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   Chapter 12 No.12

The 2010 CIA World Factbook By United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Characters: 70386

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:02


Latin American Economic System (LAES)

note - also known as Sistema Economico Latinoamericana (SELA) established - 17 October 1975 aim - to promote economic and social development through regional cooperation members - (28) Argentina, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Secretaria General Iberoamericana, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela

Latin American Integration Association (LAIA)

note - also known as Asociacion Latinoamericana de Integracion (ALADI)

established - 12 August 1980; effective - 18 March 1981 aim - to

promote freer regional trade members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia,

Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru,

Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (30) China, Corporacion Andina de

Fomento, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, EC, El Salvador, Guatemala,

Honduras, Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Institute for

Cooperation on Agriculture, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Latin America

Economic System, Nicaragua, Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud,

Organizacion Mundial de la Salud, Organization of American States,

Panama, Pan-American Health Organization, Portugal, Romania, Russia,

San Marino, Secretaria General Iberoamericana, Spain, Switzerland,

Ukraine, United Nations Development Program, United Nations Economic

Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

League of Arab States (LAS)

note - also known as Arab League (AL) established - 22 March 1945 aim - aim - to promote economic, social, political, and military cooperation members - (21 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, UAE, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (4) Brazil, Eritrea, India, Venezuela

least developed countries (LLDCs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) initially identified by the UN General Assembly in 1971 as having no significant economic growth, per capita GDPs normally less than $1,000, and low literacy rates; also known as the undeveloped countries; the 44 LLDCs are: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Togo, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Uganda, Zambia

less developed countries (LDCs)

the bottom group in the hierarchy of developed countries (DCs), former USSR/Eastern Europe (former USSR/EE), and less developed countries (LDCs); mainly countries and dependent areas with low levels of output, living standards, and technology; per capita GDPs are generally below $5,000 and often less than $1,500; however, the group also includes a number of countries with high per capita incomes, areas of advanced technology, and rapid rates of growth; includes the advanced developing countries, developing countries, Four Dragons (Four Tigers), least developed countries (LLDCs), low-income countries, middle-income countries, newly industrializing economies (NIEs), the South, Third World, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries; the 172 LDCs are: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Fiji, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gabon, The Gambia, Gaza Strip, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jersey, Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Macau, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Mongolia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Palau, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Reunion, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, UAE, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe; note - similar to the new International Monetary Fund (IMF) term "developing countries" which adds Malta, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey but omits in its recently published statistics American Samoa, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Cook Islands, Cuba, Eritrea, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Gaza Strip, Gibraltar, Greenland, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, North Korea, Macau, Martinique, Mayotte, Montserrat, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tokelau, Tonga, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Virgin Islands, Wallis and Futuna, West Bank, Western Sahara

low-income countries

another term for those less developed countries with below-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

M

middle-income countries

another term for those less developed countries with above-average per capita GDPs; see less developed countries (LDCs)

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

established - 12 April 1988 aim - encourages flow of foreign direct investment among member countries by offering investment insurance, consultation, and negotiation on conditions for foreign investment and technical assistance; a UN specialized agency members - (175) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Bhutan, Brunei, Burma, Comoros, Cuba, Kiribati, North Korea, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Monaco, Nauru, Niger, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Somalia, Tonga, Tuvalu; plus Kosovo

N

Near Abroad

Russian term for the 14 non-Russian successor states of the USSR, in which 25 million ethnic Russians live and in which Moscow has expressed a strong national security interest; the 14 countries are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

new independent states (NIS)

a term referring to all the countries of the FSU except the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)

newly industrializing countries (NICs)

former term for the newly industrializing economies; see newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

newly industrializing economies (NIEs)

that subgroup of the less developed countries (LDCs) that has experienced particularly rapid industrialization of their economies; formerly known as the newly industrializing countries (NICs); also known as advanced developing countries; usually includes the Four Dragons (Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan), and Brazil

Nonaligned Movement (NAM)

established - 1-6 September 1961 aim - to establish political and

military cooperation apart from the traditional East or West blocs

members - (117 plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan,

Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh,

Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Brunei,

Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central

African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic

of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Djibouti,

Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,

Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala,

Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran,

Iraq, Jamaica, Jordan, Kenya, North Korea, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon,

Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,

Mauritania, Mauritius, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal,

Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea,

Peru, Philippines, Qatar, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,

Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, South Africa,

Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand,

Timor-Leste, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda,

UAE, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe,

Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (18) Argentina, Armenia,

Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Croatia,

El Salvador, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mexico, Montenegro, Paraguay,

Serbia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uruguay

Nordic Council (NC)

established - 16 March 1952; effective - 12 February 1953 aim - to promote regional economic, cultural, and environmental cooperation members - (5) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Norway, Sweden observers - (3) the Sami (Lapp) local parliaments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden

Nordic Investment Bank (NIB)

established - 4 December 1975; effective - 1 June 1976 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (8) Denmark (including Faroe Islands and Greenland), Estonia, Finland (including Aland Islands), Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Sweden

North

a popular term for the rich industrialized countries generally located in the northern portion of the Northern Hemisphere; the counterpart of the South; see developed countries (DCs)

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

established - 17 December 1992 aim - to eliminate trade barriers, promote fair competition, increase investment opportunities, provide protection of intellectual property rights, and create procedures to settle disputes members - (3) Canada, Mexico, US

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

established - 4 April 1949 aim - to promote mutual defense and cooperation members - (28) Albania, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA)

note - also known as OECD Nuclear Energy Agency established - 1 February 1958 aim - to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; associated with OECD members - (29) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US

Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)

note - also known as the London Suppliers Group or the London Group established - 1974; effective - 1975 aim - to establish guidelines for exports of nuclear materials, processing equipment for uranium enrichment, and technical information to countries of proliferation concern and regions of conflict and instability members - (46) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US observer - (1) European Commission (a policy-planning body for the EU)

O

Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM)

note-acronym standing for the member countries, Georgia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Moldova; formerly known as GUUAM before Uzbekistan withdrew in 5 May 2005 established - 7 June 2001 aim - commits the countries to cooperation and assistance in social and economic development, the strengthening and broadening of trade and economic relations, and the development and effective use of transport and communications, highways, and related infrastructure crossing the boundaries of the member states members - (4) Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

established - 14 December 1960; effective - 30 September 1961 aim - to promote economic cooperation and development members - (34) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, UK, US special member - (1) EC accession states - (1) Russia

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

note - formerly the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) established 3 July 1975 established - 1 January 1995 aim - to foster the implementation of human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law; to act as an instrument of early warning, conflict prevention, and crisis management; and to serve as a framework for conventional arms control and confidence building measures members - (56) Albania, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, UK, US, Uzbekistan partners for cooperation - (12) Afghanistan, Algeria, Australia, Egypt, Israel, Japan, Jordan, South Korea, Mongolia, Morocco, Thailand, Tunisia

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

established - 29 April 1997 aim - to enforce the Convention on the

Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of

Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction; to provide a forum for

consultation and cooperation among the signatories of the Convention

members (countries that have ratified the Convention) - (188)

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,

Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain,

Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia,

Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina

Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African

Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of

the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote

d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominica,

Dominican Republic, Djibouti, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea,

Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia,

Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-

Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,

Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,

Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos,

Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali,

Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated

States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco,

Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger,

Nigeria, Niue, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,

Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia,

Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the

Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia,

Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,

Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tanzania,

Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,

Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay,

Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

signatory states (countries that have signed, but not ratified, the

Convention) - (2) Burma, Israel

Organization of African Unity (OAU)

see African Union

Organization of American States (OAS)

established - 14 April 1890 as the International Union of American

Republics; 30 April 1948 adopted present charter; effective - 13

December 1951 aim - to promote regional peace and security as well as

economic and social development members - (35) Antigua and Barbuda,

Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada,

Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation

since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,

Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico,

Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia,

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, US,

Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (65) Algeria, Angola, Armenia, Austria,

Azerbaijan, Belgium, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea,

Estonia, EU, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Holy

See, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,

Kazakhstan, South Korea, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg,

Monaco, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines,

Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand,

Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, Vanuatu, Yemen

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC)

established - 9 January 1968 aim - to promote cooperation in the petroleum industry members - (11) Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia (suspended), UAE

Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS)

established - 18 June 1981; effective - 4 July 1981 aim - to promote political, economic, and defense cooperation members - (9) Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

established - 14 September 1960 aim - to coordinate petroleum policies members - (12) Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Venezuela; note - Indonesia left OPEC in 2008

Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC)

established - 22-25 September 1969 aim - to promote Islamic solidarity

in economic, social, cultural, and political affairs members - (56

plus the Palestine Liberation Organization) Afghanistan, Albania,

Algeria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin, Brunei, Burkina Faso,

Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Cote d'Ivoire, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, The

Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan,

Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Maldives,

Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan,

Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Suriname,

Syria, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, UAE,

Uzbekistan, Yemen, Palestine Liberation Organization observers - (12)

AU, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Central African Republic, ECO, LAS, Moro

National Liberation Front, NAM, Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member

States, Russia, Thailand, Turkish Muslim Community of Kibris, UN

P

Pacific Community (SPC)

local name of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community

Pacific Islands Forum (PIF)

note - formerly known as South Pacific Forum (SPF) established - 5 August 1971 aim - to promote regional cooperation in political matters members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu associate members - (2) French Polynesia, New Caledonia partners - (14) Canada, China, EU, France, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, UK, US observers - (6) Asia Development Bank, The Commonwealth, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Wallis and Futuna, the World Bank

Paris Club

established - 1956 aim - to provide a forum for debtor countries to negotiate rescheduling of debt service payments or loans extended by governments or official agencies of participating countries; to help restore normal trade and project finance to debtor countries members - (19) Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK, US associate members - (13) Abu Dhabi, Argentina, Brazil, Israel, South Korea, Kuwait, Mexico, Morocco, NZ, Portugal, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey

Partnership for Peace (PFP)

established - 10-11 January 1994 aim - to expand and intensify political and military cooperation throughout Europe, increase stability, diminish threats to peace, and build relationships by promoting the spirit of practical cooperation and commitment to democratic principles that underpin NATO; program under the auspices of NATO members - (22) Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Georgia, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Montenegro, Russia, Serbia, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; note - a nation that becomes a member of NATO is no longer a member of PFP

Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)

established - 29 July 1899 aim - to facilitate the settlement of

international disputes members - (111) Argentina, Australia, Austria,

Bahrain, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria,

Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia,

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El

Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany,

Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India,

Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, South Korea,

Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Libya, Liechtenstein,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Malta,

Mauritius, Mexico, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua,

Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,

Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia,

Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan,

Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Turkey,

Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe

PetroCaribe

established - 29 June 2005 aim - to eliminate existing social inequities, to foster high standards of living, to promote effective people's participation in shaping their own destiny members - (18) Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Venezuela

R

Rio Group (RG)

note - formerly known as Grupo de los Ocho, established NA December 1986; composed of the Contadora Group and the Lima Group established - 1988 aim - to consult on regional Latin American issues members - (24) Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica (representing CARICOM), Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela

S

Schengen Convention

established - signed June 1990; effective March 1995 aim - to allow free movement within an area without internal border controls members - (25) Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland; note - UK and Ireland have not joined; Liechtenstein and Cyprus will probably join in the near future; Bulgaria and Romania are still not fully implemented De Facto members - (3) Holy See, Monaco, San Marino

Second World

another term for the traditionally Marxist-Leninist states of the USSR and Eastern Europe, with authoritarian governments and command economies based on the Soviet model; the term is fading from use; see centrally planned economies

Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)

established - 6 February 1947; effective 29 July 1948 aim - to serve island development in 22 Pacific countries; to develop technical assistance and professional, scientific, and research support; to build planning and management capability members - (26) America Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, France, French Polynesia, Guam, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, NZ, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn Islands, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, US, Wallis and Futuna

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

established - 15 June 2001 aim - to combat terrorism, extremism, and separatism; to safeguard regional security through mutual trust, disarmament, and cooperative security; and to increase cooperation in political, trade, economic, scientific and technological, cultural, and educational fields members - (6) China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan dialogue members - (2) Belarus, Sri Lanka observers - (4) India, Iran, Mongolia, Pakistan

socialist countries

in general, countries in which the government owns and plans the use of the major factors of production; note - the term is sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for Communist countries

