Two Islands

called Male and Female-Scotra-The Rukh-Giraffes-Zanghibar-Aden-














Introduction, p. 6.

Speaking of Pashai, Sir Aurel Stein (Geog. Journ.), referring to the notes and memoranda brought home by the great Venetian traveller, has the following remarks: "We have seen how accurately it reproduces information about territories difficult of access at all times, and far away from his own route. It appears to me quite impossible to believe that such exact data, learned at the very beginning of the great traveller's long wanderings, could have been reproduced by him from memory alone close on thirty years later when dictating his wonderful story to Rusticiano during his captivity at Genoa. Here, anyhow, we have definite proof of the use of those 'notes and memoranda which he had brought with him,' and which, as Ramusio's 'Preface' of 1553 tells us (see Yule, Marco Polo, I., Introduction, p. 6), Messer Marco, while prisoner of war, was believed to have had sent to him by his father from Venice. How grateful must geographer and historical student alike feel for these precious materials having reached the illustrious prisoner safely!"

Introduction, p. 10 n.


"Mr. Rockhill's remarks about the title Khakhan require supplementing. Of course, the Turks did not use the term before 560 (552 was the exact year), because neither they nor their name 'Turk' had any self-assertive existence before then, and until that year they were the 'iron-working slaves' of the Jou-jan. The Khakhan of those last-named Tartars naturally would not allow the petty tribe of Turk to usurp his exclusive and supreme title. But even a century and a half before this, the ruler of the T'u-kuh-hun nomads had already borne the title of Khakhan, which (the late Dr. Bretschneider agreed with me in thinking) was originally of Tungusic and not of Turkish origin. The T'u-kuh-hun were of the same race as the half-Mongol, half-Tungusic Tobas, who ruled for two centuries over North China…. The title of Khakhan, in various bastard forms, was during the tenth century used by the Kings of Khoten and Kuche, as well as by the petty Ouigour Kings of Kan Chou, Si Chou, etc." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 139-140.)

Introduction, p. 19. [The] second start [of the Venetians] from Acre took place about November, 1271.

M. Langlois remarks that the last stay of the Polos at Acre was necessarily before the 18th November, 1271, date of the departure of Gregory X. for the West. Cf. Itinéraires à Jerusalem et Descriptions de la Terre-Sainte rédigés en fran?ais aux XI'e, XII'e et XIII'e siècles, publ. par H. MICHELANT et G. RAYNAUD (Genève, 1882), pp. xxviii-xxix:

"La date de 1269, donnée seulement par un des manuscrits de la rédaction de Thibaut dé Cépoy, pour le premier séjour à Acre des Polo et leur rencontre avec Tedaldo Visconti, qui allait être élu pape et prendre le nom de Grégoire X., date préférée par tous les éditeurs à celles évidemment erronées de Rusticien de Pise (1260) et des huit autres manuscrits de Thibaut de Cépoy (1250 et 1260), n'est pas hors de toute discussion. M.G. Tononi, archiprêtre de Plaisance, qui prépare une histoire et une édition des ceuvres de Grégoire X., me fait remarquer que les chroniqueurs ne placent le départ de Tedaldo pour la Terre-Sainte qu'après celui de S. Louis pour Tunis (2 juillet 1270), et que, d'après un acte du Trésor des Chartes, Tedaldo était encore à Paris le 28 décembre 1269. Il faudrait done probablement dater de 1271 le premier et le deuxième séjour des Polo à Acre, et les placer tous deux entre le 9 mai, époque de l'arrivée en Terre-Sainte d'Edouard d'Angleterre,-avec lequel, suivant l'Eracles, aborda Tedaldo-et le 18 novembre, date du départ du nouveau pape pour l'Occident." (Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, XXXV, Marco Polo.)

Introduction, p. 19 n.

I have here discussed Major Sykes' theory of Polo's itinerary in Persia; the question was raised again by Major Sykes in the Geographical Journal, October, 1905, pp. 462-465. I answered again, and I do not think it necessary to carry on farther this controversy. I recall that Major Sykes writes: "To conclude, I maintain that Marco Polo entered Persia near Tabriz, whence he travelled to Sultania, Kashan, Yezd, Kerman, and Hormuz. From that port, owing to the unseaworthiness of the vessels, the presence of pirates, the fact that the season was past, or for some other reason, he returned by a westerly route to Kerman, and thence crossed the Lut to Khorasan."

I replied in the Geographical Journal, Dec., 1905, pp. 686-687: "Baghdad, after its fall in 1258, did not cease immediately to be 'rather off the main caravan route.' I shall not refer Major Sykes to what I say in my editions of 'Odorico' and 'Polo' on the subject, but to the standard work of Heyd, Commerce du Levant, Vol. 2, pp. 77, 78. The itinerary, Tabriz, Sultania, Kashan, Yezd, was the usual route later on, at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and it was followed, among others, by Fra Odorico, of Pordenone. Marco Polo, on his way to the Far East-you must not forget that he was at Acre in 1271-could not have crossed Sultania, which did not exist, as its building was commenced by Arghún Khan, who ascended the throne in 1284, and was continued by Oeljaitu (1304-1316), who gave the name of Sultania to the city." Cf. Lieut.-Col. P.M. SYKES, A History of Persia, 1915, 2 vols., 8vo; II., p. 181 n.

Introduction, p. 21. M. Pauthier has found a record in the Chinese Annals of the Mongol dynasty, which states that in the year 1277, a certain POLO was nominated a second-class commissioner or agent attached to the Privy Council, a passage which we are happy to believe to refer to our young traveller.

Prof. E.H. Parker remarks (Asiatic Quart. Review, 3rd Series, Vol. XVII., Jan., 1904, pp. 128-131): "M. Pauthier has apparently overlooked other records, which make it clear that the identical individual in question had already received honours from Kúblái many years before Marco's arrival in 1275. Perhaps the best way to make this point clear would be to give all the original passages which bear upon the question. The number I give refer to the chapter and page (first half or second half of the double page) of the Yuan Sh?:-

A. Chap. 7, p. 1-2/2: 1270, second moon. Kúblái inspects a court pageant prepared by Puh-lo and others.

B. Chap. 7, p. 6-1/2: 1270, twelfth moon. The yü-sh? chung-ch'êng (censor) Puh-lo made also President of the Ta-sz-nung department. One of the ministers protested that there was no precedent for a censor holding this second post. Kúblái insisted.

C. Chap. 8, p. 16-1/2: 1275, second moon. Puh-lo and another sent to look into the Customs taxation question in Tangut.

D. Chap. 8, p. 22-1/2: 1275, fourth moon. The Ta-sz-nung and yü-sh? chung-ch'êng Puh-lo promoted to be yü-sh? ta-fu.

E. Chap. 9, p. 11-2/2: 1276, seventh moon. The Imperial Prince Puh-lo given a seal.

F. Chap. 9, p. 16-2/2: 1277, second moon. The Ta-sz-nung and yü-sh? ta-fu, Puh-lo, being also süan-wei-sh? and Court Chamberlain, promoted to be shu-mih fu-sh?, and also süan-hwei-sh? and Court Chamberlain.

"The words shu-mih fu-sh? the Chinese characters for which are given on p. 569 of M. Cordier's second volume, precisely mean 'Second-class Commissioner attached to the Privy Council,' and hence it is clear that Pauthier was totally mistaken in supposing the censor of 1270 to have been Marco. Of course the Imperial Prince Puh-lo is not the same person as the censor, nor is it clear who the (1) pageant and (2) Tangut Puh-los were, except that neither could possibly have been Marco, who only arrived in May-the third moon-at the very earliest.

"In the first moon of 1281 some gold, silver, and bank-notes were handed to Puh-lo for the relief of the poor. In the second moon of 1282, just before the assassination of Achmed, the words 'Puh-lo the Minister' (ch'êng-siang) are used in connection with a case of fraud. In the seventh moon of 1282 (after the fall of Achmed) the 'Mongol man Puh-lo' was placed in charge of some gold-washings in certain towers of the then Hu Pêh (now in Hu Nan). In the ninth moon of the same year a commission was sent to take official possession of all the gold-yielding places in Yün Nan, and Puh-lo was appointed darugachi (= governor) of the mines. In this case it is not explicitly stated (though it would appear most likely) that the two gold superintendents were the same man; if they were, then neither could have been Marco, who certainly was no 'Mongol man.' Otherwise there would be a great temptation to identify this event with the mission to 'una città, detta Carazan' of the Ramusio Text.

"There is, however, one man who may possibly be Marco, and that is the Poh-lo who was probably with Kúblái at Chagan Nor when the news of Achmed's murder by Wang Chu arrived there in the third moon of 1282. The Emperor at once left for Shang-tu (i.e. K'ai-p'ing Fu, north of Dolonor), and 'ordered the shu-mih fu-sh? Poh-lo [with two other statesmen] to proceed with all speed to Ta-tu (i.e. to Cambalu). On receiving Poh-lo's report, the Emperor became convinced of the deceptions practised upon him by Achmed, and said: "It was a good thing that Wang Chu did kill him."' In 1284 Achmed's successor is stated (chap, 209, p. 9-1/2) to have recommended Poh-lo, amongst others, for minor Treasury posts. The same man (chap. 209, p. 12-1/2) subsequently got Poh-lo appointed to a salt superintendency in the provinces; and as Yang-chou is the centre of the salt trade, it is just possible that Marco's 'governorship' of that place may resolve itself into this.

"There are many other Puh-lo and Poh-lo mentioned, both before Marco's arrival in, and subsequently to Marco's departure in 1292 from, China. In several cases (as, for instance, in that of P. Timur) both forms occur in different chapters for the same man; and a certain Tartar called 'Puh-lan Hi' is also called 'Puh-lo Hi.' One of Genghis Khan's younger brothers was called Puh-lo Kadei. There was, moreover, a Cathayan named Puh-lo, and a Naiman Prince Poh-lo. Whether 'Puh-lo the Premier' or 'one of the Ministers,' mentioned in 1282, is the same person as 'Poh-lo the ts'an chêng,' or 'Prime Minister's assistant' of 1284, I cannot say. Perhaps, when the whole Yüan Sh? has been thoroughly searched throughout in all its editions, we may obtain more certain information. Meanwhile, one thing is plain: Pauthier is wrong, Yule is wrong in that particular connection; and M. Cordier gives us no positive view of his own. The other possibilities are given above, but I scarcely regard any of them as probabilities. On p. 99 of his Introduction, Colonel Yule manifestly identifies the Poh-lo of 1282 with Marco; but the identity of his title with that of Puh-lo in 1277 suggests that the two men are one, in which case neither can be Marco Polo. On p. 422 of Vol. I. Yule repeats this identification in his notes. I may mention that much of the information given in the present article was published in Vol. XXIV. of the China Review two or three years ago. I notice that M. Cordier quotes that volume in connection with other matters, but this particular point does not appear to have caught his eye.

"As matters now stand, there is a fairly strong presumption that Marco Polo is once named in the Annals; but there is no irrefragable evidence; and in any case it is only this once, and not as Pauthier has it."

Cf. also note by Prof. E.H. Parker, China Review, XXV. pp. 193-4, and, according to Prof. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, July-Sept., 1904, p. 769), the biography of Han Lin-eul in the Ming shi, k. 122, p. 3.

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "Il faut renoncer une bonne fois à retrouver Marco Polo dans le Po-lo mêlé à l'affaire d'Ahmed. Grace aux titulations successives, nous pouvons reconstituer la carrière administrative de ce Po-lo, au moins depuis 1271, c'est-à-dire depuis une date antérieure à l'arrivée de Marco Polo à la cour mongole. D'autre part, Rashid-ud-Din mentionne le r?le joué dans l'affaire d'Ahmed par le Pulad-aqa, c'est-à-dire Pulad Chinsang, son informateur dans les choses mongoles, mais la forme mongole de ce nom de Pulad est Bolod, en transcription chinoise Po-lo. J'ai signalé (T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 640) que des textes chinois mentionnent effectivement que Po-lo (Bolod), envoyé en mission auprès d'Arghún en 1285, resta ensuite en Perse. C'est donc en définitive le Pulad (= Bolod) de Rashid-ud-Din qui serait le Po-lo qu'à la suite de Pauthier on a trop longtemps identifié à Marco Polo."

Introduction, p. 23.

"The Yüan Sh? contains curious confirmation of the facts which led up to Marco Polo's conducting a wife to Arghún of Persia, who lost his spouse in 1286. In the eleventh moon of that year (say January, 1287) the following laconic announcement appears: 'T'a-ch'a-r Hu-nan ordered to go on a mission to A-r-hun.' It is possible that Tachar and Hunan may be two individuals, and, though they probably started overland, it is probable that they were in some way connected with Polo's first and unsuccessful attempt to take the girl to Persia." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 136.)

Introduction, p. 76 n.

With regard to the statue of the Pseudo-Marco Polo of Canton, Dr. B.

Laufer, of Chicago, sends me the following valuable note:-


The temple Hua lin se (in Cantonese Fa lum se, i.e. Temple of the Flowery Grove) is situated in the western suburbs of the city of Canton. Its principal attraction is the vast hall, the Lo-han t'ang, in which are arranged in numerous avenues some five hundred richly gilded images, about three feet in height, representing the 500 Lo-han (Arhat). The workmanship displayed in the manufacture of these figures, made of fine clay thickly covered with burnished gilding, is said to be most artistic, and the variety of types is especially noticeable. In this group we meet a statue credited with a European influence. Two opinions are current regarding this statue: one refers to it as representing the image of a Portuguese sailor, the other sees in it a portrait of Marco Polo.

The former view is expressed, as far as I see, for the first time, by MAYERS and DENNYS (The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, London and Hong Kong, 1867, p. 162). "One effigy," these authors remark, "whose features are strongly European in type, will be pointed out as the image of a Portuguese seaman who was wrecked, centuries ago, on the coast, and whose virtues during a long residence gained him canonization after death. This is probably a pure myth, growing from an accidental resemblance of the features." This interpretation of a homage rendered to a Portuguese is repeated by C.A. MONTALTO DE JESUS, Historic Macao (Hong Kong, 1902, p. 28). A still more positive judgment on this matter is passed by MADROLLE (Chine du Sud et de l'Est, Paris, 1904, p. 17). "The attitudes of the Venerable Ones," he says, "are remarkable for their life-like expression, or sometimes, singularly grotesque. One of these personalities placed on the right side of a great altar wears the costume of the 16th century, and we might be inclined to regard it as a Chinese representation of Marco Polo. It is probable, however, that the artist, who had to execute the statue of a Hindu, that is, of a man of the West, adopted as the model of his costume that of the Portuguese who visited Canton since the commencement of the 16th century." It seems to be rather doubtful whether the 500 Lo-han of Canton are really traceable to that time. There is hardly any huge clay statue in China a hundred or two hundred years old, and all the older ones are in a state of decay, owing to the brittleness of the material and the carelessness of the monks. Besides, as stated by Mayers and Dennys (l.c., p. 163), the Lo-han Hall of Canton, with its glittering contents, is a purely modern structure, having been added to the Fa-lum Temple in 1846, by means of a subscription mainly supported by the Hong Merchants. Although this statue is not old, yet it may have been made after an ancient model. Archdeacon Gray, in his remarkable and interesting book, Walks in the City of Canton (Hong Kong, 1875, p. 207), justly criticized the Marco Polo theory, and simultaneously gave a correct identification of the Lo-han in question. His statement is as follows: "Of the idols of the five hundred disciples of Buddha, which, in this hall, are contained, there is one, which, in dress and configuration of countenance, is said to resemble a foreigner. With regard to this image, one writer, if we mistake not, has stated that it is a statue of the celebrated traveller Marco Polo, who, in the thirteenth century, visited, and, for some time, resided in the flowery land of China. This statement, on the part of the writer to whom we refer, is altogether untenable. Moreover, it is an error so glaring as to cast, in the estimation of all careful readers of his work, no ordinary degree of discredit upon many of his most positive assertions. The person, whose idol is so rashly described as being that of Marco Polo, was named Shien-Tchu. He was a native of one of the northern provinces of India, and, for his zeal as an apostle in the service of Buddha, was highly renowned."

Everard Cotes closes the final chapter of his book, The Arising East (New York, 1907), as follows: "In the heart of Canton, within easy reach of mob violence at any time, may be seen to-day the life-size statue of an elderly European, in gilt clothes and black hat, which the Chinese have cared for and preserved from generation to generation because the original, Marco Polo, was a friend to their race. The thirteenth-century European had no monopoly of ability to make himself loved and reverenced. A position similar to that which he won as an individual is open to-day to the Anglo-Saxon as a race. But the Mongolian was not afraid of Marco Polo, and he is afraid of us. It can be attained, therefore, only by fair dealing and sympathy, supported by an overwhelming preponderance of fighting strength."

[Dr. Laufer reproduces here the note in Marco Polo, I., p. 76. I may remark that I never said nor believed that the statue was Polo's. The mosaic at Genoa is a fancy portrait.]

The question may be raised, however, Are there any traces of foreign influence displayed in this statue? The only way of solving this problem seemed to me the following: First to determine the number and the name of the alleged Marco Polo Lo-han at Canton, and then by means of this number to trace him in the series of pictures of the traditional 500 Lo-han (the so-called Lo han t'u).

The alleged Marco Polo Lo-han bears the number 100, and his name is Shan-chu tsun-che (tsun-che being a translation of Sanskrit arya, "holy, reverend"). The name Shan-chu evidently represents the rendering of a Sanskrit name, and does not suggest a European name. The illustration here reproduced is Lo-han No. 100 from a series of stone-engravings in the temple T'ien-ning on the West Lake near Hang Chau. It will be noticed that it agrees very well with the statue figured by M. Cordier. In every respect it bears the features of an Indian Lo-han, with one exception, and this is the curious hat. This, in fact, is the only Lo-han among the five hundred that is equipped with a headgear; and the hat, as is well known, is not found in India. This hat must represent a more or less arbitrary addition of the Chinese artist who created the group, and it is this hat which led to the speculations regarding the Portuguese sailor or Marco Polo. Certain it is also that such a type of hat does not occur in China; but it seems idle to speculate as to its origin, as long as we have no positive information on the intentions of the artist. The striped mantle of the Lo-han is by no means singular, for it occurs with seventeen others. The facts simply amount to this, that the figure in question does not represent a Portuguese sailor or Marco Polo or any other European, but solely an Indian Lo-han (Arhat), while the peculiar hat remains to be explained.

Introduction, p. 92.


Thibaut de Chepoy (Chepoy, canton of Breteuil, Oise), son of the knight Jean de Chepoy, was one of the chief captains of King Philip the Fair. He entered the king's service in 1285 as squire and valet; went subsequently to Robert d'Artois, who placed him in charge of the castle of Saint Omer, and took him, in 1296, to Gascony to fight the English. He was afterwards grand master of the cross-bow men. He then entered the service of Charles de Valois, brother of Philip the Fair, who sent him to Constantinople to support the claims to the throne of his wife, Catherine of Courtenay. Thibaut left Paris on the 9th Sept., 1306, passed through Venice, where he met Marco Polo who gave him a copy of his manuscript. Thibaut died between 22nd May, 1311, and 22nd March, 1312. (See Joseph PETIT, in Le Moyen Age, Paris, 1897, pp. 224-239.)



II., p. 6.


"Cordier (Yule) identifiziert den von Pegolotti gew?hlten Namen S?racanco mit dem jüngeren Sarai oder Zarew (dem Sarai grande Fra Mauros), was mir vollkommen untunlich erscheint; es w?re dann die Route des Reisenden geradezu ein Zickzackweg gewesen, der durch nichts zu rechtfertigen w?re." (Dr. Ed. FRIEDMANN, Pegolotti, p. 14.)

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "Il n'y a aucune possibilité de retrouver dans Saracanco, Sarai + Kúnk. Le mot Kúnk n'est pas autrement attesté, et la construction mongole ou turque exigerait kunk-sarai."

XIII., pp. 25-26.


See also A. POZDNEIEV, Mongoliya i Mongoly, II., pp. 303 seq.

XV., pp. 27, 28-30. Now it came that Marco, the son of Messer Nicolo, sped wondrously in learning the customs of the Tartars, as well as their language, their manner of writing, and their practice of war-in fact he came in a brief space to know several languages, and four sundry written characters.

On the linguistic office called Sse yi kwan, cf. an interesting note by H. MASPERO, p. 8, of Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, XII., No. 1, 1912.

XV., p. 28 n. Of the Khitán but one inscription was known and no key.

Prof. Pelliot remarks, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904: "In fact a Chinese work has preserved but five k'i-tan characters, however with the Chinese translation." He writes to me that we do not know any k'itan inscription, but half a dozen characters reproduced in a work of the second half of the fourteenth century. The Uíghúr alphabet is of Aramean origin through Sogdian; from this point of view, it is not necessary to call for Estranghelo, nor Nestorian propaganda. On the other hand we have to-day documents in Uíghúr writing older than the Kudatku Bilik.




VI., p. 63. "There is also on the river, as you go from Baudas to Kisi, a great city called Bastra, surrounded by woods, in which grow the best dates in the world."

"The products of the country are camels, sheep and dates." (At Pi-ss?-lo,

Basra. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 137.)

VI., pp. 63, 65. "In Baudas they weave many different kinds of silk stuffs and gold brocades, such as nasich, and nac, and cramoisy, and many other beautiful tissue richly wrought with figures of beasts and birds."

In the French text we have nassit and nac.

"S'il faut en croire M. Defrémery, au lieu de nassit, il faut évidemment lire nassij (nécidj), ce qui signifie un tissu, en général, et désigne particulièrement une étoffe de soie de la même espèce que le nekh. Quant aux étoffes sur lesquelles étaient figurés des animaux et des oiseaux, le même orientaliste croit qu'il faut y reconna?tre le thardwehch, sorte d'étoffe de soie qui, comme son nom l'indique, représentait des scènes de chasse. On sait que l'usage de ces représentations est très ancien en Orient, comme on le voit dans des passages de Philostrate et de Quinte-Curce rapportés par Mongez." (FRANCISQUE-MICHEL, Recherches sur le Commerce, I., p. 262.)

VI., p. 67.


According to Al-Fakhri, translated by E. Amar (Archives marocaines XVI., p. 579), Mostas'im was put to death with his two eldest sons on the 4th of safar, 656 (3rd February, 1258).

XI., p. 75. "The [the men of Tauris] weave many kinds of beautiful and valuable stuffs of silk and gold."

Francisque-Michel (I., p. 316) remarks: "De ce que Marco Polo se borne à nommer Tauris comme la ville de Perse où il se fabriquait maints draps d'or et de soie, il ne faudrait pas en conclure que cette industrie n'existat pas sur d'autres points du même royaume. Pour n'en citer qu'un seul, la ville d'Arsacie, ancienne capitale des Parthes, connue aujourd'hui sous le nom de Caswin, possédait vraisemblablement déjà cette industrie des beaux draps d'or et de soie qui existait encore au temps de Huet, c'est-à-dire au XVII'e siècle."

XIII., p. 78. "Messer Marco Polo found a village there which goes by the name of CALA ATAPERISTAN, which is as much as to say, 'The Castle of the Fire-worshippers.'"

With regard to Kal'ah-i Atashparastan, Prof. A.V.W. Jackson writes (Persia, 1906, p. 413): "And the name is rightly applied, for the people there do worship fire. In an article entitled The Magi in Marco Polo (Journ. Am. Or. Soc., 26, 79-83) I have given various reasons for identifying the so-called 'Castle of the Fire-Worshippers' with Kashan, which Odoric mentions or a village in its vicinity, the only rival to the claim being the town of Na?n, whose Gabar Castle has already been mentioned above."

XIV., p. 78.


Speaking of Saba and of Cala Ataperistan, Prof. E.H. Parker (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 134) has the following remarks: "It is not impossible that certain unexplained statements in the Chinese records may shed light upon this obscure subject. In describing the Arab Conquest of Persia, the Old and New T'ang Histories mention the city of Hia-lah as being amongst those captured; another name for it was Sam (according to the Chinese initial and final system of spelling words). A later Chinese poet has left the following curious line on record: 'All the priests venerate Hia-lah.' The allusion is vague and undated, but it is difficult to imagine to what else it can refer. The term sêng, or 'bonze,' here translated 'priests,' was frequently applied to Nestorian and Persian priests, as in this case."

XIV., p. 80. "Three Kings."

Regarding the legend of the stone cast into a well, cf. F.W.K. MüLLER, Uigurica, pp. 5-10 (Pelliot).

XVII., p. 90. "There are also plenty of veins of steel and Ondanique."

"The ondanique which Marco Polo mentions in his 42nd chapter is almost certainly the pin t'ieh or 'pin iron' of the Chinese, who frequently mention it as coming from Arabia, Persia, Cophene, Hami, Ouigour-land and other High Asia States." (E.H. PARKER, Journ. North China Br. Roy. Asiatic Soc., XXXVIII., 1907, p. 225.)

XVIII., pp. 97, 100. "The province that we now enter is called REOBARLES…. The beasts also are peculiar…. Then there are sheep here as big as asses; and their tails are so large and fat, that one tail shall weight some 30 lbs. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton."

Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Touching the fat-tailed sheep of Persia, the Shan-ha?-king says the Yu?h-ch? or Indo-Scythy had a 'big-tailed sheep' the correct name for which is hien-yang. The Sung History mentions sheep at Hami with tails so heavy that they could not walk. In the year 1010 some were sent as tribute to China by the King of Kuché."

"Among the native products [at Mu lan p'i, Murabit, Southern Coast of Spain] are foreign sheep, which are several feet high and have tails as big as a fan. In the spring-time they slit open their bellies and take out some tens of catties of fat, after which they sew them up again, and the sheep live on; if the fat were not removed, (the animal) would swell up and die." (CHAU JU-KWA, pp. 142-3.)

"The Chinese of the T'ang period had heard also of the trucks put under these sheep's tails. 'The Ta-sh? have a foreign breed of sheep (hu-yang) whose tails, covered with fine wool, weigh from ten to twenty catties; the people have to put carts under them to hold them up. Fan-kuo-ch? as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k'au." (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 143.)

Leo Africanus, Historie of Africa, III., 945 (Hakluyt Soc. ed.), says he saw in Egypt a ram with a tail weighing eighty pounds!:


"There is no difference betweene these rammes of Africa and others, saue onely in their tailes, which are of a great thicknes, being by so much the grosser, but

how much they are more fatte, so that some of their tailes waigh tenne, and other twentie pounds a peece, and they become fatte of their owne naturall inclination: but in Egypt there are diuers that feede them fatte with bran and barly, vntill their tailes growe so bigge that they cannot remooue themselves from place to place: insomuch that those which take charge of them are faine to binde little carts vnder their tailes, to the end they may haue strength to walke. I my selfe saw at a citie in Egypt called Asiot, and standing vpon Nilus, about an hundred and fiftie miles from Cairo, one of the saide rams tailes that weighed fowerscore pounds, and others affirmed that they had seene one of those tailes of an hundred and fiftie pounds weight. All the fatte therefore of this beast consisteth in his taile; neither is there any of them to be founde but onely in Tunis and in Egypt." (LEO AFRICANUS, edited by Dr. Robert BROWN, III., 1896, Hakluyt Society, p. 945.)

XVIII., pp. 97, 100 n.

Dr. B. Laufer draws my attention to what is probably the oldest mention of this sheep from Arabia, in Herodotus, Book III., Chap. 113:

"Concerning the spices of Arabia let no more be said. The whole country is scented with them, and exhales an odour marvellously sweet. There are also in Arabia two kinds of sheep worthy of admiration, the like of which is nowhere else to be seen; the one kind has long tails, not less than three cubits in length, which, if they were allowed to trail on the ground, would be bruised and fall into sores. As it is, all the shepherds know enough of carpentering to make little trucks for their sheep's tails. The trucks are placed under the tails, each sheep having one to himself, and the tails are then tied down upon them. The other kind has a broad tail, which is a cubit across sometimes."

Canon G. Rawlinson, in his edition of Herodotus, has the following note on this subject (II., p. 500):-

"Sheep of this character have acquired among our writers the name of Cape Sheep, from the fact that they are the species chiefly affected by our settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. They are common in Africa and throughout the East, being found not only in Arabia, but in Persia, Syria, Affghanistan, Egypt, Barbary, and even Asia Minor. A recent traveller, writing from Smyrna, says: 'The sheep of the country are the Cape sheep, having a kind of apron tail, entirely of rich marrowy fat, extending to the width of their hind quarters, and frequently trailing on the ground; the weight of the tail is often more than six or eight pounds' (FELLOWS'S Asia Minor, p. 10). Leo Africanus, writing in the 15th century, regards the broad tail as the great difference between the sheep of Africa and that of Europe. He declares that one which he had seen in Egypt weighed 80 lbs. He also mentions the use of trucks which is still common in North Africa."

XVIII., p. 98. "Camadi.-Reobarles.-In this plain there are a number of villages and towns which have lofty walls of mud, made as a defence against the banditti, who are very numerous, and are called CARAONAS. This name is given them because they are the sons of Indian mothers by Tartar fathers."

Mirzá Ha?dar writes (Tárikh-i-Rashidi, p. 148): "The learned Mirzá Ulugh Beg has written a history which he has called Ulus Arbaa. One of the 'four hordes' is that of the Moghul, who are divided into two branches, the Moghul and the Chaghatái. But these two branches, on account of their mutual enmity, used to call each other by a special name, by way of depreciation. Thus the Chaghatái called the Moghul Jatah, while the Moghul called the Chaghatái Karáwánás."

Cf. Ney ELIAS, l.c., pp. 76-77, and App. B, pp. 491-2, containing an inquiry made in Khorasán by Mr. Maula Bakhsh, Attaché at the Meshed Consulate General, of the families of Kárnás, he has heard or seen; he says: "These people speak Turki now, and are considered part of the Goklán Turkomans. They, however, say they are Chingiz-Kháni Moghuls, and are no doubt the descendants of the same Kárnás, or Karávanás, who took such a prominent part in the victories in Persia.

"The word Kárnás, I was told by a learned Goklan Mullah, means Tirandáz, or Shikári (i.e. Archer or Hunter), and was applied to this tribe of Moghuls on account of their professional skill in shooting, which apparently secured them an important place in the army. In Turki the word Kárnás means Shikamparast-literally, 'belly worshippers,' which implies avarice. This term is in use at present, and I was told, by a Kázi of Bujnurd, that it is sometimes used by way of reproach…. The Kárnás people in Mána and Gurgán say it is the name of their tribe, and they can give no other explanation."

XVIII., pp. 98, 102, 165. "The King of these scoundrels is called


Sir Aurel Stein has the following regarding the route taken by this Chief in Serindia, I., pp. 11-12:-

"To revert to an earlier period it is noteworthy that the route in Marco Polo's account, by which the Mongol partisan leader Nigudar, 'with a great body of horsemen, cruel unscrupulous fellows,' made his way from Badakhshan 'through another province called PASHAI-DIR, and then through another called ARIORA-KESHEMUR' to India, must have led down the Bashgol Valley. The name of Pashai clearly refers to the Kafirs among whom this tribal designation exists to this day, while the mention of Dir indicates the direction which this remarkable inroad had taken. That its further progress must have lain through Swat is made probable by the name which, in Marco Polo's account, precedes that of 'Keshemur' or Kashmir; for in the hitherto unexplained Ariora can be recognized, I believe, the present Agror, the name of the well-known hill-tract on the Hazara border which faces Buner from the left bank of the Indus. It is easy to see from any accurate map of these regions, that for a mobile column of horsemen forcing its way from Badakhshan to Kashmir, the route leading through the Bashgol Valley, Dir, Talash, Swat, Buner, Agror, and up the Jhelam Valley, would form at the present day, too, the most direct and practicable line of invasion."

In a paper on Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol inroad into Kashmir (Geog. Jour., August, 1919), Sir Aurel Stein reverts again to the same subject. "These [Mongol] inroads appear to have commenced from about 1260 A.D., and to have continued right through the reign of Ghiasuddin, Sultan of Delhi (1266-1286), whose identity with Marco's Asedin Soldan is certain. It appears very probable that Marco's story of Nogodar, the nephew of Chaghatái, relates to one of the earliest of these incursions which was recent history when the Poli passed through Persia about 1272-73 A.D."

Stein thinks, with Marsden and Yule, that Dilivar (pp. 99, 105) is really a misunderstanding of "Città di Livar" for Lahawar or Lahore.

Dir has been dealt with by Yule and Pauthier, and we know that it is "the mountain tract at the head of the western branch of the Panjkora River, through which leads the most frequented route from Peshawar and the lower Swat valley to Chitral" (Stein, l.c.). Now with regard to the situation of Pashai (p. 104):

"It is clear that a safe identification of the territory intended cannot be based upon such characteristics of its people as Marco Polo's account here notes obviously from hearsay, but must reckon in the first place with the plainly stated bearing and distance. And Sir Henry Yule's difficulty arose just from the fact that what the information accessible to him seemed to show about the location of the name Pashai could not be satisfactorily reconciled with those plain topographical data. Marco's great commentator, thoroughly familiar as he was with whatever was known in his time about the geography of the western Hindukush and the regions between Oxus and Indus, could not fail to recognize the obvious connection between our Pashai and the tribal name Pashai borne by Muhammanized Kafirs who are repeatedly mentioned in mediaeval and modern accounts of Kabul territory. But all these accounts seemed to place the Pashais in the vicinity of the great Panjshir valley, north-east of Kabul, through which passes one of the best-known routes from the Afghan capital to the Hindukush watershed and thence to the Middle Oxus. Panjshir, like Kabul itself, lies to the south-west of Badakshan, and it is just this discrepancy of bearing together with one in the distance reckoned to Kashmir which caused Sir Henry Yule to give expression to doubts when summing up his views about Nogodar's route."

From Sir George Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India we learn that to the south of the range of the Hindukush "the languages spoken from Kashmir in the east to Kafiristan in the west are neither of Indian nor of Iranian origin, but form a third branch of the Aryan stock of the great Indo-European language family. Among the languages of this branch, now rightly designated as 'Dardic,' the Kafir group holds a very prominent place. In the Kafir group again we find the Pashai language spoken over a very considerable area. The map accompanying Sir George Grierson's monograph on 'The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India' [Asiatic Society Monographs, VIII., 1906], shows Pashai as the language spoken along the right bank of the Kunar river as far as the Asmar tract as well as in the side valleys which from the north descend towards it and the Kabul river further west. This important fact makes it certain that the tribal designation of Pashai, to which this Kafir language owes its name, has to this day an application extending much further east than was indicated by the references which travellers, mediaeval and modern, along the Panjshir route have made to the Pashais and from which alone this ethnic name was previously known."

Stein comes to the conclusion that "the Mongols' route led across the Mandal Pass into the great Kafir valley of Bashgol and thus down to Arnawai on the Kunar. Thence Dir could be gained directly across the Zakhanna Pass, a single day's march. There were alternative routes, too, available to the same destination either by ascending the Kunar to Ashreth and taking the present 'Chitral Road' across the Lowarai, or descending the river to Asmar and crossing the Binshi Pass."

