MoboReader> Literature > 1914

   Chapter 18 AMMUNITION

1914 By John French, Viscount of Ypres Characters: 172087

Updated: 2017-12-06 00:02


From the beginning of the Battle of the Aisne up to the close of the Battle of Loos, at the end of 1915, the scanty supply of munitions of war paralysed all our power of initiative and, at critical times, menaced our defence with irretrievable disaster. Great anxiety on this subject overshadowed all my direction of military operations, and deep concern at the failure of the Government to appreciate and remedy our difficulties from this cause dominated all my work. In this chapter it is my object to make known some of the efforts I made to awaken both the Government and the public from that apathy which meant certain defeat. I exhausted every effort, by urgent official demands to the War Office, and personal appeals to Lord Kitchener and such Cabinet Ministers as I came in contact with. When these efforts got no response, I gave interviews to the press and authorised public men who visited me to urge this vital necessity in their addresses. Nothing less than my deliberate conclusion, after all these measures had failed and nine months of war had elapsed, that the Empire itself was in jeopardy, forced me to act in May 1915 as I did. I was conscious before taking this step, which meant the overthrow of the Government, that it also meant the end of my career in France, with all the hopes and ambitions that only a soldier can understand. But the consciousness of the great results achieved in this upheaval has been my reward, and I trust that a recital of my difficulties may, if occasion arise in the future, protect the British Army in the field from the recurrence of any similar situation.

During my term of office as Chief of the Imperial General Staff, from March 1912 to April 1914, I had urged these vital necessities upon the Government, but my demands were steadily opposed by the Finance Department and the Treasury. All our experiences in the South African War, and the warnings which the Manchurian campaign plainly gave, passed altogether unheeded in the years preceding the present war. I was always a strong advocate for the supply of high-explosive shell to our horse and field artillery, but I got very little support, and even such as was given to me was lukewarm in the extreme. I believe the Ordnance Board was not in favour of it.

As early as the middle of September 1914 the British Army in France was subjected to heavy bombardment from German 8-in. howitzers, to which they were quite unable to reply. At the same time the daily expenditure of artillery ammunition became far in excess of the receipts from home, and we were unable to maintain the stocks on the lines of communication up to anything like the proper war establishment. For example, the 18-pdrs. fired an average of 14 rounds a day, whilst the receipts were barely seven. The 60-pdr. guns and the 4.5-in. howitzers fired over 40 rounds a day, against a supply of eight or nine rounds at most. In private letters and telegrams I had repeatedly brought this to the notice of the Secretary of State, and a strong official memorandum on the subject was sent to the War Office on September 28th. A further communication to the same effect was made on October 10th; and on the 29th of the same month the War Office were officially told that the state of the ammunition supply had necessitated the issue of an order restricting expenditure to 20 rounds per gun daily, and that a further restriction to 10 rounds would be necessary if the supply did not improve. This was during the most desperate period of the First Battle of Ypres, when the average daily expenditure of 18-pdr. ammunition had amounted to 81 rounds per gun.

In some cases the expenditure per gun had reached the enormous total of 300 rounds daily.

A proportion of at least 25 per cent. of high-explosive shells for 13 and 18 pdrs. was included in the demands to which I have referred above.

In a communication to the War Office on December 31st, the view was expressed that considerably more high explosive was necessary, and the following table was laid down as our minimum requirements to carry on the war with any prospect of success:-

required output of ammunition.

Rounds per gun a day.

13-pdr. 50 (25 H.E.)

18-pdr. 50 (25 H.E.)

4.5-in. howitzer 40 (35 H.E.)

6-in. howitzer 25 (all H.E.)

60-pdr. 25 (15 H.E.)

4.7-in. gun 25 (15 H.E.)

6-in. gun 25 (all H.E.)

9.2-in. howitzer 12 (all H.E.)

It was explained that this output was necessary for a period of active operations, and should be continued even during a lull, till a reserve of three or four times the amount laid down in war establishments had been accumulated. To this request there was no reply until January 19th. The War Office then declined to work up to more than 20 rounds a day, and refused a request for 50 per cent, of high explosives.

This amazing attitude at a most critical time compelled me to consider means by which the several members of the Government, and the public also, might be advised of this deplorable apathy which, if long continued, meant the destruction of our Army.

In this letter from the War Office, of January 19th, which I have already mentioned, an estimate was attached of the receipts which we might rely upon up to and including the month of May. This estimate was far below our requirements, whilst the actual receipts fell far short of it. The actual supply in May proved to be less than one half of the War Office estimate, which was the only one ever furnished for our guidance. Such failure made it quite impossible to make any reliable forecast of the condition of the ammunition supply at any particular date. This state of uncertainty rendered the formulation of plans for co-operating with the French most difficult, if not impossible.

During the winter of 1914-15 it was hoped to accumulate some small reserve of ammunition, but, during this period, all our efforts in this direction were of no avail, because the number of rounds per 18-pdr. gun throughout this period fell to less than five!

I had serious misgivings that the morale of the Army was becoming affected by this first long and weary winter of inactivity in the trenches, and to render the defence effective it was necessary to undertake an offensive operation.

Early in March a small reserve of ammunition had been accumulated, and the Battle of Neuve Chapelle was fought and won. Had proper steps been taken to increase the supply when my first strong appeals were sent in during September 1914, the offensive operation commenced so successfully at Neuve Chapelle might have been much further developed, and, indeed, possibly have led to great and important results. But the battle had to be broken off after three days' fighting because we were brought to a standstill through want of ammunition.

Immediately afterwards I again addressed the strongest representations I could frame to the War Office. I begged that His Majesty's Government might be informed that, if their object was to drive the enemy off French and Belgian territory during 1915, no progress towards this objective could be obtained unless and until the supply of artillery ammunition should enable the Army to engage in sustained operations. The only official reply which I received to this letter was an injunction to use the utmost economy, but a private letter, dated March 16th, was addressed by Sir James Wolfe Murray to Sir William Robertson, who was then my Chief of Staff. This letter was said to have been dictated by the Secretary of State, and its contents hinted very strongly that an impression prevailed at the War Office that we were wasting ammunition.

The operations at Neuve Chapelle used up all our available resources, and it became necessary to restore them by reverting for a time to a strictly defensive attitude.

It was, moreover, very clear that the Germans had early realised that the war was to be one calling for colossal supplies of munitions; supplies, indeed, upon such a stupendous scale as the world had never before dreamed of, and they also realised the vital necessity for heavy artillery. They began with an inferior field gun, and they never stopped to remedy this defect, but directed all their energies, from the first, to developing their heavy artillery. Whilst their total proportion of guns to bayonets was fully maintained, the proportion of field guns to bayonets was reduced, and all heavy guns enormously increased. Each month the development of heavy artillery became more accentuated until, towards the late spring of 1915, the greater number of projectiles fired by the Germans, whenever operations of any importance were taking place, were of 5.9 and upwards. This was in defence as well as in attack, and by this means the enemy endeavoured to shatter the morale of the attackers, as well as to inflict very heavy casualties.

The necessity for a great preponderance of heavy artillery was also recognised by the French long before our War Office could be persuaded to move in that direction. From early in the war they aimed at obtaining one heavy gun of 6-in. calibre and upwards for every field gun they held, without reducing the proportion to bayonets of the latter which obtains in the French Army. To meet these requirements the French were taking guns from their old warships and coast defence ships, and straining every nerve to get guns of heavy calibre into the field.

In May, 1915, the proportion of field to heavy guns above 6-in. calibre in the French Army was 2.3 to one. At this time the British Army had but 71 guns altogether above 5-in. calibre against 1,416 below it, and no adequate steps whatever had yet been taken to bring the proportion more nearly to the requirements of modern warfare. The supply of trench guns and mortars, with their ammunition, hand-grenades, and other most necessary munitions of war, was almost negligible, nor was there any active attempt to understand and grapple vitally with the new problems calling for the application of modern science to the character of warfare that had developed.

I have referred before to the disinclination of the War Office, prior to the war, to take up seriously the question of high explosives; the natural consequence was that the true nature of high-explosive shells, and the correct particulars which govern their construction, were not properly understood, as they had too little experience of them.

The deadly nature of modern rifle and machine-gun fire had brought about trench warfare, which enabled the troops opposite to one another to approach to ranges which were customary in the days of the Peninsula and Waterloo. The time-honoured grenades, which were so marked a feature in those days, were thus resuscitated.

Although the War Office received detailed reports from the Front as to the employment by the enemy of these new and unfamiliar weapons, no proper attention was ever paid to these reports. It was their duty to bring these old-time weapons up to date, and to compete with the new mechanical inventions constantly being devised by the great organisation of a thoroughly prepared enemy. But reports from the Front as to these new and unfamiliar weapons were received with a carelessness which bordered on incredulity. The critical days in the early part of November, and during the First Battle of Ypres, compelled me to devise a plan to meet the exigencies of this grave emergency. As the fighting settled into trench warfare, the inadequacy of our weapons to enable us to reply to an enemy thoroughly equipped with every contrivance for this sort of warfare became painfully apparent; while even our hand-grenades, by reason of their faulty construction, frequently did not explode. I was therefore compelled to conduct experiments in the field, and improvise new weapons as well as possible. For such work the Army had no organisation. In this I received invaluable assistance from my friend, George Moore. Mr. Moore is an American who has had wide experience of large construction developments in the United States. Although a young man, he was deeply versed in the method of scientific research as applied to mechanical invention. Add to this that he was a great personal friend of my own and passionately interested in the success of the Allies, and it will be seen how naturally I turned to him for help and advice in this terrible crisis. Under Mr. Moore's advice and direction, experiments were carried out with the maximum of speed, energy and resource, covering the field of the proper construction and use of high explosives, hand-grenades, trench mortars and bombs; and a number of factories and small plants were set up for the production, for use in the field, of properly constructed hand-grenades, bombs and trench mortars.

As a result of this work in the daily trench struggle that had then developed, we were rapidly enabled to acquire the accurate knowledge of the proper use of high explosives, and the appliances necessary to meet the enemy on his own ground under these novel conditions of warfare. Mr. Moore from time to time brought men in whom he had trust and confidence to help in the work. Among them I will only specifically refer to Colonel Lewis, an American, whose machine gun, bearing his name, proved of such enormous help in this war, and to Lieutenant Lawrence Breese. This gallant young officer of the Blues, to which magnificent regiment he belonged, did wonderful work, and conducted experiments the result of which was of the highest value; and, after several months of tireless energy, gave his life in carrying out one of these experiments. This hastily improvised organisation worked night and day in these trying times, with the results which enabled us, with success, to meet the enemy in trench warfare.

During this time I received visits at my Headquarters from prominent members of both Houses of Parliament, to whom I told, in course of conversation, the great anxiety I felt on the subject of the shortage of heavy guns and ammunition.

On March 22nd I gave an interview to the Press, which appeared generally in the English papers, from which I quote: "It is a rough war, but the problem it sets is a comparatively simple one-munitions, more munitions, always more munitions; this is the essential question, the governing condition of all progress, of every leap forward." On March 27th I gave an interview to The Times, in which I said as follows: "The protraction of the war depends entirely upon the supply of men and munitions. Should these be unsatisfactory, the war will be accordingly prolonged. I dwell emphatically on the need for munitions."

To the public men who visited me, I appealed that they should make known this grave necessity to the public in their speeches. I quote a line from a speech of the Earl of Durham, who, at my request, said: "What we want and must have is more and more munitions."

At a conference at Chantilly with Lord Kitchener, I reminded him of my constant representations on the subject of munitions, both officially and privately, and warned him that the danger would be fatal if instant action were not taken to supply our needs.

It must be remembered that all this time, when the British Forces in France were in absolute jeopardy owing to these deficiencies, trainloads of all kinds of ammunition were passing along our rear en route to Marseilles and the Dardanelles.

This was the situation when on April 22nd the Germans made their first attack with poisoned gas in the Second Battle of Ypres and, in a gigantic effort, again attempted to break through; and the defence called for the most desperate kind of fighting, only surpassed in intensity by the struggle in the First Battle of Ypres. Just about this time, the then Prime Minister, Mr. Asquith, made his famous Newcastle speech, in which he stated that the Army had all the ammunition it required. When I read this speech, after all my public and private appeals, I lost any hope that I had entertained of receiving help from the Government as then constituted. So that, on May 9th, 1915, when we commenced the Battle of Festubert, an operation undertaken to relieve the intense pressure on the troops at Ypres, my mind was filled with keen anxiety. After all our demands, less than 8 per cent. of our shells were high explosive, and we had only sufficient supply for about 40 minutes of artillery preparation for this attack. On the tower of a ruined church I spent several hours in close observation of the operations. Nothing since the Battle of the Aisne had ever impressed me so deeply with the terrible shortage of artillery and ammunition as did the events of that day. As I watched the Aubers ridge, I clearly saw the great inequality of the artillery duels, and, as attack after attack failed, I could see that the absence of sufficient artillery support was doubling and trebling our losses in men. I therefore determined on taking the most drastic measures to destroy the apathy of a Government which had brought the Empire to the brink of disaster. A friend was standing by my side on the tower, and to him I poured out my doubts and fears and announced my determination. He warned me that the politicians would never forgive the action I proposed, and that it meant my certain recall from the command in France. But my decision was made, and I immediately started for my Headquarters, fully determined on my future course of action.

If any additional proof were required of the hopelessness of any relief coming from the War Office, I found it waiting for me when I reached Headquarters that afternoon, in the shape of a telegram from the Secretary of State for War, directing that 20 per cent. of our scanty reserve supply of ammunition was to be shipped to the Dardanelles. I immediately gave instructions that evidence should be furnished to Colonel Repington, military correspondent of The Times, who happened to be then at Headquarters, that the vital need of high-explosive shells had been a fatal bar to our Army success on that day. I directed that copies of all the correspondence which had taken place between myself and the Government on the question of the supply of ammunition be made at once, and I sent my Secretary, Brinsley FitzGerald, with Captain Frederick Guest, one of my A.D.C.s, to England with instructions that these proofs should be laid before Mr. Lloyd George, who had already shown me, by his special interest in this subject, that he grasped the deadly nature of our necessities. I instructed also that they should be laid before Mr. Arthur J. Balfour and Mr. Bonar Law, whose sympathetic understanding of my difficulties, when they visited me in France, had led me to expect that they would take the action that this grave exigency demanded. Together with the correspondence, I sent the following memorandum:-

(Secret.)

information regarding ammunition.

1. Large quantities of high-explosive shells for field guns have become essential owing to the form of warfare in which the Army is engaged. The enemy is entrenched from the sea to the Swiss frontier. There is no flank in his position that can be turned. It is necessary, therefore, for all offensive operations to start by breaking the enemy's line, which presupposes the attack of formidable field entrenchments. Shrapnel, being the man-killing projectile which is used against troops in the open, is primarily used in defence. In offensive operations it is used for searching communication trenches, preventing the enemy's reinforcements intervening in the fight, repelling counter-attacks, and, as an alternative for high-explosive shell, for cutting wire entanglements. It is, however, ineffective against the occupants of the trenches, breastworks, or buildings. It is, therefore, necessary to have high-explosive shell to destroy parapets, obstacles, buildings, and many forms of fortified localities that the enemy constructs, more particularly his machine-gun emplacements. Without an adequate supply the attack is impotent against the defenders of field fortifications, as the first step cannot be taken. Guns require 50 per cent. of high-explosive shell. Howitzers use high-explosive shell almost exclusively.

2. We have found by experience that the field guns actually engaged in offensive operations, such as Neuve Chapelle, fire about 120 rounds per gun per day.

Heavy guns and howitzers, according to their calibre, fire less in proportion. The guns of the whole Army are of course never equally heavily engaged at the same time, but the number of guns available and the amount of ammunition are the limiting factors when a plan of attack is being considered. There is, therefore, scarcely any limit to the supply of ammunition that could be usefully employed. The more ammunition, the bigger the scale on which the attack can be delivered, and the more persistently it can be pressed.

Demands must, however, be reasonable, and our position would be very greatly improved if our supply reached the figures in the attached Table "A" within three months. Up to the present it has been below these figures.

wanted three months hence, say, august 1st.

Table "A."

Nature. Guns now in Country. Rounds per Gun per Day. Total Rounds required Daily.[8]

Shrapnel. H.E. Shrapnel. H.E.

18-pdr. 700 12 12 8,500 8,500

13-pdr. 125 12 12 1,500 1,500

15-pdr. BLC. 200 12 12 2,500 2,500

4.7-in. gun 80 8 8 650 650

60-pdr. 28 8 8 250 250

5-in. howitzer 50 - 15 - 750

4.5-in. howitzer 130 4 16 500 2,000

6-in. howitzer 40 - 12 - 500

9.2-in. howitzer 12 - 12 - 150

13,900 16,800

Grand Total 30,700 daily.

Grand Total 921,000 monthly.

3. Table "B" shows the percentage of high explosive of certain natures received since application for increased quantities was made between September and December last.

percentage of high explosive received since first application for it in increased quantities.

Table "B."

Nature of Gun. Dec. Per Cent. Jan. Per Cent. Feb. Per Cent. March. Per Cent. April. Per Cent. May. Per Cent.

13-pdr. Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil

18-pdr. 3.8 6.8 8.3 8.2 6.1 8

4.5-in. howitzer 44.4 68.5 88 75 59 65

60-pdr. - 66 60 56 53 50

7-in. howitzer 55 59 51 77 69 50

Colonel FitzGerald and Captain Guest reported that on May 12th and 14th they had carried out my instructions and laid the facts before Mr. Lloyd George, Mr. Balfour and Mr. Bonar Law. On May 15th, Colonel Repington's article appeared in The Times. The world knows what then happened. The Coalition Government was formed, with Mr. Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions; and, though delays afterwards occurred, the problem was at last faced with the intelligence and energy that its gravity demanded, and I feel that for his work on munitions we owe unmeasured gratitude to Mr. Lloyd George. The successful solution of the problem came when he applied to it that matchless energy which has enabled him to come through the great ordeal as England's most valued leader in her direst hour.

For my unprecedented action I claim that no other course lay open to me. To organise the nation's industrial resources upon a stupendous scale was the only way if we were to continue with success the great struggle which lay before us, and I feel that the result achieved fully warranted the steps I took.(Back to Content)

INDEX

Abbeville, 182, 199, 205;

Railway junction, 200.

Admiralty, see British Admiralty.

Aeltre, 208.

Aeroplane Squadrons, 2, 3, 4, 5;

R.F.C., 25.

Aeroplanes and Aircraft,

effect on warfare, 12;

at Amiens, 33;

potentialities realised by French, 155;

menace of, to London, in event of Germans reaching Calais, 215.

Aerial Reconnaissances, 12, 43-4, 90, 121, 145, 185, 200 passim;

Future of, 144.

Air Services (see also Royal Flying Corps),

spirit of, 340.

Aire, 200.

Aire-Béthune line,

2nd Corps directed on, 199, 201, 202.

Aire-La Bassée Canal reached by 2nd Corps, 203.

Aisne,

Battle of the, 13, 16, 142 sqq., 193 sqq.;

day of opening, 146;

British share in, 115, 118 sqq., 140-1;

French's dispositions of, how influenced, 157;

French share in, 115, 121, 123, 135, 140 sqq., 145, 146, 154, 157, 158-9, 160, 161, 164;

German forces believed to be in position for, 116;

German heavy artillery in, 119, 144, 212;

Germany's lost opportunity in, 216;

Intense artillery fire in, 144, 145-6, 149, 150, 212;

Last days of (Oct. 1 sqq.), 193 sqq.;

Last repulse of the enemy at, by the 1st Corps (Oct. 11), 211;

Losses, 152-3, 159, 160;

Operations hampered by,

Lack of artillery and machine guns, 101, 347, 356;

Rain, 157;

Tactical aspect of, 140, 159;

Value in, of British "moral," 55;

Battlefield, Features of,

Strategical, 148;

Topographical, 143, 145, 147-8.

Aisne Canal,

suggested French extension to, 186.

Aisne, Department of, 48.

Aisne-Compiègne-Soissons line,

withdrawal to, 91.

Aisne Front,

withdrawal from, object of, plan first conceived, 155-6, 157, 301;

pourparlers on, with Joffre, 163, 164 sqq.;

the Northern move begun, 193;

progress of, 235-6;

French views on, 305 sqq.

Aisne Heights,

a reconnaissance from, 161.

