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   Chapter 16 The Revolution In The Ecclesiastical And Political Situation Due To The Rise Of Islam And The Doctrinal Disputes In The Eastern Church

A Source Book for Ancient Church History By Joseph Cullen Ayer, Jr., Ph.D. Characters: 151302

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:02

In the course of the seventh and eighth centuries, the ecclesiastical and political situation altered completely. This change was due, in the first place, to the rise of the religion and empire of the Moslems, whereby a very large part of the Eastern Empire was conquered by the followers of the Prophet, who had rapidly extended their conquests over Syria and the best African provinces. Reduced in extent and exposed to ever fresh attacks from a powerful enemy, the Eastern Empire had to face new political problems. In the second place, as the provinces overrun contained the greater number of those dissatisfied with the doctrinal results of the great councils, the apparently interminable contests over the question as to the two natures of Christ came to an unexpected end. This did not take place until a new cause for dispute had arisen among the adherents of Chalcedon, due to an attempt to win back the Monophysites by accounting for the unity of the person of Christ by positing one will in Jesus. Monotheletism at once became among the adherents of Chalcedon a burning question. It was finally condemned at the Sixth General Council, Constantinople, A. D. 683, at which Pope Agatho played a part very similar to that played by Pope Leo at Chalcedon, but at the cost of seeing his predecessor, Honorius, condemned as a Monothelete. It was the last triumph of the West in the dogmatic controversies of the East. The Eastern ecclesiastics, irritated at the diplomatic triumph of Rome, expressed their resentment at the Concilium Quinisextum, in 692, where, in passing canons to complete the work of the Fifth and Sixth Councils, an opportunity was embraced of expressly condemning several Roman practices. In the confusion resulting in the next century from the attempt of Leo the Isaurian to put [pg 653] an end to the use of images in the churches, the Roman see was able to rid itself of the nominal control which the Emperor still had over the papacy by means of the exarchate of Ravenna. When the Lombards pressed too heavily upon the papacy it was easy for the Bishop of Rome to make an alliance with the Franks, who on their side saw that it was profitable to employ the papacy in the advancement of their own schemes. In this way arose that alliance between the pontiff and the new Frankish monarchy upon which the ecclesiastical development of the Middle Ages rests. But Iconoclasm suffered defeat at the Seventh General Council, 787, in which the doctrinal system of the East was completed. As this was the last undisputed general council, it may be taken as marking the termination of the history of the ancient Church. In following the further course of the Western Church there is no longer need of a detailed tracing of the history of the Eastern Church, which ceased to be a determining factor in the religious life of the West. The two parts of Christendom come in contact from time to time, but without formal schism they have ceased to be organically united.

§ 106. The Rise and Extension of Islam

Mohammed (571-632) began his work as a prophet at Mecca about 613, having been "called" about three years earlier. He was driven from Mecca in 622 and fled to Yathrib, afterward known as Medina. Here he was able to unite warring factions and, placing himself at their head, to build up [pg 654] despotic authority over the surrounding country. He steadily increased the territory under his sway, and by conquests and diplomacy was able to gain Mecca in 629. Before his death in 632 he had conquered all Arabia. His authority continued in his family after his death, and the course of conquest went on. Damascus was conquered in 635; in 636 the Emperor Heraclius was driven to abandon Syria, which now fell into the hands of the Moslems. In 637 the Persians were forced back. In 640 Egypt was taken, and by 650 all between Carthage and the eastern border of Persia had been acquired for Islam. In 693, after a period of civil war, the work of conquest was resumed. In 709 all the African coast as far as the Straits of Gibraltar was gained, and in 711 the Moslems entered Spain. They at once made themselves masters of the peninsula with the exception of a small strip in the north in the mountains of Asturias, the kingdom of Gallicia. Crossing the Pyrenees, they attempted to possess Gaul, but were forced to retreat from central Gaul by Charles Martel at the battle at Tours and Poitiers in 732. They maintained themselves north of the Pyrenees until 759 when they were driven out of Narbonne and across the mountains.

Additional source material: The Koran, standard translation by E. H. Palmer, in the Sacred Books of the East; Stanley Lane-Poole, Speeches and Table Talk of the Prophet Mohammed.

(a) Mohammed, Koran (translation of E. H. Palmer).

Surah CXII.

The Unity of God.

The following surah or chapter of the Koran, entitled "The Chapter of Unity," Mohammed regarded as of value equal to two-thirds of the whole book. It is one of the shortest and most famous.

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God, say:

"He is God alone!

God the Eternal.

He begets not and is not begotten!

Nor is there like unto Him any one."

[pg 655]

Surah V, 73, 76, 109 ff.

The teaching as to the nature and mission of Jesus.

[73.] Verily, those who believe and those who are Jews, and the Sab?ans, and the Christians, whosoever believes in God and the last day and does what is right, there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.

[76.] They misbelieve who say, "Verily, God is the Messiah, the son of Mary"; but the Messiah said, "O Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord." Verily he who associates aught with God, God hath forbidden him paradise, and his resort is the fire, and the unjust shall have none to help them.

They misbelieve who say, "Verily, God is the third of three"; for there is no God but one, and if they do not desist from what they say, there shall touch those who misbelieve amongst them grievous woe.

Will they not turn toward God and ask pardon of Him? for God is forgiving and merciful.

The Messiah, the son of Mary, is only a prophet; prophets before him have passed away: and His mother was a confessor.

[109.] When God said, "O Jesus, son of Mary! remember my favors towards thee and towards thy mother, when I aided thee with the Holy Ghost, till thou didst speak to men in the cradle and when grown up.

"And when I taught thee the Book and wisdom and the law and the gospel; when thou didst create of clay, as it were, the likeness of a bird, by my power, and didst blow thereon, it became a bird;281 and thou didst heal the blind from birth, and the leprous by my permission; and when thou didst bring forth the dead by my permission; and when I did ward off the children of Israel from thee, and when thou didst come to them with manifest signs, and those who misbelieved among them said: 'This is naught but obvious magic.'

"And when I inspired the Apostles that they should believe [pg 656] in Him and in my Apostle, they said, 'We believe; do thou bear witness that we are resigned.'?"

[116.] And when God said, "O Jesus, son of Mary! is it thou who dost say to men, take me and my mother for two gods, beside God?" He said: "I celebrate thy praise! what ails me that I should say what I have no right to? If I had said it, Thou wouldest have known it; Thou knowest what is in my soul, but I know not what is in Thy soul; verily Thou art one who knoweth the unseen. I never told them save what Thou didst bid me, 'Worship God, my Lord and your Lord,' and I was a witness against them so long as I was among them, but when Thou didst take me away to Thyself Thou wert the watcher over them, for Thou art witness over all."…

Surah IV, 152.

Relation of Islam to Judaism and Christianity.

[152.] The people of the Book will ask thee to bring down for them a book from heaven; but they asked Moses a greater thing than that, for they said, "Show us God openly"; but the thunderbolt caught them in their injustice. Then they took a calf, after what had come to them of manifest signs; but we pardoned that, and gave Moses obvious authority. And we held over them the mountain at their compact, and said to them, "Enter ye the door adoring," and we said to them, "Transgress not on the Sabbath day," and we took from them a rigid compact.

But for that they broke their compact, and for their misbelief in God's signs, and for their killing the prophets undeservedly, and for their saying, "Our hearts are uncircumcised"-nay, God hath stamped on them their misbelief, so that they cannot believe, except a few-and for their misbelief, and for their saying about Mary a mighty calumny, and for their saying, "Verily we have killed the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, the apostle of God," but they did not kill Him, and they did not crucify Him, but a similitude was made for [pg 657] them. And verily, those who differ about Him are in doubt concerning Him; they have no knowledge concerning Him, but only follow an opinion. They did not kill Him, for sure! nay God raised Him up unto Himself; for God is mighty and wise!…

[164.] O ye people of the Book! do not exceed in your religion, nor say against God save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, is but the apostle of God and His Word, which He cast into Mary and a spirit from Him; believe then in God and His apostles, and say not "Three." Have done! it were better for you. God is only one God, celebrated be His praise that He should beget a Son!

Surah LVI.

The delights of heaven and the pains of hell.

This description of the future life has been taken as characteristic of the religion of Mohammed, but not quite fairly. It is simply the Bedouin's idea of complete happiness, and is by no means characteristic of the religion as the whole.

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God.

When the inevitable [day of judgment] happens; none shall call its happening a lie!-abasing-exalting!

When the earth shall quake, quaking! and the mountains shall crumble, crumbling, and become like motes dispersed!

And ye shall be three sorts;

And the fellows of the right hand-what right lucky fellows!

And the fellows of the left hand-what unlucky fellows!

And the foremost foremost!

These are they who are brought nigh,

In gardens of pleasure!

A crowd of those of yore, and a few of those of the latter day!

And gold-weft couches, reclining on them face to face.

Around them shall go eternal youths, with goblets and ewers and a cup of flowing wine; no headache shall feed therefrom, nor shall their wits be dimmed!

And fruits such as they deem the best;

And flesh of fowl as they desire;

[pg 658] And bright and large-eyed maids like hidden pearls;

A reward for that which they have done!

They shall hear no folly there and no sin;

Only the speech, "Peace, Peace!"

And the fellows of the right-what right lucky fellows!

Amid thornless lote trees.

And tal'h282 trees with piles of fruit;

And outspread shade,

And water poured out;

And fruit in abundance, neither failing nor forbidden;

And beds upraised!

Verily we have produced them283 a production,

And made them virgins, darlings of equal age (with their spouses) for the fellows of the right!

A crowd of those of yore, and a crowd of those of the latter day!

And the fellows of the left-what unlucky fellows!

In hot blasts and boiling water;

And a shade of pitchy smoke,

Neither cool nor generous!

Verily they were affluent ere this, and did persist in mighty crime; and used to say, "What, when we die, have become dust and bones, shall we indeed be raised? or our fathers of yore?"

Say, "Verily, those of yore and those of the latter days shall surely be gathered together unto the tryst of the well-known day."

"Then ye, O ye who err! who say it is a lie! shall eat of the Zaqqum284 tree and fill your bellies with it! a drink of boiling water! and drink as drinks the thirsty camel!"

(b) Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, VI, 46 ff. (MSL, 95:654.)

The Advance of the Saracens.

[pg 659] Ch. 46. At that time [A. D. 711] the people of the Saracens, crossing over from Africa at a place which is called Ceuta, invaded all Spain. Then after ten years, coming with their wives and children, they invaded as if to settle in Aquitania, a province of Gaul. Charles285 had at that time a dispute with Eudo, prince of Aquitania. But they came to an agreement and fought with perfect harmony against the Saracens. For the Franks fell upon them286 and slew three hundred and seventy-five thousand of them; but on the side of the Franks only fifteen hundred fell. Eudo with his men broke into their camp and slew many and laid waste all.

Ch. 47. At the same time [A. D. 717], the same people of the Saracens with an immense army came and encompassed Constantinople and for three years besieged it until, when the people had called upon God with great earnestness, many of the enemy perished from hunger and cold and by war and pestilence and so wearied out they abandoned the siege. When they had left they carried on war against the people of the Bulgarians who were beyond the Danube, but, vanquished by them also, they fled back to their ships. But when they had put out to the deep sea, a sudden storm fell upon them and many were drowned and their vessels were destroyed. But in Constantinople three hundred thousand men died of the pestilence.

Ch. 48. Now when Liutprand heard that the Saracens, when Sardinia had been laid waste, had also polluted those places where the bones of the holy bishop Augustine, on account of the devastation of the barbarians, had formerly been transported and solemnly buried, he sent thither and when he had given a large sum obtained them and transported them to the city of Pavia, where he buried them with the honor due so great a father.287 In these days the city of Narnia was conquered by the Lombards.

[pg 660]

§ 107. The Monothelete Controversy and the Sixth General Council, Constantinople A. D. 681

The Monothelete controversy was the natural outcome of the earlier Christological controversies. With the assertion of the two complete and persisting natures of Christ, the question must sooner or later arise as to whether there was one will or two in Christ. If there were two wills, it seemed to lead back to Nestorianism; if there was but one, either the humanity was incomplete or the position led to virtual monophysitism. But political causes played even a greater part than the theological dialectic. The Emperor Heraclius, in attempting to win back the Monophysite churches, on account of the war with Persia and later on account of the advancing Moslems, proposed that a union should be effected on the basis of a formula which asserted that there was but one will in the God-man. This had been suggested to him in 622 by Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople [Hefele, §§ 291, 295]. In 633 Cyrus of Phasis, since 630 patriarch of Alexandria, brought about a union between the Orthodox Church and the Egyptian Monophysites on the basis of a Monothelete formula, i.e., a statement that there was but one will or energy in Christ. At once a violent controversy broke out. The formula was supported by Honorius of Rome, but attacked by Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, and after the fall of Jerusalem in 638, by the monk Maximus Confessor. In 638 Heraclius tried to end the controversy by an Ecthesis [Hefele, § 299], and Constans II (641-668) attempted the same in 648, by his Typos. But at the Lateran Council of 649, under Martin I, Monotheletism as well as the Ecthesis and Typos were condemned. For this Martin was ultimately banished, dying in misery, 654, in the Chersonesus, and Maximus, after a long, cruel imprisonment, and horrible torture and mutilation, died in exile, 662. But Constantius Pogonatus (668-685), the successor of Constans II, determined to settle the matter by a [pg 661] general council. Pope Agatho (678-682) thereupon held a great council at Rome, 679, at which it was decided to insist at the coming general council upon the strictest maintenance of the decisions of the Roman Council of 649. On this basis Agatho dictated the formula which was accepted by the Council of Constantinople, A. D. 681, which sent its proceedings and conclusions to the Pope to be approved. Along with them was an express condemnation of Honorius. Leo II (682-683), Agatho's successor, approved the council with special mention of Honorius as condemned for his heresy.

(a) Cyrus of Alexandria, Formula of Union, A. D. 633, Hahn, § 232.

The author of this formula, known also as Cyrus of Phasis, under which name he was condemned at Constantinople, A. D. 680, attempted to win over the Monophysites in Alexandria and met with great success on account of his formula of union. The first five anathemas, the form in which the formula is composed, are clearly based upon the first four councils. The sixth is slightly different; and the seventh, the most important, is clearly tending toward Monotheletism. The document is to be found in the proceedings of the Sixth General Council in Mansi, and also in Hardouin. For a synopsis, see Hefele, § 293, who is most valuable for the whole controversy.

6. If any one does not confess the one Christ, the one Son, to be of two natures, that is, divinity and humanity, one nature become flesh288 of God the Word, according to the holy Cyril, unmixed, unchanged, unchangeable, that is to say, one synthetic hypostasis, who is the same, our Lord Jesus Christ, being one of the holy homoousian Triad, let such an one be anathema.

7. If any one, saying that our one Lord Jesus Christ is to be regarded in two natures, does not confess that He is one of the Holy Triad, God the Word, eternally begotten of the Father, in the last times of the world made flesh and born of our all-holy and spotless lady, the Theotokos and ever-virgin [pg 662] Mary; but is this and another and not one and the same, according to the most wise Cyril, perfect in deity and the same perfect in humanity, and accordingly only to be thought of as in two natures; the same suffering and not suffering, according to one or the other nature, as the same holy Cyril said, suffering as a man in the flesh, inasmuch as he was a man, remaining as God without suffering in the sufferings of His own flesh; and the one and the same Christ energizing the divine and the human things with the one theandric energy,289 according to the holy Dionysius; distinguishing only in thought those things from which the union has taken place, and viewing these in the mind as remaining unchanged, unalterable, and unmixed after their union according to nature and hypostasis; and recognizing in these without division or separation the one and the same Christ and Son, inasmuch as he regards in his mind two as brought together to each other without commingling, making the theory of them as a matter of fact, but not by a lying imagination and vain combinations of the mind; but in nowise separating them, since now the division into two has been destroyed on account of the indescribable and incomprehensible union; saying with the holy Athanasius, for there is now flesh and again the flesh of God the Word, now flesh animated and intelligent, and again the flesh of the animated and intelligent God the Word; but should under such expressions understand a distinction into parts, let such an one be anathema.

(b) Constans II, Typos, A. D. 648, Mansi, X, 1029. Cf. Kirch, nn. 972 f.

The attempt to end the controversy by returning to the condition of things before the controversy broke out, an entirely futile undertaking. The question having been raised had to be discussed and settled by rational processes. See Hefele, § 306.