South

a popular term for the poorer, less industrialized countries generally located south of the developed countries; the counterpart of the North; see less developed countries (LDCs)

South American Community of Nations (CSN)

established on 9 December 2004; its aim was to coordinate common policies regarding multilateral organizations, to integrate physical infrastructure, and to consolidate the merger of CAN and Mercosur; the members were Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela; in 2008 it became Union of South American Nations (UNASUR)

South Asia Co-operative Environment Program (SACEP)

established - January 1983 aim - to promote regional cooperation in South Asia in the field of environment, both natural and human, and on issues of economic and social development; to support conservation and management of natural resources of the region members - (8) Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)

established - 8 December 1985 aim - to promote economic, social, and cultural cooperation members - (8) Afghanistan. Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka observers - (9) Australia, Burma, China, EU, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Mauritius, US

South Pacific Forum (SPF)

note - see Pacific Island Forum

South Pacific Regional Trade and Economic Cooperation Agreement

(Sparteca)

established - 1981 aim - to redress unequal trade relationships of Australia and New Zealand with small island economies in the Pacific region members - (16) Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, NZ, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)

established - 6 December 1996 aim - to encourage cooperation among participating states and to facilitate their integration into European structures members - (13) Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey observers - (18) Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Georgia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Ukraine, UK, US

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

established - 11 December 1969 aim - to promote free trade and cooperation in customs matters members - (5) Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

note - evolved from the Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) established - 17 August 1992 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration members - (14) Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur) or Southern Common Market

note - also known as Mercado Comun del Cono Sur (Mercosur) established - 26 March 1991 aim - to increase regional economic cooperation members - (4) Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay associate members - (5) Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela

T

Third World

another term for the less developed countries; the term is obsolescent; see less developed countries (LDCs)

U

underdeveloped countries

refers to those less developed countries with the potential for above- average economic growth; see less developed countries (LDCs)

undeveloped countries

refers to those extremely poor less developed countries (LDCs) with little prospect for economic growth; see least developed countries (LLDCs)

Union Latina

established - 15 May 1954; became functional 1983 aim - to project, protect, and promote the common heritage and unifying identities of the Latin, and Latin-influenced, world members - (36) Andorra, Angola, Bolivia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Chile, Colombia, Cote d'Ivoire, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Moldova, Monaco, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Spain, Timor- Leste, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (3) Argentina, Holy See, Order of Malta

Union of South American Nations (UNASUR - Spanish; UNASUL - Portuguese)

formerly South American Community of Nations (CSN) which terminated on 16 April 2007 established - 23 May 2008 aim - to model a community after the European Union which will include a common currency, parliament, passport, and defense policy members - (12) Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela observers - (2) Mexico, Panama

United Nations (UN)

established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to

maintain international peace and security and to promote cooperation

involving economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian problems

constituent organizations - the UN is composed of six principal organs

and numerous subordinate agencies and bodies as follows: 1)

Secretariat 2) General Assembly: Joint United Nations Program on

HIV/AIDS (UN-AIDS), International Research and Training Institute for

the Advancement of Women (UN-INSTRAW), Office of the United Nations

High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Organization for the

Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), Preparation Committee for the

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), United Nations Center for

Human Settlements (UN-Habitat), United Nations Children's Fund

(UNICEF), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD),

United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF), United Nations Development

Program (UNDP), United Nations Drug Control Program (UNDCP), United

Nations Environment Program (UNEP),United Nations Fund for

International Partnerships (UNFIP), United Nations High Commissioner

for Refugees (UNHCR), United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

(UNIDIR), United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR),

United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute

(UNICRI), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Office

of Project Services (UNOPS), United Nations Relief and Works Agency for

Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), United Nations Research

Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), United Nations System Staff

College (UNSSC), United Nations University (UNU), World Food Program

(WFP) 3) Security Council: International Criminal Tribunal for the

Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

(ICTR), United Nations Compensation Commission, United Nations

Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF), African Union/United Nations

Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), United Nations Assistance Mission

in Afghanistan (UNAMA), United Nations Integrated Office in Burundi

(BINUB), United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT),

United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), United

Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), United Nations Mission in

Liberia (UNMIL)

, United Nations Military Observer Group in India and

Pakistan (UNMOGIP), United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI),

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO),

United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS), United Nations

Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the

Congo (MONUSCO), United Nations Peace-Keeping Force in Cyprus

(UNFICYP), United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH),

and United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) 4) Economic

and Social Council (ECOSOC): Commission for Social Development,

Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, Commission on

Narcotics Drugs, Commission on Population and Development, Commission

on Science and Technology for Development, Commission on Sustainable

Development, Commission on the Status of Women, Economic and Social

Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Economic and Social

Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA), Economic Commission for Africa

(ECA), Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), Economic Commission for

Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), Food and Agriculture

Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Atomic Energy

Agency (IAEA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

(IBRD), International Center for Secretariat of Investment Disputes

(ICSID), International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),

International Development Association (IDA), International Finance

Corporation (IFC), International Fund for Agricultural Development

(IFAD), International Labor Organization (ILO), International Maritime

Organization (IMO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), International

Telecommunication Union (ITU), Multilateral Investment Geographic

Agency (MIGA), Statistical Commission, United Nations Educational,

Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Forum on

Forests, United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO),

Universal Postal Union (UPU), World Health Organization (WHO), World

Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Meteorological

Organization (WMO), World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), and World Trade

Organization (WTO) 5) Trusteeship Council (inactive; no trusteeships at

this time) 6) International Court of Justice (ICJ)

United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)

note - acronym retained from the predecessor organization, UN International Children's Emergency Fund established - 11 December 1946 aim - to help establish child health and welfare services executive board members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)

established - 30 December 1964 aim - to promote international trade members - (193) all UN members plus Holy See

United Nations Development Program (UNDP)

established - 22 November 1965 aim - to provide technical assistance to stimulate economic and social development members (executive board) - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF)

established - 31 May 1974 aim - to observe the 1973 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (6) Austria, Canada, Croatia, India, Japan, Philippines

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization

(UNESCO)

established - 16 November 1945; effective - 4 November 1946 aim - to promote cooperation in education, science, and culture members - (193) includes all UN member countries except Liechtenstein (191 total); plus Cook Islands and Niue associate members - (7) Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Faroe Islands, Macau, Tokelau

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

established - 15 December 1972 aim - to promote international cooperation on all environmental matters members - (58) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations General Assembly

established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to function as the primary deliberative organ of the UN members - (192) all UN members are represented in the General Assembly

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

established - 3 December 1949; effective - 1 January 1951 aim - to

ensure the humanitarian treatment of refugees and find permanent

solutions to refugee problems members (executive committee) - (79)

Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin,

Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Denmark, Djibouti, Ecuador,

Egypt, Estonia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece,

Guinea, Holy See, Hungary, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan,

Jordan, Kenya, South Korea, Lebanon, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Macedonia,

Madagascar, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,

Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines,

Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Somalia, South

Africa, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tunisia,

Turkey, Uganda, UK, US, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

established - 17 November 1966; effective - 1 January 1967 aim - UN specialized agency that promotes industrial development especially among the members members - (173) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Brunei, Canada, Estonia, Iceland, Kiribati, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, San Marino, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, US

United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)

established - 11 December 1963 adoption of the resolution establishing the Institute; effective - 24 March 1965 aim - to help the UN become more effective through training and research members (Board of Trustees) - (16) Algeria, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Republic of the Congo, France, Guatemala, India, Iran, Jamaica, Nigeria, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, US; note - the UN Secretary General can appoint up to 30 members

United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)

established - 25 August 2006 aim - to support the Government, to support the electoral process, to ensure the restoration and maintenance of public security members - (14) Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Fiji, India, Malaysia, Nepal, NZ, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Sierra Leone, Singapore

