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   Chapter 20 TAPS.

A Gunner Aboard the Yankee"" By Russell Doubleday Characters: 33929

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:02


The days following our arrival at Guantanamo were days of keen expectation and equally keen disappointment. A rumor that we were to return home at once would start up from nowhere in particular, and circulate until it was believed. Then would come a denial and consequent discontent. The enforced idleness of riding at anchor day after day became so monotonous at last, that any little incident served to create excitement. Visiting parties between the ships were permitted occasionally, and the "Yankee's" crew grasped the opportunity to inspect some of the other auxiliary cruisers. One or two liberty parties were allowed ashore at Camp McCalla, from which the men returned, tired and warm, but full of enthusiasm and interest for the things they had seen. The amount of "curios" and souvenirs brought aboard would fill a museum. Pieces of projectiles and Mauser cartridge shells, fragments of an unusual red wood, and pieces of fossil rock, of which the cliff was composed, were stowed away in bags and ditty boxes.

The bay now had a very deserted appearance. All the battleships and many of the cruisers had gone North. The auxiliary cruisers, "New Orleans," "Newark," "Marblehead," and a number of converted yachts were all that remained, besides our own vessel. It was still a goodly fleet, but in comparison to the great squadron, seemed small.

For the first time we were at a loss for something to do. Time hung heavy on our hands. The routine work, including morning "quarters," was finished by half-past ten every morning, and the balance of the day was spent as pleased us best, within certain well-defined limits.

Much time and thought were spent in chasing down rumors, and watching signals from the flagship.

Troopships from Santiago, laden with homeward-bound troops, sailed by the mouth of the harbor, but we, the first volunteers to reach the seat of war and to see active service, still lingered. The "Resolute" and "Badger" left at last, and it was rumored that we would follow next day. But still we lingered.

Occasionally we got mail that told of home doings, and almost every letter finished with, "I suppose that you will soon be home, now that peace is declared." But still we lingered.

We knew that we could hardly expect to be relieved at once; that there were many arrangements to be made in the Navy Department; many orders to be signed, and new plans to be formulated. But the thought carried little comfort with it. The pangs of homesickness were getting a strong hold on us.

Dr. "Gangway" McGowan had the ship's carpenter nail a nice, smooth piece of board over a hole in the wire netting of his cabin door; some wag took advantage of the opportunity, and lettered plainly the following, on its white surface:

He would have done a rushing business if he could have found a sure cure for homesick "heroes."

On Tuesday, August 23d, our depression reached its culminating point, for the word had been passed unofficially that we might lay here indefinitely-two weeks, a month, three months-there was no telling when we would get away from what had become a hateful spot to us. The men went about with a dejected air, and while all were good-natured enough, there was little inclination to talk.

As night drew near, we saw several troopships pass the harbor homeward bound, and the sight did not lighten our gloom.

When the sun finally sank, we were as melancholy a crowd as ever trod a deck.

The men gathered in little groups, bewailing in monosyllables the decidedly gloomy future, when some one glanced up and saw that Commodore Watson's flagship, the "Newark," was showing the general signal lights. Then, as the answering lights blazed on the other ships, the red and white lanterns began to spell out a message.

The news spread at once that the flagship was signalling a general message or one of interest to the whole fleet.

Soon the rail was lined with signal boys, and signal boys, pro tem.

Those who could read them, spelled the messages aloud, letter by letter.

"'Y-A-N-K-E-E' A-N-D 'N-I-A-G-A-R-A' W-I-L-L

S-A-I-L F-O-R T-O-M-P-K-I-N-S-V-I-L-L-E T-O-M-O-R-R-O-W.

'D-I-X-I-E' A-N-D 'F-E-R-N'

W-I-L-L G-O T-O H-A-M-P-T-O-N R-O-A-D-S."

With a single bound all was changed from gloom to gladness.

No man could say how glad he was, but every man felt his heart grow warm within him. There was a deep feeling of gratitude for the providential care we had received, and for the happy release that now had come.

"Cupid," the ship's bugler, played "Home, Sweet Home," and instead of mobbing him as we would have done had he played it three hours earlier, we applauded. He also played "America," and then "Dixie," in honor of our Maryland friends on our sister ship of that name. It pleased them mightily, as was evidenced by the cheer that came over the quiet water to us. Their bugler returned the compliment soon after by playing "Yankee Doodle."