Since it is our custom to do everything and to consider everything which can serve the welfare of the Christian State, [pg 663] and especially what concerns our true faith, by which we believe all our happiness is brought about, we perceive that our orthodox people are greatly disturbed, because some in respect to the Economy290 of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ assert that there is only one will, and that one and the same affects both the divine and human deeds; but others teach two wills and two operations in the same dispensation of the incarnate Word. The former defend their views by asserting that our Lord Jesus Christ was only one person in two natures, and therefore without confusion or separation, working and willing as well the divine as the human deeds. The others say that because in one and the same person two natures are joined without any separation, so their differences from each other remain, and according to the character of each nature one and the same Christ works as well the divine as the human; and from this our Christian State has been brought to much dissension and confusion, so that differing from one another they do not agree, and from this the State must in many ways needs suffer.

We believe that, under God's guidance, we must extinguish the flames enkindled by discord, and we ought not to permit them further to destroy human souls. We decree, therefore, that our subjects who hold our immaculate and orthodox Christian faith, and who are of the Catholic and Apostolic Church, shall from the present moment on have no longer any permission to raise any sort of dispute and quarrel or strife with one another over the one will and energy, or over two wills and two energies. We order that this is not in any way to take anything from the pious teaching, which the holy and approved Fathers have taught concerning the incarnation of God the Word, but with the purpose that all further strife in regard to the aforesaid questions cease, and in this matter we follow and hold as sufficient only the Holy Scriptures and the tradition of the five holy general councils and the simple statements and unquestioned usage and expressions of [pg 664] the approved Fathers (of which the dogmas, rules, and laws of God's holy Catholic and Apostolic Church consists), without adding to or taking from them anything, or without explaining them against their proper meaning, but everywhere shall be preserved the former customs, as before the disputes broke out, as if no such dispute had existed. As to those who have hitherto taught one will and one energy or two wills and two energies, there shall be no accusation on this account; excepting only those who have been cast forth as heretics, together with their impious doctrines and writings, by the five holy universal councils and other approved orthodox Fathers. But to complete the unity and fellowship of the churches of God, and that there remain no further opportunity or occasion to those who are eager for endless dispute, we order that the document,291 which for a long time has been posted up in the narthex of the most holy principal church of this our God-preserved royal city, and which touches upon the points in dispute, shall be taken down. Whoever dares to transgress this command is subject before all to the fearful judgment of Almighty God, and then also will be liable to the punishment for such as despise the imperial commands. If he be a bishop or clergyman, he will altogether be deposed from his priesthood or clerical order; if a monk, excommunicated and driven out of his residence; if a civil or military officer, he shall lose his rank and office; if a private citizen, he shall, if noble, be punished pecuniarily, if of lower rank, be subjected to corporal punishment and perpetual exile.

(c) Council of Rome, A. D. 649, Canons, Mansi, X, 1150. Cf. Denziger, nn. 254 ff.

Condemnation of Monotheletism, the Ecthesis, and the Typos, by Martin I.

Text of canons or anathematisms and abstract of proceedings in Hefele, § 307.

Canon 18. If any one does not, according to the holy Fathers, and in company with us, reject and anathematize [pg 665] with mind and mouth all those whom as most wicked heretics the holy Catholic and Apostolic Church of God, that is, the five universal synods and likewise all approved Fathers of the Church, rejects and anathematizes, with all their impious writings even to each point, that is, Sabellius, etc. … and justly with these, as like them and in equal error … Cyrus of Alexandria, Sergius of Constantinople, and his successors Pyrrhus and Paul, persisting in their pride, and all their impious writings, and those who to the end agreed with them in their thought, or do so agree, that there is one will and one operation of the deity and manhood of Christ; and in addition to these the most impious Ecthesis, which, by the persuasion of the same Sergius, was put forth by the former Emperor Heraclius against the orthodox faith, defining, by way of adjustment, one will in Christ our God, and one operation to be venerated; also all those things which were impiously written or done by them; and those who received it, or any of those things which were written or done for it; and along with these, furthermore, the wicked Typos, which, on the persuasion of the aforesaid Paul, was recently issued by our most serene prince Constans against the Catholic Church, inasmuch as it equally denies and excludes from discussion the two natural wills and operations, a divine and a human, which are piously taught by the holy Fathers to be in Christ, our God, and also our Saviour, and also the one will and operation, which by the heretics is impiously venerated in Him, and therefore declaring that with the holy Fathers also the wicked heretics are unjustly freed from all rebuke and condemnation, to the destruction of the definitions of the Catholic Church and its rule of faith … let him be condemned.

(d) Sixth General Council, Constantinople, A. D. 681, Definition of Faith. Mansi, XI, 636 ff.

The concluding, more strictly dogmatic portion of this symbol is to be found in Greek in Hahn, § 150, and in Latin and Greek in Denziger, nn. 289, ff. See also PNF, ser. II, vol. XIV.

[pg 666] The holy, great, and ecumenical synod assembled by the grace of God and the religious decree of the most religious, faithful, and mighty Emperor Constantine, in this God-preserved and royal city of Constantinople, New Rome, in the hall of the imperial palace called Trullus, has decreed as follows:

The only begotten Son and Word of God the Father, who was made man, like unto us in all things, without sin, Christ our true God, has declared expressly in the words of the Gospel: "I am the light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life" [John 8:12]; and again: "My peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you" [John 14:27]. Our most gracious Emperor, the champion of orthodoxy and opponent of evil doctrine, being reverentially led by this divinely uttered doctrine of peace, and having assembled this our holy and ecumenical synod, has united the judgment of the whole Church. Wherefore this our holy and ecumenical synod, having driven away the impious error which has prevailed for a certain time until now, and following closely the straight path of the holy and approved Fathers, has piously given its assent to the five holy and ecumenical synods-that is to say, to that of the three hundred and eighteen holy Fathers assembled at Nic?a against the insane Arius; and the next at Constantinople of the one hundred and fifty God-inspired men against Macedonius, the adversary of the Spirit, and the impious Apollinaris; and also the first at Ephesus of two hundred venerable men assembled against Nestorius, the Judaizer; and that in Chalcedon of six hundred and thirty God-inspired Fathers against Eutyches and Dioscurus, hated of God; and in addition to these the last, that is the fifth, holy synod assembled in this place against Theodore of Mopsuestia, Origen, Didymus, and Evagrius, and the writings of Theodoret against the twelve chapters of the celebrated Cyril, and the epistle which was said to have been written by Ibas to Maris the Persian-without alteration this synod renews in all points the ancient decrees of religion, chasing away the impious doctrines of [pg 667] irreligion. And this our holy and ecumenical synod, inspired of God, has set its seal to the creed of the three hundred and eighteen Fathers, and again religiously confirmed by the one hundred and fifty, which also the other holy synods gladly received and ratified for the removal of every soul-destroying heresy.

Then follow:

The Nicene Creed of the three hundred and eighteen holy Fathers. We believe, etc.

The Creed of the one hundred and fifty holy Fathers assembled at Constantinople. We believe, etc., but without the filioque.

The holy and ecumenical synod further says that this pious and orthodox creed of the divine grace would be sufficient for the full knowledge and confirmation of the orthodox faith. But as the author of evil, who in the beginning availed himself of the aid of the serpent, and by it brought the poison of death upon the human race, has not desisted, but in like manner now, having found suitable instruments for the accomplishment of his will-that is to say, Theodorus, who was bishop of Pharan; Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul and Peter, who were prelates of this royal city; and also Honorius, who was pope of Old Rome; Cyrus, bishop of Alexandria, Marcarius, lately bishop of Antioch, and Stephen, his disciple-has not ceased with their [pg 668] declaration of orthodoxy by this our God-assembled and holy synod; for according to the sentence spoken of God: "Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them" [Matt. 18:20], the present292 holy and ecumenical synod, faithfully receiving and saluting with uplifted hands also the suggestion which by the most holy and blessed Pope Agatho, Pope of Old Rome, was sent to our most pious and faithful Emperor Constantine, which rejected by name those who taught or preached one will and operation in the dispensation of the incarnation of Christ293 our very God, has likewise adopted that other synodal suggestion which was sent by the council held under the same most holy Pope, composed of one hundred and twenty-five bishops beloved of God,294 to his God-instructed tranquillity [i.e., the Emperor], as consonant to the holy Council of Chalcedon and the Tome of the most holy and blessed Leo, Pope of the same Old Rome, which was directed to the holy Flavian, which also the council called the pillar of a right faith; and also agrees with the synodical letters written by the blessed Cyril against the impious Nestorius and addressed to the Oriental bishops.

Following295 the five holy and ecumenical synods and the most holy and approved Fathers, with one voice defining that our Lord Jesus Christ must be confessed to be our very God, one of the holy and consubstantial and life-giving Trinity, perfect in deity and the same perfect in humanity, truly God and truly man, of a reasonable soul and body; consubstantial with His Father as to His godhead, and consubstantial with us as to His manhood; in all things like unto us, without sin [Heb. 4:15]; begotten of His Father before the ages according to His godhead, but in these last days for us men and for our salvation begotten of the Holy Ghost and of the Virgin Mary, strictly and in truth Theotokos, according to the flesh; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, Only begotten, in two [pg 669] natures unconfusedly, unchangeably, inseparably, indivisibly to be recognized; the peculiarities of neither nature lost by the union, but rather the properties of each nature preserved, concurring in one person,296 and in one subsistence,297 not parted or divided into two persons, but one and the same only begotten Son, the Word of God,298 the Lord Jesus Christ, according as the prophets of old have taught, and as Jesus Christ Himself hath taught, and the creed of the holy Fathers hath delivered to us;299 we likewise declare that in Him are two natural wills or willings and two natural operations indivisibly, unchangeably, inseparably, unconfusedly, according to the teaching of the holy Fathers. And these two natural wills are not contrary one to the other (which God forbid), as the impious heretics say, but His human will follows, not as resisting or reluctant, but rather therefore as subject to His divine and omnipotent will. For it was right that the will of the flesh should be moved, but be subject to the divine will, according to the most wise Athanasius. For as His flesh is called and is the flesh of God the Word, so also the natural will of His flesh is called and is the proper will of God the Word, as He Himself says: "I came down from heaven, not to do Mine own will, but the will of the Father which sent Me," [John 6:38], wherein he calls His own will the will of the flesh, inasmuch as His flesh was also His own. For as His most holy and immaculately animated flesh was not destroyed because it was deified [θεωθε?σα], but continued in its own state and nature, so also His human will, although deified, was not taken away, but rather was preserved according to the saying of Gregory the Theologian:300 "His will, namely that of the Saviour, is not contrary to God, but altogether deified."

We glorify two natural operations, indivisibly, unchangeably, inseparably, unconfusedly, in the same our Lord Jesus Christ, our true God, that is to say, a divine operation and a [pg 670] human operation, according to the divine preacher Leo, who most distinctly says as follows: "For each form does in communion with the other what pertains to it, namely the Word doing what pertains to the Word, and the flesh what pertains to the flesh."301 For we will not admit one natural operation of God and of the creature, that we may not exalt into the divine essence what is created, nor will we bring down the glory of the divine nature to the place suited for those things which have been made. We recognize the miracles and the sufferings as of one and the same person, but of one or of the other nature of which He is, and in which He has His existence, as the admirable Cyril said. Preserving in all respects, therefore, the unconfusedness and indivisibility, we express all in brief phrase: Believing that our Lord Jesus Christ, one of the Trinity also after the incarnation, is our true God, we say that His two natures shone forth in His one subsistence [hypostasis], in which were both the miracles and the suffering throughout the whole incarnate life,302 not in appearance merely but in reality, the difference as to nature being recognized in one and the same subsistence; for, although joined together, each nature wills and operates the things proper to it.303 For this reason we glorify two natural304 wills and operations concurring most fitly in Him for the salvation of the human race.

Since these things have been formulated by us with all diligence and care, we decree that to no one shall it be permitted to bring forward or write or to compose or to think or to teach otherwise. Whosoever shall presume to compose a different faith or to propose, or to teach, or to hand to those wishing to be converted to the knowledge of the truth from the heathen or the Jews or from any heresy any different symbol, or to introduce a new mode of expression to subvert [pg 671] these things which have now been determined by us, all these, if they be bishops or clergy, shall be deposed, the bishops from the episcopate, the clergy from the clerical office; but if they be monks or laymen, they shall be anathematized.

(e) Council of Constantinople, A. D. 681, Sessio XIII. Mansi, XI, 1050. Cf. Mirbt, n. 188.

The condemnation of the Monotheletes, including Honorius of Rome.

The condemnation of Honorius has become a cause célèbre, especially in connection with the doctrine of papal infallibility. It should be observed, however, that the doctrine of papal infallibility, as defined at the Vatican Council, A. D. 1870 (cf. Mirbt, n. 509), requires that only when the Pope speaks ex cathedra is he infallible, and it has not been shown that any opinion whatever held by Honorius was an ex cathedra definition of faith and morals according to the Vatican Council. The matter is therefore a mere question of fact and may be treated apart from the Vatican dogma. It should be borne in mind, further, that the Sixth General Council was approved by Pope Leo II, A. D. 682 (cf. Mirbt, n. 189), who included Honorius by name among those whose condemnation was approved. That he did so approve it is also stated in the Liber Pontificalis (cf. Mirbt, n. 190), and according to the Liber Diurnus, the official book of formul? used in the papal business, the Pope took an oath recognizing among others the Sixth General Council, and condemning Honorius among other heretics (cf. Mirbt, n. 191). That Honorius was actually a heretic is still another matter; for it seems not at all unlikely that he misunderstood the point at issue and his language is quite unscientific. The text of the letters of Honorius may be found in Kirch, nn. 949-965, and in Hefele in a translation, §§ 296, 298. On the condemnation of Honorius, see Hefele, § 324.

The holy council said: After we had reconsidered, according to our promise made to your highness,305 the doctrinal letter written by Sergius, at one time patriarch of this royal God-preserved city, to Cyrus, who was then bishop of Phasis, and to Honorius, sometime Pope of Old Rome, as well as the letter of the latter to the same Sergius, and finding that the documents are quite foreign to the apostolic dogmas, to the definitions of the holy councils, and to all the approved Fathers, and that they follow the false teachings of the heretics, we entirely reject them, and execrate them as hurtful to the soul.

[pg 672] But the names of those men whom we execrate must also be thrust forth from the holy Church of God, namely, that of Sergius, sometime bishop of this God-preserved royal city, who was the first to write on this impious doctrine; also that of Cyrus of Alexandria, of Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter, who died bishops of this God-preserved city, and were like-minded with them; and that of Theodore, sometime bishop of Pharan, all of whom the most holy and thrice-blessed Agatho, Pope of Old Rome, in his suggestion to our most pious and God-preserved lord and mighty Emperor, rejected because they were minded contrary to our orthodox faith, all of whom we declare are subject to anathema. And with these we decree that there shall be expelled from the holy Church of God and anathematized Honorius, who was Pope of Old Rome, because of what we found written by him to Sergius, that in all respects he followed his view and confirmed his impious doctrine.

We have also examined the synodal letter306 of Sophronius, of holy memory, sometime patriarch of the holy city of our God, Jerusalem, and have found it in accordance with the true faith and with apostolic teachings, and with the teachings of the holy and approved Fathers. Therefore, we have received it as orthodox and salutary to the holy and Catholic and Apostolic Church, and have decreed that it is right that his name be inserted in the diptychs of the holy churches.

§ 108. Rome, Constantinople, and the Lombard State Church in the Seventh Century

The Sixth General Council was the last great diplomatic triumph of Rome in the East in matters of faith, though two centuries after, in the matter of Photius, Rome played a brilliant part in the internal affairs of the Eastern Church. Immediately after the council of 681, it was felt that the West, of which the Greeks had grown very jealous, had triumphed [pg 673] over the East, especially as several of the leading patriarchs had been condemned. Monotheletism, furthermore, was too strongly intrenched in the East to be removed by a single conciliar action. It was felt necessary to take action to confirm the results of Constantinople in 681. The fifth and sixth general councils had been occupied entirely with doctrinal matters and had not issued any disciplinary canons. A new council might be gathered to complete the work of the Sixth General Council, not only to reaffirm it, but in connection with some much-needed legislation to retort upon the West by condemning some Roman practices. In this way the Second Trullan Council, or Concilium Quinisextum, came about in 692. The Roman see, in the meanwhile, although it had triumphed at Constantinople in 681, did not enjoy an independent political position in Italy. It was still under the Roman Emperor at Constantinople, as had been most painfully perceived in the treatment of Martin I by Constans. Although the Pope had his apocrisiarius, or nuncio, at Constantinople, he came into immediate contact with the exarch of Ravenna, the Emperor's representative in Italy. In Italy, furthermore, the Arian heresy long persisted among the Lombards, although greater toleration was shown the Catholic Church.