United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)

established - 10 June 1999 aim - to promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo; to perform basic civilian administrative functions; to support the reconstruction of key infrastructure and humanitarian and disaster relief note - gives civilian support only; works closely with NATO Kosovo Force (KFOR)

United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)

established - 19 March 1978 aim - to confirm the withdrawal of Israeli

forces, and assist in reestablishing Lebanese authority in southern

Lebanon; established by the UN Security Council members - (31)

Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark,

El Salvador, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India,

Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, South Korea, Macedonia, Malaysia, Nepal,

Nigeria, Portugal, Qatar, Sierra Leone, Slovenia, Spain, Tanzania,

Turkey

United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

established - 24 January 1949 aim - to observe the 1949 India-Pakistan cease-fire; established by the UN Security Council members - (8) Chile, Croatia, Finland, Italy, South Korea, Philippines, Sweden, Uruguay

United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO)

established - 29 April 1991 aim - to supervise the cease-fire and conduct a referendum in Western Sahara; established by the UN Security Council members - (30) Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Croatia, Djibouti, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, South Korea, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Poland, Russia, Sri Lanka, Uruguay, Yemen

United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)

established - 19 September 2003 aim - to support the cease-fire agreement and peace process, protect UN facilities and people, support humanitarian activities, and assist in national security reform members - (44) Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Finland, France, The Gambia, Ghana, Indonesia, Jordan, South Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Togo, Ukraine, US, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad

(MINURCAT)

established on 25 September 2007; to create the security and conditions which will to contribute to the protection of refugees, displaced persons, and citizens in danger, to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad and the northeastern Central African Republic, to create favorable conditions for the reconstruction and economic and social development of these areas; members were Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ireland, Kenya, Mali, Mongolia, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russia, Rwanda, Senegal, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Togo, Tunisia, US; MINURCAT was dissolved in December 2010

United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)

established - March 2005 aim - to support implementation of the comprehensive Peace Agreement by Monitoring and verifying the implementation of the Cease Fire Agreement, by observing and monitoring movements of armed groups, and by helping disarm, demobilizing and reintegrating armed bands members - (60) Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, China, Croatia, Denmark, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Finland, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Moldova, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherland, NZ, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UK, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (UNOCI)

established - 27 February 2004 aim - to facilitate the implementation by the Ivorian parties of the peace agreement signed by them in January 2003 members - (42) Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Chad, China, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, The Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, India, Ireland, Jordan, South Korea, Moldova, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic

Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)

established - 28 May 2010 aim - to protect the civilians; to assist the government in the areas of stabilization and peace consolidation members - (52) Algeria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovine, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Senegal, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Yemen, Zambia

United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP)

established - 4 March 1964 aim - to serve as a peacekeeping force between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots in Cyprus; established by the UN Security Council members - (11) Argentina, Austria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Hungary, Paraguay, Peru, Serbia, Slovakia, UK

United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)

note - acronym retained from predecessor organization UN Fund for Population Activities established - July 1967 aim - to assist both developed and developing countries to deal with their population problems members (executive board ) - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the

Near East (UNRWA)

established - 8 December 1949 aim - to provide assistance to

Palestinian refugees members (advisory commission) - (23) Australia,

Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland,

Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lebanon, Netherlands, Norway, Saudi Arabia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Turkey, UK, US observers - (3) EC,

LAS, Palestine Liberation Organization

United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)

established - 1963 aim - to conduct research into the problems of economic development during different phases of economic growth members - no country members, but a Board of Directors consisting of a chairman appointed by the UN secretary general and 12 individual members

United Nations Secretariat

established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to serve as the primary administrative organ of the UN; a Secretary General is appointed for a five-year term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council members - the UN Secretary General and staff

United Nations Security Council (UNSC)

established - 26 June 1945; effective - 24 October 1945 aim - to maintain international peace and security permanent members - (5) China, France, Russia, UK, US nonpermanent members - (10) elected for two-year terms by the UN General Assembly; Bosnia and Herzegovina (2010-11), Brazil (2010-11), Colombia (2011-12), Gabon (2010-11), Germany (2011-12), India (2011-12), Lebanon (2010-11), Nigeria (2010- 11), Portugal (2011-12), South Africa (2011-12)