There was much good feeling when the men went below, to turn in, but not to sleep; we were too happy for that.

As the talk and laughter gradually died down (the order, "Turn in your hammocks and keep silence," was not very strictly observed that night), a voice would be heard singing-not always the same voice:

"But we'll all feel gay when

The 'Yankee' goes sailing home."

The following morning Scully did not have to repeat "up all hands," for he had hardly got the words out of his mouth before every man was scrambling into his clothes as fast as he could.

Soon after breakfast the order was given to hoist up the catamaran, and then the rest of the boats were pulled up one by one. The boat's falls were run away with in a fashion that made the officers smile. The tackle-blocks fairly smoked.

The only thing that marred our perfect joy was the departure of some of the marines to the "New Orleans." We had grown to like them all very much, and especially a pleasant fellow we dubbed "Happy," because of his unvarying cheerfulness. We had hoped to bring them all back with us, and were sorry to see them go.

We listened with eager ears for the final order before sailing, "All hands on the cat falls," and just before noon we heard it. In ready response the men came tumbling up, and in a jiffy the anchor was pulled up as if it weighed five hundred, instead of five thousand pounds.

The leadsman stood on his little platform and sang out, as he heaved the lead, the number of fathoms. It was the last touch we had of Cuban soil.

As the old ship gathered headway, cheer after cheer rang out from the ships that were left behind, and in answer to each, our crew, which had gathered on the forecastle, gave three rousing hurrahs and a tiger.

So we sailed out of Guantanamo Bay for the last time.

It was with a feeling of sadness mixed with joy that we watched the headland, that stands like a guard on one side of the bay, disappear in the haze. We were one of the first ships to enter its then hostile portals. We had gained renown there; we had seen the American flag raised on its beautiful shores, and but a few minutes ago we heard a ringing American cheer come over its clear waters, bidding us Godspeed and a joyful home coming.

The voyage home was like a triumphal journey. All hands were in high spirits. The gloom of a few hours before was dispelled by the talismanic words, "'Yankee' and 'Niagara' will sail for Tompkinsville."

Though we were exceedingly glad, there was a good deal of quiet thinking going on.

One and all realized that we had been exposed to no ordinary dangers. Danger from the enemy's fire; danger from a deadly climate; danger from the effects of unaccustomed labor; danger from wind and raging sea. We had been brought through safe and sound by an all-wise God to lead peaceful, useful, and, it is hoped, helpful lives at home.

This same thought had been in our minds many times before, and with the feeling of thankfulness would come a sense of surprise that we should pass through it all without harm.

We sped on and on, the ship's prow ever pointed North. We watched the water to note the change in color; to see when the blue water of the Gulf Stream should be left behind and the green northern sea should be entered.

As we neared New York our impatience grew with every added mile, and this eagerness was felt by officers as well as men.

We sometimes forgot that our officers were capable of feeling disappointment, impatience, and joy; that they also had to stand watch and get along on short allowance of sleep; that they, too, were subject to annoyances as well as we. If we had not felt this before, we fully realized, now, how much our officers had done for us.

Lieutenants Duncan, Greene, and Barnard, Dr. McGowan, Ensigns Dimock and Andrews, always treated us fairly and honestly.

Every man has a deep-seated feeling of loyalty and affection for them that will last as long as life shall last.

As the tropical latitudes were left astern the nights became cool, and the watch on deck had the novel experience of walking post in pea coats. Shortly after daybreak on the twenty-seventh of August the Atlantic Highlands were sighted, and, to quote one of the forecastle men, "All hands shouted to see God's country once more!"

Though we had seen the Highlands, Sandy Hook, and all the familiar landmarks of the harbor many times, never had they seemed so attractive.

The steam vessels we met tooted a welcome, as our identity became known, and the sailing craft dipped their colors in salute.

Inside the Narrows, and ranged along the Staten Island shore, we found our companions of the Santiago blockade, and, as we passed through the fleet to our anchorage, the crew stood at "quarters" in their honor.

We heard later of the great reception these tried and true fighting ships of Uncle Sam's had received, and we only regretted that we were not present to add our little mite to the applause.