From Dir towards Kashmir for a large body of horsemen "the easiest and in matter of time nearest route must have led them as now down the Panjkora Valley and beyond through the open tracts of Lower Swat and Buner to the Indus about Amb. From there it was easy through the open northern part of the present Hazara District (the ancient Urasa) to gain the valley of the Jhelam River at its sharp bend near Muzzaffarabad."

The name of Agror (the direct phonetic derivative of the Sanskrit Atyugrapura) = Ariora; it is the name of the hill-tract on the Hazara border which faces Buner on the east from across the left bank of the Indus.

XVIII., p. 101.

Line 17, Note 4. Korano of the Indo-Scythic Coins is to be read Kosano. (PELLIOT.)

XVIII., p. 102.

On the Mongols of Afghanistan, see RAMSTEDT, Mogholica, in Journ. de la

Soc. Finno-Ougrienne, XXIII., 1905. (PELLIOT.)

XIX., p. 107. "The King is called RUOMEDAN AHOMET."

About 1060, Mohammed I. Dirhem Kub, from Yemen, became master of Hormuz, but his successors remained in the dependency of the sovereigns of Kermán until 1249, when Rokn ed-Din Mahmud III. Kalhaty (1242-1277) became independent. His successors in Polo's time were Se?f ed-Din Nusrat (1277-1290), Mas'ud (1290-1293), Beha ed-Din Ayaz Seyfin (1293-1311).

XIX., p. 115.


The Travels of Pedro Teixeira, a Portuguese traveller, probably of Jewish origin, certainly not a Jesuit, have been published by the Hakluyt Society:

The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his "Kings of Harmuz," and extracts

from his "King of Persia." Translated and annotated by William F.

Sinclair, Bombay Civil Service (Rtd.); With further Notes and an

Introduction by Donald Ferguson, London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society,

MDCCCCII, 8 vo. pp. cvii-292.

See Appendix A. A Short Narrative of the Origin of the Kingdom of Harmusz, and of its Kings, down to its Conquest by the Portuguese; extracted from its History, written by Torunxa, King of the Same, pp. 153-195. App. D. Relation of the Chronicle of the Kings of Ormuz, taken from a Chronicle composed by a King of the same Kingdom, named Pachaturunza, written in Arabic, and summarily translated into the Portuguese language by a friar of the order of Saint Dominick, who founded in the island of Ormuz a house of his order, pp. 256-267.

See Yule, Hobson-Jobson, s.v. Ormus.

Mr. Donald Ferguson, in a note, p. 155, says: "No dates are given in connection with the first eleven rulers of Hormuz; but assuming as correct the date (1278) given for the death of the twelfth, and allowing to each of his predecessors an average reign of thirteen years, the foundation of the kingdom of Hormuz would fall in A.D. 1100. Yule places the founding somewhat earlier; and Valentyn, on what authority I know not, gives A.D. 700 as the date of the founder Muhammad."

XIX., I., p. 116; II., p. 444.


Prof. E.H. Parker says that the T'ang History, in treating of the Arab conquests of Fuh-lin [or Frank] territory, alludes to the "date and dry fish diet of the Gulf people." The exact Chinese words are: "They feed their horses on dried fish, and themselves subsist on the hu-mang, or Persian date, as Bretschneider has explained." (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 134.)

Bretschneider, in Med. Researches, II., p. 134, n. 873, with regard to the dates writes: "Wan nien tsao, 'ten thousand years' jujubes'; called also Po-sze tao, or 'Persian jujubes.' These names and others were applied since the time of the T'ang dynasty to the dates brought from Persia. The author of the Pen ts'ao kang mu (end of the sixteenth century) states that this fruit is called k'u-lu-ma in Persia. The Persian name of the date is khurma."

Cf. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 210.

XXII., p. 128 n.


Major Sykes had adopted Sir Henry Yule's theory of the route from Kuh-benan to Tun. He has since altered his opinion in the Geographical Journal, October, 1905, p. 465: "I was under the impression that a route ran direct from Kubunán to Tabas, but when visiting this latter town a few months ago I made careful inquiries on the subject, which elicited the fact that this was not the case, and that the route invariably followed by Kubunán-Tabas caravans joined the Kermán-Rávar-Naiband route at Cháh-Kuru, 12 miles south of Darbana. It follows this track as far as Naiband, whence the route to Tabas branches off; but the main caravan route runs via Zenagan and Duhuk to Tun. This new information, I would urge, makes it almost certain that Ser Marco travelled to Tun, as Tabas falls to the west of the main route. Another point is that the district of Tabas only grows four months' supplies, and is, in consequence, generally avoided by caravans owing to its dearness.

"In 1893 I travelled from Tun to the south across the Lut as far as Cháh Kuru by this very route, and can testify to the general accuracy of Ser Marco's description,[1] although there are now villages at various points on the way. Finally, as our traveller especially mentions Tonocain, or Tun va Kain, one is inclined to accept this as evidence of first-rate importance, especially as it is now corroborated by the information I gained at Tabas. The whole question, once again, furnishes an example of how very difficult it is to make satisfactory inquiries, except on the spot."

It was also the opinion (1882) of Colonel C.E. Stewart, who says: "I was much interested in hearing of Kuh Banan, as it is one of the places mentioned by Marco Polo as on his route. Kuh Banan is described as a group of villages about 26 miles from the town of Rawar, in the Kárman district. I cannot help thinking the road travelled by Marco Polo from Kárman to Kain is the one by Naiband. Marco Polo speaks of Tun-o-Cain, which, Colonel Yule has pointed out, undoubtedly means Tun and Kain. At present Tun does not belong to the Kain district, but to the Tabbas district, and is always spoken of as Tun-o-Tabbas; and if it belonged, as I believe it formerly did, to the Kain district, it would be spoken of as Tun-o-Kain, exactly as Marco Polo does. Through Naiband is the shortest and best road to either Tun or Kain." (Proc. Royal Geog. Soc., VIII., 1886, p. 144.)

Support to Yule's theory has been brought by Sven Hedin, who devotes a chapter to Marco Polo in his Overland to India, II., 1910, Chap. XL., and discusses our traveller's route between Kuh-benan and Tabbas, pp. 71 seq.:

"As even Sykes, who travelled during several years through Persia in all directions, cannot decide with full certainty whether Marco Polo travelled by the western route through Tebbes or the eastern through Naibend, it is easy to see how difficult it is to choose between the two roads. I cannot cite the reasons Sir Henry Yule brings forward in favour of the western route-it would take us too far. I will, instead, set forth the grounds of my own conviction that Marco Polo used the direct caravan road between Kuh-benan and Tebbes.

"The circumstance that the main road runs through Naibend is no proof, for we find that Marco Polo, not only in Persia but also in Central Asia, exhibited a sovereign contempt for all routes that might be called convenient and secure.

"The distance between Kerman and Kuh-benan in a direct line amounts to 103 miles. Marco Polo travelled over this stretch in seven days, or barely 15 miles a day. From Kuh-benan to Tebbes the distance is 150 miles, or fully 18 miles a day for eight days. From Kuh-benan via Naibend to Tun, the distance is, on the other hand, 205 miles, or more than 25 miles a day. In either case we can perceive from the forced marches that after leaving Kuh-benan he came out into a country where the distances between the wells became much greater.

"If he travelled by the eastern route he must have made much longer day's journeys than on the western. On the eastern route the distances between the wells were greater. Major Sykes has himself travelled this way, and from his detailed description we get the impression that it presented particular difficulties. With a horse it is no great feat to ride 25 miles a day for eight days, but it cannot be done with camels. That I rode 42-1/2 miles a day between Hauz-i-Haji-Ramazan and Sadfe was because of the danger from rain in the Kevir, and to continue such a forced march for more than two days is scarcely conceivable. Undoubtedly Marco Polo used camels on his long journeys in Eastern Persia, and even if he had been able to cover 205 miles in eight days, he would not be obliged to do so, for on the main road through Naibend and Duhuk to Tun there are abundant opportunities of procuring water. Had he travelled through Naibend, he would in any case have had no need to hurry on so fast. He would probably keep to the same pace as on the way from Kerman to Kuh-benan, and this length he accomplished in seven days. Why should he have made the journey from Kuh-benan to Tun, which is exactly double as far, in only eight days instead of fourteen, when there was no necessity? And that he actually travelled between Kuh-benan and Tunocain in eight days is evident, because he mentions this number twice.

"He also says explicitly that during these eight days neither fruits nor trees are to be seen, and that you have to carry both food and water. This description is not true of the Naibend route, for in Naibend there are excellent water, fine dates, and other fruits. Then there is Duhuk, which, according to Sykes, is a very important village with an old fort and about 200 houses. After leaving Duhuk for the south, Sykes says: 'We continued our journey, and were delighted to hear that at the next stage, too, there was a village, proving that this section of the Lut is really quite thickly populated.' [Ten Thousand Miles in Persia, p. 35.] This does not agree at all with Marco Polo's description.

"I therefore consider it more probable that Marco Polo, as Sir Henry Yule supposes, travelled either direct to Tebbes, or perhaps made a trifling détour to the west, through the moderate-sized village Bahabad, for from this village a direct caravan road runs to Tebbes, entirely through desert. Marco Polo would then travel 150 miles in eight days compared with 103 miles in seven days between Kerman and Kuh-benan. He therefore increased his speed by only 4 miles a day, and that is all necessary on the route in question.

"Bahabad lies at a distance of 36 miles from Kubenan-all in a straight line. And not till beyond Bahabad does the real desert begin.

"To show that a caravan road actually connects Tebbes with Bahabad, I have inserted in the first and second columns of the following table the data I obtained in Tebbes and Fahanunch, and in the third the names marked on the 'Map of Persia (in six sheets) compiled in the Simla Drawing Office of the Survey of India, 1897.'

From Tebbes to Bahabad | From Fahanunch to Bahabad 1. Kurit . . . . . . . 4 | 2. Moghu . . . . . . . . 4-1/2 2. Moghu . . . . . . . 9 | 3. Sefid-ab . . . . . . 6 3. Sefid-ab . . . . . 6 | 4. Belucha . . . . . . . 5 4. Burch . . . . . . . 5 | 5. God-i-shah-taghi . . 6 5. God . . . . . . . . 5 | 6. Rizab . . . . . . . . 5 6. Rizab . . . . . . . 6 | 7.{Teng-i-Tebbes . . . . 4-1/2 7. Pudenum . . . . . . 8 | {Pudenun . . . . . . . 4-1/2 8. Ser-i-julge . . . . 4 | 8. Kheirabad . . . . . . 4 9. Bahabad . . . . . . 4 | 9. Bahabad . . . . . . . 4 - | - Farsakh . . . . . 51 | Farsakh . . . . . . 43-1/2

Map of Persia. 2. Maga . . . . . . . Salt well. 3. Chashma Sufid . . " " 4.{Khudafrin . . . . Sweet spring. {Pir Moral . . . . Salt well. 5. God Hashtaki . . . " " 6. Rezu . . . . . . . " "

"These details are drawn from different authorities, but are in excellent agreement. That the total distances are different in the first two columns is because Fahanunch lies nearer than Tebbes to Bahabad. Two or three discrepancies in the names are of no importance. Burch denotes a castle or fort; Belucha is evidently Cha-i-beluch or the well of the Baluchi, and it is very probable that a small fort was built some time or other at this well which was visited by raiders from Baluchistan. Ser-i-julge and Kheirabad may be two distinct camping grounds very near each other. The Chasma Sufid or 'white spring' of the English map is evidently the same place as Sefid-ab, or 'white water.' Its God Hashtaki is a corruption of the Persian God-i-shah-taghi, or the 'hollow of the royal saxaul.' Khudafrin, on the other hand, is very apocryphal. It is no doubt Khuda-aferin or 'God be praised!'-an ejaculation very appropriate in the mouth of a man who comes upon a sweet spring in the midst of the desert. If an Englishman travelled this way he might have mistaken this ejaculation for the name of the place. But then 'Unsurveyed' would hardly be placed just in this part of the Bahabad Desert.

"The information I obtained about the road from Tebbes to Bahabad was certainly very scanty, but also of great interest. Immediately beyond Kurit the road crosses a strip of the Kevir, 2 farsakh broad, and containing a river-bed which is said to be filled with water at the end of February. Sefid-ab is situated among hillocks and Burch in an upland district; to the south of it follows Kevir barely a farsakh broad, which may be avoided by a circuitous path. At God-i-shah-taghi, as the name implies, saxaul grows (Haloxylon Ammodendron). The last three halting-places before Bahabad all lie among small hills.

"This desert route runs, then, through comparatively hilly country, crosses two small Kevir depressions, or offshoots of one and the same Kevir, has pasturage at at least one place, and presents no difficulties of any account. The distance in a direct line is 113 miles, corresponding to 51 Persian farsakh-the farsakh in this district being only about 2.2 miles long against 2.9 in the great Kevir. The caravans which go through the Bahabad desert usually make the journey in ten days, one at least of which is a rest day, so that they cover little more than 12 miles a day. If water more or less salt were not to be found at all the eight camping-grounds, the caravans would not be able to make such short marches. It is also quite possible that sweet water is to be found in one place; where saxaul grows driftsand usually occurs, and wells digged in sand are usually sweet.

"During my stay in Tebbes a caravan of about 300 camels, as I have mentioned before, arrived from Sebsevar. They were laden with naft (petroleum), and remained waiting till the first belt of Kevir was dried after the last rain. As soon as this happened the caravan would take the road described above to Bahabad, and thence to Yezd. And this caravan route, Sebsevar, Turshiz, Bajistan, Tun, Tebbes, Bahabad, and Yezd, is considered less risky than the somewhat shorter way through the great Kevir. I myself crossed a part of the Bahabad desert where we did not once follow any of the roads used by caravans, and I found this country by no means one of the worst in Eastern Persia.

"In the above exposition I believe that I have demonstrated that it is extremely probable that Marco Polo travelled, not through Naibend to Tun, but through Bahabad to Tebbes, and thence to Tun and Kain. His own description accords in all respects with the present aspect and peculiarities of the desert route in question. And the time of eight days he assigns to the journey between Kuh-benan and Tonocain renders it also probable that he came to the last-named province at Tebbes, even if he travelled somewhat faster than caravans are wont to do at the present day. It signifies little that he does not mention the name Tebbes; he gives only the name of the province, adding that it contains a great many towns and villages. One of these was Tebbes."

XXII., p. 126.


"It seems that the word is 'the Arabicized word dúdhá, being Persian for "smokes."' There can be little doubt that we have direct confirmation of this in the Chinese words t'ou-t'ieh (still, I think, in use) and t'ou-shik, meaning 'tou-iron' and 't'ou-ore.' The character T'ou [Chinese] does not appear in the old dictionaries; its first appearance is in the History of the Toba (Tungusic) Dynasty of North China. This History first mentions the name 'Persia' in A.D. 455 and the existence there of this metal, which, a little later on, is also said to come from a State in the Cashmeer region. K'ang-hi's seventeenth-century dictionary is more explicit: it states that Termed produces this ore, but that 'the true sort comes from Persia, and looks like gold, but on being heated it turns carnation, and not black.' As the Toba Emperors added 1000 new characters to the Chinese stock, we may assume this one to have been invented, for the specific purpose indicated.'" (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 135-6.) Prof. Parker adds the following note, l.c., p. 149: "Since writing the above, I have come across a passage in the 'History of the Sung Dynasty' (chap. 490, p. 17) stating that an Arab junk-master brought to Canton in A.D. 990, and sent on thence to the Chinese Emperor in Ho Nan, 'one vitreous bottle of tutia.' The two words mean 'metropolis-father,' and are therefore without any signification, except as a foreign word. According to Yule's notes (I., p. 126), tútiá, or dudhá, in one of its forms was used as an eye-ointment or collyrium."

XXII., pp. 127-139. The Province of Tonocain "contains an immense plain on which is found the ARBRE SOL, which we Christians call the Arbre Sec; and I will tell you what it is like. It is a tall and thick tree, having the bark on one side green and the other white; and it produces a rough husk like that of a chestnut, but without anything in it. The wood is yellow like box, and very strong, and there are no other trees near it nor within a hundred miles of it, except on one side, where you find trees within about ten miles distance."

In a paper published in the Journal of the R. As. Soc., Jan., 1909, Gen. Houtum-Schindler comes to the conclusion, p. 157, that Marco Polo's tree is not the "Sun Tree," but the Cypress of Zoroaster; "Marco Polo's arbre sol and arbre seul stand for the Persian _dirakht i sol, i.e. the cypress-tree. If General Houtum Schindler had seen the third edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo, I., p. 113, he would have found that I read his paper of the J.R.A.S., of January, 1898."

XXII., p. 132, l. 22. The only current coin is millstones.

Mr. T.B. CLARKE-THORNHILL wrote to me in 1906: "Though I can hardly imagine that there can be any connection between the Caroline Islands and the 'Amiral d'Outre l'Arbre Sec,' still it may interest you to know that the currency of 'millstones' existed up to a short time ago, and may do so still, in the island of Yap, in that group. It consisted of various-sized discs of quartz from about 6 inches to nearly 3 feet in diameter, and from 1/2 an inch to 3 or 4 inches in thickness."

XXV., p. 146.


Regarding the reduction of the Ismaelites, the Yu?n Sh? tells us that

in 1222, on his way back after the taking of Nishapur, Tuli, son of

Genghis, plundered the State of Mu-la-i, captured Herat, and joined his

father at Talecan. In 1229 the King of Mu-lei presented himself at the

Mongol Court…. The following statement is also found in the Mongol

Annals: "In the seventh moon [1252] the Emperor ordered K'i-t'ah-t'êh

Pu-ha to carry war against the Ma-la-hi.'" (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart.

Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 136.)

XXVI., p. 149. "On leaving the Castle [of the Old Man], you ride over fine plains and beautiful valleys, and pretty hill-sides producing excellent grass pasture, and abundance of fruits, and all other products…. This kind of country extends for six days' journey, with a goodly number of towns and villages, in which the people are worshippers of Mahommet. Sometimes also you meet with a tract of desert extending for 50 or 60 miles, or somewhat less, and in these deserts you find no water, but have to carry it along with you…. So after travelling for six days as I have told you, you come to a city called Sapurgan…."

Sven Hedin remarks: "From this it is apparent that the six days' journey of fine country were traversed immediately before Marco Polo reached Sapurgan. Sir Henry Yule says in a note: 'Whether the true route be, as I suppose, by Nishapur and Meshed, or, as Khanikoff supposes, by Herat and Badghis, it is strange that no one of those famous cities is mentioned. And we feel constrained to assume that something has been misunderstood in the dictation, or has dropped out of it.' Yule removes the six days of fine country to the district between Sebsevar and Meshed, and considers that for at least the first day's marches beyond Nishapur Marco Polo's description agrees admirably with that given by Fraser and Ferrier.

"I travelled between Sebsevar and Meshed in the autumn of 1890, and I cannot perceive that Marco Polo's description is applicable to the country. He speaks of six days' journey through beautiful valleys and pretty hillsides. To the east of Sebsevar you come out into desert country, which, however passes into fertile country with many villages.[2] Then there comes a boundless dreary steppe to the south. At the village Seng-i-kal-i-deh you enter an undulating country with immense flocks of sheep. 'The first stretch of the road between Shurab and Nishapur led us through perfect desert..; but the landscape soon changed its aspect; the desert passed by degrees into cultivated lands, and we rode past several villages surrounded by fields and gardens…. We here entered the most fertile and densely peopled region in Khorasan, in the midst of which the town of Nishapur is situated.' Of the tract to the east of Nishapur I say: 'Here are found innumerable villages. The plain and slopes are dotted with them. This district is extraordinarily densely inhabited and well cultivated.' But then all this magnificence comes to an end, and of the last day's journey between Kademgah and Meshed I write: 'The country rose and we entered a maze of low intricate hillocks…. The country was exceedingly dreary and bare. Some flocks of sheep were seen, however, but what the fat and sleek sheep lived on was a puzzle to me…. This dismal landscape was more and more enlivened by travellers…. To the east stretched an undulating steppe up to the frontier of Afghanistan.'

"The road between Sebsevar and Meshed is, in short, of such a character that it can hardly fit in with Marco Polo's enthusiastic description of the six days. And as these came just before Sapurgan, one cannot either identify the desert regions named with the deserts about the middle course of the Murgab which extend between Meshed and Shibirkhan. He must have crossed desert first, and it may be identified with the nemek-sar or salt desert east of Tun and Kain. The six days must have been passed in the ranges Paropamisus, Firuz-kuh, and Bend-i-Turkestan. Marco Polo is not usually wont to scare his readers by descriptions of mountainous regions, but at this place he speaks of mountains and valleys and rich pastures. As it was, of course, his intention to travel on into the heart of Asia, to make a détour through Sebsevar was unnecessary and out of his way. If he had travelled to Sebsevar, Nishapur, and Meshed, he would scarcely call the province of Tun-o-Kain the extremity of Persia towards the north, even as the political boundaries were then situated.

"From Balkh his wonderful journey proceeded further eastwards, and therefore we take leave of him. Precisely in Eastern Persia his descriptions are so brief that they leave free room for all kinds of speculations. In the foregoing pages it has been simply my desire to present a few new points of view. The great value of Marco Polo's description of the Persian desert consists in confirming and proving its physical invariableness during more than six hundred years. It had as great a scarcity of oases then as now, and the water in the wells was not less salt than in our own days." (Overland to India, II., pp. 75-77.)

XXVII., p. 152 n.


"The country of Dogana is quite certain to be the Chinese T'u-ho-lo or Tokhara; for the position suits, and, moreover, nearly all the other places named by Marco Polo along with Dogana occur in Chinese History along with Tokhara many centuries before Polo's arrival. Tokhara being the most important, it is inconceivable that Marco Polo would omit it. Thus, Poh-lo (Balkh), capital of the Eptals; Ta-la-kien (Talecan), mentioned by Hiuan Tsang; Ho-sim or Ho-ts'z-mi (Casem), mentioned in the T'ang History; Shik-nih or Sh?-k'i-ni (Syghinan) of the T'ang History; Woh-k'an (Vochan), of the same work; several forms of Bolor, etc. (see also my remarks on the Pamir region in the Contemporary Review for Dec., 1897)." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 142.)

XIX., p. 160.


"The Chinese name for 'Badakhshan' never appears before the Pa-ta-shan of

Kúblái's time." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXX., pp. 164-166. "You must know that ten days' journey to the south of Badashan there is a province called PASHAI, the people of which have a peculiar language, and are Idolaters, of a brown complexion. They are great adepts in sorceries and the diabolic arts. The men wear earrings and brooches of gold and silver set with stones and pearls. They are a pestilent people and a crafty; and they live upon flesh and rice. Their country is very hot."

Sir A. STEIN writes (Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 14-15 n.): "Sir Henry Yule was undoubtedly right in assuming that Marco Polo had never personally visited these countries and that his account of them, brief as it is, was derived from hearsay information about the tracts which the Mongol partisan leader Nigudar had traversed, about 1260 A.D., on an adventurous incursion from Badakhshan towards Kashmir and the Punjab. In Chapter XVIII., where the Venetian relates that exploit (see Yule, Marco Polo, I., p. 98, with note, p. 104), the name of Pashai is linked with Dir, the territory on the Upper Panjkora river, which an invader, wishing to make his way from Badakhshan into Kashmir by the most direct route, would necessarily have to pass through.

"The name Pashai is still borne to this day by a Muhamadanized tribe closely akin to the Siah-posh, settled in the Panjshir Valley and in the hills on the west and south of Kafiristan. It has been very fully discussed by Sir Henry Yule (Ibid., I., p. 165), who shows ample grounds for the belief that this tribal name must have once been more widely spread over the southern slopes of the Hindu kush as far as they are comprised in the limits of Kafiristan. If the great commentator nevertheless records his inability to account for Marco Polo's application of 'the name Pashai to the country south-east of Badakhshan,' the reason of the difficulty seems to me to lie solely in Sir Henry Yule's assumption that the route heard of by the traveller, led 'by the Doráh or the Nuksán Pass, over the watershed of Hindu kúsh into Chitrál and so to Dir.'

"Though such a route via Chitral would, no doubt, have been available in Marco Polo's time as much as now, there is no indication whatever forcing us to believe that it was the one really meant by his informants. When Nigudar 'with a great body of horsemen, cruel unscrupulous fellows' went off from Badakhshan towards Kashmir, he may very well have made his way over the Hindu kúsh by the more direct line that passes to Dir through the eastern part of Kafiristan. In fact, the description of the Pashai people and their country, as given by Marco Polo, distinctly points to such a route; for we have in it an unmistakable reflex of characteristic features with which the idolatrous Siah-posh Kafirs have always been credited by their Muhammadan neighbours.

"It is much to be regretted that the Oriental records of the period, as far as they were accessible to Sir Henry Yule, seemed to have retained only faint traces of the Mongol adventurer's remarkable inroad. From the point of view of Indian history it was, no doubt, a mere passing episode. But some details regarding it would possess special interest as illustrating an instance of successful invasion by a route that so far has not received its due share of attention." [See supra, pp. 4, 22-24.]

XXX., p. 164.

"The Chinese Toba Dynasty History mentions, in company with Samarcand, K'a-shi-mih (Cashmeer), and Kapisa, a State called Pan-shê, as sending tribute to North China along with the Persian group of States. This name Pan-shê [Chinese] does not, to the best of my belief, occur a second time in any Chinese record." (PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 135.)

XXX., p. 164. "Now let us proceed and speak of another country which is seven day's journey from this one [Pashai] towards the south-east, and the name of which is KESHIMUR."

This short estimate has perplexed Sir Henry Yule, l.c., p. 166. Sir Aurel Stein remarks in a note, Serindia, I., p. 12: "The route above indicated [Nigudar's route] permits an explanation. Starting from some point like Arnawal on the Kunar River which certainly would be well within 'Pashai,' lightly equipped horsemen could by that route easily reach the border of Agror on the Indus within seven days. Speaking from personal knowledge of almost the whole of the ground I should be prepared to do the ride myself by the following stages: Dir, Warai, Sado, Chakdara, Kin kargalai, Bajkatta, Kai or Darband on the Indus. It must be borne in mind that, as Yule rightly recognized, Marco Polo is merely reproducing information derived from a Mongol source and based on Nigudar's raid; and further that Hazara and the valley of the Jhelam were probably then still dependent on the Kashmir kingdom, as they were certainly in Kalhana's time, only a century earlier. As to the rate at which Mongols were accustomed to travel on 'Dak,' cf. Yule, Marco Polo, I., pp. 434 seq."

XXXII., pp. 170, 171. "The people [of Badashan] are Mahommetans, and valiant in war…. They [the people of Vokhan] are gallant soldiers."

In Afghan Wakhan, Sir Aurel Stein writes:

"On we cantered at the head of quite a respectable cavalcade to where, on the sandy plain opposite to the main hamlet of Sarhad, two companies of foot with a squad of cavalry, close on two hundred men in all, were drawn up as a guard of honour. Hardy and well set up most of them looked, giving the impression of thoroughly serviceable human material, in spite of a manifestly defective drill and the motley appearance of dress and equipment.

"They belonged, so the Colonel explained to me afterwards, to a sort of militia drafted from the local population of the Badakhshan valleys and Wakhan into the regiments permanently echeloned as frontier guards along the Russian border on the Oxus. Apart from the officers, the proportion of true Pathans among them was slight. Yet I could well believe from all I saw and heard, that, properly led and provided for, these sturdy Iranian hillmen might give a good account of themselves. Did not Marco Polo speak of the people of 'Badashan' as 'valiant in war' and of the men of 'Vokhan' as gallant soldiers?" (Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 66.)

XXXII., pp. 170 seq.

In Chap. III., pp. 64-66, of his Serindia, Sir Aurel Stein has the following on Marco Polo's account of Wakhan:-

"After Wu-k'ung's narrative of his journey the Chinese sources of information about the Pamirs and the adjoining regions run dry for nearly a thousand years. But that the routes leading across them from Wakhan retained their importance also in Muhammedan times is attested by the greatest mediaeval travellers, Marco Polo. I have already, in Ancient Khotan [pp. 41 seq.], discussed the portion of his itinerary which deals with the journey across the Pamirs to 'the kingdom of Cascar' or Kashgar, and it only remains here to note briefly what he tells us of the route by which he approached them from Badakhshan: 'In leaving Badashan you ride twelve days between east and north-east, ascending a river that runs through land belonging to a brother of the Prince of Badashan, and containing a good many towns and villages and scattered habitations. The people are Mahommetans, and valiant in war. At the end of those twelve days you come to a province of no great size, extending indeed no more than three days' journey in any direction, and this is called VOKHAN. The people worship Mahommet, and they have a peculiar language. They are gallant soldiers, and they have a chief whom they call NONE, which is as much as to say Count, and they are liegemen to the Prince of Badashan.' [Polo, I., pp. 170-171.]

"Sir Henry Yule was certainly right in assuming that 'the river along which Marco travels from Badakhshan is no doubt the upper stream of the Oxus, locally known as the Panja…. It is true that the river is reached from Badakhshan Proper by ascending another river (the Vardoj) and crossing the 'Pass of Ishkáshm, but in the brief style of our narrative we must expect such condensation.' [Polo, I., pp. 172-3.] Marco's great commentator was guided by equally true judgment when he recognized in the indications of this passage the same system of government that prevailed in the Oxus valleys until modern times. Under it the most of the hill tracts dependent from Badakhshan, including Ishkashim and Wakhan, were ruled not direct by the Mir, but by relations of his or hereditary chiefs who held their districts on a feudal tenure. The twelve days' journey which Marco records between Badashan and 'Vokhan' are, I think, easily accounted for if it is assumed that the distance from capital to capital is meant; for twelve marches are still allowed for as the distance from Baharak, the old Badakhshan capital on the Vardoj, to Kila Panja.

"That the latter was in Marco's days, as at present, the chief place of Wakhan is indicated also by his narrative of the next stage of his journey. 'And when you leave this little country, and ride three days north-east, always among mountains, you get to such a height that 'tis said to be the highest place in the world! And when you have got to this height you find [a great lake between two mountains, and out of it] a fine river running through a plain…. The plain is called PAMIER.' The bearing and descriptive details here given point clearly to the plain of the Great Pamir and Victoria Lake, its characteristic feature. About sixty-two miles are reckoned from Langar-kisht, the last village on the northern branch of the Ab-i-Panja and some six miles above Kila Panja, to Mazar-tapa where the plain of the Great Pamir may be said to begin, and this distance agrees remarkably well with the three marches mentioned by Marco.

"His description of Wakhan as 'a province of no great size, extending indeed no more than three days' journey in any direction' suggests that a portion of the valley must then have formed part of the chiefship of Ishkashim or Zebak over which we may suppose 'the brother of the Prince of Badashan' to have ruled. Such fluctuations in the extent of Wakhan territory are remembered also in modern times. Thus Colonel Trotter, who visited Wakhan with a section of the Yarkand Mission in 1874, distinctly notes that 'Wakhan formerly contained three "sads" or hundreds, i.e., districts, containing 100 houses each' (viz. Sad-i-Sar-hadd, Sad Sipang, Sad Khandut). To these Sad Ishtragh, the tract extending from Digargand to Ishkashim, is declared to have been added in recent times, having formerly been an independent principality. It only remains to note that Marco was right, too, in his reference to the peculiar language of Wakhan; for Wakhi-which is spoken not only by the people of Wakhan but also by the numerous Wakhi colonists spread through Mastuj, Hunza Sarikol, and even further east in the mountains-is a separate language belonging to the well-defined group of Galcha tongues which itself forms the chief extant branch of Eastern Iranian."

XXXII., pp. 171 seq., 175, 182.


"On leaving Tash-kurghan (July 10, 1900), my steps, like those of Hiuan-tsang, were directed towards Kashgar…. In Chapters V.-VII. of my Personal Narrative I have given a detailed description of this route, which took me past Muztagh-Ata to Lake Little Kara-kul, and then round the foot of the great glacier-crowned range northward into the Gez defile, finally debouching at Tashmalik into the open plain of Kashgari. Though scarcely more difficult than the usual route over the Chichiklik Pass and by Yangi-Hisar, it is certainly longer and leads for a considerably greater distance over ground which is devoid of cultivation or permanent habitations.

"It is the latter fact which makes me believe that Professor H. Cordier was right in tracing by this very route Marco Polo's itinerary from the Central Pamirs to Kashgar. The Venetian traveller, coming from Wakhan, reached, after three days, a great lake which may be either Lake Victoria or Lake Chakmak, at a 'height that is said to be the highest place in the world.' He then describes faithfully enough the desert plain called 'Pamier,' which he makes extend for the distance of a twelve days' ride, and next tells us: 'Now, if we go on with our journey towards the east-north-east, we travel a good forty days, continually passing over mountains and hills, or through valleys, and crossing many rivers and tracts of wilderness. And in all this way you find neither habitation of man, nor any green thing, but must carry with you whatever you require.'

"This reference to continuous 'tracts of wilderness' shows clearly that, for one reason or another, Marco Polo did not pass through the cultivated valleys of Tash-kurghan or Tagharma, as he would necessarily have done if his route to Kashgar, the region he next describes, had lain over the Chichiklik Pass. We must assume that, after visiting either the Great or Little Pamir, he travelled down the Ak-su river for some distance, and then crossing the watershed eastwards by one of the numerous passes struck the route which leads past Muztagh-Ata and on towards the Gez defile. In the brief supplementary notes contributed to Professor Cordier's critical analysis of this portion of Marco Polo's itinerary, I have pointed out how thoroughly the great Venetian's description of the forty days' journey to the E.N.E. of the Pamir Lake can be appreciated by any one who has passed through the Pamir region and followed the valleys stretching round the Muztagh-Ata range on the west and north (cf. Yule, Marco Polo, II., pp. 593 seq.). After leaving Tash-kurghan and Tagharma there is no local produce to be obtained until the oasis of Tashmalik is reached. In the narrow valley of the Yaman-yar river, forming the Gez defile, there is scarcely any grazing; its appearance down to its opening into the plain is, in fact, far more desolate than that of the elevated Pamir regions.

"In the absence of any data as to the manner and season in which Marco Polo's party travelled, it would serve no useful purpose to hazard explanations as to why he should assign a duration of forty days to a journey which for a properly equipped traveller need not take more than fifteen or sixteen days, even when the summer floods close the passage through the lower Gez defile, and render it necessary to follow the circuitous track over the Tokuk Dawan or 'Nine Passes.' But it is certainly worth mention that Benedict Go?z, too, speaks of the desert of 'Pamech' (Pamir) as taking forty days to cross if the snow was extensive, a record already noted by Sir H. Yule (Cathay, II., pp. 563 seq.). It is also instructive to refer once more to the personal experience of the missionary traveller on the alternative route by the Chichiklik Pass. According to the record quoted above, he appears to have spent no less than twenty-eight days in the journeys from the hamlets of 'Sarcil' (Sarikol, i.e. Tash-kurghan) to 'Hiarchan' (Yarkand)-a distance of some 188 miles, now reckoned at ten days' march." (Stein, Ancient Khotan, pp. 40-42.)

XXXII., p. 171. "The Plain is called PAMIER, and you ride across it for twelve days together, finding nothing but a desert without habitations or any green thing, so that travellers are obliged to carry with them whatever they have need of."