Aisne River:

Bridges (road) over, 147;

All under artillery fire, 148;

Constructed over by British Corps (Sept. 13), 150, 151;

British positions on, 146-7, 158, 160, 165, 182;

Steep banks of, 145;

Reported German troop-transfer to, 223;

Roads and railways in valley of, 147-8;

Wooded country N. of, marches through, consultations on, with Joffre, 143.

Aizy,

German counter-attack at, 151.

Albert, King of the Belgians,

characteristics of, 344;

French invited to H.Q. of, at Louvain, 42-3;

sortie directed by, 143-4;

and the withdrawal from Antwerp, 175;

and French's scheme for Anglo-Belgian military co-operation (Dec. 28-30), 343 sqq.

Albert, French progress near, 325.

Alfrey, Lieut., killed at Moncel, 120.

Allenby, Major-General E. H. H. (now General Sir E. H. H., G.C.M.G., K.C.B.), G.O.C. 1st Cavalry Division, later G.O.C. Cavalry Corps (q.v.), 16, 24, 323;

At Mons and after,

Instructions to, 47;

support given by, to Fergusson (Aug. 24), 65;

During the Retreat from Mons,

protection given by, to infantry, &c., 60, 64, 65, 71, 72, 75, 84-5, 87;

view of, on Smith-Dorrien's situation on Aug. 25, 76;

help given by, to 2nd Corps at Le Cateau, 78;

During the Marne operations, 109;

Marne bridges seized by, 133;

fine leadership of, 137;

During the Aisne operations, 146, 161;

During the Move North and the Battle of Ypres,

r?le assigned to, and finely carried out by, 200-1, 202 sqq., 233;

the stand on the Wytschaete-Messines ridge, 204, 233, 238, 244, 246, 247, 277;

consummate skill shown by, 261;

later work, 278, 280;

On the services of the London Scottish on Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 262-3.

Allied Commanders,

views of, before the Retreat from Mons, 47, 55, 56, 57;

wishes ignored in London (Oct. 4, &c), in reference to Antwerp, 180 et pr?vi.

Allied Forces (see also Belgian, British, and French);

support of, to Belgium inadequate to prevent retreat, 46;

positions of, on Aug. 29, 91;

offensive planned for, for Sept. 6, 107, 109-10;

and the end of the Great Retreat, 110;

situation of, on Oct. 6, 181-3;

object of, on Oct. 6, 182;

combined eastward advance of, planned for Oct. 13, 203;

condition, if the enemy had driven a wedge between, 225;

position of, and enemy forces opposing, on the night of Oct. 21, 231-2;

enormous enemy superiority to (Oct. 30), 240;

dispositions of, at the 1st Battle of Ypres (Oct. 29 p.m.), 242;

loyalty and fine feeling between, as evidenced in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 256;

augmentation of, in the West, some resources of, 301-2;

plans for, in the West, at close of 1st Battle of Ypres, bases of, 301;

needs and alternatives, 301-2;

combined attack by (Dec. 14), on the Hollebeke-Wytschaete ridge line, 322;

ability of, to keep the line inviolate, proven, 345.

Allied Nations, spirit of, at close of 1914, 345.

Alost-Termonde-Lokeren line, German move on (Oct. 11), 203.

Alsace, French offensive in, 48.

Alston, General, G.O.C. Naval Detachments for Antwerp, 181.

Alternatives in Campaigns, the faculty of choice of, 217.

America, entry of, into the War, 346.

American Civil War, lesson of, as to interference by Home Government with Commanders in the Field, 111, 178.

Amiens,

British concentration point, 6, 14, 32;

aircraft at, 33;

6th French Army forming at, 89;

German forces operating through, 105.

Ammunition

(see also Artillery, Guns, High Explosive, Machine-Guns, Royal Artillery, &c.), 44;

British lack of, and the consequences, French's constant representations on, before and during the war, 162-3, 241;

Kitchener on, 309-10;

French's reply, 313, 316;

results, 332-3, 343, 347, 349, 351;

the upshot of the agitation, 347 sqq.;

the Memorandum to the War Cabinet, 357-60;

and the results, 360;

Gun-fire, 1st Battle of Ypres, restricted for lack of, 349;

Output of, required for,

Reserve, 349-50;

Use, 349;

Russian (reported) deficiency in; Joffre's information concerning (Dec. 27), 341.

Ancre River, Bulkeley Johnson killed at, 136.

Anley, Colonel F. G., O.C. (temp.) 12th Infantry Brigade, 26.

Annequin-Pont Fixe-Festubert-Chapelle-Fosse line, 2nd Corps at (Oct. 12), 210.

Ansell, Lieut.-Colonel, O.C. 5th Dragoon Guards, killed in action, 76.

Antwerp, 48, 163, 304;

Belgian retirement on, 45, 46;

sortie from, 143;

danger to, not envisaged, 157;

Belgian withdrawal from, planned, 175;

relief of, French's efforts for, 176 sqq.;

Kitchener's action, 177, 179, 181;

French's views on (Oct. 6), 182-3;

and Joffre's, 178-9;

British Government's anxieties on, 191;

position at, 198;

fall of, 175 sqq., 192, 201;

menace of, to the Channel ports, 176;

and effect of, on French's plans of Sept., 164, 302;

French's steps to keep in touch with events at, 184 sqq.;

German advances from, 208-9.

Appomattox, Lee's surrender at, 231.

Archangel, disadvantages of, 315.

Ardennes, the,

anticipations concerning, 11, 39;

Rivers rising in, 51.

Argyll and Sutherland (Princess Louise's) Highlanders:

2nd Batt., 23, 61;

in the Battle of Ypres, 243;

7th Batt. (T.), 296.

Armentières, 209;

3rd Corps' fighting near, 219, 220;

the town taken, 221;

and shelled, 222;

German forces N. of, 240;

success of the 6th Division near (Oct. 28), 241.

Armentières-La Bassée, Indian Corps' fighting between, 284.

Armies, Decision to form, communicated to Corps' Commanders, 337.

Arques, 329.

Arras, and the Sea,

German strength between (Oct. 10), Foch's estimate of, 223;

attack N. of, by de Maud'huy (Dec. 16-17), 324-5;

weather difficulties at, 337;

Joffre's plan to break through W. of, 342;

French success near (Dec. 27), 345.

Arras front, the, 234.

Artillery see German, Guns, Heavy Artillery, Royal Artillery.

Artists' Rifles (28th (County of London) Batt. the London Regiment),

arrival in France (Nov.), 27, 271, 295;

converted into an Officers' Training Corps, 272, 295, 297.

Asia Minor, action in, French's view on, 316.

Asquith, Rt. Hon. H. H., 305, 308, 329, 331;

and the Entente, 3;

at the Council of War of Aug. 5, 1914, 3;

French's relations with, and the ammunition shortage, 332;

the Newcastle speech, 356.

Ath, route from, across Haine Valley, 49;

German advance to, 57.

Attack, how best warded off, 313.

"Attaque!" General Foch's constant cry, 198, 274.

Aubers Ridge, artillery shortage at, 356.

Augustovo, German disaster at, 230.

Aulnoy, 2nd Corps at (Sept. 8), 123.

Aulnoye, Railway junction at, 52.

Austria-Hungary, War declared by, on Serbia, 2;

French and British declarations of War with, 2.

Austro-German defeats, 268, 274.

Avesnes, 50, 67.

Bailleul, 227, 234, 241, 245, 258;

German defeat at, 207.

Balfour, Rt. Hon. A. J., and the Munitions question, 357, 360.

Balloon observation and heavy artillery, 12.

Baltic Sea, 315.

Barrow, Lieut.-Col. G. de S., A.D.C. Chief of Staff to Allenby, 243.

Barry, Lieut.-Col. S. L., A.D.C. to French, 255.

Bassevelle, advanced troops at, 126, 127.

Battenberg, H.S.H. Prince Maurice of, death from wounds, 240.

Battles, past and present, names of, and time-limits of, 218.

Bavai, 2nd Army Corps' retreat on (Aug. 24), 63, 64;

French's advanced H.Q. at, 65, 66, 68;

conditions in, and around, 69-70;

strategic importance of, 65.

Bayonets, demand for, by British cavalry (Sept. 21), 161.

Bazaine and Metz, warning from, 71.

Bazoches, 148.

Beale-Browne, Major, 9th Lancers, at Moncel, 119.

Beaumont, French movements near, 38-9.

Bécherelle-Maison Neuve road, fighting in woods near, 128.

Bedfordshire Regiment:

1st Batt., 23;

2nd Batt., 29.

Belgian Army (see also Allied Forces);

nearest French force to, 38;

entrenched near Louvain, 41;

retreat on Aug. 21, 45-6;

later position, 48;

in Antwerp, 143, 176;

co-operation of anticipated, 182;

position in combined advance as planned, 203;

retreat of, to Bruges and the Yser, 183, 192, 201, 208, 212;

fatigue of, 217, 224;

stand of, on that stream, 278;

German attack on, at Nieuport (Oct. 19), 227;

in the Battle of Ypres, 232;

active hostilities resumed by (Dec. 2), 336;

French's scheme for co-operation with, by amalgamation, 343-5.

Belgian Coast-line (see also Channel Ports),

Plans for regaining command of, 303;

Commandant of Antwerp, French in communication with, 191;

Defence of Frontier fortresses, 7, 176;

Government, Message from, to French, on the retirement on Antwerp, 45-6;

departure of, from Antwerp (Oct. 3), 175;

Neutrality, British guarantee of, 9, 14;

Pre-war attitude as to conduct in a general war, 9;

Refugees near Le Cateau (Aug. 24), 68-9, 83.

Belgian Luxemburg, German forces in, 41.

Belgium, Central Plains of, 50;

French cavalry operations in, 44, 67, 68;

German turning movement in, 57;

Industrially important districts of, 49, 50, 51;

Inundation of, 242-3;

Further, considered, 313.

Bellot, fighting at, 126.

Beluchi Regiment, 129th (Duke of Connaught's Own), 238.

Bercelaere, the Worcesters at (Oct. 31), 254.

Bérinage coalfield, 49, 51, 53.

Berry-au-Bac, French capture of Prussian Guards at (Sept. 17), 157.

Berthelot, General, Chief of Staff to Joffre, first impressions of, 35.

Bertie, Rt. Hon. Sir Francis Leveson, G.C.B. (now Lord Bertie), British Ambassador to the French Republic, a tribute to, 33;

views of, on Kitchener's functions (Sept. 2), 99;

telegram to, from Grey on the Coastal advance (Dec. 9), 305 sqq.

Béthune, 209, 235;

2nd corps at, 209, 210.

Béthune-Aire line, 2nd corps approaching, 201, 202.

Béthune-Lille-Tournai road, assigned for French advance (Oct. 13), 203.

Beyers, General, a chivalrous act by, 339.

Bhopal Infantry, 9th Regiment, 238.

Bidon, General, French Territorials under, 233.

Binche, distances from, to Condé and to Le Nouvion, 48;

strategic importance of, 53;

occupied by enemy, 60.

Bingham, Brigadier-General Hon. C. E., G.O.C. 4th Cavalry Brigade, 24, 65, 247.

"Black Country"-like area, 2nd Corps' operations in, 209.

"Black Marias," see " Jack Johnsons".

Black Watch, The (Royal Highlanders),

1st Batt., 17, 126, 250, 328;

5th Batt. (T.), arrival of, in France, 295.

Bleu to Berthen, German positions on, 207.

Bleu to Neuve église line, secured by 3rd Corps, 207.

Boers, the, chivalry shown by, in fight, 339.

Bois l'évêque, roads and railways, traversing, 52.

Bois Grenier, capture of, by 3rd Corps (Oct. 18), 221.

Boitron, enemy fire from, 127;

Church, artillery action N. of, counter-attack near, and Guards' action in woods N.W. of, 128.

Bombs, use of, 144.

Bonnet, 1st Army Corps H.Q., 65;

fighting watched from, by French, 66.

Bordeaux, 305, 346.

Border Regiment, the,

2nd Batt., 28;

5th Batt. (T.), 27, 295.

Borodino, Battle of, 217.

Bouchain, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

Boulogne, 173, 176, 180, 183, 188;

French's landing at, 13;

German menace to, 171, 176;

Napoleon's menace from, 215;

a possible execution of in the present century foreseen, 155-6.

Bourg, the Aisne crossed at, by 1st Corps, 151.

Bouvignies, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

Bowes, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 8th Infantry Brigade, 21, 322.

Bradbury, Captain, killed in action, 101.

Braine and district cleared by Allenby's cavalry, 146.

"Brand, Tom" (Viscount Hampden), O.C. Hertfordshire Territorials,

powers of, with his men, 271.

Brandenburg Corps, and its commander in the Franco-German War of 1870, 285.

Bray, 60.

Braye, French extension to, suggested, 186.

Breese, Lieutenant Lawrence, of the Royal Horse Guards, scientific experiment of, on new weapons, costing his life, 355.

Breteuil, de Castelnau's H.Q. at, 199.

Bridges, Colonel Thomas, 4th Dragoon Guards, character summary of, 184-5;

sent to Brussels, 185;

report from, on the situation in Antwerp, 198;

French's representative with H.M. the King of the Belgians, the co-operative scheme discussed with, 343-4.

Bridoux, General, Commanding French Cavalry Corps,

r?le assigned to, 143;

killed, 158.

Brigades, see Infantry Brigades.

Briggs, Brigadier-General C. J., G.O.C. 1st Cavalry Brigade, 24.

British Admiralty, views of, on the Zeebrugge schemes, 311, 320-1.

British Army, see each component part, and Names of Commanders;

see also British Expeditionary Force, and Indian Corps;

Disadvantages of (circa 1914), 140;

One of its most sacred Traditions, 330;

Possibility of Employing elsewhere than as on Jan. 9, 1915;

Memorandum of War Council, 313-14;

and French's reply, 315 sqq.;

Secret of its fighting power, 330.

British Empire at stake in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 214-16;

two fateful dates for, 237, 252, 260;

saved by the Cavalry Corps, 261;

jeopardised by the shortage of Munitions. French's consequent

action, 347, 356, 357;

practically inviolate throughout the War, 331.

British Expeditionary Force for France, command given to French, 2, 8, 17;

Composition of, 4;

at start and later, with names of Commanders, 16 sqq.;

Combined action with the Navy considered by French and discussed with Churchill, 157, 164;

further consideration of, 302 sqq.;

objections of the French, 305, 307, 342, 343;

the substituted plan in operation, 322 sqq.;

Concentration on left flank of the French fixed, 5, 6-7, 14;

and effected, 33, 35, 40;

general instructions for action when completed, 42;

order of the day referred to, 212;

see also Move northward, below;

Condition of, after Le Cateau, 89, 95, 111;

Co-operation of, with the Belgians, French's scheme for, 302, 303, 343-5;

Belgian promise of, 43-6;

Deficiencies after Le Cateau due to Losses (q.v.) (Aug. 31), 95;

Despatch of, to France; Instructions to C.-in-C. on his departure, 13-15;

Feeling of, for the Prussian invaders of East Prussia, 194;

French's talks with the men, 88-9, 136;

German estimate of (Sept. 3), 105;

the thing forgotten by them, 107;

H.Q. in London; Locale and Staff, 5-6;

Imperilment of, by the abandonment of the French offensive, 94;

Losses (see also that head) in Officers, how made good, 272;

Marching of, 94;

Message to, from the King, 275;

Moral of, see Spirit Animating, below;

Moral sustained through the Great Retreat, 107;

Motive and Task of, 14;

Move of, to the N., to left flank of French forces, envisaged by French in Sept., 157, 162;

the pourparlers on, 163 sqq.;

Joffre's views on, 166-9,

and dispositions suggested by him, 169 sqq.;

urged on by French in early October, 176;

further urgent representations on, to Joffre, and the replies, 185 sqq.;

the march begun (Oct. 1), 193, 195 sqq.;

its progress, 198 sqq.;

how thwarted, 341 sqq.;

combined advance east planned for (Oct. 13), 20;

New base decided on, 93;

Offensive action by, urged by Joffre and others (Aug. 31), and refused by French, 95;

Orders of the Day issued to, by French;

Sept. 8, 131-2;

Special:

Aug. 22, paragraph 2, quoted, 212;

Oct. 16, 211-12;

Oct. 23, 229;

Nov. 1, 257;

Nov. 3, 260-9;

Nov. 3, 269-70;

Position desired for, for Sept. 6, by Joffre, 107;

Positions held by (see also Concentration, above), and movements of, before and during the:

(a) Retreat from Mons, 47 sqq.;

(b) Battle of the Marne, 117 sqq.;

(c) Battle of the Aisne, 145 sqq.;

(d) Movement N., after that Battle, 193 sqq.;

(e) 1st Battle of Ypres, 214 sqq.;

(f) Operations of Dec. 14-19, 1914, 326 sqq.;

Qualities shown by all ranks in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 238, 239;

Reserves and reinforcements available, 113, 228;

continued lack of both, 265;

War Council's view on (Jan. 7, 1915), 309;

Roads and Supply Railheads allotted to, for the Battle of the Marne, 132-3;

Services of, acknowledgments of, by,

Joffre, 85, 98;

Poincaré, 198;

Spirit animating, 55, 78, 88-9, 98, 110, 111, 113, 238, 239, 266, 269, 270, 271;

Strain endured by, in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 237;

Successive instead of united action by, envisaged by Joffre (Oct. 4), 189 sqq.;

Wilson's share in preparation of, 108.

British Force for Relief of Antwerp, 177, 179, 181;

what befell it, and what might have been done with it, 183;

Poincaré's view on, 198.

British Forces, see British Army.

British Government, see also War Cabinet;

offensive action urged by, on Aug. 31, 95;

objective unattainable without adequate Munitions, insistence on by French, 351 sqq., 357 sqq.;

see also 347, 358 sqq.;

Guarantee of Belgian neutrality, 9, 14.

British Imperial General Staff, French's resignation from, 1;

and French's appointment to Command of B.E.F., 2;

conferences of, with French General Staff, 5, 9.

British Losses at Le Cateau, 78-9, 83-7, 89, 153;

in the Battle of the Aisne, 152-3, 159, 160;

on the Marne, 137, 138;

in the Battle of Ypres, 251, 279, 285-6.

British Naval co-operation arranged for, 226-7;

Detachments for relief of Antwerp, and their Commander, 179, 181;

difficulty of withdrawing, 201;

Transport Service line, efficiency of, 40.

British Navy (see also Naval co-operation)

Combined action with plans for, 157, 164 sqq., 302 sqq.;

French objections to, 305, 307, 342, 343;

Position of in Aug. 1914, 4;

and at the close of the year, 345.

British Reservists, in Aug. 1914, 42.

British Soldiers, military characteristics of, 42;

Moral superiority of, over German, value of, 55;

and Officers, instinctive sympathy between, 88;

Qualities of, saving the Armies from disaster, 94;

Spirit of, at and before the Battle of the Marne, 113, 121;

Troops, mobilisation of, 3.

Brooke, Colonel Lord, and the Warwickshire Battery of Horse Artillery (q.v.), 295.

Broome, a pause at, with Kitchener, 333.

Bruges, Belgian retreat on, covered by Rawlinson, 201;

German advance on, 208;

and arrival at, 219;

plan for clearing, 221, 226;

failure of, 235.

Brussels, Belgian evacuation of, 45-6;

German cavalry advance on, 58;

Colonel Bridges despatched to, 185;

Railway to and from, 53;

route from, across Haine valley, 49.

Brussels-Givet line, German menace to, 41.

Bucy-le-Long-Bourg line, held by British, 150, 152.

Bug, the, Russian operations near, 334.

Bulfin, Brigadier-General E. S., G.O.C. 2nd Infantry Brigade, 18, 244;

given command of the 1st Division, 251-2.

Bulgaria, Joffre's hopes from, 34.

Bull Run, Battle of, 231.

Bully beef, exchange of, for loan of Guns, by Haig, 159.

"Bunching up" of infantry, 130.

Bussières, attempt to cut off enemy retreat at, 128.

Bussières-Boitron-Hondevilliers line, British left on, 131.

Butler, Brigadier-General R. H. K., G.O.C. 3rd Infantry Brigade, 18.

Buzancy, French's view from, of the Aisne combat, 145.

Byng, Major-General Hon. Sir Julian, G.O.C. 3rd Cavalry Division, 29;

operations by, 201;

during the Battle of Ypres, 227, 239, 243, 244;

Appointed to command Cavalry Division for relief of Antwerp, 181.

Bzura, the, Russian retreat to, and stand on, 230.

Cabinet, The (see also War Cabinet),

anxiety of (Dec. 1914), 332.