After two days' stay off Tompkinsville, during which time the ship was fairly overrun with visitors eager to see the "Yankee" and her crew of "heroes," we steamed through the Narrows en route for League Island. Orders had arrived from Washington providing for the paying off and discharge of the New York Naval Reserves, and little time was lost in obeying.

On reaching League Island, the naval station near Philadelphia, we found the old-time war monitors "Nahant" and "Jason" in port. The crew of the "Nahant," made up of the New York Naval Reserves, were in readiness to accompany the "Yankee's" crew back to the metropolis.

While waiting for the specified date-Friday, September 2d-bags were packed for the last time, and all preparations made for leaving the ship. Now that the hour for departure was rapidly approaching, many of the boys began to express regrets. Despite the hardships attending the cruise, it had brought many happy days-days made pleasurable by novel and strange surroundings-and it is not claiming too much to say that not one of the "Yankee's" crew would have surrendered his experience.

Friendships had been formed, too-friendships cemented by good fellowship and mutual peril. Those who have spent many days at sea know that acquaintances made on shipboard in the midst of calms and storms and the dangers of the deep, are lasting. And that was now being impressed upon the boys of the "Yankee."

While the crews of the "Nahant" and "Yankee" were preparing for the railway trip to New York, arrangements were being made in that city for a rousing welcome to the returning Naval Reserve Battalion.

Shortly after ten the boys were mustered aft to hear Captain Brownson's parting speech. In his usual brisk manner he said that we were now to go back to our peaceful avocations; to our homes; to join our relatives and friends, and to become again private citizens. He ended by wishing us the best of luck.

The cheers that followed shook the old ship from keel to topmast, nor were the cheers for Lieutenant Hubbard any the less hearty.

A very few minutes after, we piled into a tug and steamed away. Little was said, for there was a feeling of real regret: we were fond of the old boat, after all.

"Patt," the gunner's mate; the marines, and the few men of the engineer force who stayed on board, waved good-by.

We boarded a special train with the crew and officers of the "Nahant," and were soon speeding over the level country towards New York.

After a very fast trip we reached Jersey City, where we were fitted out with rifles and belts, and were met by the band that was to lead us through the city.

MARCHING THROUGH CITY HALL PARK, NEW YORK CITY (page 295).

The people of New York turned out to give us a rousing welcome.

It was a welcome we shall never forget-a welcome that made us forget all hardships, all dangers. Whatever pride we may have had in our achievements was drowned in that thunderous greeting; we were humbled, for real heroes could hardly have deserved such a reception.

The Mayor stood in front of the City Hall and reviewed us, and later we were reviewed by the President himself, at Madison Square.

As the head of the column turned down Twenty-sixth Street, heading to our old receiving ship the "New Hampshire," the band struck up "Home, Sweet Home." The men still marched with heads erect and eyes to the front, but many of those eyes were dimmed with a moisture that almost prevented their owners from seeing the long, homeward-bound pennant that floated from the masthead of the old frigate.

As for the greeting given by mothers and sisters and relatives of every degree and by friends assembled on the "New Hampshire," that is one experience that cannot be described; it must be felt to be appreciated. Suffice it that every member of the New York Naval Battalion felt amply repaid for the hardships endured and the sacrifices made in the service of Old Glory. And if the occasion should again arise for the calling out of the Naval Reserves of the First New York Battalion, they, together with their comrades, the Naval Reserve Battalions of other cities, will cheerfully don their "clean whites" and respond to muster.

"Pipe down!"

* * *

APPENDIX.

THE NAVAL MILITIA OF THE UNITED STATES.

The Naval Militia is a volunteer organization made up of certain patriotic citizens of the United States, who conceived the idea that the country could be served by its sons as well in the naval branch of the National Defence as in the military. The subject of a naval volunteer force had been agitated for several years, but it was not until the latter part of June, 1891, that the first enlistments were made.

Since that time the success of the organization has been continuous and most gratifying, and it has required only the recent war with Spain to prove that its value to the country at large cannot be overestimated. At the outbreak of hostilities, the strength of the Naval Militia throughout the country was 4,445 officers and enlisted men, but the rush of recruits incidental to the opening of the war vastly increased that number.