At Sarhad, Afghan Wakhan, Stein, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 69, writes: "There was little about the low grey houses, or rather hovels, of mud and rubble to indicate the importance which from early times must have attached to Sarhad as the highest place of permanent occupation on the direct route leading from the Oxus to the Tarim Basin. Here was the last point where caravans coming from the Bactrian side with the products of the Far West and of India could provision themselves for crossing that high tract of wilderness 'called Pamier' of which old Marco Polo rightly tells us: 'You ride across it …' And as I looked south towards the snow-covered saddle of the Baroghil, the route I had followed myself, it was equally easy to realize why Kao Hsien-chih's strategy had, after the successful crossing of the Pamirs, made the three columns of his Chinese Army concentrate upon the stronghold of Lien-yün, opposite the present Sarhad. Here was the base from which Yasin could be invaded and the Tibetans ousted from their hold upon the straight route to the Indus."

XXXII., p. 174.

"The note connecting Hiuan Tsang's Kieh sha with Kashgar is probably based upon an error of the old translators, for the Sita River was in the Pamir region, and K'a sha was one of the names of Kasanna, or Kieh-shwang-na, in the Oxus region." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXII., I. p. 173; II. p. 593.


Cf. The Name Kushan, by J.F. Fleet, Jour. Roy. As. Soc., April, 1914, pp. 374-9; The Shaonano Shao Coin Legend; and a Note on the name Kushan by J. Allan, Ibid., pp. 403-411. PAONANO PAO. Von Joh. Kirste. (Wiener Zeit. f. d. Kunde d. Morg., II., 1888, pp. 237-244.)

XXXII., p. 174.


"The old statement is repeated that the Yüeh Chi, or Indo-Scyths (i.e. the Eptals), 'are said to have been of Tibetan origin.' A long account of this people was given in the Asiatic Quart. Rev. for July, 1902. It seems much more likely that they were a branch of the Hiung-nu or Turks. Albiruni's 'report' that they were of Tibetan origin is probably founded on the Chinese statement that some of their ways were like Tibetan ways, and that polyandry existed amongst them; also that they fled from the Hiung-nu westwards along the north edge of the Tibetan territory, and some of them took service as Tibetan officials." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXII., pp. 178-179.


We read in the Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Haidar (Notes by Ney Elias; translated by E.D. Ross, 1895), p. 135, that Sultán Said Khán, son of Mansur Khán, sent the writer in the year 934 (1528), "with Rashid Sultán, to Balur, which is a country of infidels [Káfiristán], between Badakhshan and Kashmir, where we conducted successfully a holy war [ghazát], and returned victorious, loaded with booty and covered with glory."

Mirza Haidar gives the following description of Bolor (pp. 384-5): "Balur is an infidel country [Káfiristán], and most of its inhabitants are mountaineers. Not one of them has a religion or a creed. Nor is there anything which they [consider it right to] abstain from or to avoid [as impure]; but they do whatever they list, and follow their desires without check or compunction. Baluristán is bounded on the east by the province of Káshgar and Yárkand; on the north by Badakhshán; on the west by Kábul and Lumghán; and on the south by the dependencies of Kashmir. It is four months' journey in circumference. Its whole extent consists of mountains, valleys, and defiles, insomuch that one might almost say that in the whole of Baluristán, not one farsákh of level ground is to be met with. The population is numerous. No village is at peace with another, but there is constant hostility, and fights are continually occurring among them."

From the note to this passage (p. 385) we note that "for some twenty years ago, Mr. E.B. Shaw found that the Kirghiz of the Pamirs called Chitrál by the name of Pálor. To all other inhabitants of the surrounding regions, however, the word appears now to be unknown….

"The Balur country would then include Hunza, Nagar, possibly Tásh Kurghán,

Gilgit, Panyál, Yasin, Chitrál, and probably the tract now known as

Kafiristan: while, also, some of the small states south of Gilgit, Yasin,

etc., may have been regarded as part of Balur….

"The conclusions arrived at [by Sir H. Yule], are very nearly borne out by Mirza Haidar's description. The only differences are (1) that, according to our author, Baltistán cannot have been included in Balur, as he always speaks of that country, later in his work, as a separate province with the name of Balti, and says that it bordered on Balur; and (2) that Balur was confined almost entirely, as far as I am able to judge from his description in this passage and elsewhere, to the southern slopes of the Eastern Hindu Kush, or Indus water-parting range; while Sir H. Yule's map makes it embrace Sárigh-Kul and the greater part of the eastern Pamirs."

XXXIII., p. 182. "The natives [of Cascar] are a wretched, niggardly set of people; they eat and drink in miserable fashion."

The people of Kashgar seem to have enjoyed from early times a reputation for rough manners and deceit (Stein, Ancient Khotan, p. 49 n). Stein, p. 70, recalls Hiuan Tsang's opinion: "The disposition of the men is fierce and impetuous, and they are mostly false and deceitful. They make light of decorum and politeness, and esteem learning but little." Stein adds, p. 70, with regard to Polo's statement: "Without being able to adduce from personal observation evidence as to the relative truth of the latter statement, I believe that the judgements recorded by both those great travellers may be taken as a fair reflex of the opinion in which the 'Kashgarliks' are held to this day by the people of other Turkestan districts, especially by the Khotanese. And in the case of Hiuan Tsang at least, it seems probable from his long stay in, and manifest attachment to, Khotan that this neighbourly criticism might have left an impression upon him."

XXXVI., p. 188.


Sir Aurel Stein writes (Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 139-140): "Marco Polo's account of Khotan and the Khotanese forms an apt link between these early Chinese notices and the picture drawn from modern observation. It is brief but accurate in all details. The Venetian found the people 'subject to the Great Kaan' and 'all worshippers of Mahommet.' 'There are numerous towns and villages in the country, but Cotan, the capital, is the most noble of all and gives its name to the kingdom. Everything is to be had there in plenty, including abundance of cotton [with flax, hemp, wheat, wine, and the like]. The people have vineyards and gardens and estates. They live by commerce and manufactures, and are no soldiers.' Nor did the peculiar laxity of morals, which seems always to have distinguished the people of the Khotan region, escape Marco Polo's attention. For of the 'Province of Pein' which, as we shall see, represents the oases of the adjoining modern district of Keriya, he relates the custom that 'if the husband of any woman go away upon a journey and remain away for more than twenty days, as soon as that term is past the woman may marry another man, and the husband also may then marry whom he pleases.'

"No one who has visited Khotan or who is familiar with the modern accounts of the territory, can read the early notices above extracted without being struck at once by the fidelity with which they reflect characteristic features of the people at the present day. Nor is it necessary to emphasize the industrial pre-eminence which Khotan still enjoys in a variety of manufactures through the technical skill and inherited training of the bulk of its population."

Sir Aurel Stein further remarks (Ancient Khotan, I., p. 183): "When Marco Polo visited Khotan on his way to China, between the years 1271 and 1275, the people of the oasis were flourishing, as the Venetian's previously quoted account shows. His description of the territories further east, Pein, Cherchen, and Lop, which he passed through before crossing 'the Great Desert' to Sha-chou, leaves no doubt that the route from Khotan into Kan-su was in his time a regular caravan road. Marco Polo found the people of Khotan 'all worshippers of Mahommet' and the territory subject to the 'Great Kaan', i.e. Kúblái, whom by that time almost the whole of the Middle Kingdom acknowledged as emperor. While the neighbouring Yarkand owed allegiance to Kaidu, the ruler of the Chagatai dominion, Khotan had thus once more renewed its old historical connexion with China."

XXVI., p. 190.

"A note of Yule's on p. 190 of Vol. I. describes Johnson's report on the people of Khoten (1865) as having 'a slightly Tartar cast of countenance.' The Toba History makes the same remark 1300 years earlier: 'From Kao-ch'ang (Turfan) westwards the people of the various countries have deep eyes and high noses; the features in only this one country (Khoten) are not very Hu (Persian, etc.), but rather like Chinese.' I published a tolerably complete digest of Lob Nor and Khoten early history from Chinese sources, in the Anglo-Russian Society's Journal for Jan. and April, 1903. It appears to me that the ancient capital Yotkhan, discovered thirty-five years ago, and visited in 1891 by MM. de Rhins and Grenard, probably furnishes a clue to the ancient Chinese name of Yu-t'ien." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXVII., p. 190 n.

Stein has devoted a whole chapter of his Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan,

Chap. XVI., pp. 256 seq. to Yotkan, the Site of the Ancient Capital.

XXXVII., p. 191, n. 1.


"It is a mistake to suppose that the earlier pilgrim Fa-hien (A.D. 400) followed the 'directer route' from China; he was obliged to go to Kao ch'ang, and then turn sharp south to Khoten." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXVII., p. 192.

I have embodied, in Vol. II., p. 595, of Marco Polo, some of the remarks of Sir Aurel Stein regarding Pein and Uzun Tati. In Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 462-3, he has given further evidence of the identity of Uzun Tati and P'i mo, and he has discussed the position of Ulug-Ziarat, probably the Han mo of Sung Yun.

XXXVII., p. 191; II., p. 595.

"Keriya, the Pein of Marco Polo and Pimo of Hwen Tsiang, writes Huntington, is a pleasant district, with a population of about fifteen thousand souls." Huntington discusses (p. 387) the theory of Stein:

"Stein identifies Pimo or Pein, with ancient Kenan, the site … now known as Uzun Tetti or Ulugh Mazar, north of Chira. This identification is doubtful, as appears from the following table of distances given by Hwen Tsiang, which is as accurate as could be expected from a casual traveller. I have reckoned the 'li,' the Chinese unit of distance, as equivalent to 0.26 of a mile.

Distance according to

Names of Places. True Distance. Hwen Tsiang.

Khotan (Yutien) to Keriya (Pimo) 97 miles. 330 li 86 miles.

Keriya (Pimo) to Niya (Niyang) 64 " 200 " 52 "

Niya (Niyang) to Endereh (Tuholo) 94 " 400 " 104 "

Endereh (Tuholo) to Kotak Sheri? (Chemotona) 138? " 600 " 156 "

Kotak Sheri (Chemotona) to Lulan (Nafopo) 264? " 1000 " 260 "

"If we use the value of the 'li' 0.274 of a mile given by Hedin, the distances from Khotan to Keriya and from Keriya to Niya, according to Hwen Tsiang, become 91 and 55 miles instead of 86 and 52 as given in the table, which is not far from the true distances, 97 and 64.

"If, however, Pimo is identical with Kenan, as Stein thinks, the distances which Hwen Tsiang gives as 86 and 52 miles become respectively 60 and 89, which is evidently quite wrong.

"Strong confirmation of the identification of Keriya with Pimo is found in a comparison of extracts from Marco Polo's and Hwen Tsiang's accounts of that city with passages from my note-book, written long before I had read the comments of the ancient travellers. Marco Polo says that the people of Pein, or Pima, as he also calls it, have the peculiar custom 'that if a married man goes to a distance from home to be about twenty days, his wife has a right, if she is so inclined, to take another husband; and the men, on the same principle, marry wherever they happen to reside.' The quotation from my notes runs as follows: 'The women of the place are noted for their attractiveness and loose character. It is said that many men coming to Keriya for a short time become enamoured of the women here, and remain permanently, taking new wives and abandoning their former wives and families.'

"Hwen Tsiang observed that thirty 'li,' seven or eight miles, west of Pimo, there is 'a great desert marsh, upwards of several acres in extent, without any verdure whatever. The surface is reddish black.' The natives explained to the pilgrim that it was the blood-stained site of a great battle fought many years before. Eighteen miles north-west of Keriya bazaar, or ten miles from the most westerly village of the oasis, I observed that 'some areas which are flooded part of the year are of a deep rich red colour, due to a small plant two or three inches high.' I saw such vegetation nowhere else and apparently it was an equally unusual sight to Hwen Tsiang.

"In addition to these somewhat conclusive observations, Marco Polo says that jade is found in the river of Pimo, which is true of the Keriya, but not of the Chira, or the other rivers near Kenan." (Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, The Pulse of Asia, pp. 387-8.)

XXVIII., p. 194. "The whole of the Province [of Charchan] is sandy, and so is the road all the way from Pein, and much of the water that you find is bitter and bad. However, at some places you do find fresh and sweet water."

Sir Aurel Stein remarks (Ancient Khotan, I., p. 436): "Marco Polo's description, too, 'of the Province of Charchan' would agree with the assumption that the route west of Charchan was not altogether devoid of settlements even as late as the thirteenth century…. [His] account of the route agrees accurately with the conditions now met with between Niya and Charchan. Yet in the passage immediately following, the Venetian tells us how 'when an army passes through the land, the people escape with their wives, children, and cattle a distance of two or three days' journey into the sandy waste; and, knowing the spots where water is to be had, they are able to live there, and to keep their cattle alive, while it is impossible to discover them.' It seems to me clear that Marco Polo alludes here to the several river courses which, after flowing north of the Niya-Charchan route, lose themselves in the desert. The jungle belt of their terminal areas, no doubt, offered then, as it would offer now, safe places of refuge to any small settlements established along the route southwards."

XXXIX., P. 197.


Stein remarks, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 343: "Broad geographical facts left no doubt for any one acquainted with local conditions that Marco Polo's Lop, 'a large town at the edge of the Desert' where 'travellers repose before entering on the Desert' en route for Sha chou and China proper, must have occupied the position of the present Charklik. Nor could I see any reason for placing elsewhere the capital of that 'ancient kingdom of Na-fo-po, the same as the territory of Lou-lan,' which Hiuan Tsang reached after ten marches to the north-east of Chü-mo or Charchan, and which was the pilgrim's last stage before his return to Chinese soil."

In his third journey (1913-1916), Stein left Charchan on New Year's Eve, 1914, and arrived at Charkhlik on January 8, saying: "It was from this modest little oasis, the only settlement of any importance in the Lop region, representing Marco Polo's 'City of Lop,' that I had to raise the whole of the supplies, labour, and extra camels needed by the several parties for the explorations I had carefully planned during the next three months in the desert between Lop-nor and Tunhuang."

"The name of LOB appears under the form Lo pou in the Yuan-shi, s.a. 1282 and 1286. In 1286, it is mentioned as a postal station near those of K'ie-t'ai, Che-ch'an and Wo-tuan. Wo-tuan is Khotan. Che-ch'an, the name of which reappears in other paragraphs, is Charchan. As to K'ie-t'ai, a postal station between those of Lob and Charchan, it seems probable that it is the K?t?k of the Tarikh-i-Rashidi." (PELLIOT.)

See in the Journ. Asiatique, Jan.-Feb., 1916, pp. 117-119, Pelliot's remarks on Lob, Navapa, etc.

XXXIX., pp. 196-7.


After reproducing the description of the Great Desert in Sir Henry Yule's version, Stein adds, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 518:

"It did not need my journey to convince me that what Marco here tells us about the risks of the desert was but a faithful reflex of old folklore beliefs he must have heard on the spot. Sir Henry Yule has shown long ago that the dread of being led astray by evil spirits haunted the imagination of all early travellers who crossed the desert wastes between China and the oases westwards. Fa-hsien's above-quoted passage clearly alludes to this belief, and so does Hiuan Tsang, as we have seen, where he points in graphic words the impressions left by his journey through the sandy desert between Niya and Charchan.

"Thus, too, the description we receive through the Chinese historiographer, Ma Tuan-lin, of the shortest route from China towards Kara-shahr, undoubtedly corresponding to the present track to Lop-nor, reads almost like a version from Marco's book, though its compiler, a contemporary of the Venetian traveller, must have extracted it from some earlier source. 'You see nothing in any direction but the sky and the sands, without the slightest trace of a road; and travellers find nothing to guide them but the bones of men and beasts and the droppings of camels. During the passage of this wilderness you hear sounds, sometimes of singing, sometimes of wailing; and it has often happened that travellers going aside to see what these sounds might be have strayed from their course and been entirely lost; for they were voices of spirits and goblins.'…

"As Yule rightly observes, 'these Goblins are not peculiar to the Gobi.' Yet I felt more than ever assured that Marco's stories about them were of genuine local growth, when I had travelled over the whole route and seen how closely its topographical features agree with the matter-of-fact details which the first part of his chapter records. Anticipating my subsequent observations, I may state here at once that Marco's estimate of the distance and the number of marches on this desert crossing proved perfectly correct. For the route from Charklik, his 'town of Lop,' to the 'City of Sachiu,' i.e. Sha-chou or Tun-huang, our plane-table survey, checked by cyclometer readings, showed an aggregate marching distance of close on 380 miles."

XXXIX., p. 196.


"In the hope of contributing something toward the solution of these questions [contradictory statements of Prjevalsky, Richthofen, and Sven Hedin]," writes Huntington, "I planned to travel completely around the unexplored part of the ancient lake, crossing the Lop desert in its widest part. As a result of the journey, I became convinced that two thousand years ago the lake was of great size, covering both the ancient and the modern locations; then it contracted, and occupied only the site shown on the Chinese maps; again, in the Middle Ages, it expanded; and at present it has contracted and occupies the modern site.

"Now, as in Marco Polo's days, the traveller must equip his caravan for the desert at Charklik, also known as Lop, two days' journey south-west of the lake." (Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, The Pulse of Asia, pp. 240-1.)

XXXIX., pp. 197, 201.


As an answer to a paper by C. TOMLINSON, in Nature, Nov. 28, 1895, p. 78, we find in the same periodical, April 30, 1896, LIII., p. 605, the following note by KUMAGUSU MINAKATA: "The following passage in a Chinese itinerary of Central Asia-Chun Yuen's Si-yih-kien-wan-luh, 1777 (British Museum, No. 15271, b. 14), tom. VII., fol. 13 b.-appears to describe the icy sounds similar to what Ma or Head observed in North America (see supra, ibid., p. 78).

"Muh-süh-urh-tah-fan (= Muzart), that is Ice Mountain [Snowy according to Prjevalsky], is situated between Ili and Ushi…. In case that one happens to be travelling there close to sunset, he should choose a rock of moderate thickness and lay down on it. In solitary night then, he would hear the sounds, now like those of gongs and bells, and now like those of strings and pipes, which disturb ears through the night: these are produced by multifarious noises coming from the cracking ice."

Kumagusu Minakata has another note on remarkable sounds in Japan in Nature, LIV., May 28, 1896, p. 78.

Sir T. Douglas Forsyth, Buried Cities in the Shifting Sands of the Great Desert of Gobi, Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., Nov. 13, 1876, says, p. 29: "The stories told by Marco Polo, in his 39th chapter, about shifting sands and strange noises and demons, have been repeated by other travellers down to the present time. Colonel Prjevalsky, in pp. 193 and 194 of his interesting Travels, gives his testimony to the superstitions of the Desert; and I find, on reference to my diary, that the same stories were recounted to me in Kashghar, and I shall be able to show that there is some truth in the report of treasures being exposed to view."

P. 201, Line 12. Read the Governor of Urumtsi founded instead of found.

XL., p. 203. Marco Polo comes to a city called Sachiu belonging to a province called Tangut. "The people are for the most part Idolaters…. The Idolaters have a peculiar language, and are no traders, but live by their agriculture. They have a great many abbeys and minsters full of idols of sundry fashions, to which they pay great honour and reverence, worshipping them and sacrificing to them with much ado."

Sachiu, or rather Tun Hwang, is celebrated for its "Caves of Thousand Buddhas"; Sir Aurel Stein wrote the following remarks in his Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 27: "Surely it was the sight of these colossal images, some reaching nearly a hundred feet in height, and the vivid first impressions retained of the cult paid to them, which had made Marco Polo put into his chapter on 'Sachiu,' i.e. Tun-huang, a long account of the strange idolatrous customs of the people of Tangut…. Tun-huang manifestly had managed to retain its traditions of Buddhist piety down to Marco's days. Yet there was plentiful antiquarian evidence showing that most of the shrines and art remains at the Halls of the Thousand Buddhas dated back to the period of the T'ang Dynasty, when Buddhism flourished greatly in China. Tun-huang, as the westernmost outpost of China proper, had then for nearly two centuries enjoyed imperial protection both against the Turks in the north and the Tibetans southward. But during the succeeding period, until the advent of paramount Mongol power, some two generations before Marco Polo's visit, these marches had been exposed to barbarian inroads of all sorts. The splendour of the temples and the number of the monks and nuns established near them had, no doubt, sadly diminished in the interval."

XL., p. 205.

Prof. Pelliot accepts as a Mongol plural Tangut, but remarks that it is very ancient, as Tangut is already to be found in the Orkhon inscriptions. At the time of Chingiz, Tangut was a singular in Mongol, and Tangu is nowhere to be found.

XL., p. 206.

The Tangutans are descendants of the Tang-tu-chueh; it must be understood that they are descendants of T'u Kiueh of the T'ang Period. (PELLIOT.)

Lines 7 and 8 from the foot of the page: instead of T'ung hoang, read Tun hoang; Kiu-kaan, read Tsiu tsüan.

XL., p. 207, note 2. The "peculiar language" is si-hia (PELLIOT).

XLI., pp. 210, 212, n. 3.


See on the discreditable custom of the people of Qamul, a long note in the second edition of Cathay, I., pp. 249-250.

XLI., p. 211.

Prof. Parker remarks (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 142) that: "The Chinese (Manchu) agent at Urga has not (nor, I believe, ever had) any control over the Little Bucharia Cities. Moreover, since the reconquest of Little Bucharia in 1877-1878, the whole of those cities have been placed under the Governor of the New Territory (Kan Suh Sin-kiang Sun-fu), whose capital is at Urumtsi. The native Mohammedan Princes of Hami have still left to them a certain amount of home rule, and so lately as 1902 a decree appointing the rotation of their visits to Peking was issued. The present Prince's name is Shamu Hust, or Hussot."

XLII., p. 215.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Royal As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 195: "On p. 215 of Yule's Vol. I. some notes of Palladius' are given touching Chingkintalas, but it is not stated that Palladius supposed the word Ch'ih kin to date after the Mongols, that is, that Palladius felt uncertain about his identification. But Palladius is mistaken in feeling thus uncertain: in 1315 and 1326 the Mongol History twice mentions the garrison starts at Ch'ih kin, and in such a way that the place must be where Marco Polo puts it, i.e. west of Kia-yüh Kwan."


XLIII., p. 217. "Over all the mountains of this province rhubarb is found in great abundance, and thither merchants come to buy it, and carry it thence all over the world. Travellers, however, dare not visit those mountains with any cattle but those of the country, for a certain plant grows there which is so poisonous that cattle which eat it loose their hoofs. The cattle of the country know it and eschew it."

During his crossing of the Nan Shan, Sir Aurel Stein had the same experience, five of his ponies being "benumbed and refusing to touch grass or fodder." The traveller notes that, Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 303: "I at once suspected that they had eaten of the poisonous grass which infests certain parts of the Nan Shan, and about which old Marco has much to tell in his chapter on 'Sukchur' or Su-chou. The Venetian's account had proved quite true; for while my own ponies showed all the effects of this inebriating plant, the local animals had evidently been wary of it. A little bleeding by the nose, to which Tila Bai, with the veterinary skill of an old Ladak 'Kirakash,' promptly proceeded, seemed to afford some relief. But it took two or three days before the poor brutes were again in full possession of their senses and appetites."

"Wild rhubarb, for which the Nan-shan was famous in Marco Polo's days, spread its huge fleshy leaves everywhere." (STEIN, Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 305.)

XLIII., p. 218.


The first character of Suchau was pronounced Suk at the time of the T'ang; we find a Sughciu in von Le Coq's MSS. from Turkestan and Sughcu in the runnic text of W. Thomsen; cf. PELLIOT, J. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 591; the pronunciation Suk-chau was still used by travellers coming from Central Asia-for instance, by the envoys of Shah Rukh. See Cathay, III., p. 126 n.


XLIV., pp. 219 seq. "The Idolaters have many minsters and abbeys after their fashion. In these they have an enormous number of idols, both small and great, certain of the latter being a good ten paces in stature; some of them being of wood, others of clay, and others yet of stone. They are all highly polished, and then covered with gold. The great idols of which I speak lie at length. And round about them there are other figures of considerable size, as if adoring and paying homage before them."

The ambassadors of Shah Rukh to China (1419-1422) wrote:

"In this city of Kamchau there is an idol temple five hundred cubits square. In the middle is an idol lying at length, which measures fifty paces. The sole of the foot is nine paces long, and the instep is twenty-one cubits in girth. Behind this image and overhead are other idols of a cubit (?) in height, besides figures of Bakshis as large as life. The action of all is hit off so admirably that you would think they were alive. Against the wall also are other figures of perfect execution. The great sleeping idol has one hand under his head, and the other resting on his thigh. It is gilt all over, and is known as Shakamuni-fu. The people of the country come in crowds to visit it, and bow to the very ground before this idol" (Cathay, I., p. 277).

XLV., p. 223.


I said, I., p. 225, that this town must be looked for on the river Hei-shui called Etsina by the Mongols, and would be situated on the river on the border of the Desert, at the top of a triangle, whose bases would be Suhchau and Kanchau. My theory seems to be fully confirmed by Sir Aurel Stein, who writes:

"Advantages of geographical position must at all times have invested this extensive riverine tract, limited as are its resources, with considerable importance for those, whether armed host or traders, who would make the long journey from the heart of Mongolia in the north to the Kansu oases. It had been the same with the ancient Lou-lan delta, without which the Chinese could not have opened up the earliest and most direct route for the expansion of their trade and political influence into Central Asia. The analogy thus presented could not fail to impress me even further when I proceeded to examine the ruins of Khara-khoto, the 'Black Town' which Colonel Kozloff, the distinguished Russian explorer, had been the first European to visit during his expedition of 1908-1909. There remained no doubt for me then that it was identical with Marco Polo's 'City of Etzina.' Of this we are told in the great Venetian traveller's narrative that it lay a twelve days' ride from the city of Kan-chou, 'towards the north on the verge of the desert; it belongs to the Province of Tangut.' All travellers bound for Kara-koram, the old capital of the Mongols, had here to lay in victuals for forty days in order to cross the great 'desert which extends forty days' journey to the north, and on which you meet with no habitation nor baiting place.'

"The position thus indicated was found to correspond exactly to that of Khara-khoto, and the identification was completely borne out by the antiquarian evidence brought to light. It soon showed me that though the town may have suffered considerably, as local tradition asserts, when Chingiz Khan with his Mongol army first invaded and conquered Kansu from this side about 1226 A.D., yet it continued to be inhabited down to Marco Polo's time, and partially at least for more than a century later. This was probably the case even longer with the agricultural settlement for which it had served as a local centre, and of which we traced extensive remains in the desert to the east and north-east. But the town itself must have seen its most flourishing times under Tangut or Hsi-hsia rule from the beginning of the eleventh century down to the Mongol conquest.

"It was from this period, when Tibetan influence from the south seems to have made itself strongly felt throughout Kansu, that most of the Buddhist shrines and memorial Stupas dated, which filled a great portion of the ruined town and were conspicuous also outside it. In one of the latter Colonel Kozloff had made his notable find of Buddhist texts and paintings. But a systematic search of this and other ruins soon showed that the archaeological riches of the site were by no means exhausted. By a careful clearing of the débris which covered the bases of Stupas and the interior of temple cellas we brought to light abundant remains of Buddhist manuscripts and block prints, both in Tibetan and the as yet very imperfectly known old Tangut language, as well as plenty of interesting relievos in stucco or terra-cotta and frescoes. The very extensive refuse heaps of the town yielded up a large number of miscellaneous records on paper in the Chinese, Tangut, and Uigur scripts, together with many remains of fine glazed pottery, and of household utensils. Finds of Hsi-hsia coins, ornaments in stone and metal, etc., were also abundant, particularly on wind-eroded ground.

"There was much to support the belief that the final abandonment of the

settlement was brought about by difficulties of irrigation." (A Third

Journey of Exploration in Central Asia, 1913-16, Geog. Jour.,

Aug.-Sept., 1916, pp. 38-39.)

M. Ivanov (Isviestia Petrograd Academy, 1909) thinks that the ruined city of Kara Khoto, a part at the Mongol period of the Yi-tsi-nai circuit, could be its capital, and was at the time of the Si Hia and the beginning of the Mongols, the town of Hei shui. It also confirms my views.

Kozlov found (1908) in a stupa not far from Kara Khoto a large number of Si Hia books, which he carried back to Petrograd, where they were studied by Prof. A. IVANOV, Zur Kenntniss der Hsi-hsia Sprache (Bul. Ac. Sc. Pet., 1909, pp. 1221-1233). See The Si-hia Language, by B. LAUFER (T'oung Pao, March, 1916, pp. 1-126).

XLVI., p. 226. "Originally the Tartars dwelt in the north on the borders of Chorcha."

Prof. Pelliot calls my attention that Ramusio's text, f. 13 v, has: "Essi habitauano nelle parti di Tramontana, cioè in Giorza, e Bargu, doue sono molte pianure grandi …"

XLVI., p. 230.


"Mr. Rockhill is quite correct in his Turkish and Chinese dates for the first use of the word Tatar, but it seems very likely that the much older eponymous word T'atun refers to the same people. The Toba History says that in A.D. 258 the chieftain of that Tartar Tribe (not yet arrived at imperial dignity) at a public durbar read a homily to various chiefs, pointing out to them the mistake made by the Hiung-nu (Early Turks) and 'T'a-tun fellows' (Early Mongols) in raiding his frontiers. If we go back still further, we find the After Han History speaking of the 'Middle T'atun'; and a scholion tells us not to pronounce the final 'n.' If we pursue our inquiry yet further back, we find that T'ah-tun was originally the name of a Sien-pi or Wu-hwan (apparently Mongol) Prince, who tried to secure the shen-yü ship for himself, and that it gradually became (1) a title, (2) and the name of a tribal division (see also the Wei Chi and the Early Han History). Both Sien-pi and Wu-hwan are the names of mountain haunts, and at this very day part of the Russian Liao-tung railway is styled the 'Sien-pi railway' by the native Chinese newspapers." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

Page 231, note 3. Instead of Yuché, read Juché.

XLVI., p. 232.


"There seems to be no doubt that Kerman in South Persia is the city to which the Kara-Cathayan refugee fled from China in 1124; for Major Sykes, in his recent excellent work on Persia, actually mentions [p. 194] the Kuba Sabz, or 'Green Dome,' as having been (until destroyed in 1886 by an earthquake) the most conspicuous building, and as having also been the tomb of the Kara-Khitai Dynasty. The late Dr. Bretschneider (N. China B. R. As. Soc. Journal, Vol. X., p. 101) had imagined the Kara-Cathayan capital to be Kerminé, lying between Samarcand and Bokhara (see Asiatic Quart. Rev. for Dec., 1900, 'The Cathayans'). Colonel Yule does not appear to be quite correct when he states (p. 232) that 'the Gurkhan himself is not described to have extended his conquests into Persia,' for the Chinese history of the Cathayan or Liao Dynasties distinctly states that at Samarcand, where the Cathayan remained for ninety days, the 'King of the Mohammedans' brought tribute to the emigrant, who then went West as far as K'i-r-man, where he was proclaimed Emperor by his officers. This was on the fifth day of the second moon in 1124, in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and he then assumed the title of Koh-r-han" (E.H. Parker, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 134-5.)

XLVI., p. 236.


"In his note to Vol. I., p. 236, M. Cordier [read Mr. Rockhill], who seems to have been misled by d'Avezac, confuses the Ch'ih-lêh or T'ieh-lêh (who have been clearly proved to be identical with the T?l?s of the Turkish inscriptions) with the much later K'êh-lieh or Keraits of Mongol history; at no period of Chinese history were the Ch'ih-lêh called, as he supposes, K'i-lê and therefore the Ch'ih-lêh of the third century cannot possibly be identified with the K'ê-lieh of the thirteenth. Besides, the 'value' of lêh is 'luck,' whilst the 'value' of lieh is 'leet,' if we use English sounds as equivalents to illustrate Chinese etymology. It is remarkable that the Kin (Nüchen) Dynasty in its Annals leaves no mention whatever of the Kerait tribe, or of any tribe having an approximate name, although the Yüan Sh? states that the Princes of that tribe used to hold a Nüchen patent. A solution of this unexplained fact may yet turn up." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan. 1904, p. 139.)

Page 236, note [dagger] Instead of Tura, read Tula. (PELLIOT.)

LI., pp. 245, 248.


"Gaubil's statement that he was wounded in 1212 by a stray arrow, which compelled him to raise the siege of Ta-t'ung Fu, is exactly borne out by the Yüan Sh?, which adds that in the seventh moon (August) of 1227 (shortly after the surrender of the Tangut King) the conqueror died at the travelling-palace of Ha-la T'u on the Sa-li stream at the age of sixty-six (sixty-five by our reckoning). As less than a month before he was present at Ts'ing-shui (lat. 34-1/2°, long. 106-1/2°), and was even on his dying bed, giving instructions how to meet the Nüchên army at T'ung-kwan (lat. 34-1/2°, long. 110-1/4°), we may assume that the place of his death was on the Upper Wei River near the frontiers joining the modern Kan Suh and Shen Si provinces. It is true the Sa-li River (not stream) is thrice mentioned, and also the Sa-lê-chu River, both in Mongolia; on the other hand, the Sa-li Ouigours are frequently mentioned as living in West Kan Suh; so that we may take it the word Sali or Sari was a not uncommon Turkish word. Palladius' identification, of K'i-lien with 'Kerulen' I am afraid cannot be entertained. The former word frequently occurs in the second century B.C., and is stated to be a second Hiung-nu (Turkish) word for 'sky' or 'heaven.' At or about that date the Kerulen was known to the Chinese as the Lu-kü River, and the geographies of the present dynasty clearly identify it as such. The T'ien-Shan are sometimes called the K'i-lien Shan, and the word K'i-lien is otherwise well established along the line of the Great Wall." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 136-7.)

Prof. Pelliot informs me that in No. 3 (Sept., 1918) of Vol. III of Chinese Social and Political Science Review these is an article on the Discovery of and Investigation concerning the Tomb of Gengis Khan. I have not seen it.

LI., p. 249.


"The táilgan, or autumn meeting of the Mongols, is probably the tái-lin, or autumn meeting, of the ancient Hiung-nu described on p. 10, Vol. XX. of the China Review. The Kao-ch'ê (= High Carts, T?l?s, or early Ouigours) and the early Cathayans (Sien-pi) had very similar customs. Heikel gives an account of analogous 'Olympic games' witnessed at Urga in the year 1890." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 140-1.)

LI., p. 251. Read T'ung hwo period (A.D. 992) instead of (A.D. 692).

LII., pp. 252, 254, n. 3. "[The Tartars] live on the milk and meat which their herds supply, and on the produce of the chase; and they eat all kinds of flesh, including that of horses and dogs, and Pharaoh's rats, of which last there are great numbers in burrows on those plains."

Pharaoh's rat was the mangouste or ichneumon (Herpestes ichneumon) formerly found in this part of Asia as well as in Egypt where it was venerated. Cf. Cathay, II., p. 116.

LII., p. 254. Instead of "his tent invariably facing south," read "facing east" according to the Chou Shu. (PELLIOT.)

LII., p. 256 n.