Additional source material: The canons of the Quinisext Council may be found complete in Percival, Seven Ecumenical Councils, PNF, ser. II, vol. XIV.

(a) Concilium Quinisextum, A. D. 692, Canons. Bruns, I, 34, ff.

This council was commonly regarded as the continuation of the Sixth General Council, and has been received in the East, not as a separate council, but as a part of the sixth. The West has never accepted this opinion and has only to a limited extent admitted the authority of its canons, though some have been current in the West because, like much conciliar action, they were re-enactments of older canons. Occasionally some of the canons have been cited by popes as belonging to the Sixth Council. The canons given here are, for the most part, those which were in some point in opposition to the Roman practice.

[pg 674]

Canon 1. Renewal of the Condemnations of the Sixth Council.

We, by divine grace at the beginning of our decrees, define that the faith set forth by the God-chosen Apostles, who themselves had both seen the Word and were ministers of the Word, shall be preserved without any innovation, unchanged and inviolate. Moreover the faith of the three hundred and eighteen holy and blessed Fathers, etc.

[Here follows a detailed statement of the first five general councils.]

Also we agree to guard untouched the faith of the Sixth Holy Synod, which first assembled in this royal city in the time of Constantine, our Emperor, of blessed memory, which faith received still greater confirmation from the fact that the pious Emperor ratified with his own signet what was written, for the security of every future age. And again we confess that we should guard the faith unaltered and openly acknowledged; that in the Economy of the incarnation of our one Lord Jesus Christ, the true God, there are two natural wills or volitions and two natural operations; and have condemned by a just sentence those who adulterated the true doctrine and taught the people that in the one Lord, our God, Jesus Christ, there is but one will and operation, that is to say, Theodore of Pharan, Cyrus of Alexandria, Honorius of Rome, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul, and Peter, who were bishops of this God-preserved city, Macarius, who was bishop of Antioch, Stephen who was his disciple, and the insane Polychronius, depriving them henceforth of the communion of the body of Christ our God.…

Canon 2. On the Sources of Canon Law.

This canon opposed Rome in two respects: it accepted eighty-five Apostolic Canons, whereas Rome received but fifty; it drew up a list of councils and of Fathers whose writings should have authority as canons, and omitted the important Western councils, except Carthage, and all the papal decrees. With this canon should be compared the decretal of Gelasius, De Libris Recipiendis, v. supra, § 92.

It has also seemed good to this holy synod that the eighty-five canons received and ratified by the holy and blessed [pg 675] Fathers before us, and also handed down to us in the name of the holy and glorious Apostles, should from this time forth remain firm and unshaken for the cure of souls and the healing of disorders. And since in these canons we are bidden to receive the Constitutions of the Holy Apostles by Clement, in which, in old time, certain spurious matter entirely contrary to piety was introduced by heterodox persons for the polluting of the Church, which obscures to us the elegance and beauty of the divine decrees; we, therefore, for the edification and security of the most Christian flock, reject properly such constitutions; by no means admitting the offspring of heretical error, and cleaving to the pure and perfect doctrine of the Apostles. But we set our seal likewise upon all the other holy canons set forth by our holy and blessed Fathers, that is, by the three hundred and eighteen God-fearing Fathers assembled at Nic?a, and those at Ancyra; further, those at Neo-C?sarea and at Gangra, and besides these those at Antioch in Syria [A. D. 341], those too at Laodicea in Phrygia, and likewise those of the one hundred and fifty assembled in this God-preserved imperial city and of the two hundred, who assembled for the first time in the metropolis of the Ephesians, and of the six hundred and thirty holy and blessed Fathers at Chalcedon; in like manner those of Sardica and those of Carthage; those also who assembled in this God-preserved imperial city under Nectarius [A. D. 394], and under Theophilus, archbishop of Alexandria; likewise too the canons307 of Dionysius, formerly archbishop of the great city of Alexandria, and of Peter, archbishop of Alexandria, and martyr; of Gregory the Wonder-worker, archbishop of Neo-C?sarea; of Athanasius, archbishop of Alexandria; of Basil, archbishop of C?sarea in Cappadocia; of Gregory, bishop of Nyssa; of Gregory the Theologian;308 of Amphilochius of Iconium; of Timothy, archbishop of Alexandria; of the first Theophilus, archbishop of the same metropolis of Alexandria; of Gennadius, patriarch of the God-preserved imperial city; [pg 676] moreover the canons set forth by Cyprian, archbishop of the country of the Africans, and martyr, and by the synod under him,309 which have been kept in the country of the aforesaid bishops and only according to the custom delivered down to them. And that no one be allowed to transgress the aforesaid canons, or to receive other canons besides them, supposititiously set forth by some who have attempted to make a traffic of the truth. But should any one be convicted of innovating upon them, or attempting to overturn any of the aforementioned canons, he shall be condemned to receive the penalty which the canon imposes and so to be cured of his transgressions.

Canon 13. On the Marriage of the Clergy.

The following canon permits subdeacons and priests if married before ordination to continue to live in marriage relations with their wives. But they are not allowed to marry a second time or to marry a widow. Neither are bishops to remain married; but if they are married when elected, their wives must enter a monastery at a distance. With this canon should be compared the earlier legislation of Nic?a, v. supra, § 78, and also the law of Justinian, v. supra, § 94.

Since we know that it is handed down in the canonical discipline in the Roman Church that those who are about to be deemed worthy of ordination to the diaconate or presbyterate should promise no longer to live maritally with their wives, we, pursuing the ancient rule of apostolic discipline and order, will that henceforth the lawful marriage of men in holy orders remain firm, by no means dissolving their union with their wives, nor depriving them of intercourse with each other at a convenient season.… Therefore, if any one shall have dared, contrary to the Apostolic Canons, to deprive any one in holy orders, that is, any presbyter, deacon, or subdeacon, of cohabitation and intercourse with his lawful wife, let him be deposed; likewise also if any presbyter or deacon, on pretence of piety, puts away his wife, let him be excluded from communion; but if he persists let him be deposed.

[pg 677]

Canon 36. On the Rank of the Patriarchal Sees.

Rome always rejected the claim of Constantinople to rank as second. Cf. Leo's opinion, v. supra, § 87.

Renewing the enactments of the one hundred and fifty Fathers assembled in the God-preserved and imperial city, and the six hundred and thirty assembled at Chalcedon, we decree that the see of Constantinople shall enjoy equal privilege with the see of Old Rome, and in ecclesiastical matters shall be as highly regarded as that is, and second after it. And after this [Constantinople] shall be ranked the see of the great city of Alexandria, and after that the see of Antioch, and after that the see of Jerusalem.

Canon 37. On Bishops of Sees among Infidels.

This canon is cited here, though not entering into the controversy between the East and the West, because it is significant of the changed position of the Eastern Church at this time, due to the Moslem and other conquests. The Monophysite bishops in Egypt and Syria were not molested by the Moslems. This canon marks the beginning of the practice of ordaining bishops in partibus infidelium.

Since at different times there have been invasions of the barbarians, and consequently very many cities have come into the possession of the infidels, so that as a consequence the prelate of a city may not be able, after he has been ordained, to take possession of his see and to be settled in it in sacerdotal order, and so to perform and manage, according to custom, the ordinations and all other things which appertain to the bishop; we, preserving the honor and veneration of the priesthood, and in nowise wishing to make use of the heathen injury to the ruin of ecclesiastical rights, have decreed that they who have been thus ordained, and for the aforesaid causes have not settled in their sees, may be kept from any prejudice from this thing, so that they may canonically perform the ordination of the different clerics and use the authority of their offices according to proper limits, and that whatever administration proceeds from them may be valid and [pg 678] legitimate. For the exercise of his office shall not be circumscribed by reason of necessity, when the exact observance of the law is circumscribed.

Canon 55. On Fasts in Lent.

As stated in the canon, this enactment is aimed at the Roman usage, and refers to the 64th Apostolic Canon, which Rome rejected. For the Apostolic Canons, see ANF, VII, 504.

Since we have learned that in the city of the Romans, in the holy fast of Lent, they fast on the Sabbaths310 contrary to the traditional ecclesiastical observance, it seemed good to the holy synod that also in the Church of the Romans the canons shall be in force without wavering which says: If any cleric shall be found to fast on Sunday or on the Sabbath except on one occasion only,311 he shall be deposed; and if a layman he shall be excommunicated.

Canon 67. On Eating Blood.

This canon is less distinctly aimed at Rome. In the West the prohibition against eating blood seems to have been little observed, as it had been given another interpretation. At the time of the Second Trullan Council the practice was very common. Augustine, it might be said, did not consider the apostolic command as binding except in the special circumstance in which it was issued. Cf. Augustine, Contra Faustum, 32:13.

The divine Scriptures command us to abstain from blood, from things strangled, and from fornication. Those, therefore, who, on account of a dainty stomach, prepare by any art for food the blood of animals and so eat it, we punish suitably. If any one henceforth venture to eat in any way the blood of an animal, if he be a clergyman let him be deposed; if a layman, let him be excommunicated.

Canon 82. On Pictures of the Lamb of God.

The custom which is here condemned was prevalent in the West.

[pg 679] In some pictures of the holy icons, a lamb is painted to which the Forerunner312 points his finger, and this is received to serve as a type of grace, indicating beforehand through the Law our true lamb, Christ our God. Embracing therefore the ancient types and shadows as symbols and patterns of the truth, which have been given to the Church, we prefer "grace and truth," receiving it as the fulfilment of the Law. In order, therefore, that what is perfect may be delineated to the eyes of all, at least in colored expression, we decree that the figure of the lamb who taketh away the sin of the world, Christ our God, be henceforth exhibited according to human form in the icons, instead of the ancient lamb, so that all may understand, by means of it, the depth of the humiliation of the Word of God, and that we may recall to our memory His life in the flesh, His passion and salutary death, and the redemption resulting therefrom for the whole world.

(b) Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum, n. 58.

Notification to the Emperor of an Election of a Pontiff.

The Liber Diurnus was the book of official formul? used on occasions such as elections of pontiffs and the conferring of the pallium. It was composed between 685 and 751, and was employed in the papal chancellery down to the eleventh century, when it became antiquated on account of the changes in the position of the popes. The modern editions of the book are by Rozière, Paris, 1869, and by Sickel, Vienna, 1889. The text may be found in Mirbt, n. 195, where may also be found numerous other useful extracts.

Although it has not been without the merciful divine ordering that, after the death of the supreme pontiff, the votes of all should agree in the election of one, and that there be perfect harmony so that no one at all is to be found who would oppose it, it is yet necessary that we ought obediently to pour forth the prayers of our petitions to our most serene and most pious lord, who is known to rejoice in the concord of his subjects, and graciously to grant what has been asked by them in unanimity. And so when our Pope (name) of most blessed [pg 680] memory died, the assent of all was given, by the will of God, to the election of (name), the venerable archdeacon of the Apostolic See, because from the beginning of his life he had so served the same church, and in all things shown himself so able that he ought deservedly to be placed, with the divine approval, over the ecclesiastical government, especially since by his constant association with the aforesaid most blessed pontiff (name), he has been able to attain to the same distinctions of so great merit, by which the same prelate of holy memory is known to have been adorned, who by his words always stirred up his mind, being desirous of heavenly joys, so that whatsoever good we have lost in his predecessor we are confident that we have certainly found in him. Therefore, in tears, all we your servants pray that the piety of the lords may deign to hear the supplication of their servants, and the desires of their petitioners may be granted by the command of their piety, for the benefit of the Empire, that command may be given for his ordination; so that when we have been placed by your sacred and exalted clemency under him as our pastor, we may always pray for the life and empire of our most serene lords to the Lord Almighty and to the blessed Peter, prince of the Apostles, to whose church it has been granted that a worthy ruler be ordained.

Subscription of the priests.

I (name), by the mercy of God, presbyter of the holy Roman Church, consenting to this action made by us in regard to (name), the venerable archdeacon of the holy Apostolic See and our elected Pope, have subscribed.

Subscription of the laity.

I (name), servant of your piety, consenting to this action drawn up by us in regard to (name), the venerable archdeacon of the holy Apostolic See and our elected Pope, have subscribed.

(c) Liber Diurnus Romanorum Pontificum, ch. 60.

Notification of the Election of a Pontiff to the Exarch of Ravenna.

The text may be found in part in Mirbt, loc. cit.

[pg 681] To the most excellent and exalted lord, graciously to be preserved to us for a long life in his princely office (name), exarch of Italy, the priests, deacons, and all the clergy of Rome, the magistrates, the army, and the people of this city of Rome as suppliants send greeting.

Providence is able to give aid in human affairs and to change the weeping and groaning of the sorrowing into rejoicing.…

Inasmuch as (name), of pontifical memory, has been called from present cares to eternal rest, as is the lot of mortals, a great load of sorrow oppressed us, for as guardians we were deprived of our own guardian. But the accustomed kindness of our God did not permit us to remain long in this affliction because we hoped in Him. For after we had humbly spent three days in prayer that the heavenly kindness might, for the merits of all, make known whom as worthy it commanded to be elected to succeed to the apostolic office, with the aid of His grace which inspired the minds of all; and after we had assembled as is customary, that is, the clergy and the people of Rome with the presence of the nobility and the army, from the least to the greatest, so to speak; and the election, with the help of God and the aid of the holy Apostles, fell upon the person of (name), the most holy archdeacon of this holy Apostolic See of the Roman Church. The good and chaste life of this man, beloved of God, was in the opinion of all so deserving that none opposed his election, no one was absent, and none dissented from it. For why should not men agree unanimously upon him whom the incomparable and unfailing providence of our God had foreordained to this office? For without doubt this had been determined upon in the presence of God. So solemnly performing his decrees and confirming with our signatures the desires of hearts concerning his election, we have sent you our fellow-servants as the bearers of this letter (names), most holy bishop (name), venerable presbyter (name), regionary notary (name), regionary subdeacons (names), honorable citizens, and from the most [pg 682] flourishing and successful Roman army (name), most eminent consul, and (names) chief men, tribunes of the army, begging and praying together that your excellency, whom may God preserve, may with your accustomed goodness agree with our pious choice; because he, who has been unanimously elected by our humility, is such that so far as human discernment is able to see, no spot of reproach appears in him. And therefore we beg and beseech you, by God's inspiration, to grant our petition quickly, because there are many questions and other matters arising daily which require for remedy the care of pontifical favor. And the affairs of the province and the need of causes connected therewith also seek and await the control of due authority. Besides we need some one to keep the neighboring enemy in check, which can only be done by the power of God, and of the Prince of the Apostles through his vicar, the bishop of Rome; since it is well known that at various times the bishop of Rome has driven off enemies by his warnings, and at other times he has turned aside and restrained them by his prayers; so that by his words alone, on account of their reverence for the Prince of the Apostles, they have offered voluntary obedience, and thus they, whom the force of arms had not overcome, have yielded to the warnings and prayers of the Pope.

Since these things are so, we again and again beseech you, our exalted lord, preserved by God, that, with the aid and inspiration of God in your heart, you may quickly give orders to adorn the Apostolic See by the completed ordination of the same, our father. And we, your humble servants, on seeing our desires fulfilled, may then give unceasing thanks to God and to you, and with our spiritual pastor, our bishop, enthroned in the Apostolic Seat, we may pour out prayers for the life and health and complete victories of our most exalted and Christian lords (names), the great and victorious emperors, that the merciful God may give manifold victories to their royal courage, and cause them to triumph over all peoples, and that God may give them joy of heart, because the [pg 683] ancient rule of Rome has been restored. For we know that he whom we have elected Pope can, with his prayers, influence the divine omnipotence; and he has prepared a joyful increase for the Roman Empire, and he will aid you in this, in the government of this province of Italy, which is subject to you, and will aid and protect all of us, your servants, through many years.

Subscription of the priests.

I, (name), the humble archpriest of the holy Roman Church, have with full consent subscribed to this document which we have made concerning (name), most holy archdeacon, our bishop elect.

And the subscription of the laity.

I, (name), in the name of God, consul, have with full consent subscribed to this document which we have made concerning (name), most holy archdeacon, our bishop-elect.

(d) Paulus Diaconus, Hist. Langobardorum, IV, 44. (MSL, 95:581.)

Agilulf may have been a convert to the Catholic faith, v. supra, § 99. His successors were not. In fact, not until 653, when Aribert, the nephew of Theodelinda, ascended the throne, were the Lombards permanently under Catholic rulers.