United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO)

established - June 1948 aim - to supervise the 1948 Arab-Israeli cease-fire; currently supports timely deployment of reinforcements to other peacekeeping operations in the region as needed; initially established by the UN Security Council members - (23) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, US

United Nations Trusteeship Council

established on 26 June 1945, effective on 24 October 1945, to supervise the administration of the 11 UN trust territories; members were China, France, Russia, UK, US; it formally suspended operations 1 November 1995 after the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (Palau) became the Republic of Palau, a constitutional government in free association with the US; the Trusteeship Council was not dissolved

United Nations University (UNU)

established - 3 December 1973 aim - to conduct research in development, welfare, and human survival and to train scholars members - (24 members of UNU Council and the Rector are appointed by the Secretary General of the United Nations and the Director General of UNESCO)

Universal Postal Union (UPU)

established - 9 October 1874, affiliated with the UN 15 November 1947; effective - 1 July 1948 aim - to promote international postal cooperation; a UN specialized agency members - (191) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Palau (189 total); plus Holy See and Overseas Territories of the UK; note - includes the following dependencies or areas of special interest: Australia (Norfolk Island), China (Hong Kong, Macau), Denmark (Faroe Islands, Greenland), France (French Polynesia including Clipperton Island, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Scattered Islands [Bassas da India, Europe, Juan de Nova, Glorioso Islands, Tromelin], Wallis and Futuna), Netherlands (Aruba), NZ (Cook Island, Niue, Tokelau), UK (Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey; Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos), US (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands)

W

Warsaw Pact (WP)

established 14 May 1955 to promote mutual defense; members met 1 July 1991 to dissolve the alliance; member states at the time of dissolution were: Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the USSR; earlier members included German Democratic Republic (GDR) and Albania

West African Development Bank (WADB)

note - also known as Banque Ouest-Africaine de Developpement (BOAD); is a financial institution of WAEMU established - 14 November 1973 aim - to promote regional economic development and integration regional members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)

note - also known as Union Economique et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA) established - 1 August 1994 aim - to increase competitiveness of members' economic markets; to create a common market members - (8) Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo

Western European Union (WEU)

established 23 October 1954; effective - 6 May 1955; aim to provide mutual defense and to move toward political unification; 10 members: Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK; 6 associate members: Czech Republic, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Poland, Turkey; 7 associate partners: Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia; 5 observers: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden; note - to cease existence completely by June 2011

World Bank Group

includes International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), International Development Association (IDA), International Finance Corporation (IFC), and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

World Confederation of Labor (WCL)

established 19 June 1920 as the International Federation of Christian

Trade Unions (IFCTU), renamed 4 October 1968; aim was to promote the

trade union movement; on 31 October 2006 it merged with the

International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) to form the

International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC); members were (105

national organizations) Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Aruba, Austria,

Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina

Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,

Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo,

Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,

Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, France, French

Guiana, Gabon, The Gambia, Ghana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea,

Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran,

Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Malta,

Martinique, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal,

Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru,

Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Rwanda, Saint

Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sao Tome and Principe,

Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, South Africa,

Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo,

Trinidad and Tobago, Ukraine, US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia,

Zimbabwe

World Customs Organization (WCO)

note - began as the Customs Cooperation Council (CCC) established - 15

December 1950 aim - to promote international cooperation in customs

matters members - (178) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra,

Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The

Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize,

Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana,

Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,

Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,

China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of

the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, EC, Ecuador, Egypt, El

Salvador, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The

Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-

Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India,

Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,

Kazakhstan, Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia,

Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau,

Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,

Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco,

Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,

Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru,

Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint

Lucia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia,

Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa,

Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria,

Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and

Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, US,

Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia,

Zimbabwe

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)

established - 3 October 1945 aim - to promote the trade union movement

members - (in 2010 there were 109 participating nations and the

Palestine Liberation Organization; the nations were not listed); (in

2009 there were 125 nations and the Palestine Liberation Organization)

Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia,

Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus,

Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia,

Cameroon, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo,

Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,

Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, France, French Guiana, The Gambia,