The China Review, Vol. XX. "gives numerous instances of marrying mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law amongst the Hiung nu. The practice was common with all Tartars, as, indeed, is stated by Yule." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

LII., p. 257 n.


"The Mongol word Tengri (= Heaven) appears also in Hiung-nu times; in fact, the word shen yü is stated to have been used by the Hiung-nu alternatively with Tengri kudu (Son of Heaven)." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

LIV., p. 263 n.


Parker's note is erroneous.-See Laufer, Chinese Clay Figures, Part I.

LV., p. 267. "They [the Tartars] have another notable custom, which is this. If any man have a daughter who dies before marriage, and another man have had a son also die before marriage, the parents of the two arrange a grand wedding between the dead lad and lass. And marry them they do, making a regular contract! And when the contract papers are made out they put them in the fire, in order (as they will have it) that the parties in the other world may know the fact, and so look on each other as man and wife. And the parents thenceforward consider themselves sib to each other, just as if their children had lived and married. Whatever may be agreed on between the parties as dowry, those who have to pay it cause to be painted on pieces of paper and then put these in the fire, saying that in that way the dead person will get all the real articles in the other world."

Mr. KUMAGUSU MINAKATA writes on the subject in Nature, Jan. 7, 1897, pp. 224-5:

"As it is not well known whether or not there is a record of this strange custom earlier than the beginning of the dynasty of Yuen, I was in doubt whether it was originally common to the Chinese and Tartars until I lately came across the following passage in Tsoh-mung-luh (Brit. Mus. copy, 15297, a 1, fol. 11-12), which would seem to decide the question-'In the North there is this custom. When a youth and a girl of marriageable ages die before marriage, their families appoint a match-maker to negotiate their nuptials, whom they call "Kwei-mei" (i.e. "Match-Maker of Ghosts"). Either family hands over to another a paper noticing all pre-requisites concerning the affair; and by names of the parents of the intended couple asks a man to pray and divine; and if the presage tells that the union is a lucky one, clothes and ornaments are made for the deceased pair. Now the match-maker goes to the burying-ground of the bridegroom, and, offering wine and fruits, requests the pair to marry. There two seats are prepared on adjoining positions, either of which having behind it a small banner more than a foot long. Before the ceremony is consecrated by libation, the two banners remain hanging perpendicularly and still; but when the libation is sprinkled and the deceased couple are requested to marry, the banners commence to gradually approach till they touch one another, which shows that they are both glad of the wedlock. However, when one of them dislikes another, it would happen that the banner representing the unwilling party does not move to approach the other banner. In case the couple should die too young to understand the matter, a dead man is appointed as a tutor to the male defunct, and some effigies are made to serve as the instructress and maids to the female defunct. The dead tutor thus nominated is informed of his appointment by a paper offered to him, on which are inscribed his name and age. After the consummation of the marriage the new consorts appear in dreams to their respective parents-in-law. Should this custom be discarded, the unhappy defuncts might do mischief to their negligent relatives…. On every occasion of these nuptials both families give some presents to the match-maker ("Kwei-mei"), whose sole business is annually to inspect the newly-deceased couples around his village, and to arrange their weddings to earn his livelihood.'"

Mr. Kumagusu Minakata adds:

"The passage is very interesting, for, besides giving us a faithful account of the particulars, which nowadays we fail to find elsewhere, it bears testimony to the Tartar, and not Chinese, origin of this practice. The author, Kang Yu-chi, describes himself to have visited his old home in Northern China shortly after its subjugation by the Kin Tartars in 1126 A.D.; so there is no doubt that among many institutional novelties then introduced to China by the northern invaders, Marriage of the Dead was so striking that the author did not hesitate to describe it for the first time.

"According to a Persian writer, after whom Pétis de la Croix writes, this custom was adopted by Jenghiz Kan as a means to preserve amity amongst his subjects, it forming the subject of Article XIX. of his Yasa promulgated in 1205 A.D. The same writer adds: 'This custom is still in use amongst the Tartars at this day, but superstition has added more circumstances to it: they throw the contract of marriage into the fire after having drawn some figures on it to represent the persons pretended to be so marry'd, and some forms of beasts; and are persuaded that all this is carried by the smoke to their children, who thereupon marry in the other world' (Pétis de la Croix, Hist. of Genghizcan, trans. by P. Aubin, Lond., 1722, p. 86). As the Chinese author does not speak of the burning of papers in this connection, whereas the Persian writer speaks definitely of its having been added later, it seems that the marriage of the dead had been originally a Tartar custom, with which the well-known Chinese paper-burning was amalgamated subsequently between the reigns of Genghiz and his grandson Kúblai-under the latter Marco witnessed the customs already mingled, still, perhaps, mainly prevailing amongst the Tartar descendants."

LV., p. 266. Regarding the scale of blows from seven to 107, Prof. Pelliot writes to me that these figures represent the theoretical number of tens diminished as a favour made to the culprit by three units in the name of Heaven, Earth and the Emperor.

LV., p. 268, n. 2. In the Yuan Shi, XX. 7, and other Chinese Texts of the Mongol period, is to be found confirmation of the fact, "He is slaughtered like a sheep," i.e. the belly cut open lengthwise. (Pelliot.)

LVI., p. 269. "The people there are called MESCRIPT; they are a very wild race, and live by their cattle, the most of which are stags, and these stags, I assure you, they used to ride upon."

B. Laufer, in the Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. IV., No. 2, 1917 (The Reindeer and its Domestication), p. 107, has the following remarks: "Certainly this is the reindeer. Yule is inclined to think that Marco embraces under this tribal name in question characteristics belonging to tribes extending far beyond the Mekrit, and which in fact are appropriate to the Tungus; and continues that Rashid-eddin seems to describe the latter under the name of Uriangkut of the Woods, a people dwelling beyond the frontier of Barguchin, and in connection with whom he speaks of their reindeer obscurely, as well as of their tents of birchbark, and their hunting on snowshoes. As W. Radloff [Die Jakutische Sprache, Mém. Ac. Sc. Pet., 1908, pp. 54-56] has endeavoured to show, the Wooland Uryangkit, in this form mentioned by Rashid-eddin, should be looked upon as the forefathers of the present Yakut. Rashid-eddin, further, speaks of other Uryangkit, who are genuine Mongols, and live close together in the Territory Barguchin Tukum, where the clans Khori, Bargut, and Tumat, are settled. This region is east of Lake Baikal, which receives the river Barguchin flowing out of Lake Bargu in an easterly direction. The tribal name Bargut (-t being the termination of the plural) is surely connected with the name of the said river."

LVII., p. 276.


"Marco Polo's Sinju certainly seems to be the site of Si-ning, but not on the grounds suggested in the various notes. In 1099 the new city of Shen Chou was created by the Sung or 'Manzi' Dynasty on the site of what had been called Ts'ing-t'ang. Owing to this region having for many centuries belonged to independent Hia or Tangut, very little exact information is obtainable from any Chinese history; but I think it almost certain that the great central city of Shen Chou was the modern Si-ning. Moreover, there was a very good reason for the invention of this name, as this Shen was the first syllable of the ancient Shen-shen State of Lob Nor and Koko Nor, which, after its conquest by China in 609, was turned into the Shen-shen prefecture; in fact, the Sui Emperor was himself at Kam Chou or 'Campichu' when this very step was taken." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 144.)

LVIII., p. 282. Alashan is not an abbreviation of Alade-Shan and has nothing to do with the name of Eleuth, written in Mongol ?g?l?t. Nuntuh (nuntük) is the mediaeval Mongol form of the actual nutuk, an encampment. (PELLIOT.)

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3.


Gurun = Kurun = Chinese K'u lun = Mongol Urga.

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3. The stuff sa-ha-la (= saghlat) is to be found often in the Chinese texts of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. (PELLIOT.)

LIX., pp. 284 seq.


King or Prince George of Marco Polo and Monte Corvino belonged to the ?ngüt tribe. He was killed in Mongolia in 1298, leaving an infant child called Shu-ngan (Giòvanni) baptized by Monte Corvino. George was transcribed K?rgüz and G?rgüz by the Persian historians. See PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, pp. 632 seq. and Cathay, III., p. 15 n.

LIX., p. 286.


Prof. Pelliot (Journ. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 595-6) thinks that it might be Tien t?, [Chinese], on the river So ling (Selenga).

LIX., p. 291.


In the Mongol Empire, Christians were known under the name of tarsa and especially under this of ?rk?gün, in Chinese ye-li-k'o-wen; tarsa, was generally used by the Persian historians. Cf. PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 636.

LIX., p. 295, n. 6. Instead of Ku-wei, read K'u-wai. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., pp. 302, 310.

"The weather-conjuring proclivities of the Tartars are repeatedly mentioned in Chinese history. The High Carts (early Ouigours) and Jou-jan (masters of the Early Turks) were both given this way, the object being sometimes to destroy their enemies. I drew attention to this in the Asiatic Quart. Rev. for April, 1902 ('China and the Avars')." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 140.)

LXI., p. 305, n. Harlez's inscription is a miserable scribble of the facsimile from Dr. Bushell. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., p. 308, n. 5. The Yuan Shi, ch. 77, f° 7 v., says that: "Every year, [the Emperor] resorts to Shang tu. On the 24th day of the 8th moon, the sacrifice called 'libation of mare's milk' is celebrated." (PELLIOT.)

[1] The eight stages would be:-(1) Hasanábad, 21 miles; (2) Darband, 28 miles; (3) Chehel Pái, 23 miles; (4) Naiband, 39 miles; (5) Zenagán, 47 miles; (6) Duhuk, 25 miles; (7) Chah Khusháb, 36 miles; and (8) Tun, 23 miles.

[2] Genom Khorasan och Turkestan, I., pp. 123 seq.



II., p. 334.


It is worthy of note that Nayan had given up Buddhism and become a

Christian as well as many of his subjects. Cf. PELLIOT 1914, pp. 635-6.

VII., pp. 352, 353.

Instead of Sir-i-Sher, read Sar-i-Sher. (PELLIOT.)


"Dr. Bushell's note describes the silver p'ai, or tablets (not then called p'ai tsz) of the Cathayans, which were 200 (not 600) in number. But long before the Cathayans used them, the T'ang Dynasty had done so for exactly the same purpose. They were 5 inches by 1-1/2 inches, and marked with the five words, 'order, running horses, silver p'ai,' and were issued by the department known as the mên-hia-shêng. Thus, they were not a Tartar, but a Chinese, invention. Of course, it is possible that the Chinese must have had the idea suggested to them by the ancient wooden orders or tallies of the Tartars." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 146.)

Instead of "Publication No. 42" read only No. 42, which is the number of the pai tzu. (PELLIOT.)

VIII., p. 358, n. 2.

Kún kú = hon hu may be a transcription of hwang heu during the Mongol Period, according to Pelliot.

IX. p. 360.


"Marco Polo is correct in a way when he says Kúblái was the sixth Emperor, for his father Tu li is counted as a Divus (Jwei Tsung), though he never reigned; just as his son Chin kin (Yü Tsung) is also so counted, and under similar conditions. Chin kin was appointed to the chung shu and shu-mih departments in 1263. He was entrusted with extensive powers in 1279, when he is described as 'heir apparent.' In 1284 Yün Nan, Chagan-jang, etc., were placed under his direction. His death is recorded in 1285. Another son, Numugan, was made Prince of the Peking region (Pêh-p'ing) in 1266, and the next year a third son, Hukaji, was sent to take charge of Ta-li, Chagan-jang, Zardandan, etc. In 1272 Kúblái's son, Mangalai, was made Prince of An-si, with part of Shen Si as his appanage. One more son, named Ai-ya-ch'ih, is mentioned in 1284, and in that year yet another, Tu kan, was made Prince of Chên-nan, and sent on an expedition against Ciampa. In 1285 Essen Temur, who had received a chung-shu post in 1283, is spoken of as Prince of Yün Nan, and is stated to be engaged in Kara-jang; in 1286 he is still there, and is styled 'son of the Emperor.' I do not observe in the Annals that Hukaji ever bore the title of Prince of Yün Nan, or, indeed, any princely title. In 1287 Ai-ya-ch'ih is mentioned as being at Shên Chou (Mukden) in connection with Kúblái's 'personally conducted' expedition against Nayen. In 1289 one more son, Géukju, was patented Prince of Ning Yüan. In 1293 Kúblái's third son Chinkin, received a posthumous title, and Chinkin's son Temur was declared heir-apparent to Kúblái.

"The above are the only sons of Kúblái whose names I have noticed in the Annals. In the special table of Princes Numugan is styled Pêh-an (instead of Pêh-p'ing) Prince. Aghrukji's name appears in the table (chap. 108, p. 107), but though he is styled Prince of Si-p'ing, he is not there stated to be a son of Kúblái; nor in the note I have supplied touching Tibet is he styled a hwang-tsz or 'imperial son.' In the table Hukaji is described as being in 1268 Prince of Yün Nan, a title 'inherited in 1280 by Essen Temur.' I cannot discover anything about the other alleged sons in Yule's note (Vol. I., p. 361). The Chinese count Kúblái's years as eighty, he having died just at the beginning of 1294 (our February); this would make him seventy-nine at the very outside, according to our mode of reckoning, or even seventy-eight if he was born towards the end of a year, which indeed he was (eighth moon). If a man is born on the last day of the year he is two years old the very next day according to Chinese methods of counting, which, I suppose, include the ten months which they consider are spent in the womb." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 137-139.)

XI., p. 370, n. 13.

The character King in King-shan is not the one representing Court

[Chinese] but [Chinese].-Read "Wan-sui-Shan" instead of Wan-su-Shan.

XII., p. 380.

Keshikten has nothing to do with Kalchi. (PELLIOT.)

XVIII., p. 398.


Cf. Chapters on Hunting Dogs and Cheetas, being an extract from the "Kitab'u' l-Bazyarah," a treatise on Falconry, by Ibn Kustrajim, an Arab writer of the Tenth Century. By Lieut.-Colonel D.C. Phillott and Mr. R.F. Azoo (Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Jan., 1907, pp. 47-50):

"The cheeta is the offspring of a lioness, by a leopard that coerces her, and, for this reason, cheetas are sterile like mules and all other hybrids. No animal of the same size is as weighty as the cheeta. It is the most somnolent animal on earth. The best are those that are 'hollow-bellied,' roach backed, and have deep black spots on a dark tawny ground, the spots on the back being close to each other; that have the eyes bloodshot, small and narrow; the mouth 'deep and laughing'; broad foreheads; thick necks; the black line from the eyes long; and the fangs far apart from each other. The fully mature animal is more useful for sporting purposes than the cub; and the females are better at hunting than are the males, and such is the case with all beasts and birds of prey."

See Hippolyte Boussac, Le Guépard dans l'Egypte ancienne (La Nature, 21st March, 1908, pp. 248-250).

XIX., p. 400 n. Instead of Hoy tiao, read Hey tiao (Hei tiao).

XIX., p. 400. "These two are styled Chinuchi (or Cunichi), which is as much as to say, 'The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs.'"

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "The word chinuchi is a Mongol term derived from Mongol cinoa (pronounced cino or cono which means 'wolf,' with the possessive suffix -ci, meaning accordingly a 'wolf-owner' or 'wolf-keeper).' One of the Tibetan designations for the mastiff is cang-k'i (written spyang-k'yi), which signifies literally 'wolf-dog.' The Mongol term is probably framed on this Tibetan word. The other explanations given by Yule (401-402) should be discarded."

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "J'incline à croire que les Cunichi sont à lire Cuiuci et répondent au kouei-tch'e ou kouei-yeou-tch'e, 'censeurs,' des textes chinois; les formes chinoises sont transcrites du mongol et se rattachent au verbe güyü, ou güyi, 'courir'; on peut songer à restituer güyükci. Un Ming-ngan (= Minghan), chef des kouei-tch'e, vivait sous Kúblái et a sa biographie au ch. 135 du Yuan Che; d'autre part, peut-être faut-il lire, par déplacement de deux points diacritiques, Bayan güyükci dans Rashid ed-Din, ed. BLOCHET, II., 501."

XX., p. 408, n. 6. Cachar Modun must be the place called Ha-ch'a-mu-touen in the Yuan Shi, ch. 100, f°. 2 r. (PELLIOT.)

XXIV., pp. 423, 430. "Bark of Trees, made into something like Paper, to pass for Money over all his Country."

Regarding Bretschneider's statement, p. 430, Dr. B. Laufer writes to me: "This is a singular error of Bretschneider. Marco Polo is perfectly correct: not only did the Chinese actually manufacture paper from the bark of the mulberry tree (Morus alba), but also it was this paper which was preferred for the making of paper-money. Bretschneider is certainly right in saying that paper is made from the Broussonetia, but he is assuredly wrong in the assertion that paper is not made in China from mulberry trees. This fact he could have easily ascertained from S. Julien,[1] who alludes to mulberry tree paper twice, first, as 'papier de racines et d'écorce de m?rier,' and, second, in speaking of the bark paper from Broussonetia: 'On emploie aussi pour le même usage l'écorce d'Hibiscus Rosa sinensis et de m?rier; ce dernier papier sert encore à recueillir les graines de vers à soie,' What is understood by the latter process may be seen from Plate I. in Julien's earlier work on sericulture,[2] where the paper from the bark of the mulberry tree is likewise mentioned.

"The Chi p'u, a treatise on paper, written by Su I-kien toward the close of the tenth century, enumerates among the various sorts of paper manufactured during his lifetime paper from the bark of the mulberry tree (sang p'i) made by the people of the north.[3]

"Chinese paper-money of mulberry bark was known in the Islamic World in the beginning of the fourteenth century; that is, during the Mongol period. Accordingly it must have been manufactured in China during the Yuan Dynasty. Ahmed Shibab Eddin, who died in Cairo in 1338 at the age of 93, and left an important geographical work in thirty volumes, containing interesting information on China gathered from the lips of eye-witnesses, makes the following comment on paper-money, in the translation of Ch. Schefer:[4]

"'On emploie dans le Khita, en guise de monnaie, des morceaux d'un papier de forme allongée fabriqué avec des filaments de m?riers sur lesquels est imprimé le nom de l'empereur. Lorsqu'un de ces papiers est usé, on le porte aux officiers du prince et, moyennant une perte minime, on re?oit un autre billet en échange, ainsi que cela a lieu dans nos hotels des monnaies, pour les matières d'or et d'argent que l'on y porte pour être converties en pièces monnayées.'

"And in another passage: 'La monnaie des Chinois est faite de billets fabriqués avec l'écorce du m?rier. Il y en a de grands et de petits…. Ou les fabrique avec des filaments tendres du m?rier et, après y avoir opposé un sceau au nom de l'empereur, on les met en circulation.'[5]

"The banknotes of the Ming Dynasty were likewise made of mulberry pulp, in rectangular sheets one foot long and six inches wide, the material being of a greenish colour, as stated in the Annals of the Dynasty.[6] It is clear that the Ming Emperors, like many other institutions, adopted this practice from their predecessors, the Mongols. Klaproth[7] is wrong in saying that the assignats of the Sung, Kin, and Mongols were all made from the bark of the tree cu (Broussonetia), and those of the Ming from all sorts of plants.

"In the Hui kiang chi, an interesting description of Turkistan by two Manchu officials, Surde and Fusamb?, published in 1772,[8] the following note headed 'Mohamedan Paper' occurs:

"'There are two sorts of Turkistan paper, black and white, made from mulberry bark, cotton and silk refuse equally mixed, resulting in a coarse, thick, strong, and tough material. It is cut into small rolls fully a foot long, which are burnished by means of stones, and then are fit for writing.'

"Sir Aurel Stein[9] reports that paper is still manufactured from mulberry trees in Khotan. Also J. Wiesner,[10] the meritorious investigator of ancient papers, has included the fibres of Morus alba and M. nigra among the material to which his researches extended.

"Mulberry-bark paper is ascribed to Bengal in the Si yang ch'ao kung tien lu by Wu Ki?n-hwang, published in 1520.[11]

"As the mulberry tree is eagerly cultivated in Persia in connection with the silk industry, it is possible also that the Persian paper in the banknotes of the Mongols was a product of the mulberry.[12] At any rate, good Marco Polo is cleared, and his veracity and exactness have been established again."

XXIV., p. 427.


"L'or valait quatre fois son poids d'argent au commencement de la dynastie Ming (1375), sept ou huit fois sous l'empereur Wan-li de la même dynastie (1574), et dix fois à la fin de la dynastie (1635); plus de dix fois sous K'ang hi (1662); plus de vingt fois sous le règne de K'ien long; dix-huit fois au milieu du règne de Tao-koang (1840), quatorze fois au commencement du règne de Hien-fong (1850); dix-huit fois en moyenne dans les années 1882-1883. En 1893, la valeur de l'or augmenta considérablement et égala 28 fois celle de l'argent; en 1894, 32 fois; au commencement de 1895, 33 fois; mais il baissa un peu et à la fin de l'année il valait seulement 30 fois plus." (Pierre HOANG, La Propriété en Chine, 1897, p. 43.)

XXVI., p. 432.


Morrison, Dict., Pt. II, Vol. I., p. 70, says: "Chin-seang, a Minister of State, was so called under the Ming Dynasty." According to Mr. E.H. Parker (China Review, XXIV., p. 101), Ching Siang were abolished in 1395.

In the quotation from the Masálak al Absár instead of Landjun (Lang

Chang), read Landjun (Lang Chung).

XXXIII., pp. 447-8. "You must know, too, that the Tartars reckon their years by twelves; the sign of the first year being the Lion, of the second the Ox, of the third the Dragon, of the fourth the Dog, and so forth up to the twelfth; so that when one is asked the year of his birth he answers that it was in the year of the Lion (let us say), on such a day or night, at such an hour, and such a moment. And the father of a child always takes care to write these particulars down in a book. When the twelve yearly symbols have been gone through, then they come back to the first, and go through with them again in the same succession."

"Ce témoignage, writes Chavannes (T'oung Pao, 1906, p. 59), n'est pas d'une exactitude rigoureuse, puisque les animaux n'y sont pas nommés à leur rang; en outre, le lion y est substitué au tigre de l'énumération chinoise; mais cette dernière difference provient sans doute de ce que Marco Polo connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux; c'est le léopard dout il a fait le lion. Quoiqu'il en soit, l'observation de Marco Polo est juste dans son ensemble et d'innombrables exemples prouvent que le cycle des douze animaux était habituel dans les pièces officielles émanant des chancelleries impériales à l'époque mongole."

XXXIII., p. 448.


With regard to the knowledge of Persian, the only oriental language probably known by Marco Polo, Pelliot remarks (Journ. Asiat., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 592 n.): "C'est l'idée de Yule (cf. exemple I., 448), et je la crois tout à fait juste. On peut la fortifier d'autres indices. On sait par exemple que Marco Polo substitue le lion au tigre dans le cycle des douze animaux. M. Chavannes (T'oung pao, II., VII., 59) suppose que 'cette dernière différence provient sans doute de ce que Marco Polo connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux: c'est le léopard dont il a fait le lion.' Mais on ne voit pas pourquoi il aurait rendu par 'lion' le turco-mongol bars, qui signifie seulement 'tigre.' Admettons au contraire qu'il pense en persan: dans toute l'Asie centrale, le persan [Arabic] sir a les deux sens de lion et de tigre. De même, quand Marco Polo appelle la Chine du sud Manzi, il est d'accord avec les Persans, par exemple avec Rachid ed-din, pour employer l'expression usuelle dans la langue chinoise de l'époque, c'est-à-dire Man-tseu; mais, au lieu de Manzi, les Mongols avaient adopté un autres nom, Nangias, dont il n'y a pas trace dans Marco Polo. On pourrait multiplier ces exemples."

XXXIII., p. 456, n. Instead of Hui Heng, read Hiu Heng.

[1] Industries anciennes et modernes de l'Empire chinois. Paris, 1869, pp. 145, 149.

[2] Résumé des principaux Traités chinois sur la culture des m?riers et l'éducation des vers à soie, Paris, 1837, p. 98. According to the notions of the Chinese, Julien remarks, everything made from hemp like cord and weavings is banished from the establishments where silkworms are reared, and our European paper would be very harmful to the latter. There seems to be a sympathetic relation between the silkworm feeding on the leaves of the mulberry and the mulberry paper on which the cocoons of the females are placed.

[3] Ko chi king yuan, Ch. 37, p. 6.

[4] Relations des Musulmans avec les Chinois (Centenaire de l'Ecole des Langues Orientales vivante, Paris, 1895, p. 17).

[5] Ibid., p. 20.

[6] Ming Shi, Ch. 81, p. 1.-The same text is found on a bill issued in 1375 reproduced and translated by W. Vissering (On Chinese Currency, see plate at end of volume), the minister of finance being expressly ordered to use the fibres of the mulberry tree in the composition of these bills.

[7] Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie, Vol. I., p. 387.

[8] A. WYLIE, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 64. The copy used by me (in the John Crerar Library of Chicago) is an old manuscript clearly written in 4 vols. and chapters, illustrated by nine ink-sketches of types of Mohammedans and a map. The volumes are not paged.

[9] Ancient Khotan, Vol. I., p. 134.

[10] Mikroskopische Untersuchung alter ostturkestanischer Papiere, p. 9 (Vienna, 1902). I cannot pass over in silence a curious error of this scholar when he says (p. 8) that it is not proved that Cannabis sativa (called by him "genuine hemp") is cultivated in China, and that the so-called Chinese hemp-paper should be intended for China grass. Every tyro in things Chinese knows that hemp (Cannabis sativa) belongs to the oldest cultivated plants of the Chinese, and that hemp-paper is already listed among the papers invented by Ts'ai Lun in A.D. 105 (cf. CHAVANNES, Les livres chinois avant l'invention du papier, Journal Asiatique, 1905, p. 6 of the reprint).

[11] Ch. B., p. 10b (ed. of Pie hia chai ts'ung shu).

[12] The Persian word for the mulberry, tud, is supposed to be a loan-word from Aramaic. (HORN, Grundriss iran. Phil., Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 6.)



XXXVII, p. 13. "There grow here [Taianfu] many excellent vines, supplying great plenty of wine; and in all Cathay this is the only place where wine is produced. It is carried hence all over the country."

Dr. B. Laufer makes the following remarks to me: "Polo is quite right in ascribing vines and wine to T'ai Yüan-fu in Shan Si, and is in this respect upheld by contemporary Chinese sources. The Yin shan cheng yao written in 1330 by Ho Se-hui, contains this account[1]: 'There are numerous brands of wine: that coming from Qara-Khodja[2] (Ha-la-hwo) is very strong, that coming from Tibet ranks next. Also the wines from P'ing Yang and T'a? Yüan (in Shan Si) take the second rank. According to some statements, grapes, when stored for a long time, will develop into wine through a natural process. This wine is fragrant, sweet, and exceedingly strong: this is the genuine grape-wine.' Ts'ao mu tse, written in 1378 par Ye Tse-k'i,[3] contains the following information: 'Under the Yüan Dynasty grape-wine was manufactured in Ki-ning and other circuits of Shan Si Province. In the eighth month they went to the T'ai hang Mountain,[4] in order to test the genuine and adulterated brands: the genuine kind when water is poured on it, will float; the adulterated sort, when thus treated, will freeze.[5] In wine which has long been stored, there is a certain portion which even in extreme cold will never freeze, while all the remainder is frozen: this is the spirit and fluid secretion of wine.[6] If this is drunk, the essence will penetrate into a man's armpits, and he will die. Wine kept for two or three years develops great poison." For a detailed history of grape-wine in China, see Laufer's Sino-Iranica.

XXXVII., p. 16.


Chavannes (Chancellerie chinoise de l'époque mongole, II., pp. 66-68, 1908) has a long note on vine and grape wine-making in China, from Chinese sources. We know that vine, according to Sze-ma Ts'ien, was imported from Farghanah about 100 B.C. The Chinese, from texts in the T'ai p'ing yu lan and the Yuan Kien lei han, learned the art of wine-making after they had defeated the King of Kao ch'ang (Turfan) in 640 A.D.

XLI., p. 27 seq.


The slab King kiao pei, bearing the inscription, was found, according to Father Havret, 2nd Pt., p. 71, in the sub-prefecture of Chau Chi, a dependency of Si-ngan fu, among ancient ruins. Prof. Pelliot says that the slab was not found at Chau Chi, but in the western suburb of Si-ngan, at the very spot where it was to be seen some years ago, before it was transferred to the Pei lin, in fact at the place where it was erected in the seventh century inside the monastery built by Olopun. (Chrétiens de l'Asie centrale, T'oung pao, 1914, p. 625.)

In 1907, a Danish gentleman, Mr. Frits V. Holm, took a photograph of the tablet as it stood outside the west gate of Si-ngan, south of the road to Kan Su; it was one of five slabs on the same spot; it was removed without the stone pedestal (a tortoise) into the city on the 2nd October 1907, and it is now kept in the museum known as the Pei lin (Forest of Tablets). Holm says it is ten feet high, the weight being two tons; he tried to purchase the original, and failing this he had an exact replica made by Chinese workmen; this replica was deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the City of New York, as a loan, on the 16th of June, 1908. Since, this replica was purchased by Mrs. George Leary, of 1053, Fifth Avenue, New York, and presented by this lady, through Frits Holm, to the Vatican. See the November number (1916) of the Boll, della R. Soc. Geog. Italiana. "The Original Nestorian Tablet of A.D. 781, as well as my replica, made in 1907," Holm writes, "are both carved from the stone quarries of Fu Ping Hien; the material is a black, sub-granular limestone with small oolithes scattered through it" (Frits V. Holm, The Nestorian Monument, Chicago, 1900). In this pamphlet there is a photograph of the tablet as it stands in the Pei lin.

Prof. Ed. Chavannes, who also visited Si-ngan in 1907, saw the Nestorian

Monument; in the album of his Mission archéologique dans la Chine

Séptentrionale, Paris, 1909, he has given (Plate 445) photographs of the

five tablets, the tablet itself, the western gate of the western suburb of

Si-ngan, and the entrance of the temple Kin Sheng Sze.

Cf. Notes, pp. 105-113 of Vol. I, of the second edition of Cathay and the

Way thither.

II., p. 27.


Cf. Kumudana, given by the Sanskrit-Chinese vocabulary found in Japan

(Max MüLLER, Buddhist Texts from Japan, in Anecdota Oxoniensia, Aryan

Series, t. I., part I., p. 9), and the Khumdan and Khumadan of

Theophylactus. (See TOMASCHEK, in Wiener Z.M., t. III., p. 105;

Marquart, Eransahr, pp. 316-7; Osteurop?ische und Ostasiatische

Streifzüge, pp. 89-90.) (PELLIOT.)

XLI., p. 29 n. The vocabulary Hwei Hwei (Mahomedan) of the College of Interpreters at Peking transcribes King chao from the Persian Kin-chang, a name it gives to the Shen-si province. King chao was called Ngan-si fu in 1277. (DEVéRIA, Epigraphie, p. 9.) Ken jan comes from Kin-chang = King-chao = Si-ngan fu.

Prof. Pelliot writes, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 29: "Cette note de M. Cordier n'est pas exacte. Sous les Song, puis sous les Mongols jusqu'en 1277, Si-ngan fou fut appelé King-tchao fou. Le vocabulaire houei-houei ne transcrit pas 'King-tchao du persan kin-tchang,' mais, comme les Persans appelaient alors Si-ngan fou Kindjanfou (le Kenjanfu de Marco Polo), cette forme persane est à son tour transcrite phonétiquement en chinois Kin-tchang fou, sans que les caractères choisis jouent là aucun r?le sémantique; Kin-tchang fou n'existe pas dans la géographie chinoise. Quant à l'origine de la forme persane, il est possible, mais non par s?r, que ce soit King-tchao fou. La forme 'Quen-zan-fou,' qu'un écolier chinois du Chen Si fournit à M. von Richthofen comme le nom de Si-ngan fou au temps des Yuan, doit avoir été fautivement recueillie. Il me parait impossible qu'un Chinois d'une province quelconque prononce zan le caractère [Chinese] tchao."

XLI., p. 29 n. A clause in the edict also orders the foreign bonzes of Ta T'sin and Mubupa (Christian and Mobed or Magian) to return to secular life.

Mubupa has no doubt been derived by the etymology mobed, but it is faulty; it should be Muhupa. (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 771.) Pelliot writes to me that there is now no doubt that it is derived from mu-lu hien and that it must be understood as the "[religion of] the Celestial God of the Magi."

XLIII., p. 32.

"The chien-tao, or 'pillar road,' mentioned, should be chan-tao, or 'scaffolding road.' The picture facing p. 50 shows how the shoring up or scaffolding is effected. The word chan is still in common use all over the Empire, and in 1267 Kúblái ordered this identical road ('Sz Ch'wan chan-tao') to be repaired. There are many such roads in Sz Ch'wan besides the original one from Han-chung-Fu." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 144.)

XLIV., p. 36. SINDAFU (Ch'êng tu fu).-Through the midst of this great city runs a large river…. It is a good half-mile wide….

"It is probable that in the thirteenth century, when Marco Polo was on his travels, the 'great river a good half-mile wide,' flowing past Chengtu, was the principal stream; but in the present day that channel is insignificant in comparison to the one which passes by Ta Hsien, Yung-Chia Chong, and Hsin-Chin Hsien. Of course, these channels are stopped up or opened as occasion requires. As a general rule, they follow such contour lines as will allow gravitation to conduct the water to levels as high as is possible, and when it is desired to raise it higher than it will naturally flow, chain-pumps and enormous undershot water-wheels of bamboo are freely employed. Water-power is used for driving mills through the medium of wheels, undershot or overshot, or turbines, as the local circumstances may demand." (R. Logan JACK, Back Blocks, p. 55.)

XLIV., p. 36.


"The story of the 'three Kings' of Sindafu is probably in this wise: For nearly a century the Wu family (Wu Kiai, Wu Lin, and Wu Hi) had ruled as semi-independent Sung or 'Manzi' Viceroys of Sz Ch'wan, but in 1206 the last-named, who had fought bravely for the Sung (Manzi) Dynasty against the northern Dynasty of the Nüchên Tartars (successors to Cathay), surrendered to this same Kin or Golden Dynasty of Nüchêns or Early Manchus, and was made King of Shuh (Sz Ch'wan). In 1236, Ogdai's son, K'wei-t'eng, effected the partial conquest of Shuh, entering the capital, Ch'êng-tu Fu (Sindafu), towards the close of the same year. But in 1259 Mangu in person had to go over part of the same ground again. He proceeded up the rapids, and in the seventh moon attacked Ch'ung K'ing, but about a fortnight later he died at a place called Tiao-yü Shan, apparently near the Tiao-yü Ch'êng of my map (p. 175 of Up the Yangtsze, 1881), where I was myself in the year 1881. Colonel Yule's suggestion that Marco's allusion is to the tripartite Empire of China 1000 years previously is surely wide of the mark. The 'three brothers' were probably Kiai, Lin, and T'ing, and Wu Hi was the son of Wu T'ing. An account of Wu Kiai is given in Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 144-5.)

Cf. MAYERS, No. 865, p. 259, and GILES, Biog. Dict., No. 2324, p. 880.

XLIV., p. 38.