44. After Ariwald (626-636) had reigned twelve years over the Lombards he departed this life, and Rothari of the family of Arodus took the kingdom of the Lombards. He was a strong, brave man, and walked in the paths of justice; in Christian faith, however, he did not hold to the right way, but was polluted by the unbelief of the Arian heresy. The Arians say, to their confusion, that the Son is inferior to the Father and, in the same way, the Holy Ghost is inferior to the Father and the Son; we, Catholic Christians, on the contrary, confess that the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost are one true God in three persons, equal in power and glory. In the times of Rothari there were in nearly all the cities of his kingdom two bishops, a Catholic and an Arian.

[pg 684] To this very day there is shown in the city of Ticinus [Pavia] the place where the Arian bishop resided, at the church of St. Eusebius, and held the baptistery while the Catholic bishop was at the head of another church. The Arian bishop, however, who was in this city, whose name was Anastasius, accepted the Catholic faith and afterward ruled the Church of Christ. This king Rothari caused the laws of the Lombards to be reduced to writing and named the book The Edict; the law of the Lombards up to that time had been retained merely in memory and by their use in the courts. This took place, as the king in the preface to his law-book says, in the seventy-seventh year313 after the Lombards came into Italy.

§ 109. Rome, Constantinople, and the Lombards in the Period of the First Iconoclastic Controversy; the Seventh General Council, Nic?a, A. D. 787

By the eight century the veneration of pictures or icons had become wide-spread throughout the Eastern Church. Apart from their due place in the cultus, grave abuses and superstitions had arisen in many parts of the Church in connection with the icons. To Leo III the Isaurian (717-741), and to the army, the veneration of the icons, as practised by the populace, and especially by the monks, seemed but little removed from the grossest idolatry. Accordingly, in an edict issued in 726, Leo attempted to put an end to the abuses by preventing all veneration of the icons. Meeting with opposition, his measures passed from moderate to severe. In Italy, although the use of icons was not developed to the same extent as in the East, sympathy was entirely against the Iconoclasts. Gregory II (715-731) and Gregory III (731-741) bitterly reproached and denounced the action of the Emperor. Nearly all the exarchate willingly passed under the power of the Lombards. Other parts of northern Italy also broke with the Emperor. Leo retaliated by annexing [pg 685] Illyricum to the see of Constantinople and confiscating the papal revenues in southern Italy. From that time the connection between the Pope and the Emperor was very slight. The Emperor Constantine V Copronymus (741-775) was more severe than his father, and in many respects even fiercely brutal in his treatment of the monks. A synod was assembled at Constantinople, 754, attended by three hundred and thirty-eight bishops, who, as was customary in Eastern synods, supported the Emperor. His son, Leo IV Chazarus (775-780) was less energetic and disposed to tolerate the use of icons in private. But his widow, Irene, the guardian of her infant son, Constantine VI, was determined to restore the images or icons. A synod held at Constantinople in 786 was broken up by the soldiery of the capital. In 787 at Nic?a, a council was called at a safe distance and Iconoclasm was condemned.

Additional source material: St. John Damascene on Holy Images, Eng. trans. by Mary H. Allies, 1898; St. John of Damascus, Exposition of the Orthodox Faith, PNF, ser. II, vol. IX; Percival, Seven Ecumenical Councils (PNF).

(a) Liber Pontificalis, Vita Gregorii II. Ed. Duchesne, I, 403.

Disorders in Italy consequent upon Iconoclasm.

The following passage from the Liber Pontificalis gives a vivid and, on the whole, accurate picture of the confusion in Italy during the last years of the authority of the Eastern Roman Empire in the peninsula. It is hardly likely that the Emperor ordered the death of the pontiff as recorded, and more probable that his over-officious representatives regarded it as a means of ingratiating themselves with their master. The passage is strictly contemporaneous, as the Liber Pontificalis, at least in this part, is composed of brief biographies of Popes written immediately after their decease and in some instances during their lives. For a fuller statement of the whole period, see Hefele, §§ 332 ff., who gives an abstract of the following and also of two letters alleged to have been written by Gregory II to the Emperor, which Hefele accepts as genuine. For a criticism of these letters, see Hodgkin, op. cit., VI, 501-505. Hodgkin gives an excellent account of King Liutprand in ch. XII of the same volume, pp. 437-508, and throws much light on the following passage.

For the events immediately preceding this, see Paulus Diaconus, Hist. Langobardorum, VI, 46-48, given above in § 106. Paulus refers [pg 686] to the capture of Narnia in the last sentence of ch. 48. and his next chapter is apparently a condensation of the following sections of the official papal biography.

At that time [circa A. D. 725] Narnia314 was taken by the Lombards. And Liutprand, the king of the Lombards, advanced upon Ravenna with his entire army, and besieged it for some days. Taking the fortress of Classis, he bore off many captives and immense booty. After some time the duke Basilius, the chartularius Jordanes, and the subdeacon John, surnamed Lurion, conspired to kill the Pope; and Marinus, the imperial spatarius, who at that time held the government of the duchy of Rome, having been sent by the command of the Emperor to the royal city, joined their conspiracy. But they could not find an opportunity. The plot was broken up by the judgment of God, and he therefore left Rome. Later Paulus, the patrician, was sent as exarch to Italy, who planned how at length he might accomplish the crime; but their plans were disclosed to the Romans, These were so enraged that they killed Jordanes and John Lurion. Basilius, however, became a monk and ended his life hidden in a certain place. But the exarch Paulus, on the command of the Emperor, tried to kill the pontiff because he hindered the levying of a tax upon the province, intending to strip the churches of their property, as was done in other places, and to appoint another [Pope] in his place. After this another spatarius was sent with commands to remove the pontiff from his seat. Then again the patrician Paulus sent, for the accomplishment of this crime, such soldiers as he could withdraw from Ravenna, with his guard and some from the camps. But the Romans were aroused, and from all sides the Lombards gathered for the defence of the pontiff at the bridge of Solario, in the district of Spoleto, and the dukes of the Lombards, surrounding the Roman territories, prevented this crime.

In a decree afterward sent, the Emperor ordered that there [pg 687] no longer should be in any church an image315 of any saint, or martyr, or angel (for he said that all these were accursed); and if the pontiff assented he should enjoy his favor, but if he prevented the accomplishment of this also he should fall from his position. The pious man, despising therefore the profane command of the prince, armed himself against the Emperor as against an enemy, rejecting this heresy and writing everywhere to warn Christians of the impiety which had arisen.

Aroused by this, the inhabitants of the Pentapolis316 and the armies of Venetia resisted the command of the Emperor, saying that they would never assent to the murder of the pontiff, but on the contrary would strive manfully for his defence. They anathematized the exarch Paulus, him who had sent him, and those who sided with him, refusing to obey them; and throughout Italy all chose leaders317 for themselves, so eager were all concerning the pontiff and his safety. When the iniquities of the Emperor were known, all Italy started to choose for itself an emperor and conduct him to Constantinople, but the pontiff prevented this plan, hoping for the conversion of the prince.

Meanwhile, in those days, the duke Exhiliratus,318 deceived by the instigation of the devil, with his son Adrian, occupied parts of Campania, persuading the people to obey the Emperor and kill the pontiff. Then all the Romans pursued after him, took him, and killed both him and his son. After this they chased away the duke Peter [governor of Rome under the Emperor], saying that he had written against the pontiff to the Emperor. When, therefore, a dissension arose in and about Ravenna, some consenting to the wickedness of the Emperor and some holding to the pontiff and those faithful to him, a great fight took place between them and they killed the patrician Paulus [exarch at that time]. And the cities of Castra ?milia, Ferrorianus, Montebelli, Verabulum, with [pg 688] its towns, Buxo, Persiceta, the Pentapolis, and Auximanum, surrendered to the Lombards.319 After this the Emperor sent to Naples Eutychius Fratricius, the eunuch, who had formerly been exarch, to accomplish what the exarch Paulus, the spatarii, and the other evil counsellors had been unable to do. But by God's ordering his miserable craft was not so hidden but that his most wicked plot was disclosed to all, that he would attempt to violate the churches of Christ, to destroy all, and to take away the property of all. When he had sent one of his own men to Rome with written instructions, among other things, that the pontiff should be killed, together with the chief men of Rome, this most bloody outrage was discovered, and the Romans would at once have killed the messenger of the patrician if the opposition of the Pope had not prevented them. But they anathematized the same exarch Eutychius, binding themselves, great and small, by an oath, never to permit the pontiff, the zealous guardian of the Christian faith and the defender of the churches, to be killed or removed, but to be ready all to die for his safety. Thereupon the patrician [Eutychius], promising many gifts to the dukes and to the king of the Lombards, attempted to persuade them by his messengers to abandon the support of the pontiff. But they despised the man's detestable wiles contained in his letters; and the Romans and the Lombards bound themselves as brothers in the bond of faith, all desiring to suffer a glorious death for the pontiff, and never to permit him to receive any harm, contending for the true faith and the salvation of Christians. While they were doing this that father chose, as a stronger protection, to distribute with his own hand such alms to the poor as he found; giving himself to prayers and fastings, he besought the Lord daily with litanies, and he remained always more supported by this hope than by men; however, he thanked the people for their offer, and with gentle [pg 689] words he besought all to serve God with good deeds and to remain steadfast in the faith; and he admonished them not to renounce their love and fidelity to the Roman Emperor.

At that time in the eleventh indiction,320 the castle of Sutri was taken by the Lombards by craft, and was held by them for a period of forty days,321 but urged by the constant letters of the pontiff and warnings sent to the king, when very many gifts had been made, as a gift at least for all the towns, the king of the Lombards restored them and gave them as a donation to the most blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. At the same time, in the twelfth indiction [A. D. 729], in the month of January, for ten days and more, a star, called Gold-bearing,322 with rays, appeared in the west. Its rays were toward the north and reached to the midst of the heavens. At that time, also, the patrician Eutychius and King Liutprand made a most wicked agreement, that when an army had been gathered the king should subject Spoleto and Beneventum,323 and the exarch of Rome, and they should carry out what was already commanded concerning the pontiff. When the king came to Spoleto, oaths and hostages were received from both [i.e., the dukes of Spoleto and Beneventum], and he came with all his troops to the Campus Neronis.324 The pontiff went forth and presented himself before him and endeavored to the extent of his ability to soften the mind of the king by pious warnings, so that the king threw himself at his feet and promised to harm no one; and he was so moved to compunction by the pious warnings that he abandoned his undertaking and laid on the grave of the Apostle his mantle, his military cloak, his sword belt, his short two-edged sword, and his golden sword, as well as a golden crown and a silver cross. After prayer he besought the pontiff to consent to make peace with [pg 690] the exarch, which also was done. So he departed, for the king forsook the bad designs with which he had entered into the plot with the exarch. While the exarch remained in Rome, there came into Tuscany to Castrum Maturianense,325 a certain deceiver, Tiberius by name, called also Petasius,326 who attempted to usurp the rule of the Roman Empire and deceived some of the less important, so that Maturianum, Luna, and Blera [Bieda] took oath to him. The exarch, hearing of this, was troubled, but the most holy Pope supported him, and, sending with him his chief men and an army, he advanced and came to Castrum Maturianense. Petasius was killed, his head was cut off and sent to Constantinople, to the prince; nevertheless the Emperor showed no great favor to the Romans.

After these things the malice of the Emperor became evident, on account of which he had persecuted the pontiff. For he compelled all the inhabitants of Constantinople, by force and persuasion, to di

splace the images of the Saviour as well as of His holy mother, and of all saints, wherever they were, and (what is horrible to tell) to burn them in the fire in the middle of the city, and to whitewash all the painted churches. Because very many of the people of the city withstood the commission of such an enormity, they were subjected to punishment; some were beheaded, others lost a part of their body. For this reason also, because Germanus, the prelate of the church of Constantinople, was unwilling to consent to this, the Emperor deprived him of his pontifical position, and appointed in his place the presbyter Anastasius, an accomplice. Anastasius sent to the Pope a synodical letter, but when that holy man saw that he held the same error, he did not regard him as brother and fellow-priest, but wrote him warning letters, commanding him to be put out of his sacerdotal office unless he returned to the Catholic faith. He also charged the Emperor, urging wholesome advice, that he should desist from such execrable wickedness, and he warned him by letter.327

[pg 691]

(b) John of Damascus, De Fide Orthodoxa, IV, 16. (MSG, 94:1168.)

John of Damascus (ob. ante 754) was the last of the Church Fathers of the East. He became the classical representative of the theology of the Eastern Church, and his system forms the conclusion and summing up of the results of all the great controversies that had distracted that part of the Church. His greatest work, De Fide Orthodoxa, may be found translated in PNF. In the following chapter John sums up briefly the arguments which he uses in his three orations In Defence of Images (to be found in MSG, 94:1227 ff.; for translation see head of section). By images one should understand pictures rather than statues. The latter were never common and fell entirely out of use and were forbidden. They seemed too closely akin to idols. In the translation, the phrase "to show reverence" is the equivalent of the Greek προσκυν?ω.

Since some find fault with us for showing reverence and honoring the image of our Saviour and that of our Lady, and also of the rest of the saints and servants of Christ, let them hear that from the beginning God made man after His own image. On what other grounds, then, do we show reverence to each other than that we are made after God's image? For as Basil, that most learned expounder of divine things, says: "The honor given to the image passes over to the prototype."328 Now a prototype is that which is imaged, from which the form is derived. Why was it that the Mosaic people showed reverence round about the tabernacle which bore an image and type of heavenly things, or rather the whole creation? God, indeed, said to Moses: "Look that thou make all things after the pattern which was shewed thee in the mount" [Ex. 33:10]. The Cherubim, also, which overshadowed the mercy-seat, are they not the work of men's hands? What is the renowned temple at Jerusalem? Is it not made by hands and fashioned by the skill of men? The divine Scriptures, however, blame those who show reverence to graven images, but also those who sacrifice to demons. The Greeks sacrificed and the Jews also sacrificed; but the Greeks to demons; the Jews, however, to God. And the sacrifice of the Greeks was rejected and condemned, [pg 692] but the sacrifice of the just was acceptable to God. For Noah sacrificed, and God smelled a sweet savor of a good purpose, receiving, also, the fragrance of a good-will toward Him. And so the graven images of the Greeks, since they were the images of demon deities, were rejected and forbidden.

But besides this, who can make an imitation of the invisible, incorporeal, uncircumscribed, and formless God? Therefore to give form to the Deity is the height of folly and impiety. And therefore in the Old Testament the use of images was repressed. But after God, in the bowels of His mercy, became for our salvation in truth man, not as He was seen by Abraham in the semblance of a man, or by the prophets, but He became in truth man, according to substance, and after He lived upon earth and dwelt among men, worked miracles, suffered, and was crucified, He rose again, and was received up into heaven; since all these things actually took place and were seen by men, they were written for the remembrance and instruction of us who were not present at that time, in order that, though we saw not, we may still, hearing and believing, obtain the blessing of the Lord. But since all have not a knowledge of letters nor time for reading, it appeared good to the Fathers that those events, as acts of heroism, should be depicted on images329 to be a brief memorial of them. Often, doubtless, when we have not the Lord's passion in mind and see the image of Christ's crucifixion, we remember the passion and we fall down and show reverence not to the material but to that which is imaged; just as we do not show reverence to the material of the Gospel, nor to the material of the cross, but that which these typify.330 For wherein does the cross that typifies the Lord differ from a cross that does not do so? It is the same also as to the case of the Mother of God.331 For the honor which is given her is referred to Him who was incarnate of her. And similarly also the brave acts of holy men stir us to bravery [pg 693] and to emulation and imitation of their valor and to the glory of God. For, as we said, the honor that is given to the best of fellow servants is a proof of good-will toward our common lady, and the honor rendered the image passes over to the prototype. But this is an unwritten tradition, just as is also to show reverence toward the East and to the cross, and very many similar things.332

A certain tale is told also that when Augarus [i.e., Abgarus] was king over the city of the Edessenes, he sent a portrait-painter to paint a likeness of the Lord; and when the painter could not paint because of the brightness that shone from His countenance, the Lord himself put a garment over His divine and life-giving face and impressed on it an image of Himself, and sent this to Augarus to satisfy in this way his desire.

Moreover, that the Apostles handed down much that was unwritten, Paul the Apostle of the Gentiles writes: Therefore, brethren, stand fast and hold the traditions which ye have been taught of us, whether by word or by epistles [II Thess. 2:14]. And to the Corinthians he writes: Now I praise you, brethren, that ye remembered me in all things and keep the traditions as I have delivered them to you [I Cor. 2:2].

(c) Basil the Great, De Spiritu Sancto, ch. 18. (MSG, 32:149.)