Cabinet Ministers, French's efforts to rouse to the need for more Munitions, 347.

Calais, 183;

menace to, and from, of the fall of Antwerp, 176, 214-15, 304.

Calais-Dover, distance well within range of modern heavy artillery, 215.

Cambon, Paul, French Ambassador in London, 3.

Cambrai, 77;

canal by, 49-50;

Scheldt crossing at, 50;

British troops near, 72;

German reinforcements at, 182.

Cambrai to Condé and to Le Nouvion, distances, 48.

Cameron Highlanders, 1st Batt., 27;

at the Petit Morin, 126;

in the Battle of Ypres, 250;

at Givenchy, 328.

Cameronians, The (Scottish Rifles), 5th Batt. (T.), 295.

Campaigns, alternatives offered by preliminary conditions of, 217-18;

Development of, often quite unlike the preconceived plan, 217;

success in, from what resulting, 217-18.

Campbell, Lieut.-Colonel D., 9th Lancers, at Moncel, 119;

and wounded, 120.

Canal Du Centre, junction of, with the Condé Canal, 53.

Capper, Major-General T., G.O.C. 7th Infantry Division, 28, 227;

sent to relief of Antwerp, 181;

at Ghent, 201, 203;

retreat thence, 208.

Carency, French line advanced at, 345.

Carvin and Lens, French Cavalry operating between, 182.

Cassel, French's interviews at, with Foch, 233, 274, 277-8;

on the inundation question, 242-3.

Castelnau, General de,

efforts of, to turn the German flank, 13, 145, 159, 160, 162, 197, 216, 325;

Fine leading of, and the results, 158-9;

Seen by French on October 8, personal losses sustained by, and pressure on troops of, 199.

Catillon, Bridge at, 51.

Cattenières, German move on, 77.

Cavalry, see British, French, German, Cavalry.

Cavalry, British (see also Indian Cavalry, and each unit under Brigade, Corps, Division, Regiment, and Names of Commanders) of the Expeditionary Force, 4;

Composition and Commanders of, 16, 17 sqq. (see also Cavalry Brigades, Corps, Divisions),

Demand of, for Bayonets, 161;

Guns saved by, at Le Cateau, 77;

Memorandum on the Employment of, 129-30;

Operations of, before, during, and after the,

(a) Retreat from Mons, 44, 47 sqq.;

(b) Battle of the Marne, 119 sqq.;

(c) Battle of the Aisne, 146, 152, 165;

(d) Move northwards, 172 sqq.;

(e) 1st Battle of Ypres, 220 sqq. passim;

(f) Operations of Dec. 14-19, 238;

Reconnaissance work of; shared with Aircraft, 43-4;

Superiority of, to that of the enemy, 94;

Brigades:

1st, 24;

fine work of, at Braine, 146;

2nd, 24, 65, 73;

guns saved by, 77;

at Moncel, 119-20;

3rd, 24, 65;

at St. Quentin, 87;

fighting on the Marne, 129, 132;

filling gap between 3rd and 2nd Corps, 135;

energy of, 137;

at Chassemy, 152;

4th, 24, 25, 63;

at Messines, 247, 263;

5th, 25;

at Binche, 47;

at Cérizy, 87;

near Compiègne, 93;

on the Marne, 132;

following gap between 3rd and 2nd Corps, 135;

in Marne Battle, 135;

French's talk to, after the fight, 136;

energy of, 137;

at Chassemy, 152;

6th, 29;

at Gheluvelt, 250;

7th (see also Kavanagh), 30;

in the Battle of Ypres, 250, 251;

at Messines, 246;

fine work by, 256, 272;

Corps (see also Allenby),

formation of, 24, 200, 202;

fine work by, 203, 204 sqq.;

operations planned for, in the Battle of Ypres, 219;

and executed by, 220, 221;

victories of, 223;

front held by, 225, 232;

falling back on Messines, 227;

hard pressed at Zonnebeke, 233;

glorious stand by, and by associated troops on the Wytschaete-Messines ridge, 238, 244 sqq.;

support sent to, 250;

admirable aid given by, 261;

repulse of the enemy by, back to the Lys, 277;

Divisional, see Divisional Cavalry;

Divisions:

1st, 16, 24, 61;

fine reconnaissance work by, 64, 65, 72, 73, 75, 76, 84, 87, 119, 126;

orders to, before the Battle of the Marne, 132;

at Braine, 152;

and the move N., 169, 171, 173, 188;

the move begun, 193, 193, 198, 200, 202;

fine work by, 204, 205;

fighting on the Lys, 220;

in support at Messines, 244;

fierce fighting by, 245, 246, 247;

withdrawal to Wulverghem, 258, 259;

London Scottish joining in the trenches, 263;

supporting Conneau, 264;

reinforcing Haig, 280;

2nd, 25, 146;

move to the N., 170-1, 172, 174, 193, 195, 200;

capture by, of the Mont des Cats, 204;

and of Mont Noir, 205;

capture by, of Mont Kemmel, 208;

at Warneton, 220;

reinforcing Haig, 243;

and hard pressed, 244;

at Messines, 246;

at Gheluvelt, 250;

heavily attacked on the Wytschaete-Messines ridge, 237, 258, 259;

French support of, 261;

London Scottish detached to support, 263;

3rd, 16, 29, 165, 178, 188, 273;

detailed for Relief of Antwerp, 180, 181, 192, 201;

at Thourout, 204;

fighting in Houthulst Forest, 220;

near Menin, 224;

increasing pressure on, 227, 233, 239;

intense fighting near Hollebeke, 243, 244, 246;

value of, 276;

critical situation, 251;

fighting at Wytschaete-Messines ridge, 260;

8th, 169.

Cavalry Commanders, French's discussions with, before Mons, 43.

Cavalry on Foot, disadvantages of, 261-2.

Cavalry spirit, advantages of, 262.

Cavan, Brigadier-General the Earl of, G.O.C. 4th (Guards Brigade), 19, 244, 271;

later command of, 252, 271;

fine work by, 272;

marvellous influence over his men, 271.

Celles, spurs near, 150.

Cérizy, German cavalry repulse at, 87.

Cerseuil, 7th Brigade at, 195.

Chailly and Jouy-sur-Morin, 1st Corps at, 123.

Chalons, rail to, from Maubeuge, 53.

Chamigny, Marne crossed at, by part of 3rd Corps, 138.

Champagne, Plain of, 117;

German forces giving way in, 142.

Changis, Marne crossings near, 124, 129;

French difficulties at, 133-4.

Changis-Coulommiers line, British position on, before the Marne Battle, 115.

Channel Ports, German menace to, 341;

constantly in French's mind, 11, 155-7;

increased by the fall of Antwerp, 176;

possibility of averting, 183;

gravity of, in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 214-16, 224;

the advance checked by that battle, 235-6, 277;

moment of greatest danger to (Oct. 31), 252, 260;

saved by the Territorials, 294;

rendered grave by German hold on Belgian coast, Grey on, 306-7;

French's plan for extinguishing this menace, 302 sqq.;

Joffre's views and alternative plan, 307, 310-11;

and memorandum on, 317-18.

Channel Tunnel, 214;

views on, of French, 156.

Chantilly, meetings at, with Joffre, 336, 340;

conference at, with Kitchener, the Munitions question urged at, 355-6.

Charleroi, country near, 50;

German advance on, 58.

Charleroi Canal, canals connected with, 53.

Charly-sur-Marne, bridge at, seized by Allenby, 133.

Chassemy, Gough's cavalry at, 152.

Chateau-Thiérry, French forces falling back on, 104;

taken by the enemy, 105;

French advance directed on, 115;

German concentration near, 151.

Chatillon, the French G.H.Q. at, 142.

Chemin des Dames, position maintained by the French, 157;

plateau S. of, 161.

Cheshire Regiment:

1st Batt., 22;

6th Batt. (T.), 296.

Chetwode, Brigadier-General Sir Philip P. W., G.O.C. 5th Cavalry Brigade, 25, 47;

German cavalry repulsed by, at Cérizy, 87;

1st Corps' retirement covered by, 93;

French's visit with, to the tired troops, 136.

Chichester, Brigadier-General, O.C. Territorial Training Camp, St. Omer, 294.

Chivalry in war, importance of maintaining, instances of, in the Boer War, 339.

Chivres Plateau, German artillery concentration on, 151-2.

Chivres Plateau-Missy line held by 5th Division, 152.

Chivres Spur, Aisne Valley, 147.

Christmas Day, 1900, a Boer Christmas present after, 339.

Christmas Day, 1914, how spent by French, 337;

an armistice believed to have been suggested for, by the Pope, 337;

German fraternisation on, 338.

Churchill, Rt. Hon. Winston, and the Entente, 3;

on the situation of the British Navy on August 5, 1914, 4;

attacks on, repudiated by French, and valuable help acknowledged, 164;

character-summary of, 302-3;

visits of, to French, and plans for naval co-operation sketched out during, 163-4;

and letters after, 302 sqq.;

later visit to French (Dec. 17), the difficulties of British coastal advance discussed, 305;

French dislike of the plan, 305;

and substitute for it, 307;

on the French attitude to the Zeebrugge plan, 307;

telegram from (Jan. 2), on the development of Zeebrugge as a submarine base, 308;

text, 311.

Clive, Major, Grenadier Guards, liaison officer at French H.Q., news from, 72;

a tribute to, 274.

Cloth Hall, and other glories at Ypres, 248.

Coast-line, menace to, see Channel ports.

Coldstream Guards, The,

1st Batt., 17, 250;

at Givenchy, 328;

2nd Batt., 19, 125, 128, 244;

3rd Batt., 19, 125, 127, 128, 244.

Command of Ground, chief value of, 149.

Commander-in-Chief, demands on the brain of, 80;

functions of, as exercised by Kitchener in South Africa, 333;

responsibility of, for all blame always maintained by French, 329-30.

Commanders of Armies in the Field, and Interference by Home Government, see Divided Command.

Committee of Imperial Defence, 1, 8;

warning to, by French, on the command of the Channel ports, 155-6, 214;

suggestion to, on sectional construction of submarines made by French, 216;

French a member of, 8.

Compiègne, French's G.H.Q. at, 86, 89, 90, 93;

conference at, with Joffre, 92;

pivot of French cavalry operations, 146.

Compiègne-Clermont line, French forces falling back to, 93.

Compiègne-La Fère line, gap in, Joffre's desire for the British to fill, and French's replies, 92, 94, 95.

Compiègne-Longueil-Pont Ste. Maxence area, 3rd Corps directed on, 187.

Condé, the Scheldt at, 48, 50;

military value of, 53, 54;

roads from, route of, 54;

2nd Corps' difficulties S.E. of, 65;

Aisne crossing at, 150.

Condé Bridge, British cavalry (entrenched) covering, 195.

Condé-Cambrai-Le Nouvion-Binche area,

Features of,

Strategical, 52 sqq.;

Topographical, 48 sqq.

Condé Canal line, British forces on, 47, 50;

junction of, with Canal Du Centre, 53;

bridges gained by German cavalry, 62.

Condé Fort, Missy, cleared of enemy, 149.

Condé-Manette line, British forces on, 60.

Condé-Mons-Erquelinnes line, British on, 59;

heavy pressure on, 61.

Condé-Valenciennes-Cambrai-Le Cateau-Landrecies road, 54.

Congreve, Brigadier-General W. N., V.C., G.O.C. 18th Infantry Brigade, 28.

Connaught Rangers,

1st Batt., 19, 128, 238;

2nd Batt., 19, 160.

Conneau, General, French cavalry under, operations of, 204, 227, 235;

at Messines, 264, 278;

relieved, 280.

Cormicy-Rheims-Verzy line, held by 5th French Army, 146.

Corps Commander, discussions with before Mons, 43.

Coulommiers, French at, with Haig, 106;

French's G.H.Q. at, 131.

Council of War of Aug. 5, 1914,

Members and Military Officers present at, 3-4;

topics discussed and conclusions arrived at, 4-5.

County of London (London Regiment):

9th Batt. (Queen Victoria's Rifles), 295;

12th Batt. (The Rangers), 296;

13th Batt. (Princess Louise's Kensington Batt.), 295.

Courcelles, 1st Corps H.Q., 152.

Courta?on-Esternay-La Villeneuve-les-Charleville line reached by 5th French Army, 121.

Courta?on-Esternay-Sézanne line, 5th French Army directed on, before the Marne battle, 115.

Courtrai, Rawlinson's operations towards, 201, 219;

German advance to, 208;

and reinforcements at, 240.

Couvrelles-Ciry-Nampteuil-sous-Muret area, British troops in, 196.

Cracow, anticipated fall of, 194;

Russian tactics concerning, 230.

Craonne, French forces near, 152;

loss of, 157.

Crawford, and the Light Division, 215.

Cressy, Allenby's H.Q. at, 87.

Crouy and Crouy Ridge, Allied forces at, 152.

Cuiry-Houssé-Oulchy-le-Chateau area, 2nd Corps directed to assemble in, 193.

Cuisy-Iverny-Neufmontiers-Meaux, French advance by, across the Marne, 115.

Cunard, Lady, 2.

Cunliffe-Owen, Colonel, G.O.C. 2nd Infantry Brigade (temp.), 18.

Cuthbert, Brigadier-General G. J., G.O.C. 13th Infantry Brigade, 22.

Cyclist Companies attached to Divisional Cavalry and R.E.,

1st, 18;

2nd, 20;

3rd, 21;

4th, 26;

5th, 23;

6th, 28;

7th, 29.

Dagny, Cavalry action near, 119.

D'Amade, General, troops under, 61;

help given by, to 2nd Brigade at Le Cateau, 78, 80;

attack by, on the Germans about Péronne, 87.

Dammartin, G.H.Q. moved to, 95, 100, 101, 104.

Dardanelles Expedition, repercussion of, on the W. front, 316, 318, 343, 356;

the climax and its results, 357 sqq.

Davies, Brigadier-General R. H., G.O.C. 6th Infantry Brigade, 19.

Davies, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 8th Infantry Brigade, 66.

Dawnay, Major Hugh, 2nd Life Guards, services and death in action, 84, 273-4;

on the 1st Corps' doings (Oct. 24), 235.

Defence, strengthened by Modern Weapons, 12, 144.

Delays, danger of, 7.

de la Panouse, Vicomte, and British support of France, 3.

de Lisle, Brigadier-General (later, Major-General) H. de B., G.O.C. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, 24;

later G.O.C. 1st Cavalry Division, 24, 65;

r?le assigned to, 200, 202-3;

and finely executed by, 204-5;

at Messines, 247;

high praise due to, 261;

in the Battle of Ypres, 280.

Denain, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

Denmark, Neutrality of, and Vulnerability of Sea-communications, 315.

Derby, Earl of, on Kitchener's love for Broome, 333.

Devonshire Regiment, 1st Batt., 21, 22, 27, 327.

Dhuisy, British troops directed to, to ease pressure on 8th French Division, 134.

Dhuizel, 146;

1st Corps H.Q. at, 152.

Dieppe, German opportunity at, lost, 214, 215-16.

Dinant, French forces at (Aug. 18), 41.

Dinant-Trélon line, 5th French Army on, 58, 59.

Dispatches, difficulty of writing, 80.

Divided Command and Divided Counsels, evils of, 99 sqq.; 177 sqq., 222, 319;

Poincaré's views on, 198-9;

French's efforts to minimise, 232-3;

a concrete instance (Dec. 18), 325.

Divisional Cavalry:

1st Division, 18;

2nd, 20;

3rd, 21;

4th, 26;

5th, 23;

6th, 28, 203;

7th, 29.

Divisions, British (see also Cavalry Division), Commanders and Composition of, 16, 17, 19, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28;

Regular Forces,

1st, 16, 17, 252;

in the Retreat from Mons, 66, 106;

in the Battles of the Marne, 125, 126, 129;

and of the Aisne (at Vendresse), 151;

in the Battle of Ypres, 223, 232;

at Gheluvelt, 241-2, 250, 253-4, 265;

at Messines, 260, 265;

moved into reserve, 284;

2nd, 16, 19;

in the Retreat from Mons, 66, 81, 106;

in the Battle of the Marne, 119, 127;

at the Petit Morin, 128;

in the Battle of the Aisne, 151;

in the Battle of Ypres, 223, 235, 251, 253-4, 265;

Territorials incorporated with, 297;

3rd, 16, 20;

in the Retreat from Mons, 60, 62, 71;

at Solesmes, 73, 75;

in the Battle of the Marne, at Nanteuil, 133, 160, 193;

in the Battle of the Aisne, at Aizy, 151;

and Vuilly, 152;

position on Oct. 2, 195;

Commander killed, 211;

in the Battle of Ypres, at Messines, 247;

and after, 323;

4th, 16, 25, 68, 72, 105;

at Le Cateau, 77, 210;

and after, 85;

bridging feat, of, in the Marne Battle, 134;

in the Battle of the Aisne, 145, 152, 161;

moving North, 205;

at Bailleul, 207;

in the Battle of Ypres, Le Gheer retaken by, 233;

at Messines, fine work of, 245;

5th, 16, 22;

in the Retreat from Mons, 62, 71, 76;

heavy pressure on, 66, 70;

in the Battle of the Marne, 133, 134;

in the Battle of the Aisne and after, 150-2, 195, 196;

heavy fighting by, 210;

in the Battle of Ypres, at La Bassée, 221;

in the December operations, 323;

6th, 16, 27, 94, 150, 203;

in the Marne Battle, 153, 160;

in the Battle of Ypres, 205;

Bailleul and Meteren taken by, 207;

success of, at Armentières, 241;

constant fighting of, 275;

7th, 16, 28, 165, 167, 169, 173;

not under French, 177, 178, 179;

detailed for relief of Antwerp, 180-1;

French's reiteration of request for, 188;

placed under French's orders, 192, 208;

orders to, 208;

in the Battle of Ypres, 224, 239, 251, 253-4, 256, 327;

defence by, of the Ypres salient, 239;

at Gheluvelt, 241-2;

heavily shelled, 251;

heavy losses, 260, 265;

8th, 165, 167, 169, 171, 173, 201, 239;

in the Battle of Ypres, 327;

12th, at the Battle of Loos, O.C. killed, 150;

27th, 239, 305;

28th, 310;

Territorial:

46th (North Midland), 300;

47th (London), 300;

48th (South Midland), 300;

49th (West Riding), 300;

50th (Northumbrian), 300;

51st (Highland), 300.

Dixmude, French Naval Division at, 208;

German forces between it and Nieuport, 240;

taken by them, 278;

and held, 283;

possibility of clearing line to, 304;

Belgian forces active near, 337.

Domptin, reached by 1st Army Corps, 133.

Doran, Brigadier-General B. J. C., G.O.C. 8th Infantry Brigade, 21.

Doran, Brigadier-General W. R. B., G.O.C. 17th Infantry Brigade, 28.

Dorset Regiment, 1st Batt., 23.

Douai-St. Quentin Railway, junction of, at Cambrai, 54.

Doué, H.Q. of Smith-Dorrien, 128;

German evacuation of, 131.

Douglas, General Sir Charles, G.C.B., at the Council of War of Aug. 5, 1914, 3.

Doullens, H.Q. of Foch at, French's visit to and conference at, 199-200.

Douve River, 324;

Valley of, German attack in, 245;

and continuous activity in, later, 275.

Dover, War time aspect of, 31, 34;

Straits of, and the Command of the Channel Ports, 155-7.

Dragoon Guards:

1st (King's), 29, 250;

2nd (Queen's Bays), 24, 146;

3rd, 29, 250;

4th (Royal Irish), 24, 65, 73, 184;

at Messines, 245;

5th (Pss. Charlotte of Wales), 24, 76;

at Messines, 245;

6th (Carabiniers), 24;

at Messines, 247.

Dragoons:

1st (Royals), 29, 250;

at Hollebeke, 243;

2nd (Scots Greys), 25, 47;

after the crossing of the Marne, 130.

Dranoutre-Messines area, reached by 1st Cavalry Division, 205.

Drummond, Brigadier-General L. G., G.O.C. 19th Infantry Brigade, 23;

at Valenciennes, placed under orders of Allenby, 61, 65.

Du Cane, Colonel (temp. Brigadier-General) J. P., C.B., Chief of Staff, 3rd Corps, 323.

Duff, Lieut.-Colonel Grant, C.B., and his men, in the Battle of the Marne, 126.

Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 1st Batt., 22.

Dunkirk, 169, 179, 183, 188, 228, 243;

importance of and risks to, 155, 176, 214, 304.