Tch'eng Tu was the capital of the Kingdom of Shu. The first Shu Dynasty was the Minor Han Dynasty which lasted from A.D. 221 to A.D. 263; this Shu Dynasty was one of the Three Kingdoms (San Kwo chi); the two others being Wei (A.D. 220-264) reigning at Lo Yang, and Wu (A.D. 222-277) reigning at Kien Kang (Nan King). The second was the Ts'ien Shu Dynasty, founded in 907 by Wang Kien, governor of Sze Chw'an since 891; it lasted till 925, when it submitted to the Hau T'ang; in 933 the Hau T'ang were compelled to grant the title of King of Shu (Hau Shu) to Mong Chi-siang, governor of Sze Chw'an, who was succeeded by Mong Ch'ang, dethroned in 965; the capital was also Ch'eng Tu under these two dynasties.


XLV., p. 44. No man of that country would on any consideration take to wife a girl who was a maid; for they say a wife is nothing worth unless she has been used to consort with men. And their custom is this, that when travellers come that way, the old women of the place get ready, and take their unmarried daughters or other girls related to them, and go to the strangers who are passing, and make over the young women to whomsoever will accept them; and the travellers take them accordingly and do their pleasure; after which the girls are restored to the old women who brought them….

Speaking of the Sifan village of Po Lo and the account given by Marco Polo of the customs of these people, M.R. Logan JACK (Back Blocks, 1904, pp. 145-6) writes: "I freely admit that the good looks and modest bearing of the girls were the chief merits of the performance in my eyes. Had the danseuses been scrubbed and well dressed, they would have been a presentable body of débutantes in any European ballroom. One of our party, frivolously disposed, asked a girl (through an interpreter) if she would marry him and go to his country. The reply, 'I do not know you, sir,' was all that propriety could have demanded in the best society, and worthy of a pupil 'finished' at Miss Pinkerton's celebrated establishment…. Judging from our experience, no idea of hospitalities of the kind [Marco's experience] was in the people's minds."

XLV., p. 45. Speaking of the people of Tibet, Polo says: "They are very poorly clad, for their clothes are only of the skins of beasts, and of canvas, and of buckram."

Add to the note, I., p. 48, n. 5:-

"Au XIV'e siècle, le bougran [buckram] était une espèce de tissu de lin: le meilleur se fabriquait en Arménie et dans le royaume de Mélibar, s'il faut s'en rapporter à Marco Polo, qui nous apprend que les habitants du Thibet, qu'il signale comme pauvrement vêtus, l'étaient de canevas et de bougran, et que cette dernière étoffe se fabriquait aussi dans la province d'Abasce. Il en venait également de l'?le de Chypre. Sorti des manufactures d'Espagne ou importé dans le royaume, à partir de 1442, date d'une ordonnance royale publiée par le P. Saez, le bougran le plus fin payait soixante-dix maravédis de droits, sans distinction de couleur" (FRANCISQUE-MICHEL, Recherches sur le commerce, la fabrication et l'usage des étoffes de soie, d'or et d'argent…. II., 1854, pp. 33-4). Passage mentioned by Dr. Laufer.

XLV., pp. 46 n., 49 seq.

Referring to Dr. E. Bretschneider, Prof. E.H. Parker gives the following notes in the Asiatic Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 131: "In 1251 Ho-êrh-t'ai was appointed to the command of the Mongol and Chinese forces advancing on Tibet (T'u-fan). [In my copy of the Yüan Shi there is no entry under the year 1254 such as that mentioned by Bretschneider; it may, however, have been taken by Palladius from some other chapter.] In 1268 Mang-ku-tai was ordered to invade the Si-fan (outer Tibet) and Kien-tu [Marco's Caindu] with 6000 men. Bretschneider, however, omits Kien-tu, and also omits to state that in 1264 eighteen Si-fan clans were placed under the superintendence of the an-fu-sz (governor) of An-si Chou, and that in 1265 a reward was given to the troops of the decachiliarch Hwang-li-t'a-rh for their services against the T'u fan, with another reward to the troops under Prince Ye-suh-pu-hwa for their successes against the Si-fan. Also that in 1267 the Si-fan chieftains were encouraged to submit to Mongol power, in consequence of which A-nu-pan-ti-ko was made Governor-General of Ho-wu and other regions near it. Bretschneider's next item after the doubtful one of 1274 is in 1275, as given by Cordier, but he omits to state that in 1272 Mang-ku-tai's eighteen clans and other T'u-fan troops were ordered in hot haste to attack Sin-an Chou, belonging to the Kien-tu prefecture; and that a post-station called Ning-ho Yih was established on the T'u-fan and Si-Ch'wan [= Sz Ch'wan] frontier. In 1275 a number of Princes, including Chi-pi T'ie-mu-r, and Mang-u-la, Prince of An-si, were sent to join the Prince of Si-p'ing [Kúblái's son] Ao-lu-ch'ih in his expedition against the Tu-fau. In 1276 all Si-fan bonzes (lamas) were forbidden to carry arms, and the Tu-fan city of Hata was turned into Ning-yüan Fu [as it now exists]; garrisons and civil authorities were placed in Kien-tu and Lo-lo-sz [the Lolo country]. In 1277 a Customs station was established at Tiao-mên and Li-Chou [Ts'ing-k'i Hien in Ya-chou Fu] for the purposes of Tu-fan trade. In 1280 more Mongol troops were sent to the Li Chou region, and a special officer was appointed for T'u-fan [Tibetan] affairs at the capital. In 1283 a high official was ordered to print the official documents connected with the süan-wei-sz [governorship] of T'u-fan. In 1288 six provinces, including those of Sz Chw'an and An-si, were ordered to contribute financial assistance to the süan-wei-sh? [governor] of U-sz-tsang [the indigenous name of Tibet proper]. Every year or two after this, right up to 1352, there are entries in the Mongol Annals amply proving that the conquest of Tibet under the Mongols was not only complete, but fully narrated; however, there is no particular object in carrying the subject here beyond the date of Marco's departure from China. There are many mentions of Kien-tu (which name dates from the Sung Dynasty) in the Yüan-sh?; it is the Kien-ch'ang Valley of to-day, with capital at Ning-yüan, as clearly marked on Bretschneider's Map. Baber's suggestion of the Chan-tui tribe of Tibetans is quite obsolete, although Baber was one of the first to explore the region in person. A petty tribe like the Chan-tui could never have given name to Caindu; besides, both initials and finals are impossible, and the Chan-tui have never lived there. I have myself met Si-fan chiefs at Peking; they may be described roughly as Tibetans not under the Tibetan Government. The T'u-fan, T'u-po, or Tubot, were the Tibetans under Tibetan rule, and they are now usually styled 'Si-tsang' by the Chinese. Yaci [Ya-ch'ih, Ya-ch'?] is frequently mentioned in the Yüan-sh?, and the whole of Devéria's quotation given by Cordier on p. 72 appears there [chap. 121, p. 5], besides a great deal more to the point, without any necessity for consulting the Lei pien. Cowries, under the name of pa-tsz, are mentioned in both Mongol and Ming history as being in use for money in Siam and Yung-ch'ang [Vociam]. The porcelain coins which, as M. Cordier quotes from me on p. 74, I myself saw current in the Shan States or Siam about ten years ago, were of white China, with a blue figure, and about the size of a Keating's cough lozenge, but thicker. As neither form of the character pa appears in any dictionary, it is probably a foreign word only locally understood. Regarding the origin of the name Yung-ch'ang, the discussions upon p. 105 are no longer necessary; in the eleventh moon of 1272 [say about January 1, 1273] Kúblái 'presented the name Yung-ch'ang to the new city built by Prince Chi-pi T'ie-mu-r.'"

XLVI., p. 49. They have also in this country [Tibet] plenty of fine woollens and other stuffs, and many kinds of spices are produced there which are never seen in our country.

Dr. Laufer draws my attention to the fact that this translation does not give exactly the sense of the French text, which runs thus:

"Et encore voz di qe en ceste provence a gianbelot [camelot] assez et autres dras d'or et de soie, et hi naist maintes especes qe unques ne furent veue en nostre pa?s." (Ed. Soc. de Géog., Chap, cxvi., p. 128.)

In the Latin text (Ibid., p. 398), we have:

"In ista provincia sunt giambelloti satis et alii panni de sirico et auro; et ibi nascuntur multae species quae nunquam fuerunt visae in nostris contractis."

Francisque-Michel (Recherches, II., p. 44) says: "Les Tartares fabriquaient aussi à Aias de très-beaux camelots de poil de chameau, que l'on expédiait pour divers pays, et Marco Polo nous apprend que cette denrée était fort abondante dans le Thibet. Au XV'e siècle, il en venait de l'?le de Chypre."

XLVII., pp. 50, 52,


Dr. Laufer writes to me: "Yule correctly identifies the 'wild oxen' of Tibet with the gayal (Bos gavaeus), but I do not believe that his explanation of the word beyamini (from an artificially constructed buemini = Bohemian) can be upheld. Polo states expressly that these wild oxen are called beyamini (scil. by the natives), and evidently alludes to a native Tibetan term. The gayal is styled in Tibetan ba-men (or ba-man), derived from ba ('cow'), a diminutive form of which is beu. Marco Polo appears to have heard some dialectic form of this word like beu-men or beu-min."

XLVIII., p. 70.


Kiung tu or Kiang tu is Caindu in Sze-Ch'wan; Kien tu is in Yun Nan. Cf.

PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, July-Sept, 1904, p. 771. Caindu

or Ning Yuan was, under the Mongols, a dependency of Yun Nan, not of Sze

Ch'wan. (PELLIOT.)

XLVIII., p. 72. The name Karájáng. "The first element was the Mongol or Turki Kárá…. Among the inhabitants of this country some are black, and others are white; these latter are called by the Mongols Chaghán-Jáng ('White Jang'). Jang has not been explained; but probably it may have been a Tibetan term adopted by the Mongols, and the colours may have applied to their clothing."

Dr. Berthold Laufer, of Chicago, has a note on the subject in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc., Oct., 1915, pp. 781-4: "M. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient., IV., 1904, p. 159) proposed to regard the unexplained name Jang as the Mongol transcription of Ts'uan, the ancient Chinese designation of the Lo-lo, taken from the family name of one of the chiefs of the latter; he gave his opinion, however, merely as an hypothesis which should await confirmation. I now believe that Yule was correct in his conception, and that, in accordance with his suggestion, Jang indeed represents the phonetically exact transcription of a Tibetan proper name. This is the Tibetan a Jan or a Jans (the prefixed letter a and the optional affix -s being silent, hence pronounced Jang or Djang), of which the following precise definition is given in the Dictionnaire tibétain-latin fran?ais par les Missionnaires Catholiques du Tibet (p. 351): 'Tribus et regionis nomen in N.W. provinciae Sinarum Yun-nan, cuius urbs principalis est Sa-t'am seu Ly-kiang fou. Tribus vocatur Mosso a Sinensibus et Nashi ab ipsismet incolis.' In fact, as here stated, Ja'n or Jang is the Tibetan designation of the Moso and the territory inhabited by them, the capital of which is Li-kiang-fu. This name is found also in Tibetan literature…."

XLVIII., p. 74, n. 2. One thousand Uighúr families (nou) had been transferred to Karajáng in 1285. (Yuan Shi, ch. 13, 8_v_°, quoted by PELLIOT.)

L., pp. 85-6. Zardandan. "The country is wild and hard of access, full of great woods and mountains which 'tis impossible to pass, the air in summer is so impure and bad; and any foreigners attempting it would die for certain."

"An even more formidable danger was the resolution of our 'permanent' (as distinguished from 'local') soldiers and mafus, of which we were now apprised, to desert us in a body, as they declined to face the malaria of the Lu-Kiang Ba, or Salwen Valley. We had, of course, read in Gill's book of this difficulty, but as we approached the Salwen we had concluded that the scare had been forgotten. We found, to our chagrin, that the dreaded 'Fever Valley' had lost none of its terrors. The valley had a bad name in Marco Polo's day, in the thirteenth century, and its reputation has clung to it ever since, with all the tenacity of Chinese traditions. The Chinaman of the district crosses the valley daily without fear, but the Chinaman from a distance knows that he will either die or his wife will prove unfaithful. If he is compelled to go, the usual course is to write to his wife and tell her that she is free to look out for another husband. Having made up his mind that he will die, I have no doubt that he often dies through sheer funk." (R. Logan JACK, Back Blocks of China, 1904, p. 205.)

L., pp. 84, 89.


We read in Huber's paper already mentioned (Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, p. 665): "The second month of the twelfth year (1275), Ho T'ien-tsio, governor of the Kien Ning District, sent the following information: 'A-kouo of the Zerdandan tribe, knows three roads to enter Burma, one by T'ien pu ma, another by the P'iao tien, and the third by the very country of A-kouo; the three roads meet at the 'City of the Head of the River' [Kaung si] in Burma." A-kouo, named elsewhere A-ho, lived at Kan-ngai. According to Huber, the Zardandan road is the actual caravan road to Bhamo on the left of the Nam Ti and Ta Ping; the second route would be by the Tien ma pass and Nam hkam, the P'iao tien route is the road on the right bank of the Nam Ti and the Ta Ping leading to Bhamo via San Ta and Man Waing.

The Po Yi and Ho Ni tribes are mentioned in the Yuan Shi, s.a. 1278.


L., p. 90.

Mr. H.A. OTTEWILL tells me in a private note that the Kachins or Singphos did not begin to reach Burma in their emigration from Tibet until last century or possibly this century. They are not to be found east of the Salwen River.

L., p. 91.


There is a paper on the subject in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (1911, pp. 546-63) by Hugo Kunicke, Das sogennante, "Mannerkindbett," with a bibliography not mentioning Yule's Marco Polo, Vinson, etc. We may also mention: De la "Covada" en Espana. Por el Prof. Dr. Telesforo de Aranzadi, Barcelona (Anthropos, T.V., fasc. 4, Juli-August, 1910, pp. 775-8).

L., p. 92 n.

I quoted Prof. E.H. Parker (China Review, XIV., p. 359), who wrote that the "Langszi are evidently the Szi lang, one of the six Chao, but turned upside down." Prof. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 771) remarks: "Mr. Parker is entirely wrong. The Chao of Shi-lang, which was annexed by Nan Chao during the eighth century, was in the western part of Yun Nan, not in Kwei chau; we have but little information on the subject." He adds: "The custom of Couvade is confirmed for the Lao of Southern China by the following text of the Yi wu chi of Fang Ts'ien-li, dating at least from the time of the T'ang dynasty: 'When a Lao woman of Southern China has a child, she goes out at once. The husband goes to bed exhausted, like a woman giving suck. If he does not take care, he becomes ill. The woman has no harm.'"

L., pp. 91-95.

Under the title of The Couvade or "Hatching," John Cain writes from Dumagudem, 31st March, 1874, to the Indian Antiquary, May, 1874, p. 151:

"In the districts in South India in which Telugu is spoken, there is a wandering tribe of people called the Erukalavandlu. They generally pitch their huts, for the time being, just outside a town or village. Their chief occupations are fortune-telling, rearing pigs, and making mats. Those in this part of the Telugu country observe the custom mentioned in Max Müller's Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. II., pp. 277-284. Directly the woman feels the birth-pangs, she informs her husband, who immediately takes some of her clothes, puts them on, places on his forehead the mark which the women usually place on theirs, retires into a dark room where is only a very dim lamp, and lies down on the bed, covering himself up with a long cloth. When the child is born, it is washed and placed on the cot beside the father. Assafoetida, jaggery, and other articles are then given, not to the mother, but to the father. During the days of ceremonial uncleanness the man is treated as the other Hindus treat their women on such occasions. He is not allowed to leave his bed, but has everything needful brought to him."

Mr. John Cain adds (l.c., April, 1879, p. 106): "The women are called 'hens' by their husbands, and the male and female children 'cock children' and 'hen children' respectively."

LI., p. 99 n. "M. Garnier informs me that Mien Kwé or Mien Tisong is the name always given in Yun Nan to that kingdom."

Mien Tisong is surely faulty, and must likely be corrected in Mien Chung, proved especially at the Ming Period. (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept, 1904, p. 772.)

LI., LII., pp. 98 seq.


The late Edouard HUBER of Hanoi, writing from Burmese sources, throws new light on this subject: "In the middle of the thirteenth century, the Burmese kingdom included Upper and Lower Burma, Arakan and Tenasserim; besides the Court of Pagan was paramount over several feudatory Shan states, until the valleys of the Yunnanese affluents of the Irawadi to the N.E., and until Zimmé at the least to the E. Narasihapati, the last king of Pagan who reigned over the whole of this territory, had already to fight the Talaings of the Delta and the governor of Arakan who wished to be independent, when, in 1271, he refused to receive Kúblái's ambassadors who had come to call upon him to recognize himself as a vassal of China. The first armed conflict took place during the spring of 1277 in the Nam Ti valley; it is the battle of Nga-?aung-khyam of the Burmese Chronicles, related by Marco Polo, who, by mistake, ascribes to Nasr ed-Din the merit of this first Chinese victory. During the winter of 1277-78, a second Chinese expedition with Nasr ed-Din at its head ended with the capture of Kaung sin, the Burmese stronghold commanding the defile of Bhamo. The Pagan Yazawin is the only Burmese Chronicle giving exactly the spot of this second encounter. During these two expeditions, the invaders had not succeeded in breaking through the thick veil of numerous small thai principalities which still stand to-day between Yun Nan and Burma proper. It was only in 1283 that the final crush took place, when a third expedition, whose chief was Siang-wu-ta-eul (Singtaur), retook the fort of Kaung sin and penetrated more into the south in the Irawadi Valley, but without reaching Pagan. King Narasihapati evacuated Pagan before the impending advancing Chinese forces and fled to the Delta. In 1285 parleys for the establishment of a Chinese Protectorship were begun; but in the following year, King Narasihapati was poisoned at Prome by his own son S?hasura. In 1287, a fourth Chinese expedition, with Prince Ye-sin Timur at its head, reached at last Pagan, having suffered considerable losses…. A fifth and last Chinese expedition took place during the autumn of 1300 when the Chinese army went down the Irawadi Valley and besieged Myin-Saing during the winter of 1300-1301. The Mongol officers of the staff having been bribed the siege was raised." (Bul. Ecole Extrême-Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, pp. 679-680; cf. also p. 651 n.)

Huber, p. 666 n., places the battle-field of Vochan in the Nam Ti

Valley; the Burmese never reached the plain of Yung Ch'ang.

LII., p. 106 n.


We shall resume from Chinese sources the history of the relations between

Burma and China:

1271. Embassy of Kúblái to Mien asking for allegiance.

1273. New embassy of Kúblái.

1275. Information supplied by A-kuo, chief of Zardandan.

1277. First Chinese Expedition against Mien-Battle of Nga-?aung-khyam won by Hu Tu.

1277. Second Chinese Expedition led by Na?r ed-Din.

1283. Third Chinese Expedition led by Prince Singtaur.

1287. Fourth Chinese Expedition led by Yisun Timur; capture of Pagan.

1300-1301. Fifth Chinese Expedition; siege of Myin-saing.

Cf. E. HUBER, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, pp. 633-680.-VISDELOU, Rev. Ext. Orient, II., pp. 72-88.

LIII.-LIV., pp. 106-108. "After leaving the Province of which I have been speaking [Yung ch'ang] you come to a great Descent. In fact you ride for two days and a half continually down hill…. After you have ridden those two days and a half down hill, you find yourself in a province towards the south which is pretty near India, and this province is called AMIEN. You travel therein for fifteen days…. And when you have travelled those 15 days … you arrive at the capital city of this Province of Mien, and it also is called AMIEN…."

I owe the following valuable note to Mr. Herbert Allan OTTEWILL, H.M.'s

Vice-Consul at T'eng Yueh (11th October, 1908):

"The indications of the route are a great descent down which you ride continually for two days and a half towards the south along the main route to the capital city of Amien.

"It is admitted that the road from Yung Ch'ang to T'eng Yueh is not the one indicated. Before the Hui jen Bridge was built over the Salween in 1829, there can be no doubt that the road ran to Ta tu k'ou-great ferry place-which is about six miles below the present bridge. The distance to both places is about the same, and can easily be accomplished in two days.

"The late Mr. Litton, who was Consul here for some years, once stated that the road to La-mêng on the Salween was almost certainly the one referred to by Marco Polo as the great descent to the kingdom of Mien. His stages were from Yung Ch'ang: (1) Yin wang (? Niu wang); (2) P'ing ti; (3) Chen an so; (4) Lung Ling. The Salween was crossed on the third day at La-mêng Ferry. Yung Ch'ang is at an altitude of about 5,600 feet; the Salween at the Hui jen Bridge is about 2,400, and probably drops 200-300 feet between the bridge and La-mêng, Personally I have only been along the first stage to Niu Wang, 5,000 feet; and although aneroids proved that the highest point on the road was about 6,600, I can easily imagine a person not provided with such instruments stating that the descent was fairly gradual. From Niu Wang there must be a steady drop to the Salween, probably along the side of the stream which drains the Niu Wang Plain.

"La-mêng and Chen an so are in the territory of the Shan Sawbwa of Mang

Shih [M?ng Hkwan]."

"It is also a well-known fact that the Shan States of Hsen-wi (in Burma) and Meng mao (in China) fell under Chinese authority at an early date. Mr. E.H. Parker, quoted by Sir G. Scott in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, states: 'During the reign of the Mongol Emperor Kúblái a General was sent to punish Annam and passed through this territory or parts of it called Meng tu and Meng pang,' and secured its submission. In the year 1289 the Civil and Military Governorship of Muh Pang was established. Muh Pang is the Chinese name of Hsen-wi.

"Therefore the road from Yung Ch'ang to La-mêng fulfils the conditions of a great descent, riding two and a half days continually down hill finding oneself in a (Shan) Province to the south, besides being on a well-known road to Burma, which was probably in the thirteenth century the only road to that country.

"Fifteen days from La-mêng to Tagaung or Old Pagan is not an impossible feat. Lung Ling is reached in 1-1/2 days, Keng Yang in four, and it is possible to do the remaining distance about a couple of hundred miles in eleven days, making fifteen in all.

"I confess I do not see how any one could march to Pagan in Latitude 21° 13' in fifteen days."

LIV., p. 113.


According to the late E. HUBER, Ngan chen kue is not Nga-?aung-khyam, but Nga Singu, in the Mandalay district. The battle took place, not in the Yung Ch'ang plain, but in the territory of the Shan Chief of Nan-tien. The official description of China under the Ming (Ta Ming yi lung che, k. 87, 38 v°) tells us that Nan-tien before its annexation by Kúblái Khan, bore the name of Nan Sung or Nang Sung, and to-day the pass which cuts this territory in the direction of T'eng Yueh is called Nang-Sung-kwan. It is hardly possible to doubt that this is the place called Nga-?aung-khyam by the Burmese Chronicles. (Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, p. 652.)

LVI., p. 117 n.

A Map in the Yun Nan Topography Section 9, "Tu-ssu" or Sawbwas, marks the Kingdom of "Eight hundred wives" between the mouths of the Irrawaddy and the Salween Rivers. (Note kindly sent by Mr. H.A. OTTEWILL.)

LIX., p. 128.


M. Georges Maspero, L'Empire Khmèr, p. 77 n., thinks that Canxigu = Luang Prabang; I read Caugigu and I believe it is a transcription of Kiao-Chi Kwé, see p. 131.

LIX., pp. 128, 131.

"I have identified, II., p. 131, Caugigu with Kiao-Chi kwé (Kiao Chi),

i.e. Tung King." Hirth and Rockhill (Chau Ju-kua, p. 46 n.) write:

"'Kiáu chi' is certainly the original of Marco Polo's Caugigu and of

Rashideddin's Kafchi kué."

[1] Pen ts'ao kang mu, Ch. 25, p. 14b.

[2] Regarding this name and its history, see PELLIOT, Journ. Asiatique, 1912, I., p. 582. Qara Khodja was celebrated for its abundance of grapes. (BRETSCHNEIDER, Mediaeval Res., I., p. 65.) J. DUDGEON (The Beverages of the Chinese, p. 27) misreading it Ha-so-hwo, took it for the designation of a sort of wine. STUART (Chinese Materia Medica, p. 459) mistakes it for a transliteration of "hollands," or may be "alcohol." The latter word has never penetrated into China in any form.

[3] This work is also the first that contains the word a-la-ki, from Arabic 'araq. (See T'oung Pao, 1916, p, 483.)

[4] A range of mountains separating Shan Si from Chi li and Ho Nan.

[5] This is probably a phantasy. We can make nothing of it, as it is not stated how the adulterated wine was made.

[6] This possibly is the earliest Chinese allusion to alcohol.



LX., p. 133.


The Rev. A.C. MOULE (T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 417) says that "Ciang lu [Ch'anglu] was not, I think, identical with Ts'ang chou," but does not give any reason in support of this opinion.


"To this day the sole name for this industry, the financial centre of which is T'ien Tsin, is the 'Ch'ang-lu Superintendency.'" (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 147.) "The 'Ch'ang-lu,' or Long Reed System, derives its name from the city Ts'ang chou, on the Grand Canal (south of T'ientsin), once so called. In 1285 Kúblái Khan 'once more divided the Ho-kien (Chih-li) and Shan Tung interests,' which, as above explained, are really one in working principle. There is now a First Class Commissary at Tientsin, with sixteen subordinates, and the Viceroy (who until recent years resided at Pao ting fu) has nominal supervision." (PARKER, China, 1901, pp. 223-4.)

"Il y a 10 groupes de salines, Tch'ang, situés dans les districts de Fou ning hien, Lo t'ing hien, Loan tcheou, Fong joen hien, Pao tch'e hien, T'ien tsin hien, Tsing hai hien, Ts'ang tcheou et Yen chan hien. Il y a deux procédés employés pour la fabrication du sel: 1° On étale sur un sol uni des cendres d'herbes venues dans un terrain salé et on les arrose d'eau de mer; le liquide qui s'en écoule, d'une densité suffisante pour faire flotter un ceuf de poule ou des graines de nénuphar, Che lien, est chauffé pendant 24 heures avec de ces mêmes herbes employées comme combustible, et le sel se dépose. Les cendres des herbes servent à une autre opération. 2° L'eau de mer est simplement évaporée au soleil…. L'administrateur en chef de ce commerce est le Vice-roi même de la province de Tche-li." (P. HOANG, Sel, Variétés Sinologiques, No. 15, p. 3.)

LXI., pp. 136, 138.


"Le titre chinois de tsiang kiun 'général' apparait toujours dans les inscriptions de l'Orkhon sous la forme s?nün, et dans les manuscrits turcs de Tourfan on trouve sangun; ces formes avaient prévalu en Asie centrale et c'est à elles que répond le sangon de Marco Polo" (éd. Yule-Cordier, II., 136, 138). PELLIOT, Kao tch'ang, J. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 584 n.

LXI., p. 138.


"For Li T'an's rebellion and the siege of Ts'i-nan, see the Yüan Shih, c. v, fol. 1, 2; c. ccvi, fol. 2x°; and c. cxviii, fol. 5r'o. From the last passage it appears that Aibuga, the father of King George of Tenduc, took some part in the siege. Prince Ha-pi-ch'i and Shih T'ien-tsê, but not, that I have seen, Agul or Mangutai, are mentioned in the Yüan Shih." (A. C. MOULE, T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 417.)

LXII., p. 139.


This is Ts'i ning chau. "Sinjumatu was on a navigable stream, as Marco Polo expressly states and as its name implies. It was not long after 1276, as we learn from the Yüan Shih (lxiv), that Kúblái carried out very extensive improvements in the waterways of this very region, and there is nothing improbable in the supposition that the ma-t'ou or landing-place had moved up to the more important town, so that the name of Chi chou had become in common speech Sinjumatu (Hsin-chou-ma-t'ou) by the time that Marco Polo got to know the place." (A.C. MOULE, Marco Polo's Sinjumatu, T'oung Pao, July, 1912, pp. 431-3.)

LXII., p. 139 n.


"Et si voz di qu'il ont un fluns dou quel il ont grant profit et voz dirai comant. Il est voir qe ceste grant fluns vient de ver midi jusque à ceste cité de Singuimatu, et les homes de la ville cest grant fluns en ont fait deus: car il font l'une moitié aler ver levant, et l'autre moitié aler ver ponent: ce est qe le un vait au Mangi, et le autre por le Catai. Et si voz di por verité que ceste ville a si grant navile, ce est si grant quantité, qe ne est nul qe ne veisse qe peust croire. Ne entendés qe soient grant nés, mès eles sunt tel come besogne au grant fluns, et si voz di qe ceste naville portent au Mangi e por le Catai si grant abondance de mercandies qe ce est mervoille; et puis quant elles revienent, si tornent encore cargies, et por ce est merveieliosse chouse à veoir la mercandie qe por celle fluns se porte sus et jus." (Marco Polo, Soc. de Geog., p. 152.)

LXIV., p. 144.


The Rev. A.C. Moule writes (T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 415): "Hai chou is the obvious though by no means perfectly satisfactory equivalent of Caigiu. For it stands not on, but thirty or forty miles from, the old bed of the river. A place which answers better as regards position is Ngan tung which was a chou (giu) in the Sung and Yuan Dynasties. The Kuang-yü-hsing-shêng, Vol. II., gives Hai Ngan as the old name of Ngan Tung in the Eastern Wei Dynasty."

LXIV., p. 144 n.

"La voie des transports du tribut n'était navigable que de Hang tcheou au fleuve Jaune, [Koublai] la continua jusqu'auprès de sa capitale. Les travaux commencèrent en 1289 et trois ans après on en faisait l'ouverture. C'était un ruban de plus de (1800) mille huit cents li (plus de 1000 kil.). L'étendue de ce Canal, qui mérite bien d'être appelé impérial (Yu ho), de Hang Tcheou à Peking, mesure près de trois mille li, c'est-à-dire plus de quatre cents lieues." GANDAR, Le Canal Impérial, 1894, pp. 21-22. Kwa Chau (Caiju), formerly at the head of the Grand Canal on the Kiang, was destroyed by the erosions of the river.

LXV., p. 148 n.

Instead of K_o_tan, note 1, read K_i_tan. "The ceremony of leading a sheep was insisted on in 926, when the Tungusic-Corean King of Puh-hai (or Manchuria) surrendered, and again in 946, when the puppet Chinese Emperor of the Tsin Dynasty gave in his submission to the Kitans." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., January, 1904, p. 140.)

LXV., p. 149.


It is interesting to note that the spoils of Lin Ngan carried to Khan Balig were the beginning of the Imperial Library, increased by the documents of the Yuen, the Ming, and finally the Ts'ing; it is noteworthy that during the rebellion of Li Tze-ch'eng, the library was spared, though part of the palace was burnt. See N. PERI, Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, Jan.-June, 1911, p. 190.

LXVIII., p. 154 n.


Regarding Kingsmill's note, Mr. John C. Ferguson writes in the Journal North China Branch Roy. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 190: "It is evident that Tiju and Yanju have been correctly identified as Taichow and Yangchow. I cannot agree with Mr. Kingsmill, however, in identifying Tinju as Ichin-hien on the Great River. It is not probable that Polo would mention Ichin twice, once before reaching Yangchow and once after describing Yangchow. I am inclined to believe that Tinju is Hsien-nü-miao [Chinese], a large market-place which has close connection both with Taichow and Yangchow. It is also an important place for the collection of the revenue on salt, as Polo notices. This identification of Tinju with Hsien-nü-miao would clear up any uncertainty as to Polo's journey, and would make a natural route for Polo to take from Kao yu to Yangchow if he wished to see an important place between these two cities."

LXVIII., p. 154.


In a text of the Yuen tien chang, dated 1317, found by Prof. Pelliot, mention is made of a certain Ngao-la-han [Abraham?] still alive at Yang chau, who was, according to the text, the son of the founder of the Church of the Cross of the ?rk?gün (Ye-li-k'o-wen she-tze-sze), one of the three Nestorian churches of Yang-chau mentioned by Odoric and omitted by Marco Polo. Cf. Cathay, II., p. 210, and PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 638.

LXX., p. 167.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Roy. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 195: "Colonel Yule's note requires some amendment, and he has evidently been misled by the French translations. The two Mussulmans who assisted Kúblái with guns were not 'A-la-wa-ting of Mu-fa-li and Ysemain of Huli or Hiulie,' but A-la-pu-tan of Mao-sa-li and Y-sz-ma-yin of Shih-la. Shih-la is Shiraz, the Serazy of Marco Polo, and Mao-sa-li is Mosul. Bretschneider cites the facts in his Mediaeval Notes, and seems to have used another edition, giving the names as A-lao-wa-ting of Mu-fa-li and Y-sz-ma-yin of Hü-lieh; but even he points out that Hulagu is meant, i.e. 'a man from Hulagu's country.'"

LXX., p. 169.


"Captain Gill's testimony as to the ancient 'guns' used by the Chinese is, of course (as, in fact, he himself states), second-hand and hearsay. In Vol. XXIV. of the China Review I have given the name and date of a General who used p'ao so far back as the seventh century." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 146-7.)

LXXIV., p. 179 n.


According to the Yuen Shi and Devéria, Journ. Asiat., Nov.-Dec., 1896, 432, in 1229 and 1241, when Okkodai's army reached the country of the Aas (Alans), their chief submitted at once and a body of one thousand Alans were kept for the private guard of the Great Khan; Mangu enlisted in his bodyguard half the troops of the Alan Prince, Arslan, whose younger son Nicholas took a part in the expedition of the Mongols against Karajang (Yun Nan). This Alan imperial guard was still in existence in 1272, 1286, and 1309, and it was divided into two corps with headquarters in the Ling pei province (Karakorúm). See also Bretschneider, Mediaeval Researches, II., pp. 84-90.

The massacre of a body of Christian Alans related by Marco Polo (II., p. 178) is confirmed by Chinese sources.

LXXIV., p. 180, n. 3.


See Notes in new edition of Cathay and the Way thither, III., pp. 179 seq., 248.

The massacre of the Alans took place, according to Chinese sources, at Chen-ch'ao, not at Ch'ang chau. The Sung general who was in charge of the city, Hung Fu, after making a faint submission, got the Alans drunk at night and had them slaughtered. Cf. PELLIOT, Chrétiens d'Asie centrale et d'Extrême-Orient, T'oung Pao, Dec., 1914, p. 641.

LXXVI., pp. 184-5.


The Rev. A.C. Moule has given in the T'oung Pao, July, 1915, pp. 393 seq., the Itinerary between Lin Ngan (Hang Chau) and Shang Tu, followed by the Sung Dynasty officials who accompanied their Empress Dowager to the Court of Kúblái after the fall of Hang Chau in 1276; the diary was written by Yen Kwang-ta, a native of Shao King, who was attached to the party.

The Rev. A.C. Moule in his notes writes, p. 411: "The connexion between Hu-chou and Hang-chou is very intimate, and the north suburb of the latter, the Hu-shu, was known in Marco Polo's day as the Hu-chou shih. The identification of Vughin with Wu-chiang is fairly satisfactory, but it is perhaps worth while to point out that there is a place called Wu chên about fifty li north of Shih-mên; and for Ciangan there is a tempting place called Ch'ang-an chên just south of Shih-mên on a canal which was often preferred to the T'ang-hsi route until the introduction of steam boats."