Basil is speaking of the three persons of the Trinity, and says that although we speak of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, we must not count up "by way of addition gradually increasing from unity to multitude," but that number must be understood otherwise in speaking of the three divine persons.

How then, if one and one, are there not two Gods? Because we speak of a king and of the king's image, and not of two kings. The power is not parted nor the glory divided. The power ruling over us is one, and the authority one, and so also the doxology ascribed by us is one and not plural; because the honor paid to the image passes over to the prototype.

[pg 694] Now what in the one case the image is by reason of imitation, that in the other case the Son is by nature; and as in works of art the likeness is dependent upon the form, so in the case of the divine and uncompounded nature the union consists in the communion of the godhead.

(d) The Seventh General Council, Nic?a, A. D. 787, Definition of Faith. Mansi, XIII, 398 ff.

In addition to Hefele, and PNF, ser. II. vol. XIV, see Mendham, The Seventh General Council, the Second of Nic?a, in which the Worship of Images was Established; with copious notes from the "Caroline Books," compiled by order of Charlemagne for its Confutation, London, n. d.

The holy, great and ecumenical synod which, by the grace of God and the command of the pious and Christ-loving Emperors, Constantine, and Irene his mother, was gathered together for the second time at Nic?a, the illustrious metropolis of the eparchy of Bithynia, in the holy Church of God which is named Sophia, having followed the tradition of the Catholic Church, hath defined as follows:

Christ our Lord, who hath bestowed upon us the light of the knowledge of Himself, and hath redeemed us from the darkness of idolatrous madness, having espoused to Himself His holy Catholic Church without spot or defect, promised that He would so preserve her; and assured His holy disciples, saying, "I am with you always, even unto the end of the world" [Matt. 28:20], which promise He made, not only to them, but to us also who through them should believe in His name. But some, not considering this gift, and having become fickle through the temptation of the wily enemy, have fallen from the right faith; for, withdrawing from the tradition of the Catholic Church, they have erred from the knowledge of the truth, and as the proverb saith: "The husbandmen have gone astray in their own husbandry, and have gathered in their hands sterility," because certain priests in deed, but not priests in reality, had dared to slander the God-approved ornaments of the sacred monuments. Of whom God [pg 695] cries aloud through the prophet: "Many pastors have corrupted my vineyard, they have polluted my portion" [Jer. 12:10; cf. LXX]. And, forsooth, following profane men, trusting to their own senses, they have calumniated His holy Church espoused to Christ our God, and have not distinguished between holy and profane, styling the images of the Lord and of His saints by the same name as the statute of diabolical idols. Seeing which things, our Lord God (not willing to behold His people corrupted by such manner of plague) hath of His good pleasure called us together, the chief of His priests, from every quarter, moved with a divine zeal and brought hither by the will of our Emperors, Constantine and Irene, to the end that the divine tradition of the Catholic Church may receive stability by our common decree. Therefore, with all diligence, making a thorough examination and investigation, and following the trend of the truth, diminishing naught, adding naught, we preserve unchanged all things which pertain to the Catholic Church, and following the six ecumenical synods, especially that which met in this illustrious metropolis of Nic?a, as also that which was afterward gathered together in the God-preserved royal city.

We believe in one God … life of the world to come. Amen.333

We detest and anathematize Arius and all who agree with him and share his absurd opinion; also Macedonius and those who, following him, are well styled foes of the Spirit.334 We confess that our lady, St. Mary, is properly and truly the Theotokos, because she bore, after the flesh, one of the Holy Trinity, to wit, Christ our God, as the Council of Ephesus has already defined, when it cast out of the Church the impious Nestorius with his allies, because he introduced a personal [προσωπικ?ν] duality [in Christ]. With the Fathers of this synod we confess the two natures of Him who was incarnate for us of the immaculate Theotokos and ever-Virgin Mary, [pg 696] recognizing Him as perfect God and perfect man, as also the Council of Chalcedon hath promulgated, expelling from the divine Atrium as blasphemers, Eutyches and Dioscurus; and placing with them Severus, Peter, and a number of others blaspheming in divers fashions. Moreover, with these we anathematize the fables of Origen, Evagrius, and Didymus, in accordance with the decision of the Fifth Council held at Constantinople. We affirm that in Christ there are two wills and operations according to the reality of each nature, as also the Sixth Council held at Constantinople taught, casting out Sergius, Honorius, Cyrus, Pyrrhus, Macarius, and those who are unwilling to be reverent and who agree with these.

To make our confession short, we keep unchanged all the ecclesiastical traditions handed down to us, written or unwritten, and of these one is the making of pictorial representations, agreeable to the history of the preaching of the Gospel, a tradition useful in many respects, but especially in this, that so the incarnation of the Word of God is shown forth as real and not merely fantastic, for these have mutual indications, and without doubt have also mutual significations.

We, therefore, following the royal pathway and the divinely inspired authority of our holy Fathers and the traditions of the Catholic Church for, as we all know, the Holy Spirit dwells in her, define with all certitude and accuracy, that just as the figure of the precious and life-giving cross, so also the venerable and holy images, as well in painting and mosaic, as of other fit materials, should be set forth in the holy churches of God, and on the sacred vessels and on the vestments and on hangings and in tablets both in houses and by the wayside, to wit, the figure of our Lord God and Saviour Jesus Christ, of our spotless lady, the Theotokos, of the venerable angels, of all saints, and of all pious people. For by so much the more frequently as they are seen in artistic representation, by so much the more readily are men lifted up to the memory of their prototypes, and to a longing after them; and to these should be given due salutation and honorable reverence [pg 697] [?σπασμ?ν κα? τιμητικ?ν προσκ?νησιν], not indeed that true worship [τ?ν ?ληθιν?ν λατρε?αν] which pertains alone to the divine nature; but to these, as to the figure of the precious and life-giving cross, and to the book of the Gospels and to other holy objects, incense and lights may be offered according to ancient pious custom. For the honor which is paid to the image passes on to that which the image represents, and he who shows reverence [προσκυνε?] to the image shows reverence to the subject represented in it. For thus the teaching of our holy Fathers, which is called the tradition of the Catholic Church, which from one end of the earth to the other hath received the Gospel, is strengthened. Thus we follow Paul, who spake in Christ, and the whole divine Apostolic company and the holy Fathers, holding fast the traditions which we have received. So we sing prophetically the triumphal hymns of the Church: Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion; Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem. Rejoice and be glad with all thy heart. The Lord hath taken away from thee the oppression of thy adversaries; thou art redeemed from the hand of thy enemies: The Lord is a king in the midst of thee; thou shalt not see evil any more, and peace be unto thee forever.

Those, therefore, who dare to think or teach otherwise, or as wicked heretics dare to spurn the traditions of the Church and to invent some novelty, or else to reject some of those things which the Church hath received, to wit, the book of the Gospels, or the image of the cross, or the pictorial icons, or the holy relics of a martyr, or evilly and sharply to devise anything subversive of the lawful traditions of the Catholic Church, or to turn to common uses the sacred vessels and the venerable monasteries, if they be bishops or clerics we command that they be deposed; if religious335 or laics, that they be cut off from communion.

[pg 699]

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The Analytical Table of Contents at the opening of this volume should be used to supplement this Index.

Acacius of Constantinople, 526, 536.

Adoptionists, 172.

Advent, second. See "Chiliasm."

?lia Capitolina, 361.

?ons. See "Gnosticism," "Basilides," "Valentinus."

Africa, North, Church of, 157, 281.

See also "Tertullian," "Cyprian," "Donatism," "Augustine."

Agape, 41.

Agatho of Rome, 652.

Agde, council of (A. D. 506), canons, 616.

Alexander of Alexandria, 300 f., 302.

Alexander of Jerusalem, 207.

Alexandria, catechetical school of, 189-202.

Alexandria, councils of (A. D. 320), 304;

(A. D. 362), 349-352;

(A. D. 430), anathematisms, 505 ff.

Allegorism, or Allegorical Exegesis, 15 f., 120;

Origen on, 199 f.;

Nepos on, 219 f.;

Methodius on, 230;

Augustine on, 442 f.

Alms, as expiation of sin, 48, 169-171.

Ambrose of Milan, reply to Symmachus, 342-346;

epistle to Theodosius, 390 f.;

invocation of saints, 397;

patron of monasticism, 409;

on Fall of Man, 438.

Anastasius, emp., 527, 530, 575.

Anastasius of Rome, condemnation of Origen, 487 f.

Ancyra, council of (A. D. 358), 348, 412, 675.

Angels, invocation of, 400.

Anicetus of Rome, 164.

Anointing, 484.

Anthony, hermit, 248-251, 409.

Antioch, council of (A. D. 269), 225 ff.;

(A. D. 341), creed, 313 f.;

canons, 362-364, 675.

Antioch, school of, 504, 511.

Apelles, 105.

Aphthartodocetism, 553.

Apollinaris the Elder, 334.

Apollinaris of Laodic?a, 354, 494 f., 498.

Apollinarius of Hierapolis, 111.

Apollonius, Antimontanist, 108.

Apologist, 69 ff.;

theology of, 130 ff.

Apostles, 8 ff., 40.

Apostles' Creed, 123-126.

Apostolic Age, 5-12.

Apostolic churches, 111 ff.

Apostolic Fathers, 13.

Apostolic succession, 112-115, 122.

Appeals to Emperor, 359, 370;

to Rome, Sardica on, 364-366;

rescript of Gratian and Valentinian on, 366 f.

Archelaus, 82.

Arian controversy, 297-320, 348-356.

Arianism among the Germans: among the Goths, 426 f.;

among the Lombards, 683 f.

Aristides, Apology of, 69-72.

Aristotelian philosophy, 174.

Arius, 269, 293, 299 f.;

epistle to Eusebius of Nicomedia, 302;

Thalia, 303;

confession, 307, 308.

Arles, council of, 289-292.

Artemon, 173.

Asceticism, 46 ff., 105, 248.

Asia Minor, theology of, 30-32, 135-139, 229 ff.

Askidas, Theodore of, 546.

Athanasius, on Sabellianism, 180;

on Dionysius of Alexandria, 223-225;

exile, 308, 310.

Athenagoras, 133.

[pg 700] Audientia Episcopalis, 380, 382 f.

Augustine of Canterbury, 602-605.

Augustine of Hippo, life and conversion, 433-436;

his type of piety, 437;

on Fall of Man and original sin, 438;

predestination, 440;

allegory, 442;

merit, 444;

on baptism, 448;

sacraments, 449;

repression of heresy, 450-453.

Aurelian, emp., 227.

Baptism, 39, 116, 167, 179 f., 184, 186, 213, 231-234, 292, 447 f., 450, 452, 464.

Baptism, rite of, 33, 38, 232, 484 f.

Baptism of heretics, 243, 245-248, 292.

Barbarian invasions, 420-423.

Bardesanes, 54.

Barnabas, epistle of, 14.

Bartholomew, Apostle, 55.

Basil of C?sarea, on Sabellianism, 181;

his charities, 395;

monastic rule, 405;

on tradition, 484;

on reverence shown images, 693.

Basilides the Gnostic, 82 ff., 89, 91, 120.

Basiliscus, emp., Encyclion of, 523-526.

Bede, the Venerable, 566, 569, 603 ff.;

his Penitential, 629 f.

Benedict of Nursia, Rule of, 631-641.

Bishops, apostolic appointment of, 37;

authority of, 31, 41, 42, 237-239, 265-270, 361-364;

election of, 556, 580 f.;

State service of, 383 f.;

succession of, 111, 115, 122, 128.

Boniface II of Rome, 473.

Braga, council of (A. D. 572), 619.

Britain, Church in, 53, 566-570, 602-614.

C?lestinus, the Pelagian, 455 f., 460.

C?sarius of Arles, 621 f.

C?saropapism, 552 ff.

Caius of Rome, 8.

Callistus of Rome, 69, 175-177, 186.

Canon. See "Council."

Canon law, Quinisext Council on, 674-676.

Canon of New Testament, 117 ff., 120, 122 f., 532.

Caracalla, emp., 142 f., 149.

Carthage, councils of (A. D. 256), 238;

(A. D. 390), 417;

(A. D. 418), 463-466.

Cassian, on grace, 467-469;

on secular studies, 646 f.

Cassiodorus, 530.

Cassius, Dio, 11.

Cataphrygians. See "Montanists."

Cathari. See "Novatians."

Celestinus of Rome, 374.

Celibacy, laws permitting, 285;

of clergy, 411-418, 676.

Celsus, 55-59, 158.

Celtic Church in British Isles, 566-570.

Cerdo, 102 f.

Cerinthus, 81, 114.

Chalcedon, council of (A. D. 451), 511-522.

Character, doctrine of, 452.

Charity, 24, 35, 41, 48, 71 f., 145, 157, 333, 394 ff.

Chastity, 47, 344.

Chiliasm, 25-27, 219-221.

Chorepiscopoi, 364.

Christology. See "Apollinaris," "Logos," "Monarchians," "Monophysites," "Monotheletes," "Sabellius."

Christotokos, Mary as the, 501.

Chrysostom, John, 372, 491 f.

Church, authority of, Augustine on, 454.

Church, organization of, Post-Apostolic age, 36-42.

Church and State, mutual relations, 530, 554.

Circumcelliones, 323.

Classical Literature, Christian use of, 334 ff., 645-648.

Clemens, Flavius, 11 f.

Clement of Alexandria, on Gnosticism, 84, 89, 92, 189;

on Greek philosophy, 190;

Christian Gnosticism, 191 ff.

Clement of Rome, 7, 24, 36, 47, 129.

Clergy, distinguished from laity, 167, 181 f.;

exemption from civil burdens, 283 f.;

subjection to bishops, 361.

See "Ordination."

Clovesho, council of (A. D. 747), 611, 621.

[pg 701] Clovis, king, 570-575.

Code, of Justinian, 541;

of Theodosius II, 424.

C?nobites, 405.

Columba, 569.

Columbanus, 585-590.

Commodus, emp., 69.

Confession, auricular, 384 f.;

public, see "Penitential Discipline."

Constans II, Typos of, 662-664.

Constantine I, Edict of Milan, 263;

fiscal policy, 277-281;

ecclesiastical patronage, 281-285;

repression of heathenism, 285-287;

ecclesiastical policy, 289-296.

Constantinople, councils of (A. D. 381), 353, 369, 480;

(A. D. 382), 359, 498;

(A. D. 448), 512 f.;

(A. D. 553), 551 f.;

(A. D. 681), 665-671;

(A. D. 691), 673-679.

Constantinople, see of, 354, 477-480, 521 f.

Constantius, emp., 326-329, 331.

Corinth, church of, 7-9.

Cornelius of Rome, 157, 217.

Councils, ecclesiastical, 110 f., 157, 177, 289;

general, in North Africa, 463;

provincial, 359 f.;

relation of, to secular rulers, 369 f., 580.

Creed, forms approximating to the Apostles', 32, 123-126.

Creeds and confessions of faith, of Gregory Thaumaturgus, 222;

of Eusebius of C?esarea, 305;

of Nic?a (A. D. 325), 305;

of Arius, 307;

II Antioch (A. D. 341), 313;

IV Antioch (A. D. 341), 314;

Nice (A. D. 359), 318;

Cyril of Jerusalem, 354;

Epiphanius of Salamis, 355;

Ulfilas, 426;

Antioch (A. D. 433), 510.

Cyprian, on almsgiving, 169-171;

on the lapsed, 208-210, 214-217;

on the eucharist, 234-237;

on the episcopate, 237-242;

on the unity of the Church, 240-245;

on baptism by heretics, 245-248.

Cyril of Alexandria, 373, 494, 504;

anathematisms against Nestorius, 505-507, 510, 520, note.

Cyril of Jerusalem, 348, 354.

Cyrus of Alexandria, 520, 660;

formula of union, 661 f.

Dacia, Church in, 53.

Damasus of Rome, 270, 366, 380 f.

Deacon, 35, 37, 41.

Deaconess, 21.

Dead, prayers for, 169, 444 f., 624.

Decius, emp., persecution under, 206-212.

Decretals, Siricius on the force of, 417.

Decretum Gelasii, 532-536.

Demiurge, 90, 96.

Deposition, 230, 363.

Didache, 37, 46.

Dio Cassius, on Domitian persecution, 11.

Diocese, 354, 362, 611, 616-620.

Diocletian, reorganization of the Empire, 257 f.

Diocletian persecution, 258-262.

Diognetus, Epistle to, 28.

Dionysius of Alexandria, 219 f., 223 ff.

Dionysius the Areopagite, 560-564.

Dionysius of Corinth, 9, 24.

Dionysius Exiguus, 530, 611, note.

Dionysius of Rome, 223 ff., 226.