The scope of the organization is naturally limited to those States bordering on the seacoast and the Great Lakes, but the interest taken in it to-day by the people is widespread and emphatic. The existence of this interest was amply proved by the enthusiastic welcome tendered the returning crews of the "Badger," "Dixie," "Prairie," "Yosemite," and "Yankee" by the citizens of the cities more closely concerned, and by the country at large.

In a report made to Secretary Long in 1897 by Theodore Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, these prophetic words were used:

"The rapidity with which modern wars are decided renders it imperative to have men who can be ready for immediate use, and outside of the regular navy these men are only to be found in the Naval Militia of the various States. If a body of naval militia is able to get at its head some first-class man who is a graduate of Annapolis; if it puts under him as commissioned officers, warrant officers, and petty officers men who have worked their way up from grade to grade, year after year, and who have fitted themselves for the higher positions by the zeal and painstaking care with which they have performed their duties in the lower places; and if the landsmen, ordinary seamen, and seamen go in resolutely to do real work and learn their duties so that they can perform them as well as the regulars aboard our warships, taking pride in their performance accordingly as they are really difficult-such an organization will, in course of time, reach a point where it could be employed immediately in the event of war.

"Most of the Naval Militia are now in condition to render immediate service of a very valuable kind in what may be called the second line of defence. They could operate signal stations, help handle torpedoes and mines, officer and man

auxiliary cruisers, and assist in the defence of points which are not covered by the army. There are numbers of advanced bases which do not come under the present scheme of army coast defence, and which would have to be defended, at any rate during the first weeks of war, by bodies of Naval Militia; while the knowledge they get by their incessant practice in boats on the local waters would be invaluable.

"Furthermore, the highest and best trained bodies could be used immediately on board the regular ships of war; this applies to the militia of the lakes as well as to the militia of the seacoast-and certainly no greater tribute is necessary to pay to the lake militia. Many of these naval battalions are composed of men who would not enlist in time of peace, but who, under the spur of war, would serve in any position for the first few important months."

The last sentence of the above extract is of peculiar interest, inasmuch as it proved true in every particular. The crews of the auxiliary ships manned by the Naval Militia during the Spanish-American war of 1898 were composed of men who, in civil life, were brokers, lawyers, physicians, clerks, bookkeepers, or men of independent means. They sacrificed their personal interests for the moment, and, in their patriotic zeal, accepted positions of the most menial capacity on board ship.

Prior to the outbreak of war they had entered into training with the utmost enthusiasm. The Navy Department had assigned some of the older vessels to the various naval brigades, to be used as training ships, and with these as headquarters the brigades began drilling. In addition to the regular routine, summer cruising was taken up.

The First Battalion, New York State Militia, for instance, went in a body to Fisher's Island, off the eastern end of Connecticut, and there engaged in landing parties, camping, and sham battles. On another occasion the battalion embarked on board the battleships "Massachusetts" and "Texas," each militiaman having a regular bluejacket for a running mate, and doing just as he did. The two ships cruised in the vicinity of Fisher's Island, and a programme was carried out which included instruction in the different parts of the ship in great guns and ordnance, such drills as abandon ship, arm and away boats, clear ship for action, general quarters, signalling, and in the use of torpedoes.

During one of the cruises of the Massachusetts Naval Brigade a detachment was engaged in locating signal stations on the coast from the New Hampshire State line to Cape Ann, and it was due to the efforts of this detachment that the signal stations established during the late war proved so efficient.

The Naval Militia of Maryland, Louisiana, Illinois, and other States were given opportunities for instruction in the handling of guns, the care of wounded, in infantry drill, limited artillery practice with rapid-fire batteries, and all the details of naval life, and so well did they benefit by it that the authorities at Washington announced a willingness to trust any of the warships in their sole charge.

It was to reach this pinnacle, as it may be termed, that the Naval Militia organizations of the United States had striven, and when they were finally called upon by the Government they proved their worth by boarding modern warships, doing the work of regular sailors, and fighting for their country with a degree of skill and zeal that has earned for them the commendation of their fellow-citizens.

* * *

UNITED STATES NAVAL CODE FOR VISUAL SIGNALLING.

To signal with flag or torch "wigwag":

There are but one position and three motions.

The position is with the flag held vertically in front of the body; the signalman facing squarely the point to which the message is to be sent.