Dunkirk-Cambrai-La Capelle-Hirson line, French Reserves on, 21, 41, 47-8, 73.

Durham, Earl of, demand by, at French's request, for more Munitions, 355.

Durham Light Infantry, 2nd Batt., 28.

Dyle, the Belgian retreat on (Aug. 18), 46.

Eastern War Front, British official fears concerning (Dec. 27), laid before Joffre, and his views on the matter, 340-1.

East Prussia, Russian operations in, 194, 229, 268.

Ecaillon stream, affluent of the Scheldt, 50.

Edward, Prince of Wales, arrival of, in France, 287.

Egerton, --, of Egerton's Brigade, 261.

Egyptian Campaign of 1882, volunteers in, 292.

Eighteenth (British) Corps, 186.

Eleventh (British) Corps, 169.

England, Immunity of, during the War, 330-1;

Invasion of, possibilities of, 155-6.

Entente Powers, British Cabinet's loyalty to, 3.

Epernay, Forest near, French attempt to turn, 143.

Epernay-Rheims, French movement towards, 143.

Ereclin, the, and other affluents of the Scheldt, 50.

Esperey, General Franchet d', see Franchet d'Esperey.

Essex Regiment, 2nd Batt., 26.

Estaires, Germans driven back near, 204;

Lahore Division sent to, 234.

Estaires to Menin, cavalry reconnaissance in strength along the Lys from, directed for Oct. 15, 205.

Etreux, Munster Fusiliers cut up at, 17.

European War, French's anticipations of, 1, 2.

Falloden, Viscount Grey of, see Grey, Rt. Hon. Sir Edward.

Fanshawe, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 6th Infantry Brigade, 19.

Faujus, Cavalry action at, 120-1.

Fère-en-Tardenois, French's H.Q. moved to, 145;

visit at, from President Poincaré, 198-9.

Fergusson, Major-General Sir Charles, G.O.C. 5th Division, 22;

hard pressed (Aug. 24), 65;

and the Aisne crossing at Missy, 149, 150.

Ferozepore Brigade, see under Indian troops.

Festubert, Battle of (1915), 344;

British artillery supplies for, 356;

drastic measures taken by French after, on the Munition question, 357;

Indian troops engaged at, 327, 328.

Field Guns (see also Guns), actually on the Offensive,

number of rounds fired per gun per day, 358.

Finance Department's opposition to provision of Munitions, 348.

Fifth Corps, part of 2nd Army under Smith-Dorrien, 337.

First Army Corps (1st B.E.F.), Commander, and composition, 16, 17-20;

during the Mons Battle, and the Retreat, 60, 64, 65, 66, 93, 110;

the fight at Landrecies, 74-5, 77-8;

gap between and the 2nd Corps (Aug. 26), 74-5, 81;

French assistance to, 81-2;

the retreat resumed, 82;

fatigued but ready, 100;

retirement of, engagements during, 110, 116;

on the Marne, 122, 125, 132, 137;

at Chilly and Jouy-sur-Morin (Sept. 8), 123;

roads and supply railheads for (Sept. 9), 132;

crossing the Marne, 133;

appearance and attitude of, 135-6;

fatigue of;

French's talk to, 136;

positions of, before and during the Battle of the Aisne, 146;

in the Battle of the Aisne, 150-1;

points at which Aisne crossing was effected by (Sept. 14), 151;

successful operation of, 151;

positions of (Sept. 14), 152;

reinforcement sent to, and plan for, 153;

counter-attack repulsed with heavy losses, 153;

heavy attack on, repulsed (Sept. 17), 157;

reinforcements sent to (Sept. 18), 158;

losses, 159;

heavy fighting, 159-61;

disposition of, in the move N., 171;

relief of, French's efforts to effect, 185-6;

relief of, Notes on, of the Allied Chiefs, 185 sqq., 191;

movements ordered (Oct. 1), 193;

position of (Oct. 2), 195;

relief of, delay in, Joffre's assurance as to (Oct. 10), 201-2;

final repulse by, of the Germans on the Aisne (Oct. 11), 211;

arrival of last detachment of, at St. Omer, 211;

French's intended use of, against Bruges and Roulers, 219, 226;

sent N., 228;

actions by and positions of, in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 232, 235, 242;

defence of the Ypres salient, 239; sqq. passim;

actions by, sqq.;

action, 1st Defence of Ypres salient, 239;

report from (Oct. 30), 243;

French effective support for, promised by Foch (Oct. 31), 243;

Orders to (Oct. 30), 244-5;

position serious (Oct. 31), 249;

the retirement, 252;

the rally, 253;

H.Q. guard, 248;

line broken, 251;

line re-established (Oct. 31), 255-6;

heavily attacked (Nov. 1), 259, 260;

rest essential for, 264, 265;

heavily engaged (Nov. 11), the line pierced, with heavy losses and re-established, 278-9;

help given by, to Vidal, 279;

part played by, in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 283;

parallels to, 285;

losses sustained, 285-6;

Reserve, Territorials in, 297;

relief sent by, to the Indian Corps (Dec. 20), 328;

as part of the 1st Army under Haig (Dec. 25), 337.

"First Seven Divisions, The," at the Battle of Ypres, 237-8.

FitzClarence, Brigadier-General, V.C., G.O.C. 1st Infantry Brigade, 17;

the situation at Gheluvelt saved by, 254-5;

killed in action, 17, 255, 280.

FitzGerald, Lieut.-Colonel Brinsley, French's Secretary, 34, 255, 357, 360.

Fitzgerald, Sir Maurice, 31.

Flag of Truce, practically unknown in the Great War, 339.

Flanking Movement, de Castelnau's efforts to effect, see Castelnau;

planned by French, 13, 157 sqq. passim, 197, 235-6, 301;

Foch's view on, 199;

see also Aisne Front, withdrawal from.

Foch, General (now Marshal), 13, 321;

Appearance, 197-8;

Characteristics:

Military genius, 197-8;

optimism, 199, 223, 242-3, 274;

spirit of, and audacious strategy of, 198, 274;

Effort of, to turn the German flank, 13, 145, 199;

French's friendship with, and tribute to, 197-8;

relations with French, conferences, plans, &c. concerted together (in order of date), 199-200, 203, 216, 218, 220, 224, 235, 255, 260, 274;

on inundation (Oct. 29), 242-3;

promise of support by, 221, 226, 245, 260, 281;

no reserves to spare, 265;

but help given to 1st Corps, 283-4;

Representing the French Army at Lord Roberts's funeral service in France, 282;

On the enemy attack on his line between Ypres and the sea, support asked and given, 278;

On the Operations of Dec. 16-17, 324-5;

On the "Russian bluff," 337.

Fontaine Fauvel, high ground about, reached by Allenby, 133.

Fontaine-Ors road, 52.

Fontenelle, Sambre source near, 50.

Forêt de Crécy, 117.

Forêt de Mormal, roads and railways traversing, 52;

enemy advance through, 75, 81.

Forêt de Nieppe, cleared by British cavalry, 203.

Forêt de St. Gobain, 143.

"Formidable," H.M.S., sunk by submarine in Channel, 311.

"Fosse Position," 10th French Corps at, 57.

Fosse-Charleroi-Thuin line, French forces on, 58.

Fourth Corps, British Army, Commander and composition of, 201;

in the march north, 203;

covering Belgian retreat, 208;

directed eastward, danger to left of, 219, 221, 224; 220, 223, 226, 227;

in the Battle of Ypres, 232, 327;

temporarily broken up, 239;

part of 1st Army under Haig, 337.

Fowke, Brigadier-General, O.C. Royal Engineers, 6.

France and Belgium, the line in (Oct. 14-June 15), held, thanks to the Territorials, 294;

British Expeditionary Force for (q.v.), Command of, 2, 8;

Victory of, share in, of the Women and Children, 36.

Franchet d'Esperey, General, G.O.C. 5th Army, vice Lanrezac superseded (Sept. 4), 107;

at the Marne, 115, 123, 125.

Francis Ferdinand, Archduke, murder of, 1.

Franco-Belgian frontier, terrain near, 49.

Franco-British consultations in Aug. 1914, 6, 9;

Military relations during 1914, 108, 112 passim;

Understanding as to Co-operation in event of German attack on France, 5, 6, 9.

Franco-German war of 1870, fame in, of the Brandenburg Corps, 285.

Franière, German advance near, 57.

Frederick Charles of Prussia, Prince, and the Brandenburg Corps, 285.

Frederick the Great, German military following of, 346.

French, Field Marshal Sir J. P., G.C.B., &c. (now Viscount French of Ypres), and the Great War;

Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Aug. 1914, 2, 3, 8, 17;

the command "entirely independent," 15 (cf. 94 sqq., 177, and 329-30,

see also Ammunition, Channel Ports, Move Northward, Offensive);

anticipation by, of European War, 1, 8;

the first idea received of the coming in 1914, 2;

the violation of Belgian neutrality expected, 10-11;

at the Council of War of Aug. 5, 1914, 3;

views of, on landing of B.E.F., 6-7;

advance studies of, on problems of a B.E.F., 8-9;

all plans concentrated on a war of movement and man?uvre, 11;

at German man?uvres of 1911, and the Kaiser's remarks on his forces, 9-10;

instructions to, before leaving for France, 13-5, 94;

arrival in France, official visits, 33;

first meeting with Joffre and his staff, 34 sqq.;

visits of, to Corps Commanders, &c., and conferences with them, 40, 43, 47, 60, 62, 130, 154, 159, 202, 209, 210, 219, 243-4, 246, 249, 255, 337 et alibi;

visit of, to Lanrezac, 56;

and message sent to, later, 57;

interviews with Commander of French Reserve Divisions, 37;

letter to Kitchener on French dispositions W. of the Meuse,

request in, for Plumer to succeed Grierson, 38-40;

appreciation of the situation on Aug. 18, 40-2;

observations on the physique of the British troops, 42;

invitation to Louvain from the King of the Belgians, 42-3;

message from Belgian Government on evacuating Brussels, 45-6;

no idea of retreat then entertained by, 47;

visit to Lanrezac's G.H.Q., and the beginning of his retreat, 56-7;

Lanrezac's request to, 58;

and the reply, 59;

anxiety for the Mons salient, 61;

meeting with Sordet, 67-8;

the temptation of Maubeuge, 70;

orders issued for the retreat to continue, 71;

the vital problem before, as to a stand on Aug. 25, 73;

retreat decided on, 74;

account of the fighting at Landrecies sent by, to Kitchener, 75;

Dispatch by, on the Battle of Le Cateau, 79-80;

interviews with Joffre and with Lanrezac, 81, 82-3, 85-6;

Joffre's, telegram to, of appreciation of the services of the British Army, 85;

possible stand on the Oise considered by, and personal reconnaissance by, of the terrain, 85;

roadside talks with the British troops, 88-9;

idea of, for a stand between the Marne and the Seine, 92;

conference of, with Joffre, inability to make a stand insisted on, 92;

and reiterated, 93;

opinion of, on von Kluck's movement, 106;

pressure put upon to change his plans successfully resisted, 92, 93 sqq., 111-12;

independence of action, necessity for, felt and urged by, in letter to Lord Kitchener, 94;

interview in Paris with Kitchener, 95 sqq.;

results, 95-8;

letters to, from Joffre on French's proposed disposition of forces, 96-7, 97-8;

and the reply, 98;

letter to, from Gallieni (Sept. 2), on co-operation of the British, in the defence of Paris, and the reply (Sept. 3), 102-4;

Joffre's plans communicated to, 107;

and conference with him at Melun, 110, 114 sqq.;

object of, in writing this record, 111, 114 sqq.;

basis of orders issued by, on the Battle of the Marne, 114, 116-17, 122-3;

view of, on the enemy situation and intentions before the Battle of the Marne, 116-17;

visits by, to the British Corps, 118-19, 122;

problem before, on Sept. 7-8, 123-5;

memorandum issued by, on lessons of the Marne Battle, 129 sqq.;

the Marne crossed by, and a talk with the 5th Cavalry Brigade, 135-6;

despatch of, on the Battle of the Marne, 137;

estimate by, of the British contribution to the success of the Battle of the Marne, 140-1;

optimism of, after the Battle of the Marne, 142 sqq.;

further conferences with Joffre, 143;

principle of modern warfare brought home to, 145;

observations by, 145, 148, 149, 159-60, 161, 206-7, 222, 237, 243, 323 et alibi;

appreciation by, of the situation on Sept. 14-15, 153;

reviving hopes of enemy retreat, 153;

modified on Sept. 16, 154, 155;

grave anxiety beginning to possess, as to the safety of the Channel ports (q.v.), 155-7, 176;

the move N. from the Aisne for their defence with naval co-operation first conceived, 157, 162, 164;

letter to, from Maunoury, on his intended advance, and asking for British support, 161-2;

official correspondence of, on heavy artillery (q.v.), and Munitions (q.v.) begun, 163;

visit to, of Winston Churchill (Sept.), 163-4;

plans for co-operation with the Navy discussed, 164;

letters exchanged by, with Joffre, on the move N. of the British forces, 164 sqq.;

hampered by the smallness of his army, 165;

difficulties of, due to the siege and fall of Antwerp, 175 sqq.;

exchange of messages on, between French and Kitchener, 179 sqq.;

strongly averse to sending troops inside Antwerp, 180;

steps taken by, to keep in touch with events at Antwerp, 184-5;

efforts of, to expedite the British move N., urgent note from, to Joffre, and the reply, 185 sqq.;

conclusions of, on the German situation on Oct. 1, hopes of, and orders issued by, 193-4;

basis of, 194;

visit to, from President Poincaré, 198;

visits by, to de Castelnau, and to Foch, plans detailed to, and concerted with the latter, 199-200;

instructions given by, to Allenby, 200-1, 202, 205;

and to Rawlinson, 201;

plans arranged by, with Foch, 203, 216, 218, 220;

and direction based thereon given to Corps Commanders, 219;

these plans modified by reports and observations, 218, 220, 222, 223 sqq.;

apprehension of, as to offensive advance conveyed to Foch, and his reply, 220-1;

all hope of an offensive abandoned (Oct. 21), 228;

reinforcements obtainable, 228;

visit of, to Pulteney at Hazebrouck, the fighting witnessed there, 205-7;

mistaken anticipations before the 1st Battle of Ypres, basis of, 216, 223,

the one reservation, 216-17;

grave decision taken by, on Oct. 19, workings of his mind, and manner in which the problem presented itself, 223 sqq.;

conclusions arrived at, a balance of certain against uncertain disaster, 225;

action taken on decision, 225 sqq.;

instructions given by, to Haig on Oct. 19, 225-6;

reserves lacking to, 225;

hopes of, in Oct., 1914, 231;

basis of, 229, 231 sqq.;

efforts of, to minimise the evils of divided command, 232-3;

estimate held by, of British operations during the second phase of the 1st Battle of Ypres, 237;

anxiety of, concerning the 2nd Corps, 240, 241;

apprehension of, on supply of Ammunition, 241;

visit to, of Foch, promising effective support to 1st Corps, 245;

blow to, of the falling back of the 1st Corps, 252-3;

the dramatic climax, 253 sqq.;

message sent by, to the O.C. London Scottish on their work of Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 263;

their aspect on parade noted by, 264;

hopes of, still constantly disappointed, 270-1;

consultations of, with Foch on the need of relieving the 1st Corps, 283-4;

the infection of his hopefulness, 274;

news of the great enemy attack received during, 277-8;

view of, on the true position for the British Army, 302,

(see also) 154 sqq. and Channel Ports);

visit to, while on the Aisne, from Winston Churchill (then at the Admiralty), agreement with on Naval co-operation, 302-3 sqq.;

letters to, from Churchill on the same subject, 303-5;

replies by, to memoranda from Kitchener on the Zeebrugge scheme, 311-13;

and to that of the War Council on possible different theatres of war, 315-17;

visit to, from Admiral Hood (Dec. 13), on Naval co-operation in the advance from Nieuport, 321;

ordered home for consultation with the Cabinet, 329;

the meeting at Walmer Castle, 329;

discussions with Kitchener on the situation;

insistence by French on his personal responsibility for all blame, 329-30;

sympathy shown to, by Asquith, 332;

feelings of, for Kitchener as soldier and as politician, their differences, a last and happy memory of a former chief, 333;

continued discussion with the War Cabinet, 334;

its alarmist views not shared by, 336;

nor by Foch, 337;

decision of, to form Armies, communicated to designated Commanders, 337;

the Christmas fraternisation stopped by, 338;

interview of, with Joffre by desire of the War Cabinet, 335, 336, 340;

on future plans, as to coastal advance, with Naval co-operation, 342;

plan of, to work the N. section with the Belgian and British Armies, 343;

why it failed, 343, 345;

state of mind of, at close of 1914;

the results of the year justifying, 345;

experiments conducted by, in the field, on new weapons for trench warfare, 354-5;

constant efforts of, to secure adequate supplies of Munitions of War and considered action by, of May 1915, with full knowledge of all entailed thereby, 347 sqq.;

earlier urgency, when chief of I.G.S., on the Munitions question;

financial opposition met by, 348;

visits to, of Members of both Houses of Parliament on whom the need of Guns and Munitions was urged, 355;

interviews given by, to the Press, on the question of Munitions, 355;

ordered to surrender part of his Munition reserves for the Dardanelles, 357;

Secretary and A.D.C. sent by, to lay proofs of the urgent need of Munitions before Lloyd George, as well as before Balfour and Bonar Law, 357;

text of the Memorandum sent at the same time, 357 sqq.;

the results, 360-1;

unprecedented action taken by, on the Munition question (May 9, 1915), and the results, 357 sqq.;

Offices held by, at various times,

Chief of Imperial General Staff, 1, 2;

I.G. of Forces, 8, 296;

I.Y., experiences as, fully borne out in the War, 295;

On his alleged call on Maunoury for assistance on Sept. 8, 135;

On the effect on the campaign of the shortage of Ammunition (q.v.), 350-1;

on his lack of reserves, 265;

on the lesson learnt from the failure at the Lys River, 145;

On his position as C.-in-C. in France, 94, 99-100, 329-30;

On the possibility of "bending" but not of "breaking" the enemy's trench line, 145;

Orders of the Day, issued by, see under British Expeditionary Force;

Submarine construction in sections suggested by (May 1914), 214.