Dioscurus of Alexandria, 511 f.

Discipline, penitential, 42-49, 166 f., 169 f., 183-188, 213, 215 ff., 362, 384 f., 624-630.

Divorce, 169, 391, 393, 612.

Docetism, 32, 92.

Domitian, emp., 7, 11.

Donatus and Donatism, 245, 287 f., 289 ff., 322-325, 445-454.

Dynamistic Monarchianism, 172-175, 221, 225-229, 298.

Easter, worship on, 164.

Easter, controversy as to date, 161-165, 291, 295, 375, 570, 605 ff.

Ecumenical Patriarch, Gregory the Great on the title, 592-595.

Edessa, Christianity in, 54.

Elvira, council of (A. D. 309), 386, 415.

Emanations, Gnostic theory of, 85 f., 94 f.

Encratites, 105.

Encyclion. See "Basiliscus."

Ephesus, church of, 9 ff., 116.

Ephesus, council of (A. D. 431), 507-509;

(A. D. 449), 512.

Epiphanius of Salamis, 228, 355.

[pg 702] Episcopal courts of arbitration. See "Audientia Episcopalis."

Episcopate, 237-239.

Epistula pacis, 215.

Eucharist, 18, 21, 30 f., 34, 38, 41, 42, 116, 138 f., 231-237, 449, 622-624.

Eusebius of C?sarea, 8, 305, 309.

Eusebius of Nicomedia, 299, 302, 308, 310.

Eusebius of Rome, 270.

Eustathius, 309, 348.

Eutyches and Eutychian controversy, 511-522.

Evagrius Scholasticus, 274.

Exomologesis, 185.

Extension of Christianity, 18, 52-55, 156-159, 425-429, 566-570, 570-573, 602-605.

Fasting, 33, 38, 48 f., 71, 99, 166, 171, 232, 678.

Felicissimus, 212, 215-217.

Felicitas. See "Perpetua."

Felix of Aptunga, 291.

Fihrist of An Nadim, on Mani, 252-256.

Filioque, addition of, to the Creed, 577.

Firmilian, epistle of, on Stephen of Rome, 242-245.

Flavian of Constantinople, 512 ff.

Flora, Epistle of Ptolem?us to, 95-102.

Formula Macrostichos, 180.

Franks, conversion of, 570 ff.

Galen, 174.

Galerius, emp., 260, 262.

Gangra, council of, canons, 386, 413.

Gelasius of Rome, 531, 532-536.

Germans, Christianity among, 53.

Germanic State Church, 579-589.

Gladiatorial combats, abolishment of, 389.

Gnosticism, 50, 75-106, 126 f. See also "Simon," "Menander," "Cerdo," "Basilides," "Valentinus," "Ptolem?us."

Gospels, 35, 118, 120, 123.

Grace, controversy on. See "Augustine," "Pelagian Controversy," "Semi-Pelagian Controversy."

Gratian, emp., 366.

Gregory of Nazianzus, 353, 496 f.

Gregory of Nyssa, 502 f.

Gregory of Tours, 571 ff., 581 ff.

Gregory Thaumaturgus, 221 f.

Gregory the Great, 388, 590-602.

Hadrian, emp., 153.

Hatfield, council of (A. D. 680), 612.

Heathen slanders against Christianity, 61-64.

Heathenism, repression of, 285-287, 320-322, 346 f., 370-374, 557.

Heathenism, revival of, 330-336, 339.

Heathenism in the Church, 396 f., 400 f.

Heliogabalus, emp., religious policy of, 152.

Henoticon of Zeno, 526-529.

Heraclius, emp., 540, 660.

Heraclius, schism of, 270.

Heresy, laws against, 368, 372, 450-453.

Heretics, baptism of. See "Baptism."

Hermas, 43, 47, 48, 184.

Hertford, council of (A. D. 672), 609 ff.

Hierapolis, council of, 110.

Hierarchy, 128 f., 237 f., 360 ff., 562 f.

Hieronymus. See "Jerome."

Hilary of Poitiers, 316, 319.

Hippolytus, 68, 105, 108, 175-178.

Homoiousian party, rise of, 315-320.

Homoiousios, 316, 319, 348.

Homoousios, 306, 309, 316, 319, 348.

Honorius, emp., 420

Honorius of Rome, 671 f.

Hormisdas of Rome, 536.

Hosius, 299.

Hospitality, 40.

Hylics, 92 f.

Hymns, Christian, 21, 173.

Hypatia, 373.

Hypostasis, 193, 300, 306, 309, 315, 319, 349 ff.

Ibas. See "Three Chapters, controversy on."

Iconoclasm, 684 ff.

Ignatius of Antioch, 22, 30, 41 f.

Images, controversy on, 684 ff.

Incorruptibility, 136 ff.

India, Christianity in, 55.

[pg 703] Iren?us, on John, 26;

on Gnosticism, 78-81, 85 f., 92 f.;

on apostolic tradition and churches, 112-114;

on the gospels, 120;

on Apostles' Creed, 123 ff.;

on redemption, 136-138;

on eucharist, 139 f.;

on Easter controversy, 163 f.

Irene, empress, 685.

Istrian schism, 596-600.

Jerome, on fall of Rome, 421-423;

on text of New Testament, 485;

on Origen, 486 f.

Jews, relation of, to the Christians, 14-18.

John, Apostle, death of, 9, 10;

chiliastic teaching, 26 f.;

in Ephesus, 114, 116, 118;

founds order of bishops, 122.

John of Damascus on images, 691-693.

Jovian, emp., 337, 339.

Julia Mamm?a, 153 f.

Julian, emp., early life, 325-329;

habits, 329 f.;

opens temples, 330;

his ecclesiastical and religious policy, 330-334;

forbids Christians to teach classics, 334-336.

Julius of Rome, 310;

epistle of, 311;

appeals allowed to, 364.

Justin Martyr, on Jews, 16;

extension of Christianity, 18;

chiliastic views, 27;

on Christian worship, 32-35;

defence of Christianity, 72-75, 135.

Justin I, emp., 540.

Justinian I, emp., 541;

anathematisms against Origen, 542 f.;

Aphthartodocetism, 553 f.;

ecclesiastical legislation, 383, 554-560.

Lactantius, 206.

Lamb as image of Christ, 678 f.

Laodic?a, council of (c. A. D. 343), 399 f.

Lapsi, 208-212, 214-217.

Law, Mosaic, Gnostic conception of, 95 ff., 104.

Laws against Christianity, 19-22, 56, 145, 211.

Laws in favor of the Church, 281-285.

Legacy-hunting by clergy forbidden, 381 f.

Legislation, influence of the Church on, 284 f., 385 f.

Leo of Rome, on the Priscillianists, 378;

on auricular confession, 384;

on clerical celibacy, 417 f.;

represents Roman people, 476;

on Petrine prerogatives, 476 f.;

condemns 28th canon of Chalcedon, 478 f.;

on apostolic sees, 480;

his course in Eutychian controversy, 511 f.;

his Tome, 514.

Libellatici, 158, 209 f., 214 f.

Libelli pacis, 187, 215, 292.

Libri p?nitentiales, 626-630.

Licinius, emp., 263-265.

Little Labyrinth, 173-175.

Liutprand, king, 659, 686-690.

Logos, 72 f., 130-132, 171, 176, 193 f., 227 ff., 298 f., 304, 313.

Lombard Church, 597 ff., 683 f.

Lombards, 589, 600-602.

Lord's Day, 41, 232, 284.

Lord's Prayer with Doxology, 38.

Lord's Supper. See "Eucharist."

Lucian of Samosata, 55, 59-61.

Lucian the martyr, 303;

creed of, 313.

Luke, Gospel of, mutilated by Marcion, 103.

Luxeuil, foundation of, 587 f.

Macedonian heresy, 353 f., 524, 552, 666.

Magic among the Gnostics, 80, 87.

Malchion, 225 ff.

Mani and Manich?anism, 127, 252-256, 372;

laws against, 375, 559 f.;

persecution of, 376;

Augustine on, 454 f.

Marcellus of Ancyra, 310 ff.

Marcia, concubine of Commodus, 69.

Marcian, emp., 510.

Marcion, Gnostic, 103-106, 114, 119, 122.

Marcionites, 127.

Marius Mercator, on Pelagianism, 460.

Mark, Gospel of, 123.

Marriage, Christian, 106, 108, 168 f.;

compared with virginity, 168, 393;

indissolubility of, 43, 169, 392 f., 612;

second, 47, 169, 182.

Martin of Rome, 660.

Martin of Tours, 410, 427 ff.

[pg 704] Martyrdom, 65 f., 66-68.

Martyrs, anniversaries of, 401;

merits of, 167, 187, 212 f.;

intercession of, 399.

Mary, the Virgin, 30, 70, 81;

is Theotokos, 505, 511, 518, 520.

Massilians, 467.

Maximilla, Montanist prophetess, 107 f., 110.

Maximinus Thrax, emp., persecution under, 154 f.

Maximus the Confessor, 660.

Melchizedek, 173.

Meletius and the Meletian schism, 266-270, 293 f.

Meletius, Bishop of Antioch, 349.

Memnon of Ephesus, 504.

Menander, 81.

Merovingian Church, 581 ff.

Methodius of Olympus, his theory of recapitulation, 229 f.;

on the resurrection of the body, 230.

Metropolitans, 361, 363 f.

Milan, church of, 596 ff.

Milan, edict of, 263-265.

Minucius Felix, 61-64.

Miracles, Christian, 56, 153.

Mithras, 34, 150 f.

Monarchian controversies, 171-181, 221-229.

Monasteries, subject to bishops, 407.

See also "Monasticism."

Monastic rules. See "Basil," "Benedict of Nursia," "Pachomius," "Columbanus."

Monasticism, 248-251, 401-411, 586 ff., 617 f., 630-644.

Monophysite churches, 538 f.

Monophysite controversies, 511-514, 516 f., 522-529.

Monothelete controversy, 516, 539, 652 f., 660-672.

Montanism in the West, 145, 179, 181 f.

Montanus and Montanism, 106 ff., 109 ff., 120, 127, 372.

Moralism and moralistic Christianity, 45 ff., 134, 165 ff.

Morality, Christian, 28, 70 ff., 188.

Morality, double, 46, 48.

Moslems, 653-659.

Muratorian Fragment, 117-120.

Natalius, confessor, 174.

Neo-Platonism, 202-204, 430 ff.

Nepos, schism of, 219-221.

Nero, emp., persecution by, 5-7, 9.

Nestorian controversy, 504-511.

Nestorius, fragments on the doctrine of, 501 f.

New-Nicene Party, 348 f.

Nic?a, council of (A. D. 325), 292-295;

creed of, confirmed at Constantinople, A. D. 381, 353;

canons of, 360-362, 412;

doctrine of, enforced by law, 368;

Goths present at, 425;

(A. D. 787), definition of, 694-697.

Nice, Creed of, 318.

Ninian, 569.

Noetus, 109, 175, 178.

Novatian and Novatians, 217, 245, 247, 295 f., 374.

Oak, synod of the, 492.

Oblati, 639, 642.

Oblation, 168.

Offerings, 41.

Optatus, on sacraments and the Catholic Church, 446 f.

Orange, council of (A. D. 529), canons of, against Pelagianism, 472-476.

Ordination, of clergy, 41;

of bishops, 239.

Origen, 144, 153;

on eternal generation of the Son, 193;

eternal creation, 194;

pre-existence of souls, 195;

redemption, 196 f.;

universal salvation, 198 f.;

allegorism, 199;

persecution, 206;

martyrdom, 212 f.;

errors of, 486, 489;

condemnation of by Anastasius, 487 f.

Origenistic controversies, first, 483, 486-493;

second, 541 ff.

Original Sin, Augustine on, 438-440;

Pelagius on, 458, 460, 464 f.;

council of Orange, 473-475.

Orleans, council of (A. D. 511), 580, 618;

(A. D. 541), 618;

(A. D. 549), 580, 619.

Orthodoxy, enforcement of, 367, 370.

Ostrogoths, Church under, 529 f.

Ousia distinguished from hypostasis, 348 f.

[pg 705] Pachomius, Rule of, 402-405.

Palladius, bishop in Ireland, 567.

Pallium, 591, 604.

Pant?nus, 55, 189.

Papias, chiliastic ideas of, 25 f.

Paris, council of (A. D. 557), 581.

Parish, 616-620.

Patriarchates, 354, 359, 361.

Patrick, Irish missionary, 567-569.

Patripassianism, 125, 175 ff.

Paul, Apostle, death of, 8, 9, 23, 112 f., 116;

epistles of, 68, 103 f., 119, 122.

Paul of Samosata, 221, 225-229.

Paulinus of Antioch, 349.

Paulus Diaconus, 600 ff.

Pelagian controversy, 455-466.

Pelagius, 455;

Augustine on, 456 f.;

statement of position, 457 f.;

epistle to Demetrias, 458-460;

his confession of faith, 461;

condemnation at Carthage, 463-465;

condemnation at Ephesus, 508.

Penances, 626-630.

Penitential discipline. See "Discipline, penitential."

Pentecost, feast of, 165 f.

Peregrinus Proteus, 59-61.

Perpetua and Felicitas, Passion of, 145-149.

Persecution. See under name of Emperor.

Persia, Christians in, 54.

Peter, Apostle, death of, 8;

at Rome, 9, 23, 112 f., 116, 123.

Peter of Alexandria, 270.

Peter Fullo, 535 f.

Peter Mongus, 535 f.

Petrine authority, 180, 186, 243 f., 447, 477-481, 532.

Philip, Apostle, death of, 11.

Philip the Arabian, emp., religious policy of, 156.

Philippopolis, council of (A. D. 343), 364.

Philo Jud?us, 135.

Philosophy, 72 f., 78, 174, 190, 192.

Phocas, emp., 595.

Phrygian heresy, 375. See "Montanism."

Pictures. See "Icons."

Plato, 73 f.

Pleroma, Gnostic doctrine of, 90.

Pliny the Younger, epistle to Trajan, 19.

Pneumatics, 93.

Polycarp, 113, 129, 163 f.

Polycrates, 10, 162.

Poor. See "Charity."

Pope. See "Rome, Bishop of," also name of individual popes.

Pope, title of, 215, 408, note.

Porphyry, epistle to Marcella, 202-204.

Praxeas, 125 f., 178 f.

Prayer, 33 f., 38, 72, 165, 184.

Prayer, times of, 38, 166.

Prayers to saints, 397-399.

Predestination, 136, 440-442.

Presbyter, 31, 37, 41, 82.

Priscilla, Montanist, 107, 110.

Priscillianists, 375, 378 ff.

Prophecy, argument from Hebrew, 74, 134.

Prophets, Christian, 40 f.

Prosecution of Christians, 20, 66-68.

Pseudo-Dionysius. See "Dionysius the Areopagite."

Psychics, 92 f.

Ptolem?us, martyr, 65 f.

Ptolem?us, 93;

epistle to Flora, 95-102.

Pulcheria, empress, 512.

Quartodecimans, 108.

Quinisext Council (A. D. 692), 413-415, 673-679.

Ravenna, exarchate of, 653, 680, 684, 686 ff.

Real Presence, 31, 34, 231, 235.

Reccared, Visigothic king, 575-579.

Redemption, Asia Minor conception of, 136;

Origen's conception, 196 f.

Regula fidei, 125.

Relics, 398.

Remission of sin after baptism, 44, 184.

Resurrection of Christ, 59.

Resurrection of the body, 116, 230.

Rhodon, 104 f.

Robber synod of Ephesus (A. D. 449), 512.

Roman government, attitude of, toward [pg 706] Christians, 20-22, 64-69, 142-145, 151-154, 205-208, 258 f.

Rome, appeals to, 364-366.

Rome, bishops of, list of, 113;

election of, 679-683.

Rome, councils of, under Cornelius, 217;

under Julius, 310;

under Martin, 614, 664 f.

Rome, see of, and the Unity of the Church, 240-245.

Rome, see of, authority of, potior principalitas, 113;

statement of Siricius on, 416;

causa finita est, 462 f.;

statement of Leo the Great, 480, f.;

of Gelasius, 532.

Rome, see of, separation from the Churches of Asia Minor, 161-165.

Rufinus, 489.

Sabellius and Sabellianism, 180 f., 223 ff., 300, 309, 352, 354.

Sacraments, nature of, 447, 449 f., 564.

See also "Baptism" and "Eucharist."

Sacrifice of the mass, 622.

Saints, prayers to, 397, 399.

Sardica, council of (A. D. 343), canons, 364.

Saturninus, Gnostic, 106.