Ghana, Greece, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana,

Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan,

Jordan, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon,

Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali,

Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal, New Caledonia, NZ,

Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru,

Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Romania, Russia,

Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the

Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Solomon

Islands, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Syria,

Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia,

Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu,

Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Palestine Liberation Organization

World Food Program (WFP)

established - 24 November 1961 aim - to provide food aid in support of economic development or disaster relief; an ECOSOC organization members - (36) selected on a rotating basis from all regions

World Health Organization (WHO)

established - 22 July 1946; effective - 7 April 1948 aim - to deal with health matters worldwide; a UN specialized agency members - (193) includes all UN member countries except Liechtenstein (191 total); plus Cook Islands and Niue

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

established - 14 July 1967; effective - 26 April 1970 aim - to furnish protection for literary, artistic, and scientific works; a UN specialized agency members - (184) includes all UN member countries except Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tuvalu, Vanuatu (183 total); plus Holy See

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

established - 11 October 1947; effective - 4 April 1951 aim - to sponsor meteorological cooperation; a UN specialized agency members - (183) includes all UN member countries except Andorra, Equatorial Guinea, Grenada, Liechtenstein, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Tuvalu (181 total); plus Cook Islands and Niue

World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

established - 2 January 1975 aim - to promote tourism as a means of

contributing to economic development, international understanding, and

peace members - (154) Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola,

Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas,

Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and

Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi,

Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad,

Chile, China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of

the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador,

Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Gabon, The Gambia,

Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,

Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy,

Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, South Korea,

Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Lithuania,

Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta,

Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro,

Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger,

Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay,

Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda,

San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia,

Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri

Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania,

Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda,

Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen,

Zambia, Zimbabwe associate members - (6) Aruba, Flanders, Hong Kong,

Macau, Madeira Islands, Puerto Rico observers - (1 plus Palestine

Liberation Organization) Holy See, Palestine Liberation Organization

World Trade Organization (WTO)

note - succeeded General Agreement on Tariff and Trade (GATT)

established - 15 April 1994; effective - 1 January 1995 aim - to

provide a forum to resolve trade conflicts between members and to carry

on negotiations with the goal of further lowering and/or eliminating

tariffs and other trade barriers members - (153) Albania, Angola,

Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahrain,

Bangladesh, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana,

Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,

Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile,

China, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the

Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador,

Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, EU, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The

Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,

Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland,

India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan,

Kenya, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,

Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Moldova,

Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ,

Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New

Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania,

Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the

Grenadines, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia,

Slovenia, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Suriname,

Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo,

Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK,

US, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe observers - (31)

Afghanistan, Algeria, Andorra, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Belarus,

Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Comoros, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia,

Holy See, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya,

Montenegro, Russia, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Serbia, Seychelles,

Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Yemen; note - with the

exception of the Holy See, an observer must start accession

negotiations within five years of becoming observers

Z

Zangger Committee (ZC)

established - early 1970s aim - to establish guidelines for the export

control provisions of the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty

(NPT) members - (37) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France,

Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, South

Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,

Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US observers - (1) European Commission

======================================================================

Appendix C :: Selected International Environmental Agreements

A

Air Pollution

see Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Air Pollution-Sulphur 85

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30%

Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions

Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds

see Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes

Antarctic - Environmental Protocol

see Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty

Antarctic Treaty

opened for signature - 1 December 1959 entered into force - 23 June 1961 objective - to ensure that Antarctica is used for peaceful purposes only (such as international cooperation in scientific research); to defer the question of territorial claims asserted by some nations and not recognized by others; to provide an international forum for management of the region; applies to land and ice shelves south of 60 degrees south latitude parties - (46) Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Netherlands, NZ, Norway, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, UK, US, Uruguay, Venezuela

B

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous

Wastes and Their Disposal

note - abbreviated as Hazardous Wastes opened for signature - 22 March 1989 entered into force - 5 May 1992 objective - to reduce transboundary movements of wastes subject to the Convention to a minimum consistent with the environmentally sound and efficient management of such wastes; to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated and ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation; and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate parties - (172) Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, EU, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, UAE, UK, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia countries that have signed, but not yet ratified - (3) Afghanistan, Haiti, US

Biodiversity

see Convention on Biological Diversity

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