French,

Armies or Corps, see also Allied Forces, Names of Commanders, and French Forces infra,

Artillery, prevision and provision, 352-3;

the 75's, 341;

activity along the Ourcq (Sept.), 106;

Cavalry Divisions, 182;

French's request concerning, on Aug. 16, 35;

dispositions of, 38 sqq.;

operations of, in Belgium, 44;

Staff of, characteristics of, 67;

in the Marne Battle, 113 sqq., 126 sqq., 131 sqq.;

Bridoux's, operations assigned to, on Sept. 10, 143;

raid by, and death of commander, 157-8;

Conneau's, in the Battle of Ypres, 204, 227, 231, 278;

Maunoury's (1st Corps), dispositions for and during the Marne Battle, 115, 125, 146;

de Mitry's, success of, on Oct. 11, 204;

pushed back (Oct. 19), 227;

positions and movements in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 232 sqq.;

Sordet's, co-operation of (Aug. 26-7), 84;

Chasseurs, 281;

Infantry,

1st, at Dinant, 41;

2nd, Progress of, up to end of September, 162;

and in Dec., 325;

3rd, Line of (Aug. 18-21), 41, 47;

defeat and retreat of, 70;

German artillery captured by, 145;

4th, Line of, on Aug. 21, 47;

disposition of, on and after Aug. 30, 93, 116, 133-4;

progress of, 146;

5th, Dispositions of, Aug. 16, and after, 35-7, 39;

advance by, intended, 47;

fighting by, 57 sqq., 60;

retirement begun, 64;

and continued, 68, 70, 72, 81;

effect on 1st Division, 81-2;

Joffre's promise as to, 86;

the retreat still continued, 88;

brilliant success of, at Guise, 91;

gap between and the 6th Army, filled by French at Joffre's request, 92-3;

but widened by the further retreat, 95;

situation saved by British cavalry, 94;

position of, on Sept. 2, Joffre on, 96-7;

retreat continued, 104-5;

fighting on the Marne, 106;

dispositions of, on Sept. 4-5, 107, 109-10;

its new commander, 107;

Joffre's intention for it to advance, 115;

fighting on the Marne, 121-3;

British connection to be maintained with, 124-5;

position of, Sept. 9, 131;

across the Marne, 137-8;

value to, of British co-operation, 141;

in the Aisne Battle, 143, 146;

6th, Formation of, 86;

and Commander, 89;

quality of, and glory won by, in the Marne Battle, 88;

enemy unaware of, 90;

and consequent miscalculations, 105;

objective of, on Aug. 30, 93;

dispositions of, and support of, to British forces, Joffre on, 96;

retreat of, on Paris, 104;

Joffre's plans for, for Sept. 6, 107, 109, 114-15;

in the Battle of the Marne, German forces opposing, 121, 123;

French's efforts to help, 124;

success of, 129, 135, 141;

position assigned to (Sept. 10), 143;

heavily engaged (Sept. 12) on the Aisne, 145-6, 152;

attack by, on Nouvron, 154;

efforts by, to turn German flank, 154, 158-9, 162;

defensive line assigned to, on Sept. 18, and Army placed under de Castelnau, 158;

blow struck by changing line of battle, 159;

Northward operation of, 160, 162;

with other forces placed under Foch, 197;

7th, 89;

8th, 116;

British aid given to, 133-4;

9th, Position assigned to, before the Marne Battle, 116;

10th Corps to secure connection between, and the 5th, 143;

entrenched at Ypres, 233;

in the Battle of Ypres, 284;

defenders of the salient, 239;

at Zonnebeke, 242, 255, 260;

Joffre's need of, 345;

10th, Action, losses and position of, in August, 41, 57, 58;

position assigned to, on Sept. 10, 143;

forming part of the "group" under Foch, 197;

forced back, 202;

positions of, in 1st Battle of Ypres, 241;

13th, checked at Noyon, 134;

16th, in the Battle of Ypres, 259;

co-operation of, on Oct. 31-Nov. 1, 260, 261, 264;

and later, 323, 324;

an instance of divided command (Dec. 18), 325;

20th, 345;

21st, 128, 324;

32nd, attack by, and successes of, Klein Zillebeke-Zillebeke line, 322;

61st, at Nouvron, 154;

62nd, at Nouvron, 154;

Naval, at Dixmude and Nieuport, 202, 208, 221, 232, 278;

New, formed, objective of (Sept. 30), 162;

Northern, d'Urbal in command of, 234;

reinforced, 235;

advance of, delayed by enemy machine guns, results as to the British forces engaged, 322 sqq.;

Reserves, 35, 39, 44, 72, 81;

6th and 7th, 39, 47-8, 57, 81-2;

Territorials for Dunkirk, asked for by Kitchener, 179-80;

and sent by Joffre, 188;

strength of, 181;

moved to Ypres, 208;

on the Yser, 221.

French Army:

Actions of (1915), important but indecisive, 343;

and British, in Aug. 1914, relative positions of, 35;

Compared with German Army up to 1914, 140;

Good British relations with, how established, 108;

General order issued to, by de Maud'huy on the death of Lord Roberts, 282-3.

French Decorations sent to British Troops (Sept. 3), 99.

French Forces, see also French Armies or Corps, French Army, and French Divisions;

disposition of, on Aug. 17 and after, 38-9, 41, 47-8;

early successes, 55;

losses, 58;

in the retreat from Mons, 72, 73, 92, 93;

Joffre's instructions to, 97, 98;

of Sept. 10, 142-3;

changes of Commanders in, and spirit animating, 113;

positions in the Aisne Battle, 152;

operating in the Northern area, under Foch's general control (Oct. 3), 197, 201;

relief by, of 2nd Corps, 211;

support by, in the N. sought by French, 221;

and given, 245, 246, 250, 258-9;

on the Yser, and elsewhere, 224;

landing at Dunkirk, 243;

at Arras, progress hampered by weather, 337;

Moroccan troops in a crater-hole, 161;

Zouaves, 260;

Fortresses of the second class, object of, 52;

General Staff, British consultations with before, and on outbreak of, war, 5, 6, 9;

efforts of, to provide heavy artillery, 352;

impressions of, 40;

attitude of, to proposed British combined Coastal operations (Dec.), 305;

plans of, for meeting a possible W. offensive by the enemy, 341;

Military Mission on eve of war, consultation (Aug. 10), 6;

Misgivings as to British military support, 3;

Nation, attitude of, in August, 1914, 3, 33, 34;

Railways, strain of, in relation to the move N. of the British Army, 104, 166, 167, 171, 172, 173, 187;

Relations with Austria broken off, 2;

"75" gun newest ammunition for, wonderful results with, Joffre on, 341;

Supplies of Munitions for Russia, Joffre on, 341-2;

Territory, German violation of, 2;

Women, agricultural services of, 36.

Frezenberg-Westhoek-Klein-Zillebeke line, importance of, 251.

Fromelles, terrain near, 209.

Frost bite of the Feet, a misnomer, 288.

Galicia, Russian operations in, 194, 230, 337;

influence of, on the Western Campaign, 301.

Gallieni, General, Military Governor of Paris, 33;

letter from, to French, on co-operation of Allied Forces in defence of Paris, and the reply, 102-4;

visit of, to Melun with Joffre's plans, 107.

Gallipoli Campaign, French's view on, 316.

Garatin, Allenby's cavalry at, 109.

Garde Dragoner (German) and the Moncel fight, 119.

Garhwal Brigade, see under Indian Corps.

Gastins, Allied advance to, 115, 119.

Gembloux, German cavalry repulsed from (Aug. 18), 41.

George V., Message from, to the British Expeditionary Force, and the reply (Nov. 9), 275;

an audience with (Dec.), 336.

George, Rt. Hon. David Lloyd, a tribute to, 163;

French's proofs of his dangerous lack of Ammunition laid before (May 9, 1915), 356;

and the result, 360-1.

German advance, preliminary operations 2, 7;

anticipations on, 11, 42;

line of 43;

and aims of, 44;

continuance of, 46-7;

the Meuse crossed, 72;

further direction of, 77, 80-1;

last days of, 109;

Aerial observation apparently faulty at Abbeville, 200;

Army, see also German Artillery, Cavalry, First Army Higher Command, Offensive, &c.,

Grierson's knowledge, of 37;

Positions, operations, forces employed (in sequence), 40-1;

crushing superiority of, at Mons, 43, 46, 57;

turning movement, 57, 58, 65, 70, 73, 75, 78;

investment of Paris aimed at by, 89, 90-1;

troops sent to Eastern frontier (Aug.), 92;

drawing on of, urged by French, 92;

French plans for, 103;

offensive abandoned by von Kluck, 114, 116, 121, 122;

risky situation of, 115; 116;

at the Battle of the Marne, 118 sqq., 131, 137;

retreat of, from the Marne, summary on, 138-9;

advantages held by, when defeated on the Marne, 139-40;

effect on, of the sortie from Antwerp, 144;

French efforts to turn right flank of, 145, 189;

in the Aisne Battle, 145, 149 sqq.;

ideas entertained as to movements of, 152-3, 161, 193;

capture by, of Antwerp, possibilities opened up by, but missed, 176;

line held by, and strength of, on Oct. 6, 182, 186;

forces gathering near Lille, 198;

surprised by British cavalry and 3rd Corps, 200;

de Maud'huy forced back by, 202;

divisions moving on Alost-Termonde-Lokeren, 203;

forces opposing at Bailleul, 207;

westward concentration of, from Antwerp, 208-9;

detachments at Bruges and Roulers, 219;

outposts of, 4th Division in touch with, 220;

increasing strength, and its effects, 222, 224, 226, 227-8;

forces engaged, and actual positions of, on night of Oct. 21, 231-2;

later positions, 232 sqq. passim;

attacks by, in massed formation, 235;

losses during 1st Battle of Ypres, 232-3, 235, 241, 242, 279;

continual reinforcements of, during the 1st Battle of Ypres, 238, 240, 243;

onslaught of (Oct. 31-Nov. 1), glorious resistance of Allied forces, and points of major importance, 238-9, 260;

at Gheluvelt, 250;

enormous superiority of, in numbers and artillery (Oct. 31-Nov. 1), 260;

and before, 267;

failure to turn the situation to full account, 260-1;

forces opposing Cavalry Corps at Messines (Oct. 31-Nov. 1), 262;

pressure on W. Front increasing, 270;

forces employed in the great attack on the Ypres salient (Nov. 11-12), 277, 278;

reduced to War of Position on its whole W. Front, 345;

Advance to the sea checked by the first phase of the 1st Battle of Ypres, 235-6;

First use of poisoned gas by, 356;

Morale of, effect on, of the W. fighting, 268;

Results to, of successive phases of the 1st Battle of Ypres summarised, 277;

Right flank of (see also Flanking Movement), efforts to turn first phase of the 1st Battle of Ypres, the conclusion of (Oct. 26), 235-6;

Tied down on the W. to a line of trenches;

French on, to his troops, 268;

Artillery, 45, 66, 78, 101, 119, 123, 126-7, 131, 133, 145-6, 152-3, 240;

Rheims Cathedral destroyed by, 159;

3rd French Army's capture of (Sept. 11), 145;

Heavy, 144, 222, 240, 348;

development of, 352;

range of, 215;

8-in. howitzers 144, 198, 212, 348;

Machine guns of, 124, 321-2, 324 passim, et alibi;

Preparation of, before the war, scale of, 351, 352;

Tactics, 129;

Cavalry, passim, tactics of, in Belgium, 44-5;

artillery and j?ger battalions with, 42, 124, 126, 207;

operations of, and repulses, &c., 83-4, 198, 204, 230;

French's knowledge of, utilised on the Marne, 9, 10, 123-4;

Defiance of chivalry in war, 338;

Designs at Landrecies and at Le Cateau, 76, 78;

Difficulties in September, 105-6;

Emperor, see William II;

First Army of the Meuse, operations of, 46 sqq.;

offensive abandoned by, 114, 115, 116, 121, 122;

Troops composing, at the Battle of the Marne, 118 sqq.;

Higher Command (Great General Staff), plans of, changes in, errors made by, 91, 104-6, 107, 176, 345-6;

Instructions on treatment of Indian prisoners, 196;

Invasion, possibilities of, 215;

rumour on, 329;

Line in Flanders, possibility of breaking through, French on (Jan. 1917) essentials to, 316;

Points at which a break-through was planned by Joffre (Dec. 27), this idea the basis of the general strategic idea for 1915, 342;

its results, 342-3;

Mobilisation proceedings, 2, 7;

Naval flag driven from the sea (Dec. 1914), 345;

Northern flanks, efforts to turn, 145, 155, 158-9, 182, 198, 198, 214 sqq.;

Offensive on W. Front, French anticipations of (Jan. 19, 1915), as affecting the Zeebrugge scheme, 317-18;

Home anxieties over (Dec. 17), 329 sqq.;

French's view on, 336;

Proclamation of "Kriegsgefahrszustand," 2;

Strategic scheme for invasion of France crushed at the Battle of the Marne, 138-9;

Submarine Base, developing at Zeebrugge, 308, 311;

Campaign, how it might have been frustrated, 304, 308, 311, 312;

Tactics, flanking and outflanking man?uvres, 154;

Violation of,

Belgian neutrality, 45, 46, 47;

Franco-British prevision on, 9, 10-11;

French territory, 2;

War menace, 1, 2, 5, 9, 10-11.

Germany, Declarations of War by, 2, 3;

and previous preparations, 2, 140;

Paris railways to, route of, 53;

The decisive spot in the war in French's view (Jan. 1915), 316.

Gheluvelt, fighting at, for Ypres salient, 241-2, 245, 258;

the 1st Division broken at, 251, 252;

position retrieved by counterattack, 253;

fresh German menace to, 260.

Ghent, Belgian Army to withdraw to (Oct. 3), 175;

French troops holding, and British sent to, 201, 203;

retirement from, 208;

operations designed in regard to, 220-1, 226;

failure of, 233.

Ghistelle-Roulers line, German advance to, 209.

Gibbon, Co.-Sergt.-Major, 5th (Northumberland) Fusiliers, gallant piece of work by (Nov. 15), 284.

Givenchy, lost and retaken, 327.

Givenchy-Festubert front restored, 328.

Givenchy-les-La Bassée line, French attack on, 325.

Givenchy-les-La Bassée-Quinque Rue line, German attack on, 327.

Givenchy-N.W. of Aubers line advance to, of 2nd Corps, 220.

Givenchy-Pont du Hem line, reached by 2nd Corps, 219.

Givenchy-Richebourg line, German occupation of, 328.

Givet-Dinant-Namur-Brussels line, French troops west of, details of, 38-9.

Givet-Mézières, French reserves between, 39.

Givet-Philippeville-Maubeuge line, 5th French Army falling back on, 64-5, 72.

Givry, 1st Army Corps' move up towards, 64.

Gleichen, Brigadier-General Count (now Lord) A. E. W., K.C.V.O., G.O.C. 15th Infantry Brigade, 28.

Gloucestershire Regiment, 1st Batt., 18, 328.

Gordon, Brigadier-General F., G.O.C. 19th Infantry Brigade, 23.

Gordon Highlanders, The,

1st Batt., 21, 66;

in action, 322;

2nd Batt., 28;

6th Batt. (Banff and Donside, T.), 296.

Gough, Brigadier-General Hubert de la Poer, G.O.C. 3rd Cavalry Brigade, 24;

later Major-General, G.O.C. 2nd Cavalry Division, 25, 251;

operations of, in the retreat from Mons, 65, 87;

in the Marne fighting, 129, 132, 137;

in the Aisne fighting, 152, 158;

and the 2nd Cavalry Division, route for, on move N. 172, 188;

the situation explained to, 195;

r?le assigned to, 200;

Mont des Cats taken by, 204;

skilful leadership of, at Mont Noir, 205;

at Hollebeke, 244;

on his position at Wytschaete, 246;

disposition made by, 247;

high praise due to, 261.

Gough, John, Chief of Staff to Haig, 249, 265.

Grand Morin River, German forces near, 116, 118;

the fight to force, 119, 122;

successful, 123, 124.

Grant, Captain Colquhoun, a modern parallel to, 326.

Great Britain (see also England), War declared by, 2, 3;

mobilisation of forces, 3;

support by, of France, doubts felt on, 3.

Grenadier Guards, The,

1st Batt., 28;

2nd Batt., 19, 244;

in the forcing of the Petit Morin, 125, 127.

Grenfell, Capt. Francis, and the 9th Lancers, guns saved by, 77.

Grey, Rt. Hon. Sir Edward (Viscount Grey of Falloden), 99;

and the Entente, 3;

telegram from, to Sir Francis Bertie, on the Coastal advance scheme, 305 sqq.

Grierson, Lieut.-General Sir James M., K.C.B., at the Council of War, Aug. 5, 1914, 3, 7;

appointed G.O.C. 2nd Army Corps, B.E.F., and sudden death of, 16, 20, 37, 39, 62;

character sketch of, 37;

successor appointed, 38, 61-2.

Groote Vierstraat, H.Q. 1st Cavalry Division, 246.

Grosetti, General, G.O.C. French 16th Corps, 324.

Guest, Captain the Hon. Frederick, D.S.O., A.D.C. to French, 357, 360.

Guise, German defeat at, 91.

Guise-La Fère line held by 5th French army after Aug. 29, 91.

Guns, and Machine Guns, see also Heavy Artillery,

Losses of, at Le Cateau, 78-9, 87, 153;

Shortage of, 321;

one cause of, 101;

the view of the War Council on, 309-10;

controverted by French, 316;

results, 322, 332-3.

Haddon, Sir Charles, Master-General of Ordnance, visit from;

need for Heavy Artillery urged on by French, 62-3.

Haig, Lieut.-General (now Field-Marshal) Sir Douglas, K.C.B., G.O.C. First Army Corps, B.E.F., 16, 17, 248, 260;

at the Council of War of Aug. 5, 1914, 3;

views of, on landing of B.E.F., 6;

positions occupied by, on and after Aug. 21, 47;

in the Retreat from Mons, 75, 82, 85;

German pressure on, 104, 109;

operations of, at the Battle of the Marne, 118, 119, 122;

the forcing of the passage of the Petit Morin, 125-6;

military qualities of, 159, 279, 280;

instructions to, on Oct. 19, 225-6;

conferences with, at Ypres, 233;

at Hooge, 239, 247, 249;

share of in the 1st Battle of Ypres, 242, 243, 244, 260 sqq.;

the driving back of his 1st Division, 251, 252;

the line re-established, 255-6;

messages from (Nov. 2), on rest for the tired troops, 265;

the situation on Nov. 11-12, saved by, in the first place, 280;

in reserve, 283, 284;

Commanding in the Festubert area, 328;

First Army formed and placed under, 337.

Hainault, Province of, 48;

Mons, the capital of, 53.

Haine River, course, valley, affluents, and passage across, 48-9, 50.

Haking, Brigadier-General R., C.B., G.O.C. 5th Infantry Brigade, 19.

Haldane, Brigadier-General J. A. L., G.O.C. 10th Infantry Brigade, 26;

later as Major-General, G.O.C. 3rd Division, 20, 26, 323.

Haldane, Rt. Hon. Viscount, and the Entente, 3;

and War possibilities (in 1908), 8;

and the O.T.C., 272;

and the creation of the Territorial Forces, 291-2, 296;

Divisional Organisation devised and carried through by; strong opposition; complete justification by success in active warfare, 298-300;

"Reward" got by; nature of, 299.

Ham, 158.

Hamilton, Major-General Hubert I. W., C.V.O., G.O.C. 3rd Division, killed in action, 20;

a tribute to, 211.

Hamilton, General Sir Ian, G.C.B., D.S.O., 39.

Hamley, Sir Edward, cited on,

Bazaine's clinging to Metz, 71;

Napoleon I's miscalculations in 1806, and on the importance of initial right direction given to movements, 217-18.

Hampshire Regiment, 1st Batt., 26, 134, 327.

Hand Grenades, revived use of, 144, 353, 354.

Hankey, Major, 2nd Batt. Worcester Regt., on FitzClarence and the retaking of Gheluvelt, 255.

Harmignies, R.H.A. reserves at, 47.

Hastière, captured by the Germans, 65.

Havre, 171, 173, 188;

British communications with, menaced, 74, 93.

Hazebrouck, British troops at and near, 179, 190, 203, 205, 210, 228;

German cavalry reported in, 198;

conference at, with Corps Commanders: directions given to them, 219.

Head-Quarters Staff, embarkation of, 7, 13.

Heavy Artillery, present mode of employing, 12;

British lack of, 352-3;

supply urgently pressed by French, 162-3;

arrival of, 287;

French prevision on, and provision of, 352-3;

long ranges at which effective, 215.

Helpe, Majeure and Mineure, affluents of the Sambre, 51.

Henderson, Brigadier-General Sir David, C.B., G.O.C. 1st Division, 17;

later, G.O.C. Royal Flying Corps, 25, 33, 61, 185.

Hertfordshire Regiment (T.), 1st Batt., 19, 280, 296;

2nd Batt., 271;

in 1st Battle of Ypres, 280, 297.

Hesdin, H.Q. 2nd Corps, visits at, to Smith-Dorrien, 202.

Hickie, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 13th Infantry Brigade, 22.

High Explosive Shells demanded by French, 349-50;

table of required output, 349;

nature not properly understood, 353;

Memorandum on the necessity for, 358-60.

H.E., uses of, 358;

table of percentages received, Dec. 1914-May 1915, 360.

Highland Light Infantry, 128, 252;

2nd Batt., 160;

9th (Glasgow Highlanders) Batt. (T.), 19, 295, 297.

Highlanders, 42;

(The Black Watch), in the Battle of the Marne, 126.

Hill 63,

Artillery position on, 245, 259.

Hindenburg, Generalfeldmarshal von, in the Eastern campaign, 230.

Hirson, French reserves near, 39.

Hirson-Mézières, railway, 53.

Holland, neutrality of, and vulnerability of sea-communications, 315.

Hollebeke and its chateau, fighting at, 243, 244, 246, 322;

William II's intention to go to (Nov. 1), 257;

the dent near between the Allied Forces, anxiety caused by, 276, 280.

Hollebeke-Wytschaete ridge line, combined attack on, 322.

Home Defence, Churchill on, 4;

Kitchener on, 309.

Hon, 2nd Corps H.Q. established at, 66.

Hondevilliers, advance on, 126-7.

Honourable Artillery Company (T.), 27, 271, 295;

attached to the Indian Corps; splendid appearance of, and fine war record built up by, 297.

Hood, Admiral, and Naval co-operation at Nieuport, 321;

death of, in action, ib.

Hooge, 250;

H.Q. of 1st Corps at, visited, 243-4, 248, 249.

Hospital Trains, visits to, 137-8;

and improvements in, 157.

Household Cavalry (Composite Regt.), 24, 247, 256.