LXXVI., p. 192. "There is one church only [at Kinsay], belonging to the

Nestorian Christians."

It was one of the seven churches built in China by Mar Sarghis, called Ta p'u hing sze (Great Temple of Universal Success), or Yang yi Hu-mu-la, near the Tsien k'iao men. Cf. Marco Polo, II., p. 177; VISSIèRE, Rev. du Monde Musulman, March, 1913, p. 8.

LXXVI., p. 193.


Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library.

The Rev. A.C. Moule has devoted a long note to this Atlas in the Journ. R. As. Soc., July, 1919, pp. 393-395. He has come to the conclusion that the Atlas is no more nor less than the Kuang yü t'u, and that it seems that Camse stands neither for Ching-shih, as Yule thought, nor for Hang chau as he, Moule, suggested in 1917, but simply for the province of Kiangsi. (A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo.)

Mr. P. von Tanner, Commissioner of Customs at Hang chau, wrote in 1901 in the Decennial Reports, 1892-1901, of the Customs, p. 4: "While Hangchow owes its fame to the lake on the west, it certainly owes its existence towards the south-west to the construction of the sea wall, called by the Chinese by the appropriate name of bore wall. The erection of this sea wall was commenced about the year A.D. 915, by Prince Ts'ien Wu-su; it extends from Hang Chau to Chuan sha, near the opening of the Hwang pu…. The present sea wall, in its length of 180 miles, was built. The wall is a stupendous piece of work, and should take an equal share of fame with the Grand Canal and the Great Wall of China, as its engineering difficulties were certainly infinitely greater…. The fact that Marco Polo does not mention it shows almost conclusively that he never visited Hang Chau, but got his account from a Native poet. He must have taken it, besides, without the proverbial grain of salt, and without eliminating the over-numerous 'thousands' and 'myriads' prompted less by facts than by patriotic enthusiasm and poetical licence."

LXXVI., p. 194 n.


In the heart of Hang-chau, one of the bridges spanning the canal which divides into two parts the walled city from north to south is called Hwei Hwei k'iao (Bridge of the Mohamedans) or Hwei Hwei Sin k'iao (New Bridge of the Mohamedans), while its literary name is Tsi Shan k'iao (Bridge of Accumulated Wealth); it is situated between the Tsien k'iao on the south and the Fung lo k'iao on the north. Near the Tsi Shan k'iao was a mosk, and near the Tsien k'iao, at the time of the Yuen, there existed Eight Pavilions (Pa kien lew) inhabited by wealthy Mussulmans. Mohamedans from Arabia and Turkestan were sent by the Yuen to Hang-chau; they had prominent noses, did not eat pork, and were called So mu chung (Coloured-eye race). VISSIèRE, Rev. du Monde Musulman, March, 1913.

LXXVI., p. 199.


Pelliot proposes to see in Khanfu a transcription of Kwang-fu, an abridgment of Kwang chau fu, prefecture of Kwang chau (Canton). Cf. Bul. Ecole fran? Ext. Orient, Jan.-June, 1904, p. 215 n., but I cannot very well accept this theory.

LXXX., pp. 225, 226. "They have also [in Fu Kien] a kind of fruit resembling saffron, and which serves the purpose of saffron just as well."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "Yule's identification with a species of Gardenia is all right, although this is not peculiar to Fu Kien. Another explanation, however, is possible. In fact, the Chinese speak of a certain variety of saffron peculiar to Fu Kien. The Pen ts'ao kang mu shi i (Ch. 4, p. 14 b) contains the description of a 'native saffron' (t'u hung hwa, in opposition to the 'Tibetan red flower' or genuine saffron) after the Continued Gazetteer of Fu Kien, as follows: 'As regards the native saffron, the largest specimens are seven or eight feet high. The leaves are like those of the p'i-p'a (Eriobotrya japonica), but smaller and without hair. In the autumn it produces a white flower like a grain of maize (Su-mi, Zea mays). It grows in Fu Chou and Nan Ngen Chou (now Yang Kiang in Kwang Tung) in the mountain wilderness. That of Fu Chou makes a fine creeper, resembling the fu-yung (Hibiscus mutabilis), green above and white below, the root being like that of the ko (Pachyrhizus thunbergianus). It is employed in the pharmacopeia, being finely chopped for this purpose and soaked overnight in water in which rice has been scoured; then it is soaked for another night in pure water and pounded: thus it is ready for prescriptions.' This plant, as far as I know, has not yet been identified, but it may well be identical with Polo's saffron of Fu Kien."

LXXX., pp. 226, 229 n.


Tarradale, Muir of Ord, Ross-shire, May 10, 1915.

In a letter lately received from my cousin Mr. George Udny Yule (St. John's College, Cambridge) he makes a suggestion which seems to me both probable and interesting. As he is at present too busy to follow up the question himself, I have asked permission to publish his suggestion in The Athenaeum, with the hope that some reader skilled in mediaeval French and Italian may be able to throw light on the subject.

Mr. Yule writes as follows:-

"The reference [to these fowls] in 'Marco Polo' (p. 226 of the last edition; not p. 126 as stated in the index) is a puzzle, owing to the statement that they are black all over. A black has, I am told, been recently created, but the common breed is white, as stated in the note and by Friar Odoric.

"It has occurred to me as a possibility that what Marco Polo may have meant to say was that they were black all through, or some such phrase. The flesh of these fowls is deeply pigmented, and looks practically black; it is a feature that is very remarkable, and would certainly strike any one who saw it. The details that they 'lay eggs just like our fowls,' i.e., not pigmented, and are 'very good to eat,' are facts that would naturally deserve especial mention in this connexion. Mr. A.D. Darbishire (of Oxford and Edinburgh University) tells me that is quite correct: the flesh look horrid, but it is quite good eating. Do any texts suggest the possibility of such a reading as I suggest?"

The references in the above quotation are, of course, to my father's version of Marco Polo. That his nephew should make this interesting little contribution to the subject would have afforded him much gratification.


The Athenaeum, No. 4570, May 29, 1915, p. 485.

LXXX., pp. 226, 230.


"I may observe that the Pêh Sh? (or 'Northern Dynasties History') speaks of a large consumption of sugar in Cambodgia as far back as the fifth century of our era. There can be no mistake about the meaning of the words sha-t'ang, which are still used both in China and Japan (sa-to). The 'History of the T'ang Dynasty,' in its chapter on Magadha, says that in the year 627 the Chinese Emperor 'sent envoys thither to procure the method of boiling out sugar, and then ordered the Yang-chou sugar-cane growers to press it out in the same way, when it appeared that both in colour and taste ours excelled that of the Western Regions' [of which Magadha was held to be part]." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 146.)


LXXXII., p. 237.

M.G. Ferrand remarks that Tze tung = [Arabic], zitun in Arabic, inexactly read Zaytun, on account of its similitude with its homonym [Arabic], zyatun, olive. (Relat de Voy., I., p. 11.)

LXXXII., pp. 242-245.

"Perhaps it may not be generally known that in the dialect of Foochow Ts'üan-chou and Chang-chou are at the present day pronounced in exactly the same way-i.e., 'Chiong-chiu,' and it is by no means impossible that Marco Polo's Tyunju is an attempt to reproduce this sound, especially as, coming to Zaitun via Foochow, he would probably first hear the Foochow pronunciation." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 148)



II., p. 256, n. 1.


Regarding the similitude between Nipon and Nafún, Ferrand, Textes, I., p. 115 n., remarks: "Ce rapprochement n'a aucune chance d'être exact [Arabic] Nafun est certainement une erreur de graphic pour [Arabic] Yakut ou [Arabic] Nakus."

III., p. 261.


"Hung Ts'a-k'iu, who set out overland via Corea and Tsushima in 1281, is much more likely than Fan Wên-hu to be Von-sain-chin (probably a misprint for chiu), for the same reason Vo-cim stands for Yung-ch'ang, and sa for sha, ch'a, ts'a, etc. A-la-han (not A-ts'?-han) fell sick at the start, and was replaced by A-ta-hai. To copy Abacan for Alahan would be a most natural error, and I see from the notes that M. Schlegel has come to the same conclusion independently." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 147.)

V., pp. 270, 271 n.


Lieut.-General Sagatu, So Tu or So To, sent in 1278 an envoy to the King known as Indravarman VI. or Jaya Sinhavarman. Maspero (Champa, pp. 237, 254) gives the date of 1282 for the war against Champa with Sagatu appointed at the head of the Chinese Army on the 16th July, 1282; the war lasted until 1285. Maspero thinks 1288 the date of Marco's visit to Champa (L.c., p. 254).

VII., p. 277 n.


Mr. C.O. Blagden has some objection to Sundar Fulat being Pulo Condor: "In connexion with Sundur-Fulat, some difficulties seem to arise. If it represents Pulo Condor, why should navigators on their way to China call at it after visiting Champa, which lies beyond it? And if fulat represents a Persian plural of the Malay Pulau,'island,' why does it not precede the proper name as generic names do in Malay and in Indonesian and Southern Indo-Chinese languages generally? Further, if sundur represents a native form cundur, whence the hard c (= k) of our modern form of the word? I am not aware that Malay changes c to k in an initial position." (J. R. As. Soc., April, 1914, p. 496.)

"L'?le de Sendi Foulat est très grande; il y a de l'eau douce, des champs cultivés, du, riz et des cocotiers. Le roi s'appelle Resed. Les habitants portent la fouta soit en manteau, soit en ceinture…. L'?le de Sendi Foulat est entourée, du c?té de la Chine, de montagnes d'un difficile accès, et ou soufflent des vents impétueux. Cette ?le est une des portes de la Chine. De là à la ville de Khancou, X journées." EDRISI, I., p. 90. In Malay Pulo Condor is called Pulau Kundur (Pumpkin Island) and in Cambodian, Koh Tralàch. See PELLIOT, Deux Itinéraires, pp. 218-220. Fulat = ful (Malay pule) + Persian plural suffix -at. Cundur fulat means Pumpkin Island. FERRAND, Textes, pp. ix., 2.

VII., p. 277.


According to W. Tomaschek (Die topographischen Capitel des Indischen Seespiegels Mohit, Vienna, 1897, Map XXIII.) it should be read Losak = The Lochac of the G.T. "It is Lanka?oka of the Tanjore inscription of 1030, the Ling ya ssi kia of the Chu-fan-ch? of Chau Ju-kua, the Lenkasuka of the Nagarakretagama, the Lang-saka of Sulayman al Mahri, situated on the eastern side of the Malay Peninsula." (G. FERRAND, Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J. As., July-Aug, 1918, p. 91.) On the situation of this place which has been erroneously identified with Tenasserim, see Ibid., pp. 134-145 M. Ferrand places it in the region of Ligor.

VII., pp. 278-279.


Lawáki comes from Lovek, a former capital of Cambodia; referring to the aloes-wood called Lawáki in the Ain-i-Akbari written in the 16th century, FERRAND, Textes, I., p. 285 n., remarks: "On vient de voir que Ibn-al-Baytar a emprunté ce nom à Avicenne (980-1037) qui écrivit son Canon de la Médecine dans les premières années du XI'e siècle. Lawák ou Lowak nous est donc attesté sous le forme Lawáki ou Lowaki dès le X'e siècle, puis qu'il est mentionné, au début du XI'e, par Avicenne qui résidait alors à Djurdjan, sur la Caspienne."

VIII., pp. 280-3.


The late Col. G.E. Gerini published in the J.R.A.S., July, 1905, pp. 485-511, a paper on the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese poem composed by a native bard named Prapa?ca, in honour of his sovereign Hayam Wuruk (1350-1389), the greatest ruler of Majapahit. He upsets all the theories accepted hitherto regarding Panten. The southernmost portion of the Malay Peninsula is known as the Malaya or Malayu country (Tanah-Malayu) = Chinese Ma-li-yü-êrh = Malayur = Maluir of Marco Polo, witness the river Malayu (Sungei Malayu) still so called, and the village Bentan, both lying there (ignored by all Col. Gerini's predecessors) on the northern shore of the Old Singapore Strait. Col. Gerini writes (p. 509): "There exists to this day a village Bentam on the mainland side of Singapore Strait, right opposite the mouth of the Sungei Selitar, on the northern shore of Singapore Island, it is not likely that both travellers [Polo and Odoric] mistook the coast of the Malay Peninsula for an island. The island of Pentam, Paten, or Pantem must therefore be the Be-Tumah (Island) of the Arab Navigators, the Tamasak Island of the Malays; and, in short, the Singapore Island of our day." He adds: "The island of Pentam cannot be either Batang or Bitang, the latter of which is likewise mentioned by Marco Polo under the same name of Pentam, but 60 + 30 = 90 miles before reaching the former. Batang, girt all round by dangerous reefs, is inaccessible except to small boats. So is Bintang, with the exception of its south-western side, where is now Riau, and where, a little further towards the north, was the settlement at which the chief of the island resided in the fourteenth century. There was no reason for Marco Polo's junk to take that roundabout way in order to call at such, doubtlessly insignificant place. And the channel (i.e. Rhio Strait) has far more than four paces' depth of water, whereas there are no more than two fathoms at the western entrance to the Old Singapore Strait."

Marco Polo says (II., p. 280): "Throughout this distance [from Pentam] there is but four paces' depth of water, so that great ships in passing this channel have to lift their rudders, for they draw nearly as much water as that." Gerini remarks that it is unmistakably the Old Singapore Strait, and that there is no channel so shallow throughout all those parts except among reefs. "The Old Strait or Selat Tebrau, says N.B. Dennys, Descriptive Dict. of British Malaya, separating Singapore from Johore. Before the settlement of the former, this was the only known route to China; it is generally about a mile broad, but in some parts little more than three furlongs. Crawford went through it in a ship of 400 tons, and found the passage tedious but safe." Most of Sinologists, Beal, Chavannes, Pelliot, Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient., IV., 1904, pp. 321-2, 323-4, 332-3, 341, 347, place the Malaiur of Marco Polo at Palembang in Sumatra.

VIII., pp. 281, n. 283 n.


"On a traduit Tanah Malayu par 'Pays des Malais,' mais cette traduction n'est pas rigoureusement exacte. Pour prendre une expression parallèle, Tanah Djawa signifie 'Pays de Java,' mais non 'Pays des Javanais.'

"En réalité, tanah 'terre, sol, pays, contrée' s'emploie seulement avec un toponyme qui doit étre rendu par un toponyme équivalent. Le nom des habitants du pays s'exprime, en malais, en ajoutant oran 'homme, personne, gens, numéral des êtres humains' au nom du pays: 'oran Malayu' Malais, litt. 'gens de Malayu'; oran Djawa Javanais, litt. 'gens de Java.' Tanah Malayu a done très nettement le sens de 'pays de Malayu'; cf. l'expression kawi correspondante dans le Nagarakrêtugama: tanah ri Malayu 'pays de Malayu' où chaque mot fran?ais recouvre exactement le substantif, la préposition et le toponyme de l'expression kawi. Le taná Malayo de Barros s'applique donc à un pays déterminé du nom de Malayu qui, d'après l'auteur des Décades, était situé entre Djambi et Palemban. Nous savons, d'autre part, que le pays en question avait sa capitale dans l'intérieur de l'?le, mais qu'il s'étendait dans l'Est jusqu'à la mer et que la c?te orientale a été désignée par les textes chinois du VII'e siècle sous le nom de Mo-lo-yeou, Mo-lo-yu = Malayu, c'est-à-dire par le nom de l'Etat ou royaume dont elle faisait partie." (G. FERRAND, J. As., July-Aug., 1918, pp. 72-73.)

VIII., p. 282.


See G. FERRAND, Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J.As., 1918. Besides

Malayu of Sumatra, there was a city of Malayur which M. Ferrand thinks is


VIII., p. 282 n. "This informs us that Malacca first acknowledged itself as tributary to the Empire in 1405, the king being Sili-ju-eul-sula(?)."

In this name Si-li-ju-eul-su-la, one must read [Chinese] pa, instead of

[Chinese], and read Si-li-pa-eul-su-la = Siri Paramisura (?ri

Parama?vara). (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole franc. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept.,

1904, p. 772.)

IX., p. 285. "They [the rhinoceros] do no mischief, however, with the horn, but with the tongue alone; for this is covered all over with long and strong prickles [and when savage with any one they crush him under their knees and then rasp him with their tongue]."

"Its tongue is like the burr of a chestnut." (CHAU JU-KWA, P. 233.)

IX., p. 289.


In 1017, an embassy was sent to the Court of China by Haji Sumutrabhumi, "the king of the land of Sumutra" (Sumatra). The envoys had a letter in golden characters and tribute in the shape of pearls, ivory, Sanscrit, books folded between boards, and slaves; by an imperial edict they were permitted to see the emperor and to visit some of the imperial buildings. When they went back an edict was issued addressed to their king, accompanied by various presents, calculated to please them. (GROENEVELT, Notes on the Malay Archipelago, p. 65.) G. Ferrand writes (J. As., Mars-Avril, 1917, p. 335) that according to the texts quoted by him in his article the island of Sumatra was known to the Chinese under the name Sumuta = Sumutra, during the first years of the eleventh century, nearly 300 years before Marco Polo's voyage; and under the name of Sumutra, by the Arab sailors, previously to the first voyage of the Portuguese in Indonesia.

IX., p. 287.


Prof. Pelliot writes to me that the Ferlec of Marco Polo is to be found several times in the Yuan Shi, year 1282 and following, under the forms Fa-li-lang (Chap. 12, fol. 4 v.), Fa-li-la (Chap. 13, fol. 2 v.), Pie-li-la (Chap. 13, fol. 4 v.), Fa-eul-la (Chap. 18, fol. 8 v.); in the first case, it is quoted near A-lu (Aru) and Kan-pai (Kampei). -Cf. FERRAND, Textes, II., p. 670.

XI., pp. 304-5.


Sago Palm = Sagus Rumphianus and S. Laevis (DENNYS).-"From Malay sagu. The farinaceous pith taken out of the stem of several species of a particular genus of palm, especially Metroxylon laeve, Mart., and M. Rumphii, Willd., found in every part of the Indian Archipelago, including the Philippines, wherever there is proper soil." (Hobson-Jobson.)

XII., p. 306. "In this island [Necuveran] they have no king nor chief, but live like beasts. And I tell you they go all naked, both men and women, and do not use the slightest covering of any kind."

We have seen (Marco Polo, II., p. 308) that Mr. G. Phillips writes (J.R.A.S., July, 1895, p. 529) that the name Tsui-lan given to the Nicobars by the Chinese is, he has but little doubt, "a corruption of Nocueran, the name given by Marco Polo to the group. The characters Tsui-lan are pronounced Ch'ui lan in Amoy, out of which it is easy to make Cueran. The Chinese omitted the initial syllable and called them the Cueran Islands, while Marco Polo called them the Nocueran Islands." Schlegel, T'oung Pao, IX., p. 182-190, thinks that the Andaman Islands are alone represented by Ts'ui-lan; the Nicobar being the old country of the Lo-ch'a, and in modern time, Mao shan, "Hat Island." Pelliot, Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient, IV., 1904, pp. 354-5, is inclined to accept Phillip's opinion. He says that Mao-shan is one island, not a group of islands; it is not proved that the country of the Lo ch'a is the Nicobar Islands; the name of Lo-hing-man, Naked Barbarians, is, contrary to Schlegel's opinion, given to the Nicobar as well as to the Andaman people; the name of Andaman appears in Chinese for the first time during the thirteenth century in Chao Ju-kwa under the form Yen-t'o-man; Chao Ju-kwa specifies that going from Lambri (Sumatra) to Ceylon, it is an unfavourable wind which makes ships drift towards these islands; on the other hand, texts show that the Ts'ui-lan islands were on the usual route from Sumatra to Ceylon.-Gerini, Researches, p. 396, considers that Ts'ui-lan shan is but the phonetic transcript of Tilan-chong Island, the north-easternmost of the Nicobars.-See Hirth and Rockhill's Chau Ju-kwa, p. 12n.-Sansk. narikera, "cocoanuts," is found in Necuveram.

XIII., p. 309.


"When sailing from Lan-wu-li to Si-lan, if the wind is not fair, ships may be driven to a place called Yen-t'o-man [in Cantonese, An-t'o-man]. This is a group of two islands in the middle of the sea, one of them being large, the other small; the latter is quite uninhabited. The large one measures seventy li in circuit. The natives on it are of a colour resembling black lacquer; they eat men alive, so that sailors dare not anchor on this coast.

"This island does not contain so much as an inch of iron, for which reason the natives use (bits of) conch-shell (ch'?-k'ü) with ground edges instead of knives. On this island is a sacred relic, (the so-called) 'Corpse on a bed of rolling gold….'" (CHAU JU-KWA, p. 147.)

XIII., p. 311.


Rockhill in a note to Carpini (Rubruck, p. 36) mentions "the Chinese annals of the sixth century (Liang Shu, bk. 54; Nan shih, bk. 79) which tell of a kingdom of dogs (Kou kuo) in some remote corner of north-eastern Asia. The men had human bodies but dogs' heads, and their speech sounded like barking. The women were like the rest of their sex in other parts of the world."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "A clear distinction must be made between dog-headed people and the motive of descent from a dog-ancestor,-two entirely different conceptions. The best exposition of the subject of the cynocephali according to the traditions of the Ancients is now presented by J. MARQUART (Benin-Sammlung des Reichsmuseums in Leiden, pp. cc-ccxix). It is essential to recognize that the mediaeval European, Arabic, and Chinese fables about the country of the dog-heads are all derived from one common source, which is traceable to the Greek Romance of Alexander; that is an Oriental-Hellenistic cycle. In a wider sense, the dog-heads belong to the cycle of wondrous peoples, which assumed shape among the Greek mariners under the influence of Indian and West-Asiatic ideas. The tradition of the Nan shi (Ch. 79, p. 4), in which the motive of the dog-heads, the women, however, being of human shape, meets its striking parallel in Adam of Bremen (Gesta Hamburg, ecclesiae pontificum, 4, 19), who thus reports on the Terra Feminarum beyond the Baltic Sea: 'Cumque pervenerint ad partum, si quid masculini generis est, fiunt cynocephali, si quid femini, speciosissimae mulieres.' See further KLAPROTH, J. As., XII., 1833, p. 287; DULAURIER, J. As., 1858, p. 472; ROCKHILL, Rubruck, p. 36."

In an interesting paper on Walrus and Narwhal Ivory, Dr. Laufer (T'oung Pao, July, 1916, p. 357) refers to dog-headed men with women of human shape, from a report from the Mongols received by King Hethum of Armenia.

XIV., p. 313. "The people [of Ceylon] are Idolaters, and go quite naked except that they cover the middle…. The King of this Island possesses a ruby which is the finest and biggest in the world; I will tell you what it is like. It is about a palm in length, and as thick as a man's arm; to look at, it is the most resplendent object upon earth; it is quite free from flaw and as red as fire. Its value is so great that a price for it in money could hardly be named at all."

Chau Ju-kwa, p. 73, has: "The King holds in his hand a jewel five inches in diameter, which cannot be burnt by fire, and which shines in (the darkness of) night like a torch. The King rubs his face with it daily, and though he were passed ninety he would retain his youthful looks.

"The people of the country are very dark-skinned, they wrap a sarong round their bodies, go bare-headed and bare-footed."

XIV., p. 314 n.


The native kings of this period were Pandita Prakama Bahu II., who reigned

from 1267 to 1301 at Dambadenia, about 40 miles north-north-east of

Columbo (Marco Polo's time); Vijaya Bahu IV. (1301-1303); Bhuwaneka Bahu

I. (1303-1314); Prakama Bahu III. (1314-1319); Bhuwaneka Bahu II. (1319).


= Sakya Muni Burkhan.

XV., p. 319. Seilan-History of Sagamoni Borcan. "And they maintain … that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish that are there were those of the same king's son, whose name was Sagamoni Borcan, or Sagamoni the Saint."

See J.F. FLEET, The Tradition about the corporeal Relics of Buddha. (Jour. R. As. Soc., 1906, and April, 1907, pp. 341-363.)

XV., p. 320.

In a paper on Burkhan printed in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, XXXVI., 1917, pp. 390-395, Dr. Berthold Laufer has come to the following conclusion: "Burkhan in Mongol by no means conveys exclusively the limited notion of Buddha, but, first of all, signifies 'deity, god, gods,' and secondly 'representation or image of a god.' This general significance neither inheres in the term Buddha nor in Chinese Fo; neither do the latter signify 'image of Buddha'; only Mongol burkhan has this force, because originally it conveyed the meaning of a shamanistic image. From what has been observed on the use of the word burkhan in the shamanistic or pre-Buddhistic religions of the Tungusians, Mongols and Turks, it is manifest that the word well existed there before the arrival of Buddhism, fixed in its form and meaning, and was but subsequently transferred to the name of Buddha."

XV., pp. 323 seq.


The German traveller von Le Coq has found at Turfan fragments of this legend in Turki which he published in 1912 in his Türkische Manichaica, which agree with the legend given by the Persian Ibn Babawaih of Qum, who died in 991. (S. d'OLDENBOURG, Bul. Ac. I. des Sc., Pet., 1912, pp. 779-781; W. RADLOFF, Alttürk. Stud., VI., zu Barlaam und Joasaph). M.P. Alfaric (La Vie chrétienne du Bouddha, J. Asiatique, Sept.-Oct., 1917, pp. 269 seq.; Rev. de l'Hist. des Religions, Nov.-Dec., 1918, pp. 233 seq.) has studied this legend from a Manichaean point of view.

XV., p. 327.

See La "Vie des Saints Barlaam et Josaphat" et la légende du Bouddha, in

Vol. I., pp. xxxxvii-lvi, of Contes populaires de Lorraine par Emmanuel

COSQUIN, Paris, Vieweg, n.d. [1886].

XVI., p. 335 n.


Speaking of Chu-lién (Chola Dominion, Coromandel Coast), Chau Ju-kwa, pp. 93-4, says:-

"The kingdom of Chu-lién is the Southern Yin-tu of the west. To the east (its capital) is five li distant from the sea; to the west one comes to Western India (after) 1500 li; to the south one comes to Lo-lan (after) 2500 li; to the north one comes to Tun-t'ien (after) 3000 li."

Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 98: "Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-sh? reproduce textually this paragraph (the former writer giving erroneously the distance between the capital and the sea as 5000 li). Yule, Marco Polo, II, p. 335, places the principal port of the Chola kingdom at Kaveripattanam, the 'Pattanam' par excellence of the Coromandel Coast, and at one of the mouths of the Kaveri. He says that there seems to be some evidence that the Tanjore ports were, before 1300, visited by Chinese trade. The only Lo-lan known to mediaeval Chinese is mentioned in the T'ang-shu, 221'8, and is identified with the capital of Bamian, in Afghanistan. I think our text is corrupt here and that the character lo should be changed to si, and that we should read Si-lan, our Ceylon. Both Ma and the Sung-sh? say that 2500 li south-east of Chu-lién was 'Si-lan-ch'?-kuo with which it was at war. Of course the distance mentioned is absurd, but all figures connected with Chu-lién in Chinese accounts are inexplicably exaggerated."

XVI., pp. 336-337.


Sir Walter ELLIOT, K.C.S.I., to whom Yule refers for the information given about this pagoda, has since published in the Indian Antiquary, VII., 1878, pp. 224-227, an interesting article with the title: The Edifice formerly known as the Chinese or Jaina Pagoda at Negapatam, from which we gather the following particulars regarding its destruction:-

"It went by various names, as the Puduveli-g?puram, the old pagoda, Chinese pagoda, black pagoda, and in the map of the Trigonometrical Survey (Sheet 79) it stands as the Jeyna (Jaina) pagoda. But save in name it has nothing in common with Hindu or Muhammadan architecture, either in form or ornament."

"In 1859, the Jesuit Fathers presented a petition to the Madras Government representing the tower to be in a dangerous condition, and requesting permission to pull it down and appropriate the materials to their own use…." In 1867 "the Fathers renewed their application for leave to remove it, on the following grounds: '1st, because they considered it to be unsafe in its present condition; 2nd, because it obstructed light and sea-breeze from a chapel which they had built behind it; 3rd, because they would very much like to get the land on which it stood; and 4th, because the bricks of which it was built would be very useful to them for building purposes.'

"The Chief Engineer, who meanwhile had himself examined the edifice, and had directed the District Engineer to prepare a small estimate for its repair, reported that the first only of the above reasons had any weight, and that it would be met if Colonel O'Connell's estimate, prepared under his own orders, received the sanction of Government. He therefore recommended that this should be given, and the tower allowed to stand….

"The Chief Engineer's proposal did not meet with approval, and on the 28th August 1867, the following order was made on the Jesuits' petition: 'The Governor in Council is pleased to sanction the removal of the old tower at Negapatam by the officers of St. Joseph's College, at their own expense, and the appropriation of the available material to such school-building purposes as they appear to have in contemplation.

"The Fathers were not slow in availing themselves of this permission. The venerable building was speedily levelled, and the site cleared."

In making excavations connected with the college a bronze image representing a Buddhist or Jaina priest in the costume and attitude of the figures in wood and metal brought from Burma was found; it was presented to Lord Napier, in 1868; a reproduction of it is given in Sir Walter Elliot's paper.

In a note added by Dr. Burnell to this paper, we read: "As I several times in 1866 visited the ruin referred to, I may be permitted to say that it had become merely a shapeless mass of bricks. I have no doubt that it was originally a vimana or shrine of some temple; there are some of precisely the same construction in parts of the Chingleput district."

XVI., p. 336 n.


We read in the Tao yi chi lio (1349) that "T'u t'a (the eastern stupa) is to be found in the flat land of Pa-tan (Fattan, Negapatam?) and that it is surrounded with stones. There is stupa of earth and brick many feet high; it bears the following Chinese inscription: 'The work was finished in the eighth moon of the third year hien chw'en (1267).' It is related that these characters have been engraved by some Chinese in imitation of inscriptions on stone of those countries; up to the present time, they have not been destroyed." Hien chw'en is the nien hao of Tu Tsung, one of the last emperors of the Southern Sung Dynasty, not of a Mongol Sovereign. I owe this information to Prof. Pelliot, who adds that the comparison between the Chinese Pagoda of Negapatam and the text of the Tao yi chi lio has been made independent of him by Mr. Fujita in the Tokyo-gakuho, November, 1913, pp. 445-46. (Cathay, I., p. 81 n.)

XVII., p. 340. "Here [Maabar] are no horses bred; and thus a great part of the wealth of the country is wasted in purchasing horses; I will tell you how. You must know that the merchants of Kis and Hormes, Dofar and Soer and Aden collect great numbers of destriers and other horses, and these they bring to the territories of this King and of his four brothers, who are kings likewise as I told you…"

Speaking of Yung (or W?ng) man, Chau Ju-kwa tells us (p. 133): "In the mountains horse-raising is carried on a large scale. The other countries which trade here purchase horses, pearls and dates which they get in exchange for cloves, cardamom seeds and camphor."

XVII., p. 341.


"Suttee is a Brahmanical rite, and there is a Sanskrit ritual in existence (see Classified Index to the Tanjore MSS., p. 135a.). It was introduced into Southern India with the Brahman civilization, and was prevalent there chiefly in the Brahmanical Kingdom of Vijayanagar, and among the Mahrattas. In Malabar, the most primitive part of S. India, the rite is forbidden (Anacharanirnaya, v. 26). The cases mentioned by Teixeira, and in the Lettres édifiantes, occurred at Tanjore and Madura. A (Mahratta) Brahman at Tanjore told one of the present writers that he had to perform commemorative funeral rites for his grandfather and grandmother on the same day, and this indicated that his grandmother had been a sati." YULE, Hobson-Jobson. Cf. Cathay, II., pp. 139-140.


XVII., p. 345. Speaking of this province, Marco Polo says: "They have certain abbeys in which are gods and goddesses to whom many young girls are consecrated; their fathers and mothers presenting them to that idol for which they entertain the greatest devotion. And when the [monks] of a convent desire to make a feast to their god, they send for all those consecrated damsels and make them sing and dance before the idol with great festivity. They also bring meats to feed their idol withal; that is to say, the damsels prepare dishes of meat and other good things and put the food before the idol, and leave it there a good while, and then the damsels all go to their dancing and singing and festivity for about as long as a great Baron might require to eat his dinner. By that time they say the spirit of the idols has consumed the substance of the food, so they remove the viands to be eaten by themselves with great jollity. This is performed by these damsels several times every year until they are married."

Chau Ju-kwa has the following passage in Cambodia (p. 53): "(The people) are devout Buddhists. There are serving (in the temples) some three hundred foreign women; they dance and offer food to the Buddha. They are called a-nan or slave dancing-girls."

Hirth and Rockhill, who quote Marco Polo's passage, remark, p. 55 n.: "A-nan, as here written, is the usual transcription of the Sanskrit word ananda, 'joy, happiness.' The almeh or dancing-girls are usually called in India deva-dasi ('slave of a god') or ramjani."

In Guzerat, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 92, mentions: "Four thousand Buddhist temple buildings, in which live over twenty thousand dancing-girls who sing twice daily while offering food to the Buddha (i.e., the idols) and while offering flowers."

XVIII., p. 356.


"The traditional site of the Apostle's Tomb, now adjacent to the sea-shore, has recently come to be enclosed in the crypt of the new Cathedral of San Thomé." (A.E. MEDLYCOTT, India and the Apostle Thomas. An inquiry. With a critical analysis of the Acta Thomae. London, David Nutt, 1905, 8vo.)

In the beginning of the sixteenth century Barbosa found the church of St. Thomas half in ruins and grown round with jungle. A Mahomedan fakir kept it and maintained a lamp. Yet in 1504, which is several years earlier than Barbosa's voyage, the Syrian Bishop Jaballaha, who had been sent by the Patriarch to take charge of the Indian Christians, reported that the House of St. Thomas had begun to be inhabited by some Christians, who were engaged in restoring it.

Mr. W.R. Philipps has a valuable paper on The Connection of St. Thomas the Apostle with India in the Indian Antiquary, XXXII., 1903, pp. 1-15, 145-160; he has come to the following conclusions: "(1) There is good early evidence that St. Thomas was the apostle of the Parthian empire; and also evidence that he was the apostle of 'India' in some limited sense, -probably of an 'India' which included the Indus Valley, but nothing to the east or south of it. (2) According to the Acts, the scene of the martyrdom of St. Thomas was in the territory of a king named, according to the Syriac version, Mazdai, to which he had proceeded after a visit to the city of a king named, according to the same version, Gudnaphar or Gundaphar. (3) There is no evidence at all that the place where St. Thomas was martyred was in Southern India; and all the indications point to another direction. (4) We have no indication whatever, earlier than that given by Marco Polo, who died 1324, that there ever was even a tradition that St. Thomas was buried in Southern India."

In a recent and learned work (Die Thomas Legende, 1912, 8vo.) Father J. Dahlmann has tried to prove that the story of the travels of St. Thomas in India has an historical basis. If there is some possibility of admitting a voyage of the Apostle to N.W. India (and the flourishing state of Buddhism in this part of India is not in favour of Christian Evangelization), it is impossible to accept the theory of the martyrdom of St. Thomas in Southern India.