Schism. See under "Novatian," "Felicissimus," "Meletius," "Heraclius," "Donatism," "Istrian."

Schools, medi?val, 644, 650 f.

Scilitan Martyrs, 66-68.

Semi-Arians, 316.

Semi-Pelagians, 466-476.

Severus, Alexander, emp., religious policy of, 152 ff.

Severus, Septimius. emp., 141-149.

Simon Magus, 78 f., 103.

Siricius of Rome, decretal of, 415-417.

Sirmium, council and creed of (A. D. 357), 316.

Sixtus of Rome, 211.

Slaves, manumission of, 385, 387;

canons on treatment of, 386-388.

Socrates, Greek philosopher, 72 f., 131 f.

Socrates, ecclesiastical historian, 274.

Soter of Rome, 24.

Sozomen, ecclesiastical historian, 274.

Spain, Church in, 53, 158, 575 ff.

Spirit, Holy, 133, 187, 349, 351, 353, 577 ff. See also "Trinity."

State Church, 356, 358-384, 553-557, 579-585.

Stephen of Rome, 242-245.

Subintroduct?, 226, 412.

Suevi, 571, 575, f.

Sulpicius Severus, 410 f., 427 ff.

Sunday, 35, 284.

Sylvester of Rome, 291.

Symbol. See "Creed."

Symmachus of Rome, 530.

Symmachus, prefect of Rome, 339-342.

Synods. See "Council" and under place-name.

Syria, Christianity in, 54.

Syzygies, Gnostic doctrine of, 90, 94.

Tabenna, first cloister, 402.

Tacitus on Christians, 6.

Tatian, 106 f.

Telemachus, monk, 389.

Temples, destruction of, 372 f.

Tertullian, on extension of Christianity, 52-54;

on Gnostics, 77 f.;

on Marcion, 104;

on apostolic churches, 114-116, 122, 129;

on the creed, 125 f.;

in defence of Christians, 142 f., 145;

on prayer, 165;

on fasting, 166;

on baptism, 167, 232 f.;

on merit, 167 f.;

on marriage, 168 f.;

against Praxeas, 178 f.;

on discipline, 184-188.

Theodelinda, Lombard queen, 597 f.

Theodore of Canterbury, organization of English Church, 609-614;

penitential, 627-629;

founds schools, 650.

Theodore of Mopsuestia, his creed, 498-500;

fragments on Christology, 500 f.

See also "Three Chapters."

Theodoret of Cyrus, 127;

creed, 510.

See also "Three Chapters."

Theodosius I, ecclesiastical policy, 352 f.;

requires orthodoxy, 367;

represses heathenism, 368;

massacre at Thessalonica, 300 f.;

dynasty of, 420 f.

Theodosius II, issues Theodosian code, 424 f.;

engages in Nestorian controversy, 504, 510;

in Eutychian controversy, 511 f.

[pg 707] Theodotus of Byzantium, 172.

Theodotus the leather-worker, 110, 173 f.

Theopaschites, 523, 541 f.

Theophilus of Alexandria, attacks Chrysostom, 491-493.

Theophilus of Antioch, on Logos doctrine, 132;

on Trinity, 134.

Theotokos, Mary as the, 505, 511, 518, 520.

Three Chapters, controversy on, 544-552;

condemnation of, 551 f.;

schisms resulting from condemnation, 596 ff.

Toledo, council of (A. D. 531), on schools, 649;

(A. D. 589), conversion of Visigoths, 575-579.

Toleration of Christians by Edict of Milan, 263 ff.

Tradition, 109, 111 ff.;

Basil on, 484.

Traditores, 291 f.

Trajan, emp., epistle to Pliny, 22.

Trinity, 112 ff., 171-181, 222-225, 368.

Trisagion, 541 f.

True Word of Celsus, 56-59.

Typos of Constans II, 662-664.

Ulfilas, 425-427;

his creed, 426.

Unity of the Church, 240-245.

Universal salvation, 198.

Valens, emp., 337, 339.

Valentinian I, emp., 337 ff.

Valentinus, Gnostic, 78, 88-95, 106, 120.

Valerian, emp., persecution under, 205, 210 f.

Vicariate of Arles, 591 f.

Victor of Rome, 162 ff., 174.

Victorinus, philosopher, 431-433.

Vigilantius, 397 ff.

Vigilius of Rome, his Judicatum, 544;

oath to Justinian, 545;

Constitutum, 547-551.

Vincent of Lerins, rule of Catholic faith, 471;

on grace, 472.

Virgin-birth of Jesus, 30, 31.

Virginity compared with marriage, 168, 393 f.

Visigothic Church, 575-579.

Whitby, council of, 605 ff.

Will, freedom of, Theophilus on, 134;

Pelagius on, 457 ff.;

John Cassian on, 469.

Worship, Christian, 21, 32-35, 38 f., 156, 165, 231-237, 578.

Xystus of Rome. See "Sixtus."

Zeno, emp., Henoticon, 526-529.

Zephyrinus of Rome, 176 f.

Zosimus of Rome, on Pelagius, 463.

* * *



See Eusebius, Hist. Ec., III, 23, who gives quotations from Iren?us. This passage also gives a lengthy extract from the work of Clement of Alexandria, Quis dives salvetur, bearing on St. John's life at Ephesus (ANF. II, 591-604).


Reign of Domitian, 81-96.


Pontia was an island near Pandataria. The group is known as Ponti? Insul?. See DCB, art. "Domitilla, Flavia;" Eusebius, Hist. Ec., ed. McGiffert (PNF, ser. II, vol. I), III, 18, notes 4-6; also Lightfoot, Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians, p. 22, n. 1.


There are three leading critical editions of the Apostolic Fathers:

Patrum Apostolicorum Opera, edited by A. von Gebhardt, A. Harnack, and Th. Zahn, Leipsic, 1876, 1877, reprinted 1894 and since.

Opera Patrum Apostolicorum, edited by F. X. Funk, Tübingen, 1881. There is a very inexpensive reprint of the text in Krüger's Sammlung ausgew?hlter kirchen- und dogmengeschichtlicher Quellenschriften, 2te Reihe, 1 Heft. Funk's text is used in the following sections, but as the Apostolic Fathers are everywhere accessible no references are given to Migne.

The Apostolic Fathers, edited by J. B. Lightfoot, second ed., part I, 2 vols. (Clement of Rome), London, 1890; part II, 3 vols. (Ignatius and Polycarp), London, 1889; smaller ed. (containing all the Apostolic Fathers), London. 1890.

The most recent edition of the Apostolic Fathers is that of Kirsopp Lake, in the Loeb Classical Library, 1912 (text and translation on opposite pages).


Cf. Matt. 24:6, 22; Mark 13:7, 20. These words do not occur in the book of Enoch.


The writer quotes Ex. 31:18; 34:28; 32:7; Deut. 9:12.


I.e., so that they believed that circumcision should be made in the flesh and not taken spiritually.


ΙΗ or Ιη = ?ησου?. T was taken as a picture of a cross. For the Tau or Egyptian cross, see DCA, art. "Cross." The method of allegorical interpretation here used is that species known as gematria, in which the numerical equivalence of letters composing a word is employed as a key to mystic meaning. This differs somewhat from the ordinary gematria, for which see Farrar, History of Interpretation, 1886, pp. 98 ff., 445 f. Barnabas is by no means singular among early Christians in resorting to Jewish allegorical interpretation.


For the same charge brought against the Jews of stirring up hostility against the Christians, see Tertullian, Ad Nationes, I, 14; Adv. Marcionem, III, 23; Adv. Jud?os, 13; Origen, Contra Celsum, VI, 27.


Cf. Mai. 1:10-12.


The Christians at Rome seem, according to this statement, to have been in such a position that they might be able to interfere in the case of prisoners.


A possible reference to the presence of Peter and Paul at Rome, but by no means certain, as epistolatory commands would fulfil the conditions better. The connection of Peter with Rome, however, is very significant.


It can not be concluded from this that Ignatius was of servile condition. His journey to Rome in chains might be enough here to explain the language, especially when the style of Ignatius is considered.


Such were evidently Gnostics, as shown by their rejection of the God of the Jews.




Clement alters the passage slightly; see Is. 60:17.


The Greek is ?πισκοπ? (episcopē), meaning primarily "oversight."


This seems to be the occasion for this letter to the Corinthians. As they appear to be several, they correspond to presbyters rather than to bishops, and the use of the term "presbyters" in the passage sustains this interpretation.


The word rendered daily is ?πιο?σιον, the same as that used in Matt. 6:11.


Note the doxology also at the end of the other prayers.


The sense is: If a prophet speaking in the Spirit commands a meal to be prepared for the poor and should himself eat of it, it would be apparent that he ordered it for himself. But if he eats he must be a false prophet.


A most difficult and obscure passage. Various interpretations have been proposed; see the various editions of the Apostolic Fathers, especially Funk's. The rendering here given is strictly literal.


This passage is quoted at length by Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, II, 12, 13.


The first part of this quotation has not been identified; the conclusion is Matt. 7:23.


Cf. Acts 2:9 ff.


Probably Palestine is here meant.


The great Syrian goddess Atargatis.


Reference is obscure.


A reference to astrological doctrine.


There is good reason for believing that by India is meant what is now understood as India, and not Arabia. There was no little intercourse between India and the West, and we have the direct testimony of Dio Chrysostom, circa 100, that there was intercourse between Alexandria and India, and that Indians came to Alexandria to study in the schools of that city. See DCB, art. "Pant?nus."


Probably the Gnostics.


He had given his property to his native place.


Fronto. See W. Smith, Dict. of Greek and Roman Biography.


Cf. Hermas, Pastor, Sim. V, 3. ANF, II, 34.


I.e., the Logos; cf. previous chapter.


See Plato, Tim?us, p. 28c.


For a remarkable passage on the moral influence of Christ's teaching as a proof of the truth of His message, see Origen, Contra Celsum, I, 67 f.


For a discussion of this Helena, see Bousset, Die Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, 1907, pp. 77 ff.


Probably to be identified with his Exegetica.


Query: the antagonism between good and evil.


Very obscure: see ANF, and Routh, ad loc., and Neander, Ch. Hist., I, 402.


Routh, loc. cit., proposes as an emendation, "declared to be made."


A mystic name; it is the Hebrew for "line upon line," see Is. 28:10. It means norm or rule.


Cf. the doctrine of redemption among the Marcosians, a branch of the Valentinians, stated in Iren?us, Adv. H?r., I, 215.


Generally spoken of as hylics.


Cf. introductory note to following selection.


The term used for a sending forth is προβολ? or emanation, and is constantly used in Gnosticism; hence the objection on the part of the majority of Christian theologians to the use of the term in describing the relations of the members of the Trinity.


This negative seems to spoil the sense of the passage, and is omitted in some editions.


Simplicity is always regarded in ancient thought as a characteristic of Deity.


According to another reading, of this one.


A city of Thrace on the Black Sea.


See this passage as quoted in Eusebius, Hist. Ec., V, 6, and McGiffert's notes.


By a slight change in the order of the words, as suggested by Neander, the last two clauses might read more clearly: "To judge the quick and also the dead through the resurrection of the flesh."


Reference to the creation of the sun, moon, and stars on the fourth day of creation.


Probably his wet-nurse was a Christian.


On the occasion of his triumphal entry into Rome.


From here text in Kirch, nn. 84 ff.


Probably the reference is to the privilege of celebrating the eucharist, and not merely the reception of the sacrament from the hands of Anicetus.


Here, as elsewhere in Tertullian, the oblation, or sacrifice, or offering, is the prayers of the faithful, and not the eucharist.


The word substance as used here in connection with the nature of the Trinity has not taken its later meaning and use.


I.e., the followers of Praxeas, who are here introduced as speaking.


Not ο?σ?α, but ?ποκειμ?νω.


Sacerdotes, and so throughout.


A person married a second time, i.e., after the death of his first wife.


Cf. Acts 2:22.


Proverbs 4:8, 9.


I.e., having rule over all, not merely able to do all, and so throughout.


The Greek is preserved here and throws light on the reasoning. The Latin omnipotens stands for παντοκρ?τωρ.


I.e., it is not certain rites nor certain beliefs that give merit to our worship.


The term papa is applied to Cyprian several times in the extant epistles addressed to him.


I.e., Rome. There was a vacancy at that time, A. D. 250. in the episcopate of Rome and the clergy administered the affairs of that church sede vacante.


I.e., the pure ones.


In the next chapter of Eusebius (= VII, 25) there are the critical reasons against the apostolic authorship of the Revelation of St. John, based upon a critical comparison with the Fourth Gospel and the Epistles of St. John, reasons which are still current in radical critical circles.


The bracketed phrases are doubtful.


Gregory uses the term Trias for Trinity here and throughout.


On the whole passage, cf. I Cor. 15:42 ff.


Sanguis Christi incipit esse sine nobis. Paschasius Radbertus quotes this. De corpore et sanguine Domini, ch. II, MSL, 120:1308.


Reference to the possibility of detecting Christians in times of persecution by the odor of wine which they had received in the eucharist early in the morning.


Ex. 12:6.


Psalm. 141:2.


I Cor. 11:26.


This whole passage is supposed to be addressed to Stephen. Cf. the opening words of § 25.


Eph. 4:1-6 follows.


Or. Fonnak.


The author is a Moslem, and therefore speaks of Jesus with great respect; Mani regarded Jesus as evil.


This is undoubtedly a mistake.


Important material has been recently recovered from Turfan in Chinese Turkestan, reported by Messrs. Stein, Le Coq, and F. K. W. Müller, in Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Academie, for 1904, p. 348; for 1905, p. 1077; for 1908, p. 398; for 1909, p. 1202; for 1910, pp. 293, 307.


By primal man is not meant the first of mankind on earth, but a supernatural being.


Bishop of Alexandria.


See next selection.


Diocletian persecution, A. D. 306.








A folle was a sum of money, possibly 208 denarii.


I.e., as to offering sacrifices.


V. infra, § 62, Introduction.


V. supra, §§ 59 f.




?ξ ο?κ ?ντων, the phrase which was afterward the foundation of the Arian sect of the Exoukontians.


Psalm 24:10; Hebrew, The Lord of Hosts; LXX, The Lord of Powers.


Some texts insert "seen nor."






?ξ ο?κ ?ντων.


I.e., in forcing the Donatists to return to the Church.


The temporary defeat of the Donatist party which was celebrated at the Council of Carthage in 348-349. See Hefele, § 70.


Tombs built in the shape of altars which were table-shaped.


The metatores were those who were sent ahead of a troop of soldiers to provide for quartering them upon the inhabitants.


The religion of the pagans.


I.e., Christianity.


See DCB, art. "Apollinaris the Elder."


As the destruction of the altar of Victory.


I.e., by Julian and Valentinian.


The rest of the petition is taken up chiefly with a protest against the confiscation of the endowments for the vestal virgins.


Allusion to the very brief reign of several.


Valerian taken captive by Sapor.




Reference to the "thirty tyrants."


V. supra, § 63.


Hypostasis or ousia; cf. the Nicene definition, § 63, g.


The Apollinarian heresy.


I.e., following.


I.e., of their diocese.


In the sense of patriarchal province, following the use of the word "diocese" in the administrative system of the Empire. It should be noted that the patriarchal council seems not to have become well defined in the Church's system and never to have come into actual use.


For the development of the ecumenical council, see below, § 91, a. This scheme of nicely adjusted appeals never took permanent place in the Church owing to obvious difficulties.


This sixth canon of Nic?a very early received the title: "Concerning the Primacy of the Roman Church." and had this addition placed as its first clause: "The Roman Church has always had the primacy." In this form the canon was cited by the Roman legates at the Council of Chalcedon in 451.


Here, as generally, parish means diocese.


This is the seventh canon of the Latin version of the canons.


I.e., Bishop of Rome.


I.e., ecclesiastical position.


I.e., bishops.


I.e., episcopal sees.


See Socrates, Hist. Ec., V, 10.


In the code of Justinian this reads "Manich?ans and Donatists."


For further detail of the history of the Priscillianists, see Sulpicius Severus, Sacred History, II, 46-51. (PNF, ser. II, vol. XI.)


I.e., ascetics and monks.


Priest, sacerdos, is here used, as so often, not for presbyter but for bishop.


As this was addressed to Theodorus, the pr?torian prefect, the authority of the decision is rendered of the highest character.


In a usufruct the title remained with the grantor, and the grantee merely had the use or enjoyment of the land.


On the principle that one who had a life interest in property (and only such the bishop had) could alienate for a period not extending beyond his natural life.


The peculium of the slave, property which he was allowed to possess but only by the sufferance of the master.


The Constitution ends here in Justinian's collection.