Houthem-Gheluvelt-St. Julien line, occupied by 7th Division, 220.

Houthulst Forest, fighting in (Oct. 16), 220.

Howitzers, 6-inch Siege, used in the Battle of the Aisne, 149;

H.E. shell almost exclusively used by, 358.

Huguet, Colonel, of the French Military Mission, Aug. 1914, 6, 7, 31;

attached to French's H.Q., 58;

acting as liaison officer between French and Joffre, 89, 93, 95, 178, 183.

Hull, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 10th Infantry Division, 26.

Hunter-Weston, Brigadier-General A. G., C.B., D.S.O., G.O.C. 11th Infantry Brigade, 26;

crossing by, of the Marne, 134-5;

line broken but restored, 245;

at Ploegsteert Wood, 327.

Hussars, The,

3rd, 24, 247;

4th (Queen's Own), 24, 65, 129;

10th, 29, 250;

11th (Prince Albert's Own), 24, 56;

15th (King's), 125;

15th (King's),

A Squadron, 21;

B Squadron, 20;

C Squadron, 18;

18th (Queen Mary's Own), 24, 65, 73;

B Squadron at Faujus, 120;

19th (Queen Alexandra's Own),

A Squadron, 23;

B Squadron, 26;

C Squadron, 28;

20th, 25, 47, 136.

Huy, bridge at, 41.

I. Battery, R.H.A., 25;

near Moncel, 120.

Indian Princes at the funeral service for Lord Roberts, 282.

Indian troops in France, 165, 167, 171, 173, 188, 192, 265-6;

arrival of, loyalty of, and German designs on, 196;

Composition and Commander, 196;

command taken over by Willcocks, 240;

in the Battle of Ypres, 284;

H.A.C. attached to, 297;

engaged in the operations of Dec. 14 sqq., 327-8;

forming part of 1st Army under Haig, 337;

discussion on, with Willcocks, 340;

Cavalry Corps, 84, 165, 167;

in the operations of Dec. 14, sqq., 328;

Ferozepore Brigade, fighting by (Dec. 19), 327;

15th Lancers, 196;

57th Indian Rifles, attached to 1st Cavalry Division, 246;

Garhwal Brigade, 327;

short-lived success of, on Dec. 19, 327, 328;

Lahore Division, 16;

invaluable aid given by, at the 1st Battle of Ypres, 196;

at St. Omer (Oct. 19-20), 228;

sent up in motor omnibuses to Allenby's support (Oct. 21), 233;

position on Oct. 22, 234;

change in command of, 340;

Meerut Division delayed en route, 234;

in the Operations of Dec. 14, 327, 328;

Sirhind Brigade, fighting of (Dec. 19), 327.

Infantry, British, at the Marne Battle, French's Memorandum on, 129 sqq.

Infantry Brigades, British, Commanders and Composition, 17 sqq.;

Egerton's Brigade, 238;

positions and movements, 1st Battle of Ypres, 234, 261;

1st (Guards), 17, 125, 127;

in the Battle of Ypres, at Gheluvelt, 252, 253, 254;

at Wytschaete, 259;

heavy losses of, 279;

at Givenchy, 328;

2nd, 18;

in the Battle of Ypres, 328;

at Gheluvelt, 250, 251, 252;

3rd, 18;

in the Marne Battle, 127, 137;

in the Battle of Ypres, 253;

at Givenchy, 328;

4th (Guards), 19, 128;

at Landrecies, 75;

at Rozoy, 118;

at the forcing of the Petit Morin, 125 sqq.;

in the Battle of Ypres, 227, 244, 250;

fine work of, 272;

5th, 19;

at Le Cateau, 76, 160;

in the Marne Battle, 125, 126, 137;

in the Battle of Ypres, 279;

Territorials incorporated in, 297;

6th, 19;

in the Battle of Ypres, 244, 284;

7th, 21, 160, 195;

at Le Cateau, 75, 77, 78;

in the Battle of Ypres, 278, 284;

8th, 21, 66;

at Le Cateau, 77;

in action (Dec. 14), 322;

9th, 21, 196;

at Le Cateau, 77;

in the Aisne Battle, 146;

in the Battle of Ypres, at Messines, 238, 244, 247, 284;

the 10th Liverpools joined to, 297;

10th, 26;

11th, 26;

at the crossing of the Marne, 134;

in the Battle of Ypres, at St. Yves, 245;

attack by on Ploegsteert Wood, 327;

12th, 26;

13th, 22;

14th, 22;

15th, 22;

in the Battle of Ypres, 278;

16th, 27, 160, 193, 195;

17th, 28, 160;

18th, 28, 160;

19th, 16, 23, 47, 61, 94, 173, 193, 210;

in the retreat from Mons, 64, 65, 70, 210;

in the Aisne Battle, 152;

moved up by motor omnibus, 205;

in the Battle of Ypres, 227, 231, 243;

and after, 275;

20th, 28, 327;

21st, 29, 251;

22nd, 29;

fine work of, 272.

Infantry transport, by Motor vehicles, 201, 205, 233, 242.

Ingouville-Williams, Brigadier-Gen. C., G.O.C. 16th Infantry Brigade, 27.

Instructions to French before leaving for France, 13-15.

Intelligence Service, British, excellence of, 90.

Inundation of Belgium discussed with Foch, 242-3;

Further, possible, of Zeebrugge contemplated, 313.

Invasion, rumours of, 329;

discussion on, with Asquith (Dec. 20), 332.

Inventions, Modern, effect of, on Warfare not anticipated by author, or others, 11-12.

Irish affairs (1914), Wilson's attitude to, and its effects on his career, 108-9.

Irish Guards, The,

1st Batt., 19;

in the Battle of the Marne, 125, 128;

at Messines, 244.

Irish Horse, North, 294 n., South, ib.

Iseghem and Courtrai, enemy forces reported moving W. between, 226.

Istria and Dalmatia as theatres of British operations, French's views on, 315.

Italy, as belligerent (1915), French's views on, 315.

Itancourt, the French repulsed from, 88.

"Jack Johnsons," first experience of, 144.

J?ger Regiments attached to German cavalry, 45, 124, 126, 207.

Jena Campaign, Napoleon's miscalculations in, Hamley cited on, 217-18.

Jerlain-Maubeuge line, retreat to, decided on, 64.

Jeumont, the Scheldt near, 50.

Joffre, General (now Marshal), first impressions of, confirmed, 34-5;

co-operation with, visits to, consultation with, and plans made and discussed, 39;

a German attack expected by, 63, 68;

conference with, and with Lanrezac, 81 sqq.;

desire of, to hold ground as long as possible, 83;

acted on, 91;

tribute paid by, to the British Army, 85, 88;

desire of, to take early offensive, French's attitude in regard to, 92, 93-4, 95;

dispositions of, on Aug. 30, 93;

and request from, for destruction of bridges over the Oise, 93;

letters from, to Millerand and French (Sept. 2), on the position of affairs at that date, and his anxiety for the safety of Paris, 96-8, 101, 104, 111;

letter to, from French, on the trend of future operations, 98;

new plans of, for offensive announced to French, 106, 107;

and discussed at Melun, 109-10, 114-16, 121-2;

Orders of the Day (Sept. 4), 115-16;

recognition by, of British co-operation, 121;

tactics of, in the Battle of the Marne, 96-7, 140;

optimism of, and of his Generals (Sept.-Oct.), 142;

Order of the Day, Sept. 10, on taking advantage of the victory on the Marne, 142-3;

consultations with, on marches through wooded country north of the Aisne, 143;

on the progress of the 9th and 4th French Armies (Sept. 12), 146;

Order of the Day, Sept. 18, on the assumption of the defensive by the 6th Army, 158;

military genius evidenced on the Aisne, 159;

pourparlers with, leading to British move north, 163;

letters exchanged, 164 sqq., 185 sqq.;

Kitchener's relations with (Oct.), 177, 179;

on the British troops sent for relief of Antwerp, 183;

visit from (Oct. 21), and supports sent by, 233;

attitude of, to French's Coastal advance scheme (Dec. 13), 307;

his alternative, British co-operation in, Kitchener on, 310, 311;

and Memorandum of (Jan. 19, 1915), adverse to the Zeebrugge project, 317-18;

the meeting with, at Chantilly, on the situation in the East, 335-7;

French's northern plan put forward, but set aside, 342;

his own plans, 342-3.

Johnson, Colonel Bulkeley (Scots Greys), killed on the Ancre, 136.

Jouy-sur-Morin, advance from, 126.

Jutland, Battle of, death at, of Admiral Hood, 321.

Kavanagh, Brigadier-General C. T. H., G.O.C. 7th Cavalry Brigade, 30;

fine work of, 256, 272.

Kazimirjev, Battle of, admirable strategy of, 230.

Keir, Major-General J. L., G.O.C. 6th Division, 27;

ordered to reinforce Haig, 153;

success of, 241.

Kemmel (see also Mont Kemmel), 208.

Kemmel-Wytschaete area, 2nd Cavalry Division in, 205.

Kent (East) Regiment (The Buffs), 1st Batt., 27, 160.

Kerr, Colonel Frederick W. C., D.S.O., killed in action, 252.

King's (Liverpool) Regiment,

1st Batt., 19, 244, 264;

10th Batt. (T.) Scottish, 295;

at Wytschaete, 297.

King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regiment, 1st Batt., 26.

King's Own Scottish Borderers, 2nd Batt., 22, 247.

King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 2nd Batt., 22, 247.

King's Royal Rifle Corps (60th Rifles), 240;

1st Batt., 19, 244, 284;

at the Ypres salient, 244;

2nd Batt., 18, 250;

at Givenchy, 328.

Kitchener of Khartoum, Field-Marshal Viscount (later Earl), K.P., &c., 2;

at the Council of War, Aug. 5, 1914, 3;

appointed Secretary of State for War, 6;

French's conception of his functions, 95, 100, 177-8;

Instructions issued by, to French, on starting for the campaign, 13-15;

French's letters to, on French dispositions on the Meuse, 38-40,

on the action by the 4th Brigade at Landrecies, 75;

on the absolute necessity for retaining independence of action, 94;

Paris interview with, 92, 95 sqq., 101, 112;

offensive action urged by, on Aug. 31, 95;

difficulties occasioned by, 177 sqq.;

telegrams from, on the relief of Antwerp, 177, 179;

French Territorial Divisions requested by, for Dunkirk, 179-80, 188;

Rawlinson placed by, under French's command, 201;

Territorials offered by, as reinforcements (Oct. 22), 228;

and the New Armies, 292;

French's Coastal operations plan approved by (Dec.), 305;

Memorandum from (Jan. 1915), on the proposed advance to Zeebrugge, 308 sqq.;

the objections stated, 311-12;

and answered, 312 sqq.;

letter from, on rumours of enemy invasion, and fears for the W. front, 329;

conversations with, at Walmer, 329;

and the responsibility of the C.-in-C., 330;

communications from, on Russian rumours, alleged German reinforcements in the W., and the possibility of Russian "bluff," 334-5;

French's appeal to, for more Munitions, 332, 347, 348, 355-6;

French's divided feelings for, as soldier and as politician, 333;

the last day with, a day of happy memories, 333;

the outer and the inner man, 334;

death of, 333.

Klein Zillebeke-Zillebeke line, French operations on, 222.

Kluck, General Oberst von, and the Battle of the Marne (q.v.), 116;

German view on and French's contrasted, 106;

retreat of, 114, 121, 122, 125;

possible reasons for, 139.

Kozienice, fighting W. of, Russian valour in, 230.

"Kriegsgefahrszustand" proclaimed by Wilhelm II, 2.

Kruiseij, village of, junction at, of 7th Division with cavalry, 242.

"L" Battery, R.H.A., heroic fight of, at Néry, 25, 101.

La Bassée, terrain near, 209;

a formidable stronghold, the 5th Division held up at, 221.

La Bassée to Armentières, German forces opposing along (Oct. 30), 240;

Indian Corps engaged at, 284.

La Bassée-to the Sea line, fighting on, 275, 284;

French's plan for taking over, 343.

La Bassée-Thiaucourt, Allied line (Oct. 6), 181-2.

La Bassée Canal, French line extended to, 211.

La Fère, 5th French Army's left on, 93.

La Fère-Noyon line, move towards, 84.

La Ferté-Bezu-Domptin line, British position along, 137.

La Ferté-Gaucher line, reached by 5th French Army, 123.

La Ferté-Milon-Neuilly-St. Front-Rocourt line, reached by British, and the end of the Battle of the Marne, 137.

La Ferté-sous-Jouarre, 129;

bridging feat at, of the 3rd Corps R.E., 134, 137;

occupation of, 131;

crossing of the Marne at, stiff fighting for, 133-4.

La Forge, crossing of the Petit Morin at, 127.

Lagny, G.H.Q. moved to, 101.

Lagny-Meaux line, 6th French army's crossing of the Marne between, 109.

La Haute Maison, 3rd Corps at, 123.

Lahore Division, see under Indian Corps.

Lambton, Lieutenant-Colonel, later Brigadier-General the Hon. G. W., Military Secretary, H.Q. Staff, B.E.F., 6.

Lancashire (East) Regiment, 1st Batt., 26, 134;

at Ploegsteert Wood (Dec. 19), 327.

Lancashire Fusiliers, 2nd Batt., 26.

Lancashire (Loyal North) Regiment 1st Batt., 18, 230;

at Givenchy, 328.

Lancashire (South) Regiment, 2nd Batt., 21, 160, 284.

Lancer Regiments,

5th (Royal Irish), 24, 65, 129;

9th (Queen's Royal), 24, 65, 73, 77;

at Moncel, 119-20;

at Messines, 245;

12th (Prince of Wales's Royal), 25, 47, 136;

at Wytschaete, 258;

16th (Queen's) 24, 65, 129.

Landon, Brigadier-General, temp. G.O.C. 1st Division, 17;

G.O.C. 3rd Infantry Brigade, 18.

Landrecies, 1st Corps at, 74, 81;

German attacks repulsed by, 75.

Landrecies-Jeumont, the Sambre between, 50-1.

Landrecies-Le Cateau road, 52.

Langemarck, heavy enemy pressure at, 278.

Lanrezac, General, G.O.C. 5th French Army, Joffre's estimate of, 35, 37;

French's first (and later) impressions of, 36-7;

co-operation with him arranged, 39;

advance planned by, 47;

and the Retreat from Mons, 56, 57;

operation by British requested by, 58-9;

French's meeting with, his attitude during, 82-3;

continued falling back of, 70, 95;

supersession of, 107.

Laon, rail to, from Maubeuge, 53.

La Quinque Rue, 328.

La Trétoire, Petit Morin forced near, by the Guards, 125, 127.

La Trétoire-Launoy-N. of Ruine-Moulin Neuf line, Worcestershire Regt. sent to, 127.

Laventie, 210.

Laventie-Lorgies line, 2nd Corps directed on, 203.

Law, Rt. Hon. Andrew Bonar, and the Munitions question, 357, 360.

Lawe, the, line of, at Vieille Chapelle and Estaires, German cavalry driven back to, 204.

Lawford, Brigadier-General S. T. B., G.O.C. 22nd Infantry Brigade, 29;

in the Battle of Ypres, 272.

Le Cas Rouge, 128.

Le Cateau, chosen as concentration point for B.E.F., 5, 16;

G.H.Q. fixed at, 5, 37, 54, 113;

strategic importance of, 54;

Belgian refugees near, 68-9;

German move on, 77;

Battle of, 78 sqq.;

effect on 2nd Corps, 210;

losses in, and repercussion of, on the campaign, 78-9, 83-7, 89, 133, 210, 272.

Le Cateau-Cambrai line, 71, 73-4.

Le Catelet, source of the Scheldt near, 49.

Le Gheer, retaken by 4th Division, 233.

Le Gravier, crossing of the Petit Morin at, 127.

Leicestershire Regiment,

1st Batt., 27, 160;

2nd Batt., 28.

Leinster Regiment, 2nd Batt., 28, 160.

Le Mans, new advanced base at, 93.

Le Marchant, Colonel, killed in action, 135.

Lemberg, taken by the Russians, 230.

Le Moncel-Crouy line held by 4th Division, 152.

Le Moulin du Pont, fighting at, 128.

Lens, observation point above, 148.

Lens to Armentières, nature of the terrain, mining works in, towns and roads, 209.

Le Nouvion, distances from, 48.

Le Pilly, 2nd Batt. Royal Irish Regiment cut up at, 21.

Le Plessis-Belleville, Allied advance from, over the Marne, routes for, 115.

Le Quesnoy-Avesnes road, 52.

Les Herbières, railway bridge at, 49.

Leveson, Major, 18th Hussars, at Faujus, 120.

Lewis, Colonel, and the invaluable Lewis gun, 354.

Lichnowski, Prince, anticipations by, of European war, and apologia of, 2.

Liége, siege of, 41, 48, 176.

Liévin, ground near, and mining works, 209.

Life Guards, The,

1st, 30;

at Messines, 246;

at Gheluvelt, 250, 256;

2nd, 30, 84, 246, 250, 256;

in the Battle of Ypres, 273.

Light Division, The, 285.

Lille, concentration point for British reinforcements, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 188;

how it might have been saved, 184;

21st French Corps detraining near, 197;

German concentration near, 198;

and reinforcements at, 240.

Lille-Courtrai line, combined advance to, planned for Oct. 13, 203.

Lille-Thiaucourt line, German strength on, 182.

Lincolnshire Regiment, 1st Batt., 21, 146, 238, 258, 284.

Lindsay, Major-General, Commanding R.A., B.E.F., 6.

Line of attack for Allied forces on Sept. 6, 114-16.

Lines of Communication and Army troops, original B.E.F., 27.

Lizy, 115, 129;

woods near, German forces in, 121, 129;

German withdrawal of guns from, 131.

Locre, 7th Division at, 265;

1st Corps in reserve at, 284.

Lodz and Lowicz, fighting between, 230.

Lomax, Major-General S. H., G.O.C. 1st Division, 17, 66, 250;

French's visit to, 159;

success of, at Vendresse, and death later; an appreciation of, 151.

London, Air-raids on, 215.

London Regiment, see County of London (London Regiment).

London Rifle Brigade (T.) incorporated in 3rd Corps, 297.

London Scottish (14th (County of London) Batt. London Regiment), 17, 27, 228, 294, 297-8;

fine work of, in the Battle of Ypres, 238, 244, 247-8, 257, 262;

Allenby's memorandum on, 262-3;

French's praise sent, 263;

heavy losses, and consequent reaction of, 263-4;

congratulations to, 263;

seen on parade by French, 264.

Longueil, 187.

Longueil-Pont Ste. Maxence area, suggested march to, of British 2nd Corps, 172.

Loos, Battle of, 343, 347;

casualties at, 150.

Lorgies-Herlies line, part of 2nd Corps on, 221.

Losses in Modern Warfare, 58, 183.

Losses in Officers, Men, and Matériel at Le Cateau, 78-9, 83, 86, 89, 153, 210, 272;

guns, losses, 210.

Losses, Marne, 137-8.

Losses, Ypres, 151, 286.

Lourches, 50.

Louvain, Belgian line near, 41;

Belgian G.H.Q. at, 43.

Lovett, Colonel, Commanding 3rd Infantry Brigade (temp.), 18.

Lowther, Lieut.-Colonel H. C., Commanding 1st Infantry Brigade, 17.

Lushington, Lieut.-Colonel, and the 41st Brigade at the Battle of the Marne, 127.

Luxemburg, in the early days of the German advance, 2, 7, 39, 336.

Lys River, French's failure at, lesson of, 145;

strategical points above, 148;

passage on attempts at, 203, 220;

cavalry reconnaissance of, 205;

operations on, 207, 219, 221;

enemy pontoon bridges over, 234;

further cavalry struggles along, 261;

forcing back the Germans, 277.

Lys, from Menin upwards, chance of securing lost, 222.

Lys River Valley, 238;

what might have been done in, 184.

McClellan, General, lesson of Stanton's interference with, 111.

McCracken, Brigadier-General F. W. N., G.O.C. 7th Infantry Brigade, 21, 74, 75, 77;

and the rearguard fight at Solesmes, 73.

Macready, Major-General N., Adjutant-General, H.Q. Staff, 5, 17.

MacDonald, Lord, and the Volunteers, 291, 292.

Macdonogh, Brigadier-General, Director of the Intelligence Service,

skill and ability of, 90, 336.

McEwen, Lieut.-Colonel, Commanding 1st Infantry Brigade, 17.