* * *

The first or 1 is a motion to the right of the sender.

The second or 2 is a motion to the left of the sender.

The third or 3: the flag is dropped in front of the sender and instantly returned to position.

The entire code is made up of these three motions-1, 2, and 3. Every letter begins and ends with position.

"WIGWAG" CODE. UNITED STATES NAVAL CODE FOR VISUAL AND TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALLING.

ALPHABET.

A 22

B 2112

C 121

D 222

E 12

F 2221

G 2211

H 122

I 1

J 1122

K 2121

L 221

M 1221

N 11

O 21

P 1212

Q 1211

R 211

S 212

T 2

U 112

V 1222

W 1121

X 2122

Y 111

Z 2222

NUMERALS.

1 1111

2 2222

3 1112

4 2221

5 1122

6 2211

7 1222

8 2111

9 1221

0 2112

ABBREVIATIONS.

a after.

b before.

c can.

h have.

n not.

r are.

t the.

u you.

ur your.

w word.

wi with.

y why.

x x 3 = "numerals follow" or "numerals end."

sig. 3 = signature.

3 = End of word.

33 = End of sentence.

333 = End of message.

22, 22, 3 = I understand.

The complete number opposite each letter or numeral stands for that letter or numeral.

Example: The signal sent by Commodore Schley's flagship "Brooklyn" that memorable 3d of July-

T H E E N E M Y' S F L E E T

2, 122, 12 3 12, 11, 12, 1221, 111, 212 3 2221, 221, 12, 12, 2, 3

L, RLL, RL D RL, RR, RL, RLLR, RRR, LRL D LLLR, LLR, RL, RL, L, D

I S C O M I N G O U T O F

1, 212 3 121, 21, 1221, 1, 11, 2211 3 21, 112, 2 3 21, 2221

R, LRL D RLR, LR, RLLR, R, RR, LLRR D LR, RRL, L D LR, LLLR

H A R B O R.

122, 22, 211, 2112, 21, 211, 333.

RLL, LL, LRR, LRRL, LR, LRR, DDD.

R = Right = 1. L = Left = 2. D = Drop = 3.

* * *

NIGHT SIGNALLING.

The lights in the Ardois system-named after its inventor-sometimes called "shroud lights," are placed well up on the foremast. They are red and white electric bulbs. There are four of each placed in a line one above the other, in groups of two-- a red and white bulb together. Unlike the "wigwag" system, the whole letter is shown at once.

The code is the same as the "wigwag." One is indicated by a red light, two by white, and three by the combination, white, white, red and white.

Both systems may be mastered very easily by a little painstaking practice, and much amusement may be had through the mystification of those who do not understand it. A "wigwag" flag may be easily made by sewing a white square of muslin in the centre of a red bandana handkerchief.

The best method of learning this system is to send simple messages, looking up the letters that there is any doubt about, and correcting mistakes as you go along.

* * *

NAVY CODE FLAGS.

Messages sent by the navy code flags cannot be read except by the aid of the code book. There are ten numeral flags-1 to 9, and one for 0. All messages are made up by means of these ten flags headed by the code flag (whether it be geographical, telegraph, or navy list).

For instance, a line of bunting is sent up on the flagship's signal halliards. It is read from the top down. The geographical flag flies first; then follow 7, 6, 3, 8. It means that the message can be found in the geographical list, number 7638.

The repeaters are used to avoid confusion. Instead of putting two number 1 flags together, for instance, number 1 is flown with a repeater under it; second repeater repeats number 2, and so on.

PREPARATORY.-Over hoist. Prepare to execute subjoined order.

INTERROGATION.-Alone. What is that signal? or "I don't understand-repeat." Above hoist puts signal in interrogative sense.

ANSWERING.-Flown by ship receiving message indicates that signal is understood.

AFFIRMATIVE.-Alone. Yes. Above hoist puts message in affirmative or permissive sense.

NEGATIVE.-Alone. No. Above hoist puts message in negative sense.

MEAL or NUMERAL.-Alone. Crew at mess. Above or below hoist-the numeral flags are to be taken as numbers simply.

CONVOY.-Alone at fore, means naval convoy. Above hoist means use navy list.

POSITION.-In manoeuvres, hoisted by each ship as it gets into position ordered; lowered when next ship gets into place.