The late Mr. J.F. FLEET, in his paper on St. Thomas and Gondophernes (Journ. Roy. As. Soc., April, 1905, pp. 223-236), remarks that "Mr. Philipps has given us an exposition of the western traditional statements up to the sixth century." He gives some of the most ancient statements; one in its earliest traceable form runs thus: "According to the Syriac work entitled The Doctrine of the Apostles, which was written in perhaps the second century A.D., St. Thomas evangelized 'India.' St. Ephraem the Syrian (born about A.D. 300, died about 378), who spent most of his life at Edessa, in Mesopotamia, states that the Apostle was martyred in 'India' and that his relics were taken thence to Edessa. That St. Thomas evangelized the Parthians, is stated by Origen (born A.D. 185 or 186, died about 251-254). Eusebius (bishop of Caesarea Palaestinae from A.D. 315 to about 340) says the same. And the same statement is made by the Clementine Recognitions, the original of which may have been written about A.D. 210. A fuller tradition is found in the Acts of St. Thomas, which exist in Syriac, Greek, Latin, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic, and in a fragmentary form in Coptic. And this work connects with St. Thomas two eastern kings, whose names appear in the Syriac version as Gudnaphar, Gundaphar, and Mazdai; and in the Greek version as Goundaphoros, Goundiaphoros, Gountaphoros, and Misdaios, Misdeos; in the Latin version as Gundaforus, Gundoforus, and Misdeus, Mesdeus, Migdeus; and in the remaining versions in various forms, of the same kind, which need not be particularized here." Mr. Fleet refers to several papers, and among them to one by Prof. Sylvain Lévi, Saint Thomas, Gondopharès et Mazdeo (Journ., As., Janv.-Fév., 1897, pp. 27-42), who takes the name Mazdai as a transformation of a Hindu name, made on Iranian soil and under Mazdean influences, and arrived at through the forms Bazodeo, Bazdeo, or Bazodeo, Bazdeo, which occur in Greek legends on coins, and to identify the person with the king Vasudeva of Mathura, a successor of Kanishka. Mr. Fleet comes to the conclusion that: "No name, save that of Guduphara-Gondophernès, in any way resembling it, is met with in any period of Indian history, save in that of the Takht-i-Bahi inscription of A.D. 46; nor, it may be added, any royal name, save that of Vasudeva of Mathura, in any way resembling that of Mazdai. So also, as far as we know or have any reason to suppose, no name like that of Guduphara-Gondophernes is to be found anywhere outside India, save in the tradition about St. Thomas."

XVIII., p. 357.


On this city of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, see Indian Antiquary, XXXII., pp. 148 seq. in Mr. Philipps' paper, and XXXIII., Jan., 1904, pp. 31-2, a note signed W.R.P.

XIX., p. 361. "In this kingdom [Mutfili] also are made the best and most delicate buckrams, and those of highest price; in sooth they look like tissue of spider's web!"

In Nan p'i (in Malabar) Chau Ju-kwa has (p. 88): "The native products include pearls, foreign cotton-stuff of all colours (i.e. coloured chintzes) and tou-lo mién (cotton-cloth)." Hirth and Rockhill remark that this cotton-cloth is probably "the buckram which looks like tissue of spider's web" of which Polo speaks, and which Yule says was the famous muslin of Masulipatam. Speaking of Cotton, Chau Ju-kwa (pp. 217-8) writes: "The ki pe tree resembles a small mulberry-tree, with a hibiscus-like flower furnishing a floss half an inch and more in length, very much like goose-down, and containing some dozens of seeds. In the south the people remove the seed from the floss by means of iron chopsticks, upon which the floss is taken in the hand and spun without troubling about twisting together the thread. Of the cloth woven therefrom there are several qualities; the most durable and the strongest is called t'ou-lo-mién; the second quality is called fan-pu or 'foreign cloth'; the third 'tree cotton' or mu-mién; the fourth ki-pu. These textures are sometimes dyed in various colours and brightened with strange patterns. The pieces measure up to five or six feet in breadth."

XXI., p. 373.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Yule's identification of Kayal with the Kolkhoi of Ptolemy is supported by the Sung History, which calls it both Ko-ku-lo and Ku-lo; it was known at the beginning of the tenth century and was visited by several Chinese priests. In 1411 the Ming Dynasty actually called it Ka-i-lêh and mention a chief or king there named Ko-pu-che-ma."

XXII., p. 376. "OF THE KINGDOM OF COILUM.-So also their wine they make from [palm-] sugar; capital drink it is, and very speedily it makes a man drunk."

Chau Ju-kwa in Nan p'i (Malabar) mentions the wine (p. 89): "For wine they use a mixture of honey with cocoanuts and the juice of a flower, which they let ferment." Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 91, that the Kambojians had a drink which the Chinese called mi-t'ang tsiu, to prepare which they used half honey and half water, adding a ferment.

XXII., p. 380 n. "This word [Sappan] properly means Japan, and seems to have been given to the wood as a supposed product of that region."

"The word sappan is not connected with Japan. The earliest records of this word are found in Chinese sources. Su-fang su-pwan, to be restored to 'supang or 'spang, 'sbang; Caesalpinia sappan, furnishing the sappan wood, is first described as a product of Kiu-chen (Tong King) in the Nan fang ts'ao mi chuang, written by Ki Han at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth century. J. de Loureiro (Flora cochinchinensis, p. 321) observes in regard to this tree, 'Habitat in altis montibus Cochinchinae: indeque a mercatoribus sinensibus abunde exportatur.' The tree accordingly is indigenous to Indo-China, where the Chinese first made its acquaintance. The Chinese transcription is surely based on a native term then current in Indo-China, and agrees very well with Khmer sban (or sbang): see AYMONIER et CABATON, Dict. cam-fran?ais, 510, who give further Cam hapan, Batak sopan, Makassar sappan, and Malay sepan. The word belongs to those which the Mon-Khmer and Malayan languages have anciently in common." (Note of Dr. B. LAUFER.)

XXIV., p. 386, also pp. 391, 440.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Regarding the Fandaráina country of the Arabs mentioned by Yule in the Notes to pages 386, 391, and 440 of Vol. II., it may be interesting to cite the following important extract from Chapter 94, page 29, of the Yu?n Sh?:-'In 1295 sea-traders were forbidden to take fine values to trade with the three foreign states of Ma-pa-r; Pei nan, and Fan-ta-la-i-na, but 2,500,000 nominal taels in paper money were set apart for the purpose.'"

XXV., p. 391.

In the Yuen Shi, ch. 94, fol. 11 r'o, the "three barbarian kingdoms of Ma-pa-eul (Ma'abar), Pei-nan (corr. Kiu-nam, Coilam) and Fan-ta-la-yi-na" are mentioned. No doubt the last kingdom refers to the Fandaraina of Ibn Batuta, and Prof. Pelliot, who gives me this information, believes it is also, in the middle of the fourteenth century, Pan-ta-li of the Tao yi chi lio.


XXV., p. 393. "In this province of Gozurat there grows much pepper, and ginger, and indigo. They have also a great deal of cotton. Their cotton trees are of very great size, growing full six paces high, and attaining to an age of 20 years."

Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 92: "The native products comprise great quantities of indigo, red kino, myrobolans and foreign cotton stuffs of every colour. Every year these goods are transported to the Ta sh? countries for sale."

XXXI., p. 404.


Speaking of the fabulous countries of women, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 151, writes:

"The women of this country [to the south-east (beyond Sha-hua kung?)

Malaysia] conceive by exposing themselves naked to the full force of the

south wind, and so give birth to female children."

"In the Western Sea there is also a country of women where only three females go to every five males; the country is governed by a queen, and all the civil offices are in the hands of women, whereas the men perform military duties. Noble women have several males to wait upon them; but the men may not have female attendants. When a woman gives birth to a child, the latter takes its name from the mother. The climate is usually cold. The chase with bow and arrows is their chief occupation. They carry on barter with Ta-t'sin and T'ien-chu, in which they make several hundred per cent. profit."

Cf. F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, pp. 200-202.

XXXII., pp. 406-7. Speaking of Scotra, Marco (II., p. 406) says: "The ambergris comes from the stomach of the whale, and as it is a great object of trade, the people contrive to take the whales with barbed iron darts, which, once they are fixed in the body, cannot come out again. A long cord is attached to this end, to that a small buoy which floats on the surface, so that when the whale dies they know where to find it. They then draw the body ashore and extract the ambergris from the stomach and the oil from the head."

Chau Ju-kwa, at Chung-li (Somali Coast), has (p. 131): "Every year there are driven on the coast a great many dead fish measuring two hundred feet in length and twenty feet through the body. The people do not eat the flesh of these fish, but they cut out their brains, marrow, and eyes, from which they get oil, often as much as three hundred odd t?ng (from a single fish). They mix this oil with lime to caulk their boats, and use it also in lamps. The poor people use the ribs of these fish to make rafters, the backbones for door leaves, and they cut off vertebrae to make mortars with."


XXXII., p. 407. "And you must know that in this island there are the best enchanters in the world. It is true that their Archbishop forbids the practice to the best of his ability; but 'tis all to no purpose, for they insist that their forefathers followed it, and so must they also. I will give you a sample of their enchantments. Thus, if a ship be sailing past with a fair wind and a strong, they will raise a contrary wind and compel her to turn back. In fact they make the wind blow as they list, and produce great tempests and disasters; and other such sorceries they perform, which it will be better to say nothing about in our Book."

Speaking of Chung-li (Somali Coast), Chau Ju-kwa writes, p. 130: "There are many sorcerers among them who are able to change themselves into birds, beasts, or aquatic animals, and by these means keep the ignorant people in a state of terror. If some of them in trading with some foreign ship have a quarrel, the sorcerers pronounce a charm over the ship, so that it can neither go forward nor backward, and they only release the ship when it has settled the dispute. The government has formally forbidden this practice."

Hirth and Rockhill add, p. 132: "Friar Joanno dos Santos (A.D. 1597) says: 'In the Ile of Zanzibar dwelt one Chande, a great sorcerer, which caused his Pangayo, which the Factor had taken against his will, to stand still as it were in defiance of the Winde, till the Factor had satisfied him, and then to fly forth the River after her fellowes at his words. He made that a Portugall which had angered him, could never open his mouth to speake, but a Cocke crowed in his belly, till he had reconciled himselfe: with other like sorceries.'" See PURCHAS, His Pilgrimes, IX., 254.

"Not twenty years ago, Theo. Bent found that the Somalis were afraid of the witchcraft of the natives of Socotra. Theo. BENT, Southern Arabia, p. 361."

XXXIII., p. 412. Speaking of the bird Ruc at Madeigascar, Marco Polo says: "It is so strong that it will seize an elephant in its talons and carry him high into the air, and drop him so that he is smashed to pieces; having so killed him the bird gryphon swoops down on him and eats him at leisure."

Chau Ju-kwa writing of K'un lun ts'?ng' ki, on the coast of Africa, writes, p. 149: "This country is in the sea to the south-west. It is adjacent to a large island. There are usually (there, i.e., on the great island) great p'?ng birds which so mask the sun in their flight that the shade on the sundial is shifted. If the great p'?ng finds a wild camel it swallows it, and if one should chance to find p'?ng's feather, he can make a water-butt of it, after cutting off the hollow quill."

XXXIII., p. 421.


The Chinese traveller Chau Ju-kwa in his work Chu-fan-ch? on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, speaking of the country of Pi p'a lo (Berbera), says: "The country brings forth also the (so-called) 'camel crane', which measures from the ground to its crown from six to seven feet. It has wings and can fly, but not to any great height." The translators and commentators Hirth and Rockhill have (p. 129) the following notes: "Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3, 6a. The ostrich was first made known to the Chinese in the beginning of the second century of our era, when some were brought to the court of China from Parthia. The Chinese then called them An-si-tsio 'Parthian bird.' See Hou Han Shu, 88, and Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 39. In the We? shu, 102, 12b, no name is given them, they are simply 'big birds which resemble a camel, which feed on herbs and flesh and are able to eat fire. In the T'ang shu, 221, 7a, it is said that this bird is commonly called 'camel-bird.' It is seven feet high, black of colour, its feet like those of the camel, it can travel three hundred li a day, and is able to eat iron. The ostrich is called by the Persians ushturmurgh and by the Arabs teir al-djamal, both meaning 'camel birds.'"

Dr. Bretschneider in his Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the West (1875), p. 87, n. 132, has a long note with a figure from the Pen ts'ao kang mu on the "camel-bird" (p. 88).

Cf. F. Hirth, Die L?nder des Islam, Supp. Vol. V. of T'oung Pao, 1894, p. 54. Tsuboi Kumazo, Actes XII'e Cong, Int. Orient., Rome, 1899, II., p. 120.

XXXIII., p. 421.


Speaking of Pi p'a lo (Berbera Coast) Chau Ju-kwa (p. 128) says: "There is also (in this country) a wild animal called tsu-la; it resembles a camel in shape, an ox in size, and is of a yellow colour. Its fore legs are five feet long, its hind legs only three feet. Its head is high up and turned upwards. Its skin is an inch thick." Giraffe is the iranised form of the arabic zur?fa. Mention is made of giraffes by Chinese authors at Aden and Mekka. Cf. FERRAND, J. Asiatique, July-August, 1918, pp. 155-158.

XXXIV., p. 422.


We read in the Tao i chi lio: "This country [Ts'eng yao lo] is to the south-west of the Ta Shih (Arabs). There are no trees on the coast; most of the land is saline. The arable ground is poor, so there is but little grain of any kind, and they mostly raise yams to take its place.

"If any ship going there to trade carries rice as cargo, it makes very large profits.

"The climate is irregular. In their usages they have the rectitude of olden times.

"Men and women twist up their hair; they wear a short seamless shirt. The occupation of the people is netting birds and beasts for food.

"They boil sea-water to make salt and ferment the juice of the sugar-cane to make spirits. They have a ruler.

"The native products comprise red sandal-wood, dark red sugar-cane, elephants' tusks, ambergris, native gold, ya tsui tan-fan, lit., 'duck-bill sulphate of copper.'

"The goods used in trading are ivory boxes, trade silver, coloured satins, and the like." (ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao, XVI., 1915, pp. 622-3.) Cf. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 126.

XXXIV., p. 423. "There is a great deal of trade, and many merchants and vessels go thither. But the staple trade of the Island is elephants' teeth, which are very abundant; and they have also much ambergris, as whales are plentiful."

Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 126: "The products of the country [Ts'?ng-pa] consist of elephants' tusks, native gold, ambergris and yellow sandal-wood."

XXXVI., p. 438.


In the Ying yai shêng lan we read that "the kingdom (of A-tan) is on the sea-coast. It is rich and prosperous, the people follow the doctrine of the Moslims and their speech is Arabic. Their tempers are overbearing and violent. They have seven to eight thousand well-trained soldiers, horse and foot, whom the neighbouring countries fear." (W.W. ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao XVI., 1915, p. 607.) There is a description of the giraffe under the name of K'i lin; it "has forelegs over nine feet long, its hind ones are about six feet. Beside its ears grow fleshy horns. It has a cow's tail and a deer's body. It eats millet, beans, and flour cakes" (p. 609). In the Si Yang Chao kung tien lu (1520 A.D.), we have a similar description: "Its front legs are nine feet long, its hind legs six feet. Its hoofs have three clefts, it has a flat mouth. Two short fleshy horns rise from the back of the top of its head. It has a cow's tail and a deer's body. This animal is called K'i lin; it eats grain of any kind." (Ibid.) Cf. FERRAND, J. Asiatique, July-Aug., 1918, pp. 155-158.

XXXVI., p. 439.

At the time of Chau Ju-kwa, Aden was perhaps the most important port of Arabia for the African and Arabian trade with India and the countries beyond. It seems highly probable that the Ma-li-pa of the Chinese must be understood as including Aden, of which they make no mention whatsoever, but which was one of "the great commercial centres of the Arabs." HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 25 n.

XXXVI., pp. 442 seq.


Shehr, a port on the Hadramaut coast, is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under the name of Sh? ho among the dependencies of the country of the Ta-sh? (Arabs.). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 116.)

XXXVIII., pp. 444-445.


We read in the Ying yai shêng lan: "This country [Tsu fa erh] is between the sea and the mountains. To the east and south is nothing but the sea. To the north and west are ranges of mountains. One reaches it from the kingdom of Ku-li (Calicut) journeying north-westward for ten days and nights. It has no walled towns or villages. The people all follow the religion of the Moslims. Their physical appearance is good, their culture is great, the language sincere.

"The native products are frankincense, which is the sap of a tree. There is also dragon's blood, aloes, myrrh, an-hsi-hsiang (benzoin), liquid storax, muh-pieh-tzu (Momordica cochinchinensis), and the like, all of which they exchange for Chinese hempen cloth, silks, and china-ware." (ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao, XVI., 1915, pp. 611-612.)

The Sing ch'a shêng lan mentions: "The products are the tsu-la-fa (giraffe), gold coins, leopards, ostriches, frankincense, ambergris." (Ibid., p. 614.)

Dufar is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under the name of Nu-fa among the dependencies of the country of the Ta-sh? (Arabs). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, pp. 116, 121.)

XXXVIII., pp. 445-449.


Chau Ju-kwa (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, pp. 195-196) tells us: Ju hiang ('milk incense'), or hün-lu-hiang, comes from the three Ta-sh? countries of Ma-lo-pa, Sh?-ho, and Nu-fa, from the depths of the remotest mountain valleys. The tree which yields this drug may, on the whole, be compared to the sung (pine). Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, and when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Ta-shi (on the coast); the Ta-shi load it upon their ships for barter against other goods in San-fo-ts'i: and it is for this reason that the incense is commonly collected at San-fo-ts'i [the three ports of the Hadhranaut coast].

"When the foreign merchants come to that place to trade, the Customs authorities, according to the relative strength of its fragrance, distinguish thirteen classes of incense. Of these, the very best is called kién-hiang or 'picked incense': it is round and of the size of the end of a finger; it is commonly called ti-ju or 'dripping milk.' The second quality is called p'ing ju, or 'potted milk,' and its colour is inferior to that of the 'picked incense.' The next quality is called p'ing hiang, or 'potted incense.' so called, they say, owing to its being prized so much at the time of gathering, that it is placed in pots (p'ing). In this p'ing hiang (variety of frankincense) there are three grades, superior, medium and inferior. The next quality is called tai-hiang, or 'bag incense'; thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, it is merely put into bags; it is also divided into three qualities, like the p'ing hiang.

"The next kind is the ju-t'a; it consists of incense mixed with gravel.

"The next kind is the he?-t'a, because its colour is black. The next kind is the shui-sh?-he?-t'a, because it consists of incense which has been 'water damaged' the aroma turned, and the colour spoiled while on board ship.

"Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces is called ch?-siau ('cut-up'); when passed through a sieve and made into dust, it is called ch'an-mo ('powder'). The above are the various varieties of frankincense."



XXII., p. 488.


"It seems that Russia [Chinese A-lo-sz' = Mongol Oros; the modern

Chinese name for Russia is Wo-lo-sz'] was unknown to the nations of

Eastern Asia before the Mongol period. In the Mongol and Chinese annals

the Russians are first mentioned after Subutai's invasion of Southern

Russia in 1223. The Yüan chao pi shi terms Russia or the Russians

Orus, as they are called even now by the Mongols. The Chinese of the

Mongol period write A-lo-sz', sometimes also Wa-lo-sz' or U-lu-sz'.

All these names evidently render the Mongol appellation Orus.

"In the Yüan sh?, Russia is frequently mentioned…. I may notice here some other instances where the Russians are spoken of in the Yüan-sh?. We read in the annals, s.a. 1253, that the Emperor Meng k'o (Mangu) ordered Bi-dje Bie-rh-k'o to be sent to Wu-lo-sz' in order to take a census of the people.

"It is an interesting fact recorded in the Yüan sh? that there was in the first half of the fourteenth century a settlement of Russians near Peking. In the annals, chap. XXXIV., s.a. 1330, it is stated that the Emperor Wen Tsung (Tob Timur, 1329-32, the great grandson of Kubilai), formed a regiment composed of U-lo-sz' or Russians. This regiment being commanded by a wan hu (commander of ten thousand of the third degree), received the name 'The Ever-faithful Russian Life-guard.' It was placed under the direct control of the council of war. Farther on in the same chapter it is stated that 140 king of land, north of Ta tu (Peking) was bought from the peasants and allotted to these Russians, to establish a camp and to form a military colony. We read again in the same chapter that they were furnished with implements of agriculture, and were bound to present for the imperial table every kind of game, fish, etc., found in the forests, rivers, and lakes of the country where their camp was situated. This Russian regiment is again mentioned in chap. XXXV.

"In chapter XXXVI. it is recorded that in the year 1332 the prince Djang-ghi presented 170 Russian prisoners and received a pecuniary reward. On the same page we read that clothes and corn were bestowed on a thousand Russians. In the same year the prince Yen t'ie-mu-rh presented 1500 Russian prisoners to the Chinese emperor, and another prince, A-rh-ghia-shi-li, presented thirty.

"Finally, in the biography of Bo yen, chap. CXXXVIII., he is stated to have been appointed in 1334 commander of the emperor's life-guard, composed of Mongols, Kipchaks, and Russians." (E. BRETSCHNEIDER, Mediaeval Researches, II., pp. 79-81.)

Prof. Parker (Asiatic Q. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 148) mentions the appointment of a Russian Governor in 1337, and says: "It was the practice of Princes in the West to send 'presents' of Russian captives. In one case Yen Temur sent as many as 2500 in one batch."



II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum.[2] No. 84, vellum, 4to, Cent. XV.: 1. Guido de Colonna's Destruction of Troy. 2. Julius Valerius' History of Alexander the Great. 3. Archbishop Turpin's Itinerary. 4. Marco Polo.

Begins (25, 5 [f. 191 (197) r'o, lines 1-3): ? [blue] Incipit liber domini marci Pauli de Venecijs | de condicionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium regionum [rubric] L [small illuminated initial] Ibrum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini marci.

Ends (33, 3 [f. 253 (259) r'o, lines 8-12): girfalci et herodij qui inde postmodum ad diuersas prouincias | et regiones deferuntur et cetera. ? [blue] Explicit liber domini marci Pauli | de Venecijs de diuisionibus et consue- | tudinibus orientalium regionum [Pipino's Version].

5. Frater Odoricus Forojuliensis.

6. Iohannis Mandeville, De Mirabilibus.

II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum, Cent. XIV.[3] No. 458, vellum, 4to. 1. Marci

Pavli Veneti, De Orientalibus Regionibus.

Begins-after a preface by "Frater Franciscus Pipinus de Bononia" beginning (I, 1 r'o, lines 1-4): Incipit liber primus domini marci pauli de venecijs de orien [rubric] | L [gilt historiated initial with gestures forming a floreated border.] Ibrum prudentis talibus regionibus. Prolo [last three words rubric] | honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini gus. [last word rubric] | marci pauli de venetijs de conditio | and ending (i, 2 r'o, line 3): nostri ihesu christi cunctorum uisibilium et inuisibilium creatoris, after which comes a list of the chapters, titles and numbers (the latter rubricated) which concludes (i, 7 r'o, line i): D (small blue initial with red ornament) e prouincia ruthenorum, xlix.-(i, 7 r'o, lines 2-5): Capitulum primum primi libri. Qualiter et quare dominus | nicholaus pauli de venetijs, et dominus marchus [rubric] | T [blue and red illuminated initial with minute spread eagle in centre] Empore quo transierunt ad partes [last three words rubric] | balduinus princeps orientales. [last words rubric.]

Ends (14, 1 r'o, lines 26, 27): et diuersas prouincias deferuntur. Explicit liber domini | marci pauli de venetis de diuisionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium.

2. Odoric.

II., p. 534.

PARIS, see No. 18-Bibliothèque Nationale Département des

Manuscrits-Livre des Merveilles, Odoric de Pordenone, Mandeville, Hayton,

etc.-Reproduction des 265 miniatures du Manuscrit fran?ais 2810 de la

Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris, Imprimerie Berthaud frères, 31, rue de

Bellefond, 2 vol. in 8.

Marco Polo, Planches, 1-84.

II., p. 539.

ANTWERP, Museum Plantin-Moretus. Exhibited in Room III., No. 61: Extraits du Livre de Marco Polo de Venise et d'un livre sur l'origine de quelques villes belges.

132 leaves; 185 × 270 millimeters, XVth Century. Adorned initials, alternately blue and red. Headings of chapters underlined in red. Leather binding XVIth century, with small flowers de luce; copper clasps and ten nails. On the last leaf, in a running hand: Este liber partinet Nicholao le buqueteur; the name of Abraham Vander Veken (Abra Vander Veque), and the date 1600, 3/22, on the first and on the last but one leaves.

Fol. 2 recto. Extracta de libro dni Pauli de Venecijs de diver sis provincijs et regnis maior[um] et de diversis moribus habitantiu[m] et de multis mirabilibus in hijs locis et Asije. Eleven lines further: Quomodo iverunt at Berchaman. Fol. 95 r: De Sancto Thoma apto ubi jacet et qno mortu(us) est. Fol. 106 r: Epilogatio de maiori Yndia. F. 117 v, last chapter: De dissentione orta inter Alandum Tartaror[um] et Bcha regem. Ends, f. 118 r: Hii tamen reges proximi parentis erant et ambo ex Chinchini imperialis progenie descendentes. Explicit.

The end of the MS. (f. 118-132) has for object the origin of Belgian villages.

I owe this information to M.J. DENUCé.

II., p. 542.

FLORENCE, Riccardian Library, Catalan.

This manuscript has been discovered by Prof. Giovanni Vacca who has kindly sent me the following information regarding this curious document not mentioned by Yule, Amat di S. Filippo, or Uzielli: MS., 2048 cartac. sec. XV. (?), bearing the following faulty title: Storia del Catay in lingua spagnuola; 66 leaves, the last of which with a note by Piero Vaglienti. Writing is pretty clear, much like that of the Catalan Map of 1375.

The text begins with the description of the city of Lop, and ends with


Fol. 65 v: "anaquesta provencia sisfa molta de seda evy ciutatz e viles e castels assaiz e ay moltz bons azcos. Calre no se queus pusca dir er perque fas vos si anaquest libre veus na sra benefit."

Somewhat similar to the end of MS. 2207, Ottob., sec. XIV., membr. of the Vatican Library (reproduced by Amat di S. Filippo):

"En ycelle province fait on moult de soyt. Et si y a moult de villes, cites et chasteaux, moult bons et beau. Autre chose ne vous en scay dire par quoi je vous fais fins en ce livre."

Generally the text is correct; one does not find the great errors contained in the Italian text given by Bartoli; it seems to follow very closely the French text of the Société de Géographie edited in 1824.

Here is a description of the city of Gambalech (fol. 20 r-20 v) reproducing very closely a legend of the Catalan Map of 1375.

"Les ver que costa la ciutat de Camalech avia una grant Ciutat antichament qui avi a nom garimbalu qui vol dir la Ciut del seyor e lo gran cham troba per los strologians que aquesta ciutat se devia revelar contra el axi que feila desabitar a feu fer la ciutat de Sambaleth e axi .|. flum al miq evay fer venir poblar tota la jent que y staba, e ha entorn a questa ciutat de Gambalech. XXIIIJ. legues e es ben murada e es acayre sique ha de cascun cayre. VI. legues e a dalt lo mur XX. paces e es de terre e ha. X. paces de gros e son totz los murs tant blanchs con a neu e a en cascun cayre. IIJ. portes & en cascuna porta ha .|. palau dela semblansa de les XII. que ditz vos aven e en cascun palau ha de beles cambres e sales plenes darmatures ops da quells qui garden la ciutat los carres son amples e lonchs e ayi que anant de la .|. porta alantre troba hom de bells alberchs e de bels palaus qui son de gran seyors ayi que ela es abitada de bells alberchs E en miss loch de la ciutat a 1. gran palau en que ha 1'n. gran torra enquesta .|. gran seny | sona ho abans axique pus que ha sonat no gosa anar ne gun per la vila si dons gran ops non ha e ab lum e a cascuna porta garden. M. homes no per temensa que nayen mes per honor del seyor e per latres e malfeitos.

"Per gardar la granea del seyor alo poder ell se fa gardar a XIJ'm homes a Caval e ape-lense casitans, qui vol dir leyals cavalers a son seyor a quests. XIJ'm. homes an. IIIJ. capitans …"

The words underlined are included almost verbatim in the Catalan Map.

Cf. H. CORDIER, L'Extrême Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan, p. 14.

The manuscript begins, fol. I recto: "Aci comensa lo libre de les provincies et de les encontrades que sont sotz la seyoria del gran Emperador del Catay | lo qual ha la seyoria del Gamballech et seyor de los Tartres ayi com ho reconta o messer March Pollo ciutada noble de Venecia. Et primerament diun ay de la provincia de Tangut hon el stech XXVI. anys per saber la veritat de les coses daval scrites."

Cf. Un manoscritto inedito del viaggi di Marco Polo. Di Giovanni Vacca (Riv. Geog. Ital., XIV., 1907, pp. 107-108).

II., p. 546.

ESCURIAL, Latin, Pipino's (?). See No. 60. This is probably the MS. mentioned by the second Viscount of Santarem, p. 574, in his volume, Ineditos (Miscellanea) Lisboa, 1914, large 8vo: "Un Ms. de Marc Polo du XV'e. siècle qui est mal indiqué par le titre suivant: Consuetudines et condiciones orientalium regionum descripto per mestrum Paulum de Venetiis scripto chartis vix saeculo XV. incipiente, Q-ij-13."

My late friend, Prof. H. Derenbourg, gives me a few notes regarding this Latin MS., paper, small 4to, ff. 1-95 v; contains 187 chapters with a special title in red ink. Begins: Librum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi viri Domini Marci Pauli De Venetiis de conditionibus orientalium ab me vulgari edictum et scriptum.

II., p. 548.

NUREMBERG. Latin MS. containing Marco Polo, St. Brandan, Mandeville,

Odoric, Schildtberger; bad handwriting. See French edition of Odoric, p.


[1] See The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Vol. II., pp. 530 seq.

[2] Pages 89, 90 of A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow planned and begun by the late John Young … continued and completed under the direction of the Young Memorial Committee by P. Henderson Aitken…. Glasgow, James Maclehose and Sons, 1908, gr. in -4.

[3] Cf. Young's Catalogue, p. 378.



1.-Die Reisen des Venezianers Marco Polo im 13. Jahrhundert Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Dr. Hans Lemke Mit einem Bilde Marco Polos. Hamburg, Ernst Schultze, 1908, 8vo, pp. 573.

Bibliothek wertvoller Memoiren.

Lebensdokumente hervorragender Menschen aller Zeiten und V?lker

Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Schultze. 1 Band.

Revised edition of Bürck's translation of Ramusio's Italian text published in 1845.

2.-*Marco Polo: Abenteuerliche Fahrten. Neu herausgegeben von Dr. Otto St. Brandt. Mit 3 Spezialkarten. Druck und Verlag von August Scherl in Berlin, small 8vo, pp. 319.

Notices: Mitt. K.K. Geogr. Ges. Wien, Bd. LVI., 1913, pp. 258-259.

Von E.G.-Geog. Zeitschft. Leipzig, XIX., 1913, pp. 531. By K.


3.-Marco Polo Il Milione secondo il testo della "Crusca" reintegrato con gli altri codici italiani a cura di Dante Olivieri. Bari, Gius. Laterza & figli, 1912, in-8, 2 ff. n. ch. + pp. 317.

Scrittori d'Italia.

4.-Cosmographia breue introductoria en el libro d'Marco Polo. Seville, 1518.-See II., p. 566.

The bookseller Karl W. Hiersemann, of Leipzig, has in his catalogue America, no. 336, in 1907, no. 2323, quoted M.11.000 a copy of the Cosmographia with the colophon: Elql se emprimio por Juan varela | d'salamaca en la muy noble y muy | leal ciudad de Seuilla. A?o de | mill y q°nientos y diez y ocho | a?o a. XVI. dias de mayo.-Fol., 4 ff. not numbered + ff. 31 numbered on 2 columns.

5.-YULE-CORDIER.-The Book of Ser Marco Polo … Third Edition…. London, John Murray, 1903, 2 vols., 8vo.

Notices: Glasgow Herald, 11 June, 1903.-Scotsman, 11 June,

1903.-Outlook, 13 June, 1903.-Morning Post, 18 June, 1903.-Bulletin

Comité Asie fran?aise, Juin, 1903.-Standard, 17 June, 1903.-Daily

Chronicle, 20 June, 1903.-Manchester Guardian, 23 June, 1903.-Pall

Mall Gazette, 15 July, 1903.-Bombay Gazette, 11 July, 1903.-The

Spectator, 15 Aug., 1903.-The Guardian (by C. Raymond Beazley), 2

Sept., 1903.-Times (by H.J. Mackinder), 2 Oct., 1903.-Blackwood's

Mag. (by Charles Whibley), Oct., 1903.-Illustrated Evening News,

Chicago, 26 Sept., 1903.-The Sun, New York, 4 Oct., 1903 (by M.W.

H.).-Hongkong Daily Press, 10 and 11 Sept., 1903.-The Athenaeum, 17

Oct., 1903.-Outlook, 14 Nov., 1903.-Some new Facts about Marco Polo's

Book, by E.H. Parker (Imp. & Asiat. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, pp.

125-149).-Saturday Review, 27 Feb., 1904.-T'oung Pao, Oct., 1903, pp.

357-366, from The Athenaeum.-Geographical Journal, March, 1904, pp.

379-380, by C.R.B. [eazley].-Bul. Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV,

Juillet-Sept., 1904, pp. 768-772, by Paul Pelliot.-Marco Polo and his

Followers in Central Asia, by Archibald R. Colquhoun (Quarterly Review,

April, 1904, pp. 553-575).

6.-The most noble and famous Travels of Marco Polo one of the Nobility of the State of Venice, into the east Parts of the World, as Armenia, Persia, Arabia, Tartary, with many other Kingdoms and Provinces. The translation of Marsden revised by Thomas Wright, F.S.A.-London: George Newnes; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904, 16mo, pp. xxxix-461, Portrait and maps.

7.-Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo, With an Introduction by Henry Morley. Cassell and Company, London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, MCMIV, 16mo, pp. 192, front.

8.-Everyman's Library, edited by Ernest Rhys-Travel and Topography-Marco Polo's Travels with an Introduction by John Masefield.

The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian. London: Published by J.M. Dent & Co., and in New York by E.P. Dutton & Co., 16mo, pp. xvi-461, n. d. [1907].

9.-[Russian: Shemyakin', A.N.-Puteshestviya Venetsiantsa Marko Polo v' XIII stod'tii, natsegatann'iya v' perv'iy raz' vpodi' na n'metskom' po duchshim' ietsaniyam' i s' ob'yasneniyami Avg. Byurkom' S' dopodneniyami i popravkami K.F. Nenmanna. Perevots' C' n'mstskago. Moskva, 1863.]