Cf. Paulinus, Vita Ambros. MSL, 14:37.


I.e., of returning to her former home and condition.


I.e., in distinction from Paulus the eminent Roman lawyer, a contemporary of Papinian.


Fabiola (cf. DCB) on whose death Jerome is here writing to her husband Oceanus.


See I Cor. 7:1 ff.


Cf. Council of Carthage, A. D. 398, Can. 13. "When the bridegroom and bride are to be blessed by the priest they are to be presented by their parents and paranymphs. And let them when they have received the benediction remain in virginity the same night out of reverence for the benediction."


I.e., of Antioch, where Chrysostom was a presbyter and delivered these homilies.


The name given to the extensive charitable institutions founded by Basil.


For this conception of the value to the giver to be found in almsgiving, see above, § 39, h.


"Shut up in the altar" is another reading.


Cf. Suetonius, Vita Tiberii, c. 36, expulsit et mathematicos. Probably they were a sort of fortune-tellers, computers of nativities, etc. Cf. Hefele, loc. cit.


The title of pope which was not yet restricted even by Latins to the bishop of Rome was in general use as the title of the bishop of Alexandria.


Successor of Athanasius in the see of Alexandria.


Cf. Apostolic Canons, 6, 27; also Council of Neo-C?sarea. Can 1.


Note the extraordinary form in which the clergy are apparently forbidden to do what in reality the council commands; namely, that they should abandon marital relations with their wives. Cf. Hefele, loc. cit. Can. 80 of Elvira uses the same uncouth phraseology.


This last point was considerably modified by the subsequent canon law.


See Putzger, Historischer Schul-Atlas, 1905.


Stilicho, on whose advice the Senate granted a subsidy to Alarich, in 408 of four thousand pounds of gold.


Capture of Rome, A. D. 410, by Alarich.


The termination is fragmentary.


At the time a bishop.


I.e., Simplicianus had baptized Ambrose.


This is hardly fair to Victorinus and his pre-Christian religious views.


This is the phrase which so deeply offended Pelagius; Da quod jubes, et jube quod vis.


This figure of the two cities is the motif of the whole work, in which the idea is developed in the greatest detail.


See Augustine's treatise On the Gift of Perseverance, PNF, ser. I, vol. V.


This distinction is of importance in Augustine's theory of the Church.


He has been explaining the significance of the references to the three sons of Noah.


Dupin in his edition of Optatus, ad. loc., points out that there were current two etymologies of Catholic; according to one κατ? λ?γον it meant reasonable, and according to the other, κατ? ?λον general or universal.


The expression opponere obicem became in scholastic theology of great importance in connection with the ex opere operato nature of the sacraments of the New Law. On this whole matter of the sacraments in the Fathers, see Schwanne, Dogmengeschichte, § 93, which is very clear and helpful, especially as showing the basis of scholastic theory of the sacraments in the patristic period, and that, too, without doing violence to his authorities.


The basis of the doctrine of the indelible character of baptism. Cf. Augustine, Contra epist. Parm., II, 13. 28. "Each [baptism and the right of giving baptism] is indeed a sacrament, and by a certain consecration each is given to a man, this when he is baptized, that when he is ordained; therefore in the Catholic Church it is not lawful to repeat either." Cf. next passage.


This was written after the conference with the Donatists in 411, in which victory was adjudged to the Catholics.


These commentaries were falsely published under the name of Jerome and may be found in his works. (MSL, 30:670.)


Some manuscripts add "and death through sin."


For the discussion on appeals across the sea, i.e., to Rome, see Hefele. § 119; A. W. Haddan, art. "Appeal" in DCA.


Hermas, Pastor, Man. VI. (ANF, vol. II.)


The references are to Augustine, De Dono Perseveranti?, ch. 23 [64], and to Prosper of Aquitaine's epistle to Augustine, see Augustine, Ep. 225. Citations from both in PNF, ser. II, vol. XI. p. 158.


Reference to the Council of Constantinople, 381, known as the Second General Council, but not yet acknowledged as such; see above, § 71.


The elevation of the see at Constantinople to supremacy in the East.


Cf. Ep. 14, ad Anastasium, written somewhat later: "From which model [the difference in the rank and order of the Apostles] has arisen a distinction between bishops also, and by an important ordinance it has been provided that every one should not claim everything for himself; but that there should be in each province one whose opinion should have priority among the brethren; and again, that certain whose appointment is in the greater cities should undertake fuller responsibility, through whom the care of the universal Church should converge toward Peter's one seat, and nothing anywhere should be separated from its head."


This probably refers to "the four long brothers."


The friendly treatment Nestorius had given the exiled Pelagians, when they came to Constantinople, had led the men of the West to connect Nestorianism with Pelagianism and to condemn the two as if there was some necessary connection between them.


I.e., not mere appearance without reality, as in Docetism and Monophysitism.


Hefele. loc. cit., interprets the phrase, invicem sunt as a mutual interpenetration.


In explanation of this Leo adds further on: To be hungry and thirsty, to be weary and to sleep, is clearly human; but to satisfy five thousand men with five loaves, and to bestow on the woman of Samaria living water … is, without doubt, divine.… It is not the part of the same nature to be moved to pity for a dead friend, and when the stone that closed that four days' grave was removed, to raise that same friend to life with a voice of command.


See PNF, ser. II. vol. XIV; To Nestorius, p. 197; To the Easterns, i.e., to John of Antioch (Cyril, Ep. 39), p. 251.


See above, the Tome of Leo.


It was charged against Eutyches that he taught that the Son brought His body with Him from heaven. This Eutyches denied.


This is the position of Eutyches. Cyril of Alexandria also taught the same; cf. Loofs, Leitfaden zum Studium der Dogmengeschichte, 1906, § 37, 2.


Cyril's phrase was "The one nature of the incarnate Logos"; cf. Ottley, The Doctrine of the Incarnation, 1896, II, 93.


The text of this passage, the most important dogmatically, may be found in all the references given above.


Against Eutyches, who denied this point, and also against Apollinaris, v. supra, § 88, a.


The Nestorians were accused of dividing the person of Christ into two Sons.


The present Greek text reads "of two natures," but "in two natures" was the original reading. For the evidence, see Hefele, § 193 (Eng. trans., III, p. 348, note); see also Hahn, § 146, n. 34. "Of" appears to be an early forgery. On the other side, see Dorner, History of the Doctrine of the Person of Christ, Eng. trans., div. II, vol. I, p. 411; Baur, Dreieinigkeit, I, 820 f.


Πρ?σωπον and ?π?στασι? are here used as probably not distinguishable; see Hatch, Hibbert Lectures, pp. 275 ff.; Loofs in PRE, V, 637, I. 12.


I.e., teaching as to these points in the form of a definition.


It is to be noted that condemnation of Eutyches is not confirmed.


This left the theological situation precisely as it was after the "Latrocinium Ephesinum" of 449.


Matt. 16:18 f.


The list is given in the early part of the epistle not here given: see Preuschen, loc. cit.


The Twelve Anathematisms of Cyril against Nestorius.


Sanctum frenum. Query: Does this refer to the tradition that Constantine made out of the nails of the cross a bit for his horse?


Heb. 5:7, 8.


Same word used as for ordination of clergy.


Hellenic, and so throughout.


By hierarch is to be understood in this connection the episcopal order, or the bishop.


Cf. Epistula, VIII, 2. (MSG, 3:1092.) "Every order of the ecclesiastical hierarchy has relation to God and is more godlike than that which is further removed from God, and lighter and more illuminating in all that is nearer to the true light. Do not understand this nearness in a local sense: it has reference rather to the ability to receive God."


The highest order of all the consecrated orders is the holy order of monks.


The Irish were known as Scots. The name Scotland was given to that country on account of invaders from North Ireland.


I.e., not necessarily a pagan, but he did not love God, or was not yet "converted."


In the meanwhile he had escaped to France and lived there.


Where Patrick had lived as a slave.


This reference to Ninian is the most important there is; in fact, Bede is here the chief authority for the work of this missionary.


Whitherne, Galloway.


I.e., Irish tongue.


Rules for computing Easter.


It had been at Soissons after 486, and before that at Tournay.


In 465, under the influence of the Visigoths, the Suevi, formerly Catholic, had embraced Arianism.


"Let all the churches of Spain and Gallicia observe this rule, that at every time of offering of the sacrifice and before the communion of the body and blood of Christ, according to the custom of the Oriental parts, all should repeat together with a clear voice the most sacred symbol of the faith, that first the people may speak the faith which they hold, and they may bring hearts purified by faith to the reception of the body and blood of Christ. For so long as this constitution be perpetually observed in the Church of God, the entire belief of the faithful will be confirmed, and the false faith of the infidels be confuted, in order that one may be very easily inclined to believe what one hears very often repeated, neither shall any one excuse himself from all blame by pleading ignorance of the faith, when he knows from the mouth of all what the Catholic Church holds and believes." (From the Speech of Reccared, cf. Mansi, loc. cit.)


Here, as very often, the bishops attending a council are spoken of as priests. The term "priest" had not become identified with "presbyter." The bishop was a sacerdos or priest. The presbyter was also a sacerdos.


This testimonial, or certificate of election, was to be presented to the king that he might give his assent; cf. § 94.


The kings appear to have attempted to appoint bishops without canonical election. This was never recognized by the Church as lawful on the part of the king and was always opposed. See next selection from Gregory of Tours.


Testimonial of election.


I.e., Clermont-Ferrand.


See Greg. Tour., III. 19. Cf. DCB, art. "Gregorius (29)." He was bishop of Langres.


St. Martin of Tours, the patron saint of the church of Tours.


Eufronius was the predecessor of Gregory of Tours, the author of this passage.


At one time metropolis of Novempopulania; when it was destroyed in the ninth century, the dignity passed to Auch, where it remained.


Bishop of Bourdeaux.


At Ma?on.


The formal certificate of election.




Bishop Bertchramnus's.


I.e., if he be one of the court chaplains.


Sigibert appears to have been born 629.


Rather the thirtieth according to some MSS., which seems to be more in accord with what has gone before.




Fontenay or Fontaines.


Near Autun.


What is now Switzerland was then regarded as a part of Germany, Allemania.


This has not been preserved. But Bobbio, subsequently founded, became a stronghold of the Catholic faith against Arianism.


Bobbio, twenty-five miles southwest from Piacenza.


Evagrius, Hist. Ec., VI. 7.


I.e., to be the apocrisiarius at the court of the Emperor.


See Gieseler, KG, Eng. trans. I, p. 396, n. 72.


Theodelinda held to the schismatic party in Northern Italy. Gregory is careful to touch this point very delicately, and not to allow it to become such a point of contention as might disturb favorable political relations.


Gregory is not correct here. In the eighth, ninth, and tenth sessions of the Council of Chalcedon, the cases of Theodoret and Ibas were examined, they were heard in their own defence and were acquitted or excused without censure. See Hefele, §§ 195, 196. The case of Theodore of Mopsuestia, however, did not come before the Council of Chalcedon, because he was dead. v. supra, § 93, the Constitutum of Vigilius.


I.e., in communion with the Roman see.


Boniface III, 606-607.


Boniface IV, 607-615.


He was not a professed Catholic. It probably means either that he held fast to his political alliance with Rome, or that he was determined to favor the Catholic faith professed by his spouse.


There are several letters written by Gregory to Romanus available in translation, see above.


Augustine had been consecrated in Gaul. His successors in the see of London were to be consecrated by the suffragans of that archiepiscopal see.


Bishop of Lindisfarne, 652-662.


In 645, 647, 648, 651. It would occur again in 665.


Bishop of the West Saxons, temporarily in Northumbria.


Coming from Rome under the circumstances in which he was sent, this book of the canons can be no other than the collection of Dionysius Exiguus.


See below, § 105.


Cf. Bede, Epistula ad Egberium Episcopum; Plummer, op. cit., I. 412 f.


The Monothelete doctrine, which appeared to be a form of Eutychianism because of its close connection with Monophysitism. v. infra, § 108.


A. D. 649, Against the Monotheletes, see Hefele, § 307; v. infra. § 108; see Hahn, § 181, for the Anathematism of the Council; Haddan and Stubbs, op. cit., III. 145-151.


Constans II, also known as Constantine IV; see DCB.


Matitutinarum vel vespertinarum missarum. The term "mass" is here applied, not to the eucharist, but to Matins and Vespers. See Hefele, § 222, on this canon.


Cf. canon 4, Council of Clermont, A. D. 535 (Bruns, II, 188): "The clergy are not in any way to be set against their bishops by the secular potentates."


The employment of the technical term purgatorium to designate the place and fires of purification is very much later, and not defined until the thirteenth century as the official and technical word, although used long before that time in theological discussion.


Member of household, a servant.


In case of assault and battery.


The preceding rules are clearly matter of moral direction, and indicate the transition from general advice to a scale of sins and punishments, such as follows.


I.e., in a monastery.


Another reading, 4.


For the rule of Columbanus, see MSL, 80:209 ff.


This with the two preceding are the three vows of the Benedictine monk.


Lacuna in text.


The conclusion of the mass.


V. supra, § 100.


Further on, Bede mentions Putta, bishop of Rochester, who was "extraordinarily skilful in the Roman style of church music, which he had learned from the pupils of the holy pope Gregory."


Monasticism had already begun to decline as the monasteries increased in wealth and numbers. The decline continued into the next century, when the Church was at its worst condition about the beginning of the reign of Alfred. The revival of monasticism was not until the tenth century as a result of the Cluny Reform.


See Arabic Gospel of the Infancy, c. 46; ANF, viii, 415.


Probably banana is meant.


I.e., the celestial damsels.


An intensely bitter tree.


Charles Martel.


A. D. 732, Battle of Tours and Poitiers.


The shrine of later construction may still be seen in the Cathedral of Pavia. It is not improbable that the genuine relics of St. Augustine are here.


Note that this is not "the one nature of the Word of God become flesh," the formula most commonly employed by Cyril, and to be distinguished from this, though Cyril sometimes appears to use the two contrary to his own distinction.


The phrase of Dionysius was not "one theandric energy" but "a new theandric energy."


I.e., the incarnation, term so used constantly in Greek theology.


The Ecthesis.


From here text in Denziger.


Latin reads: our Lord Jesus Christ.


For this council, see Hefele, § 314.


From here the text may be found also in Hahn, § 150.


Prosopon, and so throughout.


Hypostasis, and so throughout.


Latin: God the Word.


The preceding is but a recapitulation of Chalcedon; see above, § 90.


I.e., Gregory Nazianzus.


Leo, Ep. ad Flavianum, ch. 4: Agit enim utraque forma cum alterius communione quod proprium est, Verbo scilicet operante quod Verbi est, et carne exsequente quod carnis est; unum horum coruscat miraculis, aliud succumbit iniuriis; v. supra, § 90, b.


Greek: economic life.


Latin adds: indivisibly and unconfusedly.


Here, as elsewhere, "natural will" means such a will as belongs to a nature, divine or human.


The Emperor to whom the report is made.


The most important parts of this are to be found in Hahn, § 235.


Decretal letters.


I.e., Gregory Nazianzus.


Probably that of 256.


I.e., Saturdays.


See canon 69 of the Apostolic Canons, which prescribed fasting on the Saturday before Easter, or the Preparation.


John the Baptist.


The Edict says seventy-sixth year.


In the duchy of Spoleto.


I.e., a picture, and not a statue, for these had been forbidden long since.


Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and Ancona.


Duces can hardly mean dukes here.


Governor of Naples under the Emperor.


These names are not all to be identified. Auximanum, however, is Osimo, south of Ancona; Ferronianus is Fregnano, near Modena; Montebelli or Monte Veglio is west of Bologna; Persiceta is also near Bologna, which Paulus Diaconus says was taken by the Lombards, op. cit., VI, 49.


From Sept. 1, A. D. 727, to Sept. 1, A. D. 728.


One hundred and forty, according to another reading.


Aurifer, or, according to another reading, Lucifer.


Both duchies were nominally under the king of the Lombards, but it is very probable that they were attempting to free themselves from his rule.


The Campus Neronis was outside the walls of Rome, as they then extended and adjoined the Vatican.


Barberino, fifteen miles east of Civita Vecchia.


This was his real name.


See introduction to this extract.


See next selection.


I.e., in pictures.


John had a strong argument here as the Iconoclasts reverenced the true cross.


θεομ?τω?, not θεοτ?κο?.


Cf. Basil, De Spiritu, ch. 27; v. supra, § 87, for Basil on the force of tradition.


The creed of Nic?a is not here recited, only the so-called creed of Constantinople, but without the filioque in the Greek.




I.e., monks.

* * *

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