Machine guns, effect of, on Warfare, 12, 144;

British, 75;

lack of, 101, 321-2, 347, 356;

Losses of, at Le Cateau, 79, 87, 153, 210;

German, 124, 321-2, 324 et alibi.

Mackensen, General Oberst von, superiority of, in numbers, 231.

Mackenzie, Major-General, G.O.C. 3rd Division (temp.), 20.

McMahon, Lieut.-Colonel N. R., D.S.O., Royal Fusiliers, killed in action (Nov. 11), 279.

Madagascar Campaign of Gallieni, 102.

"Majestic," H.M.S., 321.

Makins, Brigadier-General E., G.O.C. 6th Cavalry Brigade, 29.

Manchester Regiment, 2nd Batt., 22.

Manchurian Campaign, clear warnings of, on Munitions, unheeded, 348.

Mariette, 62.

Marne, Battle of the, 35, 101;

account of, Allied and Enemy; troops engaged, and operations during and after, 113 sqq.;

affected by the losses at Le Cateau, 79;

casualties of both sides, 137, 138;

decisive character of, 111;

extent of its front, 138;

Germany's lost opportunity in, 138-9, 176, 267;

hopes of a good flanking movement after, 301;

pursuit after, 142;

tactics of Joffre in, 140;

victory largely due to the Russian invasion of East Prussia, 194;

Battlefield, Topography of, 117 sqq.;

Troops at, fine spirit of, and skilful handling of, 55, 129;

Points noted in French's Memorandum (Sept. 10), 129-31.

Marne River, Allied stand on, French's ideas on, 92, 101;

preparation for the Battle on, 104;

fighting on, 106, 110;

Bridges seized by Allenby, 133;

Passages of (see also Grand and Petit Morin), 124.

Maroilles, 2nd Division to stand at, 81.

Martyn, Lieut.-Colonel, Commanding 13th Brigade (temp.), 22.

Marwitz, General Oberst von der G.O.C. 4th German Cavalry Corps, on the 2nd (British) Corps (Oct. 12-15), 224.

Maubeuge, 5, 6;

Fortress of, 53, 54;

reason for not withdrawing to, 70-1;

German heavy howitzers from, 144;

Railways from, 53;

Sambre course by, 50;

Strategic importance of, 52-3.

Maubeuge-Givry line, 1st British Army Corps in cantonments on, 47.

Maubeuge-Lille, frontier line, French Reserves guarding, 39.

Maubeuge-Sars-la-Bruyère, British 2nd Army Corps between (Aug. 21), 47.

Maude, Brigadier-General F. S., G.O.C. 14th Infantry Brigade, 22.

Maud'huy, General de, Commanding 10th French Army (Oct. 3), 197, 200;

operations by, 202, 324-5;

an appreciation of, 202;

on fears of German effort to divide Allied forces, 225;

anxiety of, for his left flank, 241;

representing the French Army at Lord Roberts's funeral service, 282.

Maunoury, General, G.O.C. 6th French Army, 13, 89;

efforts of, to turn enemy flank, 13, 148;

region defended by, 97;

plans of, discussed on Sept. 5, 109-10;

at the Battle of the Marne, 114, 115, 123, 124, 139;

messages from, for British assistance, 135;

French's visit to, 154;

co-operation with, in attack, 161-2.

Maxse, Brigadier-General F. I., G.O.C. 1st Infantry Brigade, 17;

in the Battle of the Marne, 126.

Maxwell, Lieut.-General, I.G. Line of Communications, 161.

May, Lieut.-Colonel, O.C. Artists' Rifles, and the Officers' Training School, 272.

May-en-Multien, 115.

Meaux, French advance from, 115, 116.

Meerut Division, see under Indian Corps.

Melun, rear section of G.H.Q. at (Sept. 3), 106, 121, 122;

plans for offensive discussed at, 109-10.

Melun-Juvisy line, Joffre's suggestion on, 97.

Mendleston Farm, fighting for, 322.

Menin, German advance to, 208;

cavalry advance towards directed, 219;

4th Corps ordered to attack, probable reason why order not executed, 221-2;

situation near on Oct. 15 and 19, 224, 227.

Menin Road, 253;

British line momentarily pierced on (Nov. 11), but re-established, 278-9;

successes on, (Nov. 13 and 17), 184, 185.

Menin-Yser line, the few British troops along, fatigue of, 224, 225.

Merris, 204.

Merville, 2nd Corps' left directed on, 203;

French's meeting at, with Generals, 241.

Méry, Marne crossed at, by part of 2nd Corps, 133.

Messines, 278, 324;

shelling of, 227;

fierce fighting at 244-8, 258-9,

see also Wytschaete-Messines ridge.

Meteren, capture of, by 3rd Corps, 207.

Meuse River, 50;

defence along, 38, 41;

lowness of, results of, 65;

the German crossing of, 72.

Mézières-Longwy line, French forces holding, 47, 48.

Mézières and Stenai, 3rd French Army fallen back to, 72.

Middlesex Regiment, 1st Batt., 23;

in the Battle of Ypres, 243;

4th Batt., 21, 66.

Millerand, Alexandre, French Minister for War in 1914, 33, 92;

French's views on the situation laid by, before Joffre, and the replies, 95 sqq.;

a tribute to, 96.

Military Governor of Paris, see Gallieni.

Mining district operated in by 2nd Corps, 209.

Missy, Cave near, as observation point, 149;

the Aisne crossed at, by the 1st Corps, 150, 151;

British troops around, 195.

Mitry, General de, Commanding French cavalry, 233;

Enemy cavalry driven back by, 204;

operations in the Battle of Ypres, 227, 232.

Mobilisation, Speed, relative French and German, 7.

Moltke, Count von (the great), German military following of, 345.

Moncel, taken by the 9th Lancers, 119.

Moncey, General, reverse to, 272.

Monitors, increasing fleet of, 304.

Monmouthshire Regiment, 2nd Batt., 296, 297.

Monro, Major-General C. C., G.O.C. 2nd Division, 19;

disabled, 251.

Mons, Belgian flight from, 68-9;

Country near, features of Strategical and Topographical, 48-9, 51-2 sqq.;

Battle of, opening phases of, crushing German superiority, 43;

Cavalry and Aircraft Reconnaissance employed, 43-4;

Retreat from, 56-112;

some causes, 12;

value in, of British "moral," 55;

French's preparations for, 60-1;

decided on, 63;

Salient, the, importance of, 61;

given up, 62.

Mons-Binche road, 54.

Mons-Condé Canal details on, 48, 49, 50.

Mons-Dinant line, 42.

Mons-Givet line, 42.

Montagne de Paris, German artillery activity at, 146.

Mont Arden, German cavalry driven back to, 41.

Mont des Cats position, captured by Gough and the 2nd Cavalry Division, strategic value of, and great opposition at, 204.

Montgivrault, heights about, reached by British cavalry, 133.

Mont Kemmel as observation point, 148, 243;

the Battle of Ypres, viewed from, by French, 237 sqq., 243;

captured by British Cavalry Divisions (Oct. 14), value of this capture during the 1st Battle of Ypres, 208;

Allenby's H.Q. at, visited, 243;

Cavalry operations near, 247, 259;

tremendous issues hinging on (Oct. 31, Nov. 1), 260, 261.

Montmirail, 115.

Mont Noir-Boeschepe-Berthen line reached by British cavalry, 205.

Montreuil, 134.

Montry-Crécy-Coulommiers line, British march to, 104.

Moore, Brigadier-General J., P.V.O., 6.

Moore, George, help of, in devising new Weapons, 354, 357.

Morionville, General de, Chief of Staff to the King of the Belgians, visit from, 45.

Morland, Major-General T. F. N., D.S.O., G.O.C. 5th Division, 22.

Mortcerf, advanced G.H.Q. at, 103, 106.

Motor traction, effect on Warfare, 12, 201, 202, 205, 232, 242.

Mullins, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 2nd Cavalry Brigade, 24.

Munitions, see Ammunition, Guns, Machine Guns, Royal Artillery, War Cabinet.

Munro, Major-General, visit to, 159.

Murray, General Sir Archibald J., K.C.B., Chief of Staff, B.E.F., 5, 7, 17, 31, 61, 62, 72, 95, 133;

at work at H.Q., 69, 70;

Gallieni's visit to, on Sept. 4, 107;

breakdown of, 108.

Murray, Lieut.-General Sir James Wolfe, K.C.B., conferred with, 351;

letter of, on Munitions, 351.

Nampiel-Coucy-le-Chateau line reached, 93.

Namur, 48;

fall of, 64.

Nancy, preliminary operations near, 7.

Nanteuil, the Marne crossed at, 133.

Napoleon I, Foch's great master, 198;

German military following of, 346;

Invasion projects of (1805), 215;

On the cause of his constant success, 217.

Naval Co-operation, the aim in the move of the British forces to the left of the Allied Armies, 157, 302, 303, 312, 320-1;

Churchill on (Oct.-Nov.-Dec.), 303 sqq.;

Review at Spithead 1914, 4.

Néry, rearguard action at, and "L" Battery at, 25, 101.

Neuve Chapelle, loss of, 241;

fighting at (Dec. 19), 327;

Battle of (1915), 342;

broken off for lack of Ammunition, 351.

Neuve église, operations near, 245, 258, 259.

New Armies, the, 292, 293-4, 301-2, 308.

Newcastle speech of Asquith on Munitions, 356.

Nicholas, Grand Duke, Generalship of, 194, 230-1.

Niemen, the, 230.

Nieppe, 209.

Nieuport-Dixmude-Zeebrugge triangle; possible clearance from, of Germans, 312.

Nieuport and Dutch frontier, coast-line between, desirability of Allied possession of, 312.

Nieuport and the Sea, German and opposing forces on the line from, 214, 231-2, 235, 268;

1915, why greater progress was not made during, 318-19 pr?vi, 342, 343.

Nivelles, German advance to, and beyond, 47.

Noeux-les-Mines, 209.

Nogent, French's own crossing of the Marne at, 135.

Nord, department of, 48.

Norfolk Regiment, 1st Batt., 23.

North German Coast, question of, as theatre of war, 315.

Northamptonshire Regiment, 1st Batt., 18, 250, 279;

at Givenchy, 328.

Northumberland Fusiliers,

1st Batt., 21, 146, 258, 284;

at Wytschaete-Messines, 235;

5th Batt., at Wytschaete, 297;

in the Battle of Ypres, 284.

Notre Dame de Consolation (E. of Vermelles), trenches near gained by the French (Dec. 18), 326.

Notre Dame de Lorette, French struggle near, 324, 325.

Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire (Sherwood Foresters) Regiment, 2nd Batt., 28.

Nouvelles, retirement on, effect of, 62.

Nouvelles-Harmignies-Givry line, 1st Corps on, 65.

Nouvron, French attack on, 154.

Noyon, British retirement on, 74;

G.H.Q. at, 84;

country near, personally reconnoitred by French, 85;

French check at, 154;

and concentration on, 158.

Obourg, 60, 62.

October 31 and November 1, fateful dates to the British Empire, 237.

Oesttaverne and Roozebeek, German infantry advance on, 246, 250;

French attack on, 247.

Offensive operations, British and French expectation of, and desire for, 7, 11, 35, 43, 55, 92, 101, 107, 109-10, 144, 198, 220, 274 et alibi.

Officers, and men, Losses of, at Le Cateau and elsewhere, 78, 83, 86, 89, 210, 272;

Sympathy, instinctive, between, 88.

Officers' School of War, foundation of, 272, 295, 297.

Oise River, line of as possible place for a stand, considered, 74, 84, 85;

country reconnoitred by French, 85;

French troops retiring on, 88;

the line abandoned, 91;

Joffre's request for destruction of bridges over, 93;

French forces on, and hard fighting N. of, 182;

Sambre connection with, 50.

Oisy, Road bridge over Sambre Canal near, 51.

Oneux-Nouvion-en-Ponthieu line, British troops on, 199.

Operation of Dec. 14 sqq., state of the terrain impeding movements, 323-4, 327.

Ordnance Board, attitude of, to High-Explosive shell supplies, 348.

Orleans, Indian advance base at, 196.

Orly, 128.

Ormeaux, British advance to, 119.

Ostel Spur gained by 2nd Division, 151.

Ostend, 200;

Belgian Government's withdrawal to, 175;

evacuation of, 183;

and how it might have been saved, 184;

importance of, and possible operations to clear, 221, 308, 311, 318;

French's urgency on, 226.

Ostend-Dixmude-Furnes-Nieuport area, Belgian Army in, 208.

Ostend and Menin, German forces between, strongly reinforced, 227-8.

Oulchy-le-Chateau-Grand Rozoy area, British troops in, 195.

Ourcq River, and the Marne Battle, 115, 116, 117;

doings of the 6th French Army on, 88, 109, 115, 123, 125, 137, 139, 143;

French 75's along, 105-6;

German forces near, 116, 123, 125;

line of, value of, to von Kluck, 139.

Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, 2nd Batt., 19, 160, 279.

Oxley, Brigadier-General, O.C. Territorials Training Camp, St. Omer, 294.

Pack Artillery v. Machine Guns, 324.

Paris, 188;

French's visit to, on Aug. 15 and meetings with British Ambassador and French President, 33-4;

German menace to, French anxieties on, and defence of, 90, 91-2, 104;

British share in the defence, Joffre on, 97;

Gallieni on, 102-4;

direct advance on, no longer intended by the enemy, 104 sqq.;

later alarm concerning, 341, 346;

Kitchener interview at, 95 sqq., 112;

full significance of, 100-1;

Military Governor of, see Gallieni;

Popular welcome at, to French and his Staff in 1914, 33;

Rails from, traversing area of retreat from Mons, 52 sqq.;

War-time aspect of (Aug.), 34.

Paris to Verdun, extent of Marne Battle front, 138.

Pas de Calais, 214.

Peninsular War, the Light Division in, 285;

ranges in, 353.

Péronne, French attack near, 87.

Pertab Singh, Maharajah Sir, acting as personal guard to Lord Roberts's remains, 282.

Petit Bois, taking of, 322.

Petit Morin River, 117;

the forcing of, 124, 125-6, 128.

Petrograd, unsatisfactory replies from, 335.

Philippeville, French advance on, 38;

Lanrezac's H.Q. at, 56.

Plateau de la Brie, features of, 117.

Pless, Princess Henry of, 2.

Ploegsteert, British Artillery near, 245;

British attack at, 327.

Ploegsteert Wood, violent engagements at, 275.

Plumer, Lieut.-General Sir Herbert, C.O., K.C.B., asked for as G.O.C. 2nd Army Corps, to succeed Grierson, 38, 39.

Poincaré, Raymond, President of the French, optimistic spirit of (Aug. 15), 33;

anxiety of, for Paris, 95, 111;

offensive action by the British urged by, on Aug. 31, 95;

visit from;

views of, on the Antwerp situation, and on the divided control of the British forces in France, 198-9.

Points d'appui, fortresses destined as, 52.

Poisoned gas, first use of, by the enemy, 356.

Poland, Russian operations in, as influencing plans in the West, 194, 301.

Pommer?ul, passage near, from Tournai; of the Haine valley, 49.

Pont du Hem, 3rd Division at (Oct. 13), 210.

Pont Rigneul, French cavalry at, 210.

Pont Ste. Maxence, 3rd Corps to entrain at, 187, 193.

Poperinghe, 322.

Poperinghe-Boeschete-Steenvoorde area, 2nd Division in, 222.

Press, the, French's efforts to use, in the direction of securing more Munitions, 347.

Provins, 5th French Army near, 107, 109.

Prussian Guard, the, French capture of, at Berry-au-Bac, 157;

in attacks on Ypres salient, 277.

Prussian operations, Jena Campaign, and Napoleon's three miscalculations of, 217.

Pulteney, Major-General W. P., C.B., G.O.C. 3rd Army Corps, 16, 94;

changes in troops under, 158;

career, character, and qualities of, 205-6;

in the Marne Battle, 129, 134, 135;

in the Aisne Battle, 145;

in the operations before and during the 1st Battle of Ypres, the capture of Bailleul by, 205-6;

success of that struggle largely due to him, 206;

places taken by him, progress of and fine work by, 221;

cavalry supports sent to, 227;

and used at Wytschaete, 259;

a meeting with, 323.

Queen's Bays, see Dragoon Guards, 2nd.

Queen's Royal West Surrey Regt., 18, 29.

Queen's Westminsters (16th County of London) Batt., The London Regiment (Queen's Westminster Rifles); arrival of, 271;

fine condition and early use of, 295, 297.

Radinghem-Prémesques-Houplines line, occupied by the 3rd Division, 221.

Raids versus Frontal attacks, 131.

Railways of the area of the retreat from Mons, 52 sqq.;

of the Marne area, 118.

Ramsgate and Dungeness, possibility of invasion between, 155.

Rawlinson, Major-General Sir Henry, C.V.O., G.O.C. 4th Division later, G.O.C. 4th Army Corps, 25; 161;

in command of 7th Division at Ostend, 177, 179, 181;

Joffre's view of the plan for, 178;

French's action, and Rawlinson's reply, 178-9;

news sent by, from Ostend, 200, 201, 203-4;

placed under French's command, directed to hold the Lys line, 201, 219;

effect of this, 221-2;

position of, 223, 226;

at Ypres, 233;

troops under, formed into 4th Corps;

changes in composition of forces, 201;

sent home to supervise preparation of 8th Division, 239.

Rebais, German evacuation of, 129, 131.

Regular Army, the, contrasted with the Territorials, 293.

Regular Troops, British, mobilisation of, 3.

Reinforcements, progress of (Sept. 3 sqq.), 104, 109, 110, 228;

see also Territorial Forces.

Repington, Colonel C. à Court, Military Correspondent of The Times, furnished by French with full proofs of the deadly need for Munitions, 357.

Rennenkampf, General, 230.

Reserves, French's anxieties concerning, 153, 158, 160, 265;

Joffre's anxiety on, 317-18.

Rethel, 39, 93;

Lanrezac's H.Q. at, 36-7.

Rethel-Thuin line, French troops on, 41.

Retirement, general indications for, 62-3.

Retiring Troops, atmosphere engendered by, 56-7.

Retreat from Mons, the, see Mons, Retreat from.

Reutel and Poezelhoek, line W. of, held by 1st Corps, 242.

"Revenge," H.M.S., 304.

Reynolds, Capt. G. F., Adjutant 9th Lancers, wounded at Moncel, 120.

Rheims, 39;

cultivation near, 36;

French dispositions near, 143, 152;

falling back from, on Amiens, proposed by Joffre, 86;

Joffre's plan to break through S. of, 342.

Rheims Cathedral, destruction of, 159.

Rhonelle stream, 50.

Ribécourt-Bray-sur-Somme line, held by de Castelnau, 162.

Riez de l'Erelle, Haig's H.Q. at, 66.

Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own),

1st Batt., 26, 134, at Ploegsteert Wood, 327;

3rd Batt., 28, 160.

Rifles, Modern, change brought about by, 12.

Rifles, 57th (Wilde's), 238.

"Right impulse" given to a Battle, that which ensures success, 217-18.

Rivièrette stream, 51.

Roads, assigned to French and British forces for advance on Oct. 13, 203;

in the area of the Retreat from Mons, 52, 53, 54, 65;

crossing the Marne battlefield area, 117-18;

nature of, between Lens and Armentières, and elsewhere, 209.

Robb, General, O.C. Line of Communications, 33.

Roberts, Lady Aileen (Countess Roberts), 281.

Roberts of Kandahar, Field-Marshal Earl, K.G., &c., at the Council of War, on Aug. 5, 1914, 3;

visit of, to Headquarters, events of the stay, 281-2;

sudden illness and death of, 282;

Military funeral service for, at St. Omer, 282;

General order issued by de Maud'huy paying tribute to, 282-3.

Robertson, Major-General Sir W. R., K.C.V.O., Q.M.G. (B.E.F.), 5, 17, 31;

Chief of Staff to French, 351;

on transport, munitions and supplies in Aug. 1914, 44.

Rocourt-Fère-en-Tardenois-Mont Notre Dame-Bazoches road, assigned for British route of advance, 143.

Rolt, Brigadier-General S. P., G.O.C. 14th Infantry Brigade, 22.

Ronarch, Rear-Admiral, O.C. Fusiliers Marins Brigade for relief of Antwerp, 181.

Rouges Bancs, trenches won and lost at, 327.

Roulers, German advance on, 208, 219;

advance on, of 3rd British Cavalry Division, 220;

German advance from, 227;

and entrainment at, 270.