Had been published in [Russian: 'Iteniyakh' v' Nmn. Obsch. Istorii i

Drevnostey Rossiiskikh' nri Mosk. Universitet']

Mentioned by Barthold in Minaev's Marco Polo.

10.-*Marco Polo's Resa i Asien ([Folkskrifter] allm. hist. No. 32) Stockholm, 1859, P.G. Berg.

11.-Venetianaren Marco Polos Resor i det XIII. ?rhundraded ?vers?ttning samt inledning och anm?rkningar av Bengt Thordeman.-Stockholm: Albert Bonniers F?rlag, n. d. [1917], 2 vol. 8vo, pp. xx-248, 249 to 490, genealogical table of the Tartars, Map.

Pages 345-480 are devoted to notes.

12.-There is a Japanese piratical edition of the second edition of Yule's Marco Polo brought out by the firm Kyoyekishosha in 1900 and costing 8 yen. Cf. Bulletin Ecole fran?. Ext. Orient, IV, p. 769, note.

[1] See II., pp. 554 seq.


1.-Histoire des établissements européens aux Indes orientales par A. CHARDIN, suivie d'un extrait de l'article sur Marco Polo, de M. WALKENAER, Membre de l'Institut; d'un extrait de la vie de Jonh [sic] Mandeville, par Washington Irving; et d'une notice sur le Camoens, par Mme de Stael.-Paris, Rue et Place Saint-André des Arts, no. 30-1832, 12mo, pp. 104.

Marco Polo, p. 87.-John Mandeville, p. 94.

Marco Polo, after la Biographie universelle; Mandeville, after l'Histoire de Christophe Colomb., de W. Irving.

Fait partie de la Bibliothèque populaire ou l'Instruction mise à la portée de toutes les classes et de toutes les intelligences par MM. ARAGO … et AJASSON de GRANDSAGNE, chargé de la Direction.

2.-MAYERS, W.F.-Marco Polo's Legend concerning Bayan. (Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Nov., 1868, p. 162.)

3.-PALLADIUS' Elucidations. See II., p. 579, No. 63.

Notice in Magazin für die Litteratur des Auslandes, 1876, p. 345.

4.-Marco Polo und die Anianstrasse. Von Prof. S. RUGE, Dresden. (Globus, LXIX., 1896, pp. 133-137.)

5.-Un capitaine du règne de Philippe le Bel Thibaut de Chepoy par Joseph PETIT. (Le Moyen Age, Paris, 1897, pp. 224-239).

6.-[Russian: Kommentarii Arkhimandrita Paddadiya Katharova na putemestvie Marko Polo no s'vernomu Kitayu s' tsrsdisloviem' N.I. Besedobskago. Sankpeterburg', Tip. Imp. Akad. Nauk'] 1902, 8vo, pp. 47, portrait.

7.-MOULE, Rev. G.E.-Notes on Col. YULE'S Edition of Marco Polo's "Quinsay." (Jour. North-China Br. R. As. Soc., N. S., IX., 1875, pp. 1-24.)

8.-The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of MIRZA MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, DUGHLáT A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, An English Version Edited, with Commentary, Notes, and Map by N. ELIAS. The Translation by E. Denison Ross … London, Sampson Low, 1895, 8vo.

9.-A. Slieptsov.-[Russian: Mark' Polo i ego stranstbobaniya no tsarstvu Mongol'skomu, po Kitayu i Indii.]-small 8vo, pp. 83, fig. [St. Petersb., 1901.]

[Russian: "Knizhka za knizhkoi," ki. 108-aya.]

10.-STEIN, Sir Aurel.-Preliminary Report of a Journey of Archaeological and Topographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1901, 4to.

-- Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan. London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1903, 8vo, pp. xliii-524.

-- Ancient Khotan. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907, 2 vols., 4to.

-- Ruins of Desert Cathay. Personal Narrative of Explorations in Central Asia and Westernmost China. With numerous Illustrations, Colour Plates, Panoramas, and Maps from Original Surveys. Macmillan and Co., 1912, 2 vols. 8vo.

-- Les Documents chinois découverts par Aurel STEIN dans les sables du Turkestan oriental publiés et traduits par Edouard CHAVANNES. Oxford, Imprimerie de l'Université, 1913, 4to.

-- Explorations in Central Asia (1906-1908). (Geographical Journal, July and Sept., 1909.)

-- Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1915.)

-- Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., Oct., 1915.)

-- Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1916.)

-- A Third Journey of Exploration in Central Asia, 1913-16. (Geog. Journ., Aug. and Sept., 1916.)

-- Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol Inroad into Kashmir. (Geog. Journ., Aug., 1919, pp. 92-103.)

11.-H.A. GILES' Dictionary, Part III., pp. 1378-9.

List of Places mentioned by Marco Polo and identified by Yule.

12.-E.H. PARKER.-_Some New Facts about Marco Polo's Book.

(Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review_, Jan., 1904, pp. 125-149.)

-- Notes on Yule. (Journ.N.C.B.R.A.Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 195, 196.)

13.-Cesare-Augusto LEVI.-Il vero Segreto di Dante e Marco Polo.-Comunicazione al Comitato di Treviso della "Dante Alighieri" letta la sera del 17 Novembre, 1905-Treviso, Zoppelli, 1905, 8vo, pp. 37.

14.-The Dry Sea and the Carrenare-John Livingstone LOWES. Printed at the University of Chicago Press, 8vo, pp. 46.

Reprinted from Modern Philology, Vol. III., No. 1, June, 1905.

15.-SYKES, Major P. Molesworth, H.B.M.'s Consulate-General, Meshed. (Geog. Journ., XXVI., Oct., 1905, pp. 462-466.)

I. Did Marco Polo visit Baghdad?-II. Did Marco Polo visit the Tabas?

Henri Cordier's reply, Ibid., Dec., 1905, pp. 686, 687.

16.-Noted Men who have helped China.-II. Marco Polo. By Dr. Gilbert REID. (North China Herald, April 6, 1906.)

17.-C. Raymond BEAZLEY.-The Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. III. A History of Exploration and Geographical Science from the Middle of the Thirteenth to the early Years of the Fifteenth Century (c. A.D. 1260-1420). With reproductions of the Principal Maps of the Time. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906, 8vo, pp. xvi-638.

Chap. II. The Great Asiatic Travellers, 1260-1420. Part I. The Polos, 1260-1295, pp. 15-160.

18.-HALLBERG, Ivar.-l'Extrême Orient dans la Littérature et la Cartographie de l'Occident des XIII'e, XIV'e et XV'e siècles-étude sur l'histoire de la géographie.-G?teborg, 1906, 8vo, pp. viii-573.

19.-A.V. JACKSON.-The Magi in Marco Polo and the Cities in Persia from which they came to worship the Infant Christ. (Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., XXVI., I., pp. 79-83.)

-- Persia Past and Present. A Book of Travel and Research with more than two hundred illustrations and a map by A.V. Williams Jackson, Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, and sometime adjunct Professor of the English Language and Literature in Columbia University. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1906, 8vo, pp. xxxi-471.

20.-Marco Polo's Journey in Manzi. By John C. FERGUSON. (Journal North China Branch R. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 190, 191.)

21.-The Pulse of Asia: A Journey in Central Asia illustrating the Geographic Basis of History, by Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, Illustrated. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, 8vo, pp. xxi-415.

22.-BRUCE, Major Clarence Dalrymple.-In the Footsteps of Marco Polo, Being the Account of a Journey Overland from Simla to Pekin. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh and London, 1907, 8vo, pp. xiv-379, ill., map.

23.-HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, A.-Marco Polo's Travels; New editions; his "Arbre Sol" not "Sun-tree," but Cypress of Zoroaster (Journal R. As. Soc., Jan., 1909, pp. 154-162.)

24.-SVEN HEDIN.-Overland to India, with 308 Illustrations from Photographs, Water-colour Sketches, and Drawings by the Author, and 2 Maps. Macmillan and Co., London, 1910, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xix-416, xiv-357.

25.-L'itinéraire de Marco Polo en Perse, par M. Henri Cordier, membre de l'Académie. (Bull. Ac. Inscr. & Belles-Lettres, Ctes. rendus, Mai, 1911, pp. 298-309.)

26.-Hirth, Friedrich, and Rockhill, W.W.-Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-ch?, Translated from the Chinese and Annotated. St. Petersburg, Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1912, large 8vo, pp. x-288.

Mr. Rockhill has edited the Chinese Text of Chau Ju-kua at Tokyo, in 1914.

27.-Rockhill, W.W.-Notes on the Relations and Trade of China with the Eastern Archipelago and the Coast of the Indian Ocean during the Fourteenth Century. (T'oung Pao, 1914, July; 1915, March, May, July, October, December.)

28.-Paul Pelliot.-Kao-tch'ang Qoco, Houo-tcheou et Qara-khodja, par M. Paul Pelliot, avec une note additionnelle de M. Robert Gauthiot. (Journal Asiatique, Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 579-603.)

-- Les documents chinois trouvés par la Mission Kozlov à Khara-Khoto. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai-Juin, 1914). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1914, 8vo, pp. 20.

-- Chrétiens d'Asie centrale et d'Extrême-Orient par Paul Pelliot. (T'oung Pao, December, 1914, pp. 623-644.)

29.-Ferrand, Gabriel.-Relations des voyages et textes géographiques arabes, persans et turks relatifs à l'Extrême-Orient du VIII'e au XVIII'e siècles, traduits, revus et annotés. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1913-1914, 2 vols. 8vo.

Documents historiques et géographiques relatifs à l'Indo-chine publiés sous le direction de MM. Henri Cordier et Louis Finot.

-- La plus ancienne mention du nom de l'?le de Sumatra. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mars-Avril, 1917). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1917, 8vo, pp. 7.

-- Malaka le Malayu et Malayur. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai-Juin et Juillet-Ao?t, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 202.

-- Le nom de la girafe dans le Ying Yai Cheng Lan. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Juillet-Ao?t, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 4.

30.-Yule-Cordier.-Cathay and the Way Thither being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. New Edition. Vol. I. Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse between China and the Western Nations previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route. London, Hakluyt Society, 1915.-Vol. II. Odoric of Pordenone.-Ibid., 1913.-Vol. III. Missionary Friars-Rashíduddín- Pegolotti-Marignolli.-Ibid., 1914.-Vol. IV., Ibn Batuta.- Benedict Go?s.-Index. Ibid., 1916; 4 vols., 8vo.

31.-Karajang, by B. LAUFER (Chicago). (Journ. Roy. As. Soc., Oct., 1915, pp. 781-784.)

Cf. Geographical Journal, Feb., 1916, p. 146.

32.-MOULE, Rev. A.C.-Notices of Christianity. Extracted from Marco Polo. (Journ. North China Br. R. As. Soc., XLVI., 1915, pp. 19-37.)

Facsimile of a page of French MS. 1116 in the Bibliothèque nationale.

-- Marco Polo's Sinjumatu. (T'oung Pao, July, 1912, pp. 431-3.)

-- Hang-chou to Shang-tu, A.D. 1276. (T'oung Pas, July, 1915, pp. 393-419.)

-- Documents relating to the Mission of the Minor Friars to China in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (Jour. Roy. As. Soc., July, 1914, pp. 533-599.)

-- A.C. M[OULE].-A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian

Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo. (Jour. Roy.

As. Soc., July, 1919, pp. 393-395.)

33.-Charles V. LANGLOIS.-Marco Polo Voyageur. (Histoire littéraire de la France, XXXV.)

34.-CORDIER, Henri.-Le Christianisme en Chine et en Asie sous les Mongols. (Ext. du T'oung Pao, 2'e Sér., XVIII., 1917). Leide, E.J. Brill, 1918, 8vo, pp. 67.


XII., pp. 307 seq.

Sir Richard C. TEMPLE, has kindly sent me the following valuable notes:-


General Note.

Both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been very closely studied by Indian Government officials for about fifty years, and they and the people occupying them are now thoroughly understood. There is a considerable literature about them, ethnographical, historical, geographical, and so on.

I have myself been Chief Commissioner, i.e., Administrator, of both groups for the Government of India for ten years, 1894-1903, and went deeply into the subjects connected with them, publishing a good many papers about them in the Indian Antiquary, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and elsewhere. A general survey of all information to that date concerning the islands will be found in the Census of India, 1901, vol. III., which I wrote; in this volume there is an extensive bibliography. I also wrote the Andaman and Nicobar volumes of the Provincial and District Gazetteers, published in 1909, in which current information about them was again summarised. The most complete and reliable book on the subject is E.H. MAN'S Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, London, 1883. KLOSS, Andamans and Nicobars, 1902, is a good book. GERINI'S Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia, 1909, is valuable for the present purpose.

The best books on the Nicobars are MAN'S Nicobarese Vocabulary, published in 1888, and MAN'S Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language, published in 1889. I am still publishing Mr. MAN'S Dictionary of the South Andaman Language in the Indian Antiquary.

Recent information has so superseded old ideas about both groups of islands that I suggest several of the notes in the 1903 edition of Marco Polo be recast in reference to it.

With reference to the Census Report noted above, I may remark that this was the first Census Report ever made on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and according to the custom of the Government of India, such a report has to summarise all available information under headings called Descriptive, Ethnography, Languages. Under the heading Descriptive are sub-heads, Geography, Meteorology, Geography, History, so that practically my Census Report had to include in a summarised form all the available information there was about the islands at that time. It has a complete index, and I therefore suggest that it should be referred to for any point on which information is required.


P. 307. No king or chief.-This is incorrect. They have distinct village communities, governed each by its own chief, with definite rules of property and succession and marriage. See Census Report pp. 214, 212.

Pp. 307-308, Note 1. For Pulo Gomez, see BOWREY, Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, ed. Temple, Hakluyt Society, p. 287 and footnote 4. Bowrey (c. 1675) calls it Pullo Gomus, and a marine journal of 1675 calls it Polo Gomos.

Origin of the name Nicobars.-On this point I quote my paragraph thereon on p. 185, Census Report.

"The situation of the Nicobars along the line of a very ancient trade has caused them to be reported by traders and sea-farers through all historical times. Gerini has fixed on Maniola for Car-Nicobar and Agathodaimonos for Great Nicobar as the right ascription of Ptolemy's island names for this region. This ascription agrees generally with the mediaeval editions of Ptolemy. Yule's guess that Ptolemy's Barussae is the Nicobars is corrected by Gerini's statement that it refers to Nias. In the 1490 edition of Ptolemy, the Satyrorum Insulae placed to the south-east of the Malay Peninsula, where the Anamba islands east of Singapore, also on the line of the old route to China, really are, have opposite them the remark:-qui has inhabitant caudas habere dicuntur-no doubt in confusion with the Nicobars. They are without doubt the Lankhabalus of the Arab Relations (851 A.D.), which term may be safely taken as a misapprehension or mistranscription of some form of Nicobar (through Nakkavar, Nankhabar), thus affording the earliest reference to the modern term. But there is an earlier mention of them by I-Tsing, the Chinese Buddhist monk, in his travels, 672 A.D., under the name of the Land of the Naked People (Lo-jen-kuo), and this seems to have been the recognised name for them in China at that time. 'Land of the Naked' translates Nakkavaram, the name by which the islands appear in the great Tanjore inscription of 1050. This name reappears in Marco Polo's Necuveran 1292, in Rashiduddin's Nakwaram 1300, and in Friar Odoric's Nicoveran 1322, which are the lineal ancestors of the 15th and 16th Century Portuguese Nacabar and Nicubar and the modern Nicobar. The name has been Nicobar since at least 1560. The fanciful story of the tails is repeated by the Swede Kjoeping as late as 1647."

Nicobar clearly means the Land of the Naked, but that does not correctly describe the people. I have never seen either a naked man or woman in the Nicobars. The men are nearly naked, but they wear a string round the waist with a very small loincloth. The string is so tied as to leave two long streamers behind, which have very much the appearance of a tail as the man walks along, and no doubt this gave rise to the idea that they were tailed men. The women wear a petticoat coming below the knees, generally red.

The Nicobarese are not savages and live in well-built clean villages, are born traders, and can calculate accurately up to very high figures. They deliberately do not cultivate, because by using their cocoanuts as currency they can buy from Chinese, Malay, Burmese, Indian, and other traders all that they want in the way of food and comforts. They are good gardeners of fruit. They seem to have borne their present characteristics through all historical times.

Pp. 307-308, Note 1.-Nancowry is a native name for two adjacent islands, now known as Camorta and Nankauri, and I do not think it has anything to do with the name Nicobar. For a list of the geographical names of the islands, see Census Report, pp. 179-180.

Race and Dialect.-The Nicobarese are generally classed as Malays, i.e., they are "Wild Malays," and probably in reality an overflow of Mon tribes from the mainland of the Malay Peninsula (Census Report, p. 250). They are a finely built race of people, but they have rendered their faces ugly by the habit of chewing betel with lime until they have destroyed their teeth by incrustations of lime, so that they cannot close their lips properly.

I think it is a mistake to class the Nicobarese as Rakshasas or demons, a term that would apply in Indian parlance more properly to the Andamanese.

The Nicobarese are all one race, including the Shom Pen, for long a mysterious tribe in the centre of Great Nicobar, but now well known. They speak dialects of one language, though the dialects as spoken are mutually unintelligible. There is no Negrito tribe in the Nicobars. A detailed grammar of the language will be found in the Census Report, pp. 255-284.

The Nicobarese have long been pirates, and one of the reasons for the occupation of their islands by the Indian Government was to put down the piracy which had become dangerous to general navigation, but which now no longer exists.

P. 309.-The great article of trade is the cocoanut, of which a detailed account will be found in the Census Report, pp. 169-174, 219-220, 243. I would suggest the recasting of the remarks on the products of the Nicobars in your note on p. 309 in view of the statements made in those pages of the Report, bearing in mind that the details of the Nicobar Islands are now practically as well known as those relating to any other part of the East.

P. 312.-The Nicobarese tradition is that they are descended from a man and a dog, but this is only one phase of the ordinary Far Eastern animal-descent story.

The projecting teeth mentioned by Colonel Man are common in the Nicobars in the case of adults only, usually confined to men and women advanced in life. They are not natural, but caused, as stated above, by the excessive use of betel and lime, which forms a dark unsightly incrustation on the teeth and finally destroys them. Children and youth of both sexes have good white normal teeth,

P. 312.


Narcondam, an island I know well, has a separate bibliography of its own. It belongs to the Sunda group of volcanoes, but it has been so long extinct that there are no obvious signs now of its ever having been active. It has a species of hornbill which I have captured and shot that has differentiated itself from all others. I do not think, therefore, it can have been recognised as a volcano by mariners in historical times, and consequently the derivation of Narakakundam is to my mind doubtful. The obvious volcano in the neighbourhood is Barren Island, which is still alive.


Pp. 309-310, Note 1.-The Andamanese are not an ill-looking race, and are not negroes in any sense, but it is true that they are Negritos in the lowest known state of barbarism, and that they are an isolated race. Reasons for the isolation will be found in the Census Report, p. 51, but I should not call their condition, mentally or physically, degraded. The mental characteristics of the race will be found on pp. 59-61 of the Census Report, and for your information I here extract from my remarks thereon the section on character.

"In childhood the Andamanese are possessed of a bright intelligence, which, however, soon reaches its climax, and the adult may be compared in this respect with the civilised child of ten or twelve. He has never had any sort of agriculture, nor until the English taught him the use of dogs did he ever domesticate any kind of animal or bird, nor did he teach himself to turn turtle or to use hook and line in fishing. He cannot count, and all his ideas are hazy, inaccurate, and ill-defined. He has never developed unaided any idea of drawing or making a tally or record for any purpose, but he readily understands a sketch or plan when shown him. He soon becomes mentally tired, and is apt to break down physically under mental training.

"He retains throughout life the main characteristics of the child: of very short but strong memory, suspicious of but hospitable to strangers, ungrateful, imitative and watchful of his companions and neighbours, vain, and under the spur of vanity industrious and persevering, teachable up to a quickly reached limit, fond of undefined games and practical jokes, too happy and careless to be affected in temperament by his superstitions, too careless indeed to store water even for a voyage, plucky but not courageous, reckless only from ignorance or from inappreciation of danger, selfish but not without generosity, chivalry or a sense of honour, petulant, hasty of temper, entirely irresponsible and childish in action in his wrath, and equally quick to forget, affectionate, lively in his movements, and exceedingly taking in his moments of good temper. At these times the Andamanese are gentle and pleasant to each other, considerate to the aged, the weakly or the helpless, and to captives, kind to their wives and proud of their children, whom they often over-pet; but when angered, cruel, jealous, treacherous and vindictive, and always unstable. They are bright and merry companions, talkative, inquisitive and restless, busy in their own pursuits, keen sportsmen and naturally independent, absorbed in the chase from sheer love of it and other physical occupations, and not lustful, indecent, or indecently abusive.

"As the years advance they are apt to become intractable, masterful, and quarrelsome. A people to like but not to trust. Exceedingly conservative and bound up in ancestral custom, not amenable to civilisation, all the teachings of years bestowed upon some of them having introduced no abstract ideas among the tribesmen, and changed no habit in practical matters affecting comfort, health, and mode of life. Irresponsibility is a characteristic, though instances of a keen sense of responsibility are not wanting. Several Andamanese can take charge of the steering of a large steam launch through dangerous channels, exercising then caution, daring, and skill though not to an European extent, and the present (1901) dynamo-man of the electric lighting on Ross Island is an Andamanese, while the wire-man is a Nicobarese, both of whom exhibit the liveliest sense of their responsibilities, though retaining a deep-rooted and unconquerable fear of the dynamo and wires when at work. The Nicobarese shows, as is to be expected, the higher order of intellect. Another Andamanese was used by Portman for years as an accountant and kept his accounts in English accurately and well.

"The intelligence of the women is good, though not as a rule equal to that of the men. In old age, however, they frequently exhibit a considerable mental capacity which is respected. Several women trained in a former local Mission Orphanage from early childhood have shown much mental aptitude and capacity, the 'savagery' in them, however, only dying down as they grew older. They can read and write well, understand and speak English correctly, have acquired European habits completely, and possess much shrewdness and common sense: one has herself taught her Andamanese husband, the dynamo-man above mentioned, to read and write English and induced him to join the Government House Press as a compositor. She writes a well-expressed and correctly-spelt letter in English, and has a shrewd notion of the value of money. Such women, when the instability of youth is past, make good 'ayas,' as their menkind make good waiters at table.

"The highest general type of intelligence yet noticed is in the Jarawa tribe."

P. 310. The name Andaman.-To my mind the modern Andaman is the Malay Handuman = Hanuman, representing "monkey" or savage aboriginal antagonist of the Aryans = also the Rakshasa. Individuals of the race, when seen in the streets of Calcutta in 1883, were at once recognised as Rakshasas. It may amuse you to know that the Andamanese returned the compliment, and to them all Orientals are Chauga or Ancestral Ghosts, i.e., demons (see Census Report, pp. 44-45 for reasons). I agree with you that Angamanain is an Arabic dual, the Great and the Little Andaman. To a voyager who did not land, the North, Middle, and South Andaman would appear as one great island, whereas the strait separating these three islands from the Little Andaman would be quite distinctly seen.

P. 311. Cannibalism.-The charge of cannibalism is entirely untrue. I quote here my paragraph as to how it arose (Census Report, p. 48).

"The charge of cannibalism seems to have arisen from three observations of the old mariners. The Andamanese attacked and murdered without provocation every stranger they could on his landing; they burnt his body (as they did in fact that of every enemy); and they had weird all-night dances round fires. Combine these three observations with the unprovoked murder of one of themselves, and the fear aroused by such occurrences in a far land in ignorant mariners' minds, century after century, and a persistent charge of cannibalism is almost certain to be the result."

The real reason for the Andamanese taking and killing every stranger that they could was that for centuries the Malays had used the islands as one of their pirate bases, and had made a practice of capturing the inhabitants to sell as slaves in the Peninsula and Siam.

P. 311. Navigation.-It is true that they do not quit their own coasts in canoes, and I have always doubted the truth of the assertions that any of them ever found their way to any Nicobar island.

Andamanese men go naked, but the only Andamanese women that I have ever seen entirely naked in their own jungles are of the inland tribe of Jarawas.


Nov. 29, 1919.


Names of Persons in CAPITAL Letters.-Subject Names in thick

Letters.-Title of Books in italics.

Aas (The Alans).





ADAM of Bremen.




































ARANZADI, Telesforo de.

Arbre sec, arbre seul, arbre sol.













Asia Minor.







Azoo, R.F.









BAKHSH, Maula.










Bargu, Lake.



Bark of Trees.











Bend i-Turkestan.

BENT, Theo.




Be Tumah.





Binshi Pass.



Blows, Scale of.





BRANDT, Otto St.


BROWN, Dr. Robert.












Cachar Modun.

CAIN, John.





Cala Ataperistan.






Camel crane.






Canal, Grand.


Cape of Good Hope.

Cape Sheep.



Caroline Islands.

CARPINI, Plano, John of.









Chagan jang.

Chagan nor.


Chah Khushab.

Chah Kuru.



Chakmak, Lake.

Chamba, Champa.



Ch'ang Chau, Ch'angchou.

Ch'ang lu.

Chan tao.





Chasma Sufid.

Chau Chi.



Che Ch'an.


Chehel Pai.

Chen Ch'ao.

Cherchen; see Charchan.

Chichiklik Pass.

Chi Chou.





Ch'ing siang.




Chi p'u.




Chou Shu.


Chuan sha.

Chu fan chí; see CHAU JU-KWA.

Ch'ui lan.

Chu lién.

Ch'ung K'ing.

Chung li.


Ciang lu.


Coats of Mail.




Coromandel Coast.


COTES, Everard.








Cypress of ZOROASTER.
















Diet of the Gulf People.




Dirakht i sol.


Djur djan.

Dog-headed Barbarians.




Dragon's blood.










Elephants' tusks.


ELLIOTT, Sir Walter.









Faeul la.


Fa li la.

Fa li lang.


Fang pu.


Fan kuo chi.


Fat-tailed sheep.





FERRAND, Gabriel.


Firuz Kuh.



Fong Joen hien.



Fou ning hien.





Fuh lin.


Fu Kien.

Gabar Castle.




GEORGE, Prince.



Gez, Defile.




GILL, Capt.






God Hashtaki.


Go?z, Benedict.

Goklán Turkomans.

Gold, coins; native; value of.



GRAY, Archdeacon.

Great Desert.

Great Wall.



GRIERSON, Sir George.





Ha ch'a mu touen.



Ha-la T'u.



Han chung.

Hang Chau.


Han mo.


HARLEZ, C. de.

Harmuz; see Hormuz.






HEDIN, Sven.


Hei Shui.

Hei tiao.






Hia lah.


Hien yang.


Hindu Kush.


Hist. litt. de la France.


Hiu Heng.

Hiung Nu.


Ho Kien.

HOLM, Frits V.

Ho Nan.

Ho Ni.

Hormos; see Hormuz.




Ho sim.


Ho ts'z mi.

Hou Han shu.



Hsien nü miao.

Hsi hsia.

Hsin Chin Hsien.


Hu Chou.


Hui jen.

Hui kiang chi.




Hu Nan.

Hung Fu.


Hunting Leopard.



Hu Peh.


Hu Tu.

Hu yang.











Islands, Male and Female.




JACK, R. Logan.




Japanese War.







Jou jan.

Ju hiang.




Kafchi kué.

Kafir Valley.






K'ai p'ing fu.

Kal'ah i Atashparastan.

Kam chau; see Kan chau.

Kam pei.

Kan Chau.


Kang pi.


Kan pai.

Kan Su.

Kao ch'ang.

Kao ch'ê.


Kao yu.



Kara Khitai.

Kara Khodja.

Kara Khoto.


Kara Kul.

Kara Shahr.






K'a shi mih.




Kaung sin.














Khan Balig.

Khara Khoto; see Kara Khoto.





Khoten; see Khotan.





Kiang si.

Kiao chi kwe.

Kia yu kwan.

Kieh sha.

Kieh shwang na.

Kien ch'ang.

Kien Kang.


Kien tu.

K'ié t'ai.


Kila Panja.

K'i lien.

K'i lien shan.

K'i lin.


King Shan.


King tchao fu.

Ki ning.

Kin Kargalai.


Ki pe.

Ki pu.



Kitab u'l-Bazyarah.

K'i-t'ah-t'eh Pu-ha.


Kiu chen.

Kiung tu.



Koh Tralàch.

Koko Nor.





Kou kuo.

K'ou wai.



Kuangyu hsing shêng.

Kuang yü t'u.

Kuba Sabz.


Kubunán; see Kuh-benan.


Kudatku Bilik.

Kuh-benan, Kuh Banan.

Ku li.

K'u lu ma.

K'u lun.





K'un lun ts'?ng ti.



Kwa Chau.

Kwang Chau.

Kwei Chau.





La meng.


Langar Kisht.





Lan wu li.




LEARY, Mrs. George.


Lei pien.

LEMKE, Hans.




LéVI, Sylvain.

Liang Shu.


Li Chou.



Ling pei.


Ling ya ssi kia.

Lin Ngan.




Loan tcheou.

Lob Nor.





Lo hing man.

Lo lan.

Lo lo.

Lop; see Lob Nor.


Lo t'ing-hien.







Luang Prabang.

Lu kü River.




















Ma lo pa.




Mandal Pass.





Manuscripts of Marco Polo.

Man Waing.

Mao Shan.

Mare's Milk.



Marriage of the Dead.



Masálak al Absár.









Mazar tapa.







Mien, Mien Kwé.



Ming Shi.


Mi t'ang tsiu.



MOHAMMED I. Dirhem Kub.







MORLEY, Henry.



Mongol Imperial Family.



Mu bu pa.


Mu hu pa.

Muh Pang.

Muh pieh tzu.



Mu lan p'i.



MüLLER, Max.

Mu mién.






Myin Saing.




Nan fang ts'ao mi chuang.






Naiband, Naibend.





Nam hkam.

Nam Ti.

Nan Chao.

Nan King.

Nan p'i.

Nan Shan.

Nan Shi,.

Nan Sung.

Nan tien.








Nga Singu.

Ngan chen kue.

Ngan tung.


NICHOLAS, Alan Prince.




Ning Yuan.



Niu Wang.






Nuksán Pass.















Ormus; see Hormuz.




Ouigour; see Uighúr.

Oxen of Tibet, Wild.




Pagan Yazawin.

P'ai tzu.




Pamier; see Pamir.



Panjkora River.

Panjkora Valley.

Panjshir Valley.




Paonano Pao.

Pao tch'e hien.

Paper Money.






Pa tan.

Pa ta shan.

Pa tsz.




Peh Shi.




Pen ts'ao kang mu.




Persian, knowledge of.



PETIT, Joseph, II.


Pharaoh's rat.

PHILIP the Fair, II.





P'iao tien.


P'i mo.

Pin Iron.

Pin t'ieh.

Pi p'a lo.


Pir Moral.

Pisaca languages.

Pi ssi lo.


Poh lo.

POLO, Marco,


Statue at Canton;



P'?ng hirds.

Po sze tao.

Po Yi.






Puh hai.





PULAD Chinsang.

Pulau Kundur.

Pulo Condor.

Pumpkin Island.





Qara Khodja; see Kara Khodja.




Ramme, African.







REID, Gilbert.




Rhio Strait.





ROBERT d'Artois.



Ross, E.D.









Sad Ishtragh.

Sad Khandut.


Sad Sipang.


Sagamoni Borcan.



Sago tree.




Saint Omer.

Sakya Muni Burkhan.





Sandal Wood.

San fo ts'i.


San Ta.








Sar i Sher.










Selat Tebrau.


Sendi Foulat.





Sha Chou.



Shang Tu.


Shan Ha? King.

Shan Tung.

Shan Si.

Shao Hing.

Sha t'ang.





Shen Chou.

Shen shen.

Shen yü.



Shi Ho.





Shi lang.


Shu, Kingdom of.

Shu-mih fu shi.



Siah posh.


Si Chou.

Sien pi.

Si fan.


Si Hia.

Si lan.

Si lan ch'i kuo.

Si li ju eul su la.

Silky Fowls.

SINCLAIR, William F.


Si-ngan fu.


Sing ch'a shêng lan.



Si ning.




Sita river.

Si yang ch'ao kung tien lu.

Si yih kien wan luh.



Soling river.

Somali Coast.


So Tu.



STEIN, Sir Aurel.

Stewart, C.E.



Süan wei shi.

Su Chou.






Sundar Fulat.


Sung Shi.


Sun tree.




SYKES, Major P.M.


Sze Chw'an.


Szi lang.

Tabas, Tabbas.

Tabriz; see Tauris.

T'a-ch'ar Hu-nan.



Ta Hsien.


T'ai hang Mountain.


Tái lin.

T'a? p'ing yu lan.

T'a? Yuan fu.






Ta Ming yi fung che.


Tanah Malaya.



T'ang Shu.



Tanjore inscription.

TANNER, P. von.

Tao yi chi lio.


Ta Ping.




Ta Shi.

Tash Kurghan.


Ta sz nung.


Ta Ts'in.

Ta tu.

Ta tu k'ou.

Ta T'ung.



Tch'eng Tu.


Teir al djamal.







Tengri (Heaven).

Tengri kudu.

T'eng Yueh.







Three Kings.


Tiao men.

Tiao yü shan.



T'ie leh.

Tien chu.

Tien ning temple.

T'ien pu ma.

T'ien Shan.

T'ien t?.

T'ien Tsin.






Tokuk Dawan.







Tou iron.

Tou lo mién.

T'oung Pao.


Tourfan; see Turfan.

T'ou shih.

T'ou t'ieh.



Ts'an chêng.

Ts'ang Chou.

Ts'ao mu tse.

Ts'eng yao lo.

Tsiang kiun.



Ts'i nan.


Tsing hai hien.

Ts'ing ki hien.

Ts'ing shui.

Ts'i Ning chau.

Tsoh mung luh.

Ts'?ng pa.

Ts'u?n Chou.


Tsui lan.

Tsu la.

Tsu la fa.

T'u fan.


T'u kuh hun.




T'ung kwan.


Tun huang.


Tunocain, Tunokain.


Tun va Kain.

Tun t'ien.







Ulug Mazar.

Ulug Ziarat.

Ulus Arbaa.






Uzun Tati.

VACCA, Giovanni.


Vardoj river.

Victoria, Lake.





VISCONTI, Tedaldo.










Wa lo sz'.




Wan nien tsao.

Wan sui shan.


Weather Conjuring.


Wei, river.

Wei Shu.





Wo tuan.



Wu chên.

Wu chiang.


Wu hwan.






Ya chou fu.


Yaman yar river.

Yang Chau.

Yangi Hisar.

Yang Kiang.


Yap Island.



Ya tsui tan fan.



Yen Chan hien.



Yen t'o man.



Ying yai shêng lan.

Yin shan cheng yao.

Yin tu.


Yi tsi nai.

Yi wu chi.


YOUNG, John.




Yuan kien lei han.

Yuan shi.

Yueh Chi.

Yuen tien chang.

Yu Ho.

YULE, Sir Henry.

Yung ch'ang.

Yung chia chong.

Yun Nan.

Yü shi ta fa.

Yu t'ien.


Zakhama Pass.









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