GUARD or GUIDE.-As its name implies-flown by guard or guide ship.

TELEGRAPH.-Use telegraph list.

DESPATCH or GEOGRAPHICAL.-Alone at fore, indicates that the ship flying it is carrying despatches. Above hoist. Use geographical list.

CORNET.-Alone. Ship about to sail. Over number. Official number of ship.

GENERAL RECALL.-Recalls all small boats.

POWDER.-Hoisted alone in port. Taking powder on board. Alone at sea. Distress.

* * *

RATING MARKS IN THE UNITED STATES NAVY.

THE INSIGNIA OF RANK OF COMMISSIONED, WARRANT, AND PETTY OFFICERS.

There are four classes of officers in the United States navy, and each has its own distinguishing mark.

The commissioned officers of the line.

The commissioned corps.

The warrant officers.

The petty officers.

The first two classes are graduates of Annapolis, or regularly commissioned by the Government. The last two are composed of enlisted men who have been promoted.

The rank device of the commissioned officers is worn on the shoulder-knot of the full dress uniform and on the collar of the service coat.

The marks are as follows:

REAR-ADMIRAL.

Foul anchor with silver stars at

ends; and one stripe of gold lace

two inches wide, and one of one-

half inch wide above it, on sleeves. COMMODORE.

A star with a foul anchor at

either side of it; and one stripe

of gold lace two inches wide on

sleeves.

CAPTAIN.

A spread eagle with foul anchor

at either side. Four one-half-inch

stripes of gold lace on sleeves. COMMANDER.

Foul anchor with silver oak leaves

at ends. Three stripes of half-inch

gold lace on sleeves.

LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER.-A silver foul anchor with

a silver oak leaf at either end. Two stripes of half-inch

gold lace with a quarter-inch stripe between.

LIEUTENANT.

Silver foul anchor with two silver

bars at either side. Two stripes

of gold lace one-half inch wide on

sleeves. LIEUTENANT-JUNIOR GRADE.

Silver foul anchor with one silver

bar at either side. Two stripes

of gold lace, half and quarter-inch,

on sleeves.

ENSIGN.

A gold foul anchor on collar or

shoulder-knot and one stripe of

gold lace on sleeves.

THE COMMISSIONED CORPS.

The commissioned corps' devices are substituted for the anchor by staff officers, who wear the same rank devices as are prescribed for line officers with whom they have relative rank.

THE PAY CORPS.-A silver oak sprig and a narrow band of white cloth above and below the gold lace on sleeves.

THE MEDICAL CORPS.-A spread oak leaf of gold with an acorn of silver, and a band of dark maroon velvet above and below the gold lace on sleeves.

THE ENGINEER CORPS.-Four silver oak leaves, and a band of red cloth above and below the gold lace on sleeves.

PETTY OFFICERS' RATING MARKS.

All petty officers wear a rating device on the sleeve of the outer garment above the elbow. If they belong to the starboard watch the mark will be sewed on the right sleeve; if the port, on the left.

QUARTERMASTER.

The petty officers' device always has a spread eagle above it. The specialty mark indicating to which department he belongs is just below in the angle formed by the chevrons. The chevrons indicate the class. Three chevrons, first class; two, second class, and so on. The chief petty officers have an arch of the same cloth connecting the two ends of the top chevron.

The specialty marks are as follows:

MASTER-AT-ARMS

GUNNER'S

MATES.

SEAMAN

GUNNER.

CHIEF

YEOMAN.

APOTHECARY.

YEOMAN-1ST

2D, AND 3D

CLASS.

SHIP'S PRINTER

OR

SCHOOL-MASTER.

BANDMASTER.

MACHINISTS,

BOILER-MAKERS,

WATER-TENDERS,

COPPERSMITHS,

AND OILERS.

CARPENTER'S

MATES,

PLUMBERS,

AND PAINTERS.

BLACKSMITH.

BOATSWAIN'S

MATES AND

COXSWAINS.

The seaman class is indicated by the rows of braid on the cuffs.

Seamen, first class or able-bodied seamen, have three rows of braid.

Seamen, second class or ordinary seamen, have two rows of braid.

Seamen, third class or landsmen, have one row of braid.

The watch mark for the enlisted men not petty officers consists of a stripe of braid on the sleeve close to the shoulder. For the seaman, white on blue clothes, blue on white clothes.

For the engineer force, red on both white and blue clothes.

The watch mark indicates the watch of which the wearer is a member. The starboard men wear it on the right arm, and the port men on the left.

* * *

TAKING SOUNDINGS.

HEAVING THE LEAD.

The man using the "lead line" (as the sounding-line weighted with lead is called) stands on a grating that projects over the side. This is placed near enough so that the steersman can hear the man who "heaves the lead" when he calls out the number of fathoms of water. This he tells by the marks on the "lead line" as follows:

2 fathoms, twelve feet, 2 strips of leather.

3 " 3 strips of leather.

5 " white rag.

7 " red rag.

10 " leather with hole in it.

13 " 3 strips of leather or blue rag.

15 " white rag.

17 " red rag.

20 " 2 knots.

25 " 1 knot.

30 " 3 knots.

35 " 1 knot.

40 " 4 knots.

9 " are called mark.

11 " are called deeps.

The leadsman stands on his little grating and swings the lead so it just clears the water. When it is swinging well he lets it fly in the direction in which the ship is moving and then notes the depth by the strips of leather or rags. The result is shouted out so the steersman can hear and keep the vessel in the channel.

* * *

THE BOATSWAIN'S CALLS.

The boatswain's calls or "pipes" are very difficult to reduce to a musical scale, because the pitch of the instrument depends entirely on the amount of energy expended by the blower. The novice, after a few trials, would probably assert that the primitive little whistle had only one note-and not very much of that; but he would be surprised indeed at the volume of sound, the range, and the command over the instrument which a veteran boatswain would soon make everyday matter to him. Not only do these experts sound the regular calls with ear-piercing exactness, but actual tunes are often included in their repertoire.

The pipe or whistle is held with the bulb in the centre of the palm, the hole being towards the wrist. The lobe to which the ring and lanyard are attached, serves simply as a handle.

In the diagram given, the black line indicates the "pipe" or call; the four faint horizontal lines, the notes, and the vertical bars, the time.

The roll indicated by the wavy line in the diagram is made by rapidly opening and closing the hand. The gradual rise and fall is effected in the same way, but slowly. The rattle is done by a quick movement of the tongue.

This diagram is furnished by an old boatswain. As a rule, the calls are taught entirely by personal instruction, and it is believed that they have here been put into print for the first time. None of the ordinary manuals have ever given them, the young sailor having had to learn them by experience on shipboard.

Their importance is evident from the fact that every order aboard ship is preceded by the pipe peculiar to the command; for though the words may not be heard, the whistle can always be distinguished. Even the most lubberly landsman, with such continuous practice, soon learns the meaning of the different calls, and jumps to obey them.

STATIONS OR QUARTERS FOR EXERCISE, OR PRECEDING ACTION,

OF FIVE-INCH BREECHLOADING RIFLES.

1. First Captain, Second Boarder.

2. Second Captain, First Boarder.

3. First Loader, Second Boarder.

4. Second Loader, First Boarder.

5. First Shellman, Pumpman, Port guard.

6. Second Shellman, Fireman, Port guard.

7. First Shellman, Second Rifleman.

8. Second Shellman, First Rifleman.

1. Stands at elevating gear wheel and sights and fires the gun.

2. Stands at the right and beside the breech; opens same after firing so shell can be taken out.

3. Stands at the left training wheel-i.e., the wheel that moves the gun laterally. He also loads the gun.

4. Stands at the right training wheel. He takes out the empty shell after firing, and wears heavy gloves for that purpose.

5 and 6. Stand just behind No. 2 to the right of the gun. They may be termed emergency men. They assist with the shells, carry the wounded, if any; will be called away in case of fire, and are qualified to sight and fire the gun in case the first and second captains are wounded or killed. They provide revolvers and belts for Nos. 1, 2, and 3, and belts for Nos. 5, 6, 7, and 8. They are also port guards, and defend the ports in case of close action.

7 and 8. Carry shells from the ammunition hoist to a position amidships convenient for quick transport to the gun. They are also riflemen, and may be called to protect

any part of the ship from boarders or from fire on shore.

* * *

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