Roumania, Joffre's optimism as to, 341.

Roy, General, O.C. French Territorial Division for Relief of Antwerp, 181.

Royal Army Medical Corps,

Field Ambulances, 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29;

With cavalry, 25, 30;

P.M.O., 6.

Royal Berkshire Regiment 1st Batt., 19, 244, 284.

Royal Dragoons, see under Dragoons.

Royal Dublin Fusiliers, 2nd Batt., 26.

Royal Engineers,

Commanding Officer, 6;

Field Companies,

5th and 11th, 20;

7th and 9th, 26;

12th and 38th, 28;

17th and 59th, 23;

23rd and 26th, 18, 125-6;

54th and 55th, 29;

56th and 57th, 21;

Field Squadrons,

1st, 25;

2nd, 25;

3rd, 30;

Signal Companies,

1st, 18;

2nd, 20;

3rd, 21;

4th, 26;

6th, 28;

7th, 29;

Signal Squadrons,

1st, 25;

2nd, 25.

Royal Flying Corps, Original B.E.F., Commanders and Composition of, 25, 185;

road allotted to in the Marne fighting, 133.

Royal Fusiliers, 1st Batt., 25, 160;

fighting on the Menin Road, 279;

4th Batt., 21, 146, 238;

in the Battle of Ypres, 284;

at Wytschaete, 297.

Royal Horse Guards (the Blues), 30;

at Messines, 246;

near Hooge, 250;

woods cleared by, 256.

Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, 2nd Batt., 26;

at Messines, 286.

Royal Irish Fusiliers, 1st Batt., 26.

Royal Irish Regiment, 2nd Batt., 66;

cut up at Le Pilly, 21.

Royal Irish Rifles, 2nd Batt., 21, 76, 160, 284.

Royal Marine Light Infantry at Dunkirk, 179.

Royal Munster Fusiliers, 2nd Batt., 17, 27, 328.

Royal Regiment of Artillery,

Brigades,

26th, at Bellot, 126;

32nd, at Veully, 195;

41st, in the Marne Battle, 127;

R.F.A. Batteries, 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 126, 128, 250, 254;

Howitzer Batteries, 18, 20, 22, 23, 28;

Howitzer Brigade, 43rd, 127;

Howitzers, see that head;

Employment of, in the Marne fighting, French's Memorandum on, 129 sqq.;

Paralysis of, due to lack of Munitions, 347;

R.G.A.,

Batteries (Heavy) and Divisional Trains, 18, 20, 22, 23, 27, 28, 29, 127, 352-3;

High-Explosive shells for, advocated by French (before the War), 348;

R.H.A.,

Batteries, 25, 29, 30, 101, 120.

Royal Scots (Lothian) Regiment,

2nd Batt., 21, 66;

Petit Bois taken by, 322;

8th Batt. (T.), 295, 297.

Royal Scots Fusiliers,

1st Batt., 21;

on the Aisne, 146;

at Messines, 238;

cut off, 251;

at Ypres, 284;

2nd Batt., 29.

Royal Sussex Regiment, 18;

at Gheluvelt, 250;

at Givenchy, 328.

Royal Warwickshire Regiment,

1st Batt., 26;

2nd Batt., 29.

Royal Welsh Fusiliers,

1st Batt., 29;

2nd Batt., 23;

in the Battle of Ypres, 243;

4th (Denbighshire) Batt. (T.), 295.

Royal West Kent Regiment, 1st Batt., 22.

Roye, French cavalry raid on German communications, 158;

French progress near, 325.

Roye and Montdidier, consequences of a breaking of the Allied front about, Joffre on (Jan. 19, 1915), 317-18.

Roye-Montdidier-Noyon-La Fère-Guise-Hirson, Heads of Allied Columns established at, with Cavalry Screen (Aug. 29), 91.

Rozoy, fighting at, 118.

Ruggles-Brise, Brigadier-General H. G., G.O.C. 20th Infantry Brigade, 28.

Russia, alleged deficiences of, in Guns and Munitions, Joffre on (Dec. 27), 341-2;

Armies of, in Manchuria and in the Great War contrasted, 231;

Practical collapse of, reaction of, on the W. campaign, 301, 343;

Collapse and failure of, and the counter-balance thereto, 346;

and the Eastern Campaign, 106;

and considerations based on success of, 92, 144, 194-5, 229, 231, 266-7, 268, 270-1, 274, 301, 346;

Effective British action impossible in, 315;

German Declaration of War against, 2, 3;

Military situation in Dec, 334-5, 336, 337, 341-2;

Partial Mobilisation by, against Austria, 2;

Relaxation of pressure on, in the Caucasus by British action against Turkey, French's view on, 316;

Treachery of the Governing classes in, 195;

Unpreparedness of, for war, 229.

Russian Generals, wisdom shown by, 230.

Russian Loan of 40 millions under negotiation (Dec. 26), 335.

Russian Troops, fine qualities of, 194, 231.

Russo-Japanese War, improvement after, in the Russian Army, 231.

Sablonnières, 126.

Sailly-sur-la-Lys, 3rd Corps directed on, 207, 219, 220.

Sailly-Nieppe line, 207.

St. Eloi, German advance on, 246;

French attack from, 247.

St. Eloi-Wyschaete line, French concentration on, 255.

St. Ghislain, passage at, across the Haine Valley, 49;

railway bridge E. of, 49.

St. Gond marshes, French troops S. of, 116.

St. Laurent, French gain of ground at (Dec. 18), 326.

St. Légers, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

St. Mihiel, French Armies engaged at, 167-8.

St. Nazaire-Nantes line established, 93.

St. Omer, as concentration camp, troops at and near, 199, 201, 202, 211, 223, 228, 280;

funeral service at, for Lord Roberts, 282;

G.H.Q. at, 205, 207, 329;

heavily bombed by aircraft, 207;

Territorials' special Training Camp at, 294, 296;

the Yeomanry at, 295.

St. Omer-Hazebrouck, as detraining spot, 188;

advance from, to the Lys, rendered possible by enemy miscalculation, 267.

St. Pol, talk at, with de Maud'huy (Oct. 10), 202.

St. Quentin, 81, 158;

rail to, from Douai junction of, at Cambrai, 54;

British retirement on, 74;

French's G.H.Q. at, 76, 80;

German cavalry attempts on, 83-4;

repulsed, 87.

St. Quentin Canal, and the Scheldt, joint channel of, and navigable connection of, with the Somme, 49.

St. Simeon, advance from, 127.

St. Yves, British line broken and re-established at, 245.

Salonika, as theatre for British operations, French's view on, 316.

Sambre Canal, details on, 50-1.

Sambre River, French forces on, 38, 41;

British intended position N. of (Aug. 18), 42;

German crossing of, 57.

Rise and course, country along, canalised course and tributaries of, 48, 50-1;

canal connected with, 53.

San River, Austrian rout at, 274.

Sapières stream, 143.

Sars-la-Bruyère, H.Q. 2nd British Army Corps, conference at, with Generals, 59, 61;

withdrawal from, 66.

Saulchéry, Marne bridge at, seized by Allenby (Sept. 9), 133.

Scheldt river, affluents of, 48, 50;

canals connected with, 48, 49;

course of, and canalisation of, 49-51;

crossing points of, between Cambrai and Condé, 50;

passage of, at Lille, to be secured by the French left (Oct. 13), 203.

Scheldt-Haine, confluence, Condé at, 53.

Scherpenberg Hill, 324;

French's observations from, 323.

Scots Guards, The:

1st Batt., 17, 250, 254, 328;

2nd Batt., 28, 327.

Scottish Rifles, The:

1st Batt., 23, 61;

at the 1st Battle of Ypres, 243;

2nd Batt., 297.

Scott-Kerr, Brigadier-General R., G.O.C. 4th (Guards) Brigade, 19;

at Landrecies, 75.

Sea, the (see also Channel Ports), German advance to, checked by first phase of 1st Battle of Ypres, 235-6.

Seaforth Highlanders, Ross-shire Buffs,

2nd Batt., 26;

4th (Dingwall) Batt. (T.), 296.

Second Army Corps, B.E.F., Commanders and Composition, 16, 20, 37, 38;

in the Battle of Mons, 47;

at salient, 60-1;

withdrawal thence, 62, 63, 65, 71;

at Le Cateau, 74-5;

the Battle of Le Cateau delivered by, 76 sqq.;

gap between, and the 1st Corps, 81;

retreat continued, 82 sqq.;

position on Sept. 7, 123;

the Petit Morin forced by, 128;

roads and supply railheads for, 132, 133;

crossing of the Marne by, 133;

in the Battle of the Aisne, 146, 151;

on Sept. 14, 152, 153;

violent attack on, 160;

Northward move, 171 sqq., 188, 192, 193;

positions on Oct. 2, 195-6;

directed on the Aire-Béthune line, 199, 200, 201, 202;

directed on the Laventie-Lorge line, 203, 207;

difficulties of the march, 209;

extended front held by, 210;

shortening of the line, 211;

line of advance for, 219;

progress of, 220, 221, 223-4;

in the Battle of Ypres, 227, 231, 234, 239;

condition of, 240;

Neuve Chapelle lost by, 241;

moved to reserve, 241;

at Neuve église, 258;

sent to relieve 1st Corps, 265;

sent to Bailleul, 285;

in the operations of Dec., 323;

pack artillery of, 324;

made part of 2nd Army under Smith-Dorrien, 337.

Sedan, 178.

Seine, the, Allied stand on, considered, 92;

5th French Army's retreat to, 105;

German Army driven back from, 138.

Selle, River, 50;

Le Cateau on, 54.

Sensée, River, 50.

Sentiment, out of place in war, a lesson on, 274.

Serbia, War declared on, by Austria-Hungary, 2.

Serches, H.Q. 5th Division, 150.

Sermoise, Rail to, from Soissons, 148.

Sermoise Spur, Aisne Valley, 147.

Serre River, line of, 5th French Army retiring to (Aug. 30), 93.

Sézanne, French 9th Army's position in relation to (Sept. 5), 116.

Shaw, Brigadier-General F. C., G.O.C. 9th Infantry Brigade, 21, 244;

Fine work of, at Wytschaete, 238, 261;

and at Kemmel, 247.

Shea, Captain, of the Indian cavalry, 85.

Shrapnel, limits of use of, 358.

Shropshire Light Infantry (The King's), 1st Batt, 27, 160.

Silesia, Russian operations in, 268, 274.

Silly-sur-Ourcq-Hartennes-Ambrief area, British cavalry occupying, 195.

Sirhind Brigade, see under Indian Corps.

Smith, Lieut.-Colonel Douglas, O.C. 9th Infantry Brigade, 21.

Smith-Dorrien, General Sir Horace, K.C.B., G.O.C.

2nd Army Corps, in succession to Grierson, 16, 20, 38, 61-2, 106, 244;

positions occupied by, on and after Aug. 21, 47;

in the Retreat from Mons, 62-3;

and the Battle of Le Cateau, 76-80;

orders sent to, to break off action and continue retreat, 82;

and acted on, 83, 84;

views of, on the position at the end of August, 93;

in the Battle of the Marne, 119;

the Petit Morin crossed in face of strong opposition, 128;

instructions to (Sept. 9), 133, 134. 135;

delayed advance of, 202;

French's visits to (Oct. 11, &c.), 209-10, 227;

meeting with, 241;

on mutual co-operation with the French 16th Corps (Dec. 16), 324;

Second Army constituted, and placed under, 337.

Smuts, General Christian, spirit shown by, in the Boer War, 339.

Snow, Major-General T. D. O., G.O.C. 4th Division, B.E.F., 25, 72;

at Le Cateau, 68;

accident to, 161.

Soignies, German advance past, 47.

Soissons, French forces about, 152, 187.

Soissons-Bailly line, French defence organised on, 158.

Soissons-Bourg line, British position on, 147.

Soissons-Compiègne line, intense artillery fire on, 145.

Soissons and Villers, Aisne bridges between, 147.

Soldiers (see also British, and Troops) Freemasonry of, and chivalrous relations between friend and foe, 340.

Solesmes, action at, troops engaged, 73, 74, 75, 77.

Solre, the, 51.

Somerset (Prince Albert's) Light Infantry,

1st Batt., 26, 134;

at Ploegsteert Wood, 327.

Somme River, navigable connection of, with the Scheldt, 49;

stand on, considered, 74;

but abandoned, 84;

rolling plains W. of, as observation points, 148.

Sordet, General, commanding French cavalry, 48, 58, 93;

visit to, and impressions on, 67;

support of, asked and given, 68, 78, 80, 84;

attack by, near Péronne, 87.

South African War,

Kitchener's exercise of command in, 330;

and greatness shown in, 333;

Part played in, by the Volunteers, 292;

Pulteney's fine qualities evidenced in, 205;

Warning of, on Munitions unheeded, 348.

South Wales Borderers, 1st Batt., 18, 328.

Special Reserve, British, mobilisation of, 3.

Spiers, Captain, 11th Hussars, liaison officer at Lanrezac's H.Q., on the latter's plans and operations, 56, 57, 58, 59, 64;

report by, on Foch's Army, 200;

liaison officer with de Maud'huy on the situation of that Army, 325-6;

character summary of, 326;

courage and endurance shown by, 326-7.

Staden and Zarren, de Mitry's cavalry pushed back towards, 227.

"Staff," the, unfair criticisms on, 69-70.

Staff College "pedants," an example of, 37.

Staff Officers at Work, 69-70.

Staffordshire (North) Regiment, 1st Batt., 28, 160.

Staffordshire (South) Regiment,

1st Batt., 29;

2nd Batt., 19, 244, 284.

Stanton, and McClellan, 111.

Stalemate, situation of, anticipated by War Council on the W. front, 315.

Submarine base, see Zeebrugge.

Submarines, potentialities of, realised by French, 155;

construction of, in section, suggested by French (May 1914), pronounced impracticable, 214.

Success in Battle, generally dependent on right direction given at onset, 217.

Suffolk Regiment,

2nd Batt., 21, 22;

4th Batt. (T.), 296.

Supplies, provision of (Aug.), 44.

Surrey (East) Regiment, 1st Batt., 22.

Sykes, Colonel, 33;

second in command R.F.C., sent by plane to Antwerp, 185;

the fall reported by, 201.

Syria, operations in, French's view on, 316.

Tactical employment of Troops, principle, of, 11.

Tamines, fighting at, 58.

Tannenburg, Battle of, Russian strategy and patience after, 230.

Tarsy, the, affluent of the Sambre, 51.

Tenth (British) Corps, 169.

Termonde, pontoon bridges built at, by the Germans, 203.

Territorial Battalions picked, conversion of, into O.T.C., a conception of Lord Haldane, applied by French, 272.

Territorial Cavalry, see Yeomanry, under Names.

Territorial County Associations, 292;

tribute to, 291.

Territorial Forces, British, see also under Names of Units,

History of, 291 sqq.;

Incalculable debt to, of the country, 293-4;

Keenness (zeal) of (1908-12), admirable result of, 296;

Mobilisation of, 3;

Noble record of, 294, & n.;

Ready response of, to call for foreign service, 292-3;

War services of, as Reserves, 228, 265;

the first to fight, 262, 294;

despatch of, to France, 271, 290-1;

behaviour in the field, 292;

arrival as units, 294 sqq.;

Battalions enumerated, 295-6;

efficiency of, energy of, and progress made by, 296-7;

officers of, inexperience of; steady improvement of, 298;

Divisional organisation of, determined on, by Haldane, 298-9;

success of, 299;

strength of, 300;

prominent part played by, in 1915, 300;

provision of drafts and a Special Reserve for, Kitchener on (Jan. 1915), 309.

Thiant, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

Thiaucourt, Allied and German line to, from La Bassée and from near Lille, 181-2.

Thielt, retreat past, 208.

Third Army Corps, Commander and Composition, 16, 94;

in the Marne Battle, 116, 121, 122;

at La Haute Maison, 123;

advance of, 128, 129, 131;

roads and supply railheads for, 132;

the Marne crossed by, 133-4; 135;

bridge-laying by, 137;

in the Aisne Battle, 146;

more bridge-laying, 150;

the crossing at Venizel, 151;

position on Sept. 7th, 152, 153;

sent to St. Omer-Hazebrouck area, 179, 188, 190, 193, 195, 199, 201, 203;

arrival, and taking of Bailleul, 205;

the fighting at, watched by French, 206-7, 210, 216;

objective on Oct. 15, in the Battle of Ypres, 219;

towns taken by 221, 223;

position on and after Oct. 21, 231, 234;

at Messines, 247, 259, 277;

Territorials, incorporated with, 297;

in the Dec. operations, 323, 327;

made part of the 2nd Army under Smith-Dorrien, 337.

Thompson, Colonel C. B., liaison officer with 6th French Army,

reports of, 154, 325.

Thorne, Captain, on the retaking of Gheluvelt, 254-5.

Thourout, 3rd Cavalry Division at, 204, 208;

hostile action anticipated at, 220;

Germans entraining at, 270.

Tirlemont, German forces between, and Metz, 40, 41;

German advance on, line of, 41.

Tirlemont-Jodoigne-Hammeville-Louvain line, Belgian Forces holding (Aug.), 45-6.

Times, The, interview given to, by French, on Munitions, 355;

Repington's Article in (May 15, 1915), on British lack of Ammunition, and the result, 360.

Tolstoy, Count Leo, on Napoleon's directions at Borodino, 217.

Topography, see under each region of action.

Tourcoing, German forces entraining at, 270.

Tournai, rail to, from Condé, 53;

route from, via Pommer?ul, across the Haine valley, 49.

Transport (see also Railway), state of, 44, 89;

difficulties due to roads, 209;

Motor, effect on Warfare, 12, 201, 233, 242.

Treasury opposition to due provision of Munitions, 348.

Trench Feet, causation and severity, 288-9;

Comparative incidence before and after adoption of preventative measures, 290;

First occurrence of, 288;

Loss of personnel due to, 289, 290;

Prevention, 289;

Treatment, 290.

Trench Guns, shortage of (May 1915), 353.

Trench Mortars, 144;

shortage of, 352.

Trench Warfare, development of, 144;

new weapons employed in, 144, 353;

experiments with, in the field, made for French, 354-5;

a principle of, learnt in Oct., 145.

Trilport, 116.

Trith, Scheldt crossing at, 50.

Troops in Retreat, atmosphere engendered by, 56.

Trovillon, the, 53.

Troyon-Soupir line, troops holding, 152.

Turkey, why brought into the War, unwisdom of Allied attack on, 316.

Uhlan patrols near Le Cateau, 84.

Unauthorised Statements, War Cabinet hampered by heeding, 334.

Urbal, General d', G.O.C. Northern French Army, visit to, and impression on (Oct. 24), 234-5;

conferences with, 255, 260;

on French advance held up by machine-gun fire (Dec. 15), 322.

Urvillers, fight at, of French Reserves, 88.

Vailly, the Aisne crossed at, by 3rd Division, 151;

circle near held, 152, 195, 196;

rail to, from Soissons crossing the Aisne at, 147-8.

Valenciennes, 19th British Infantry Brigade concentrating on (Aug. 21), 47;

inspected by French, 61;

strategic importance of, 50, 54;

German forces entrenched about, 182;

and advance from, 202.

Valenciennes-Douai line, uncrossed by enemy (Aug. 25), 77.

Valenciennes-Hirson Railway, the wooded area traversed by, 52.

Valenciennes-Maubeuge line through, dividing two portions of Condé-Binche area, 51;

enemy strength S. of (Aug. 25), 77.

Varreddes, on the Marne, enemy artillery at, 124.

Vaudoy, British advance to, 119.

Vaughan, Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 3rd Cavalry Brigade, 25.

Vaughan, Colonel, views of (Aug. 23), 64.

Vendresse, success of the 1st Division at (Sept. 14), 151.

Venizel, bridge thrown over at, by 3rd Corps, 150;

the Aisne crossed by, 151;

19th Brigade in reserve at (Sept. 14), 152.

Verbranden Molen, French fighting at, 246, 279.

Verbranden Molen-Zillebeke-Halte-Polijze line, orders given to hold to the last, 253.

Verdun, 89, 248;

German entrenchments reaching from, to Nieuport, 268.

Vermelles-Richebourg-Vieille-Chapelle line, German cavalry pushed back to, 204.

Vertus, French move from, 143.

Vervins, French Reserve Divisions at, 37, 39.

Vesle River, Valley of, 147;

railway in, 148.

Victoria, Queen, statue unveiled by William II, 9.

Vidal, General, support given to, 279;

and promised by Foch, 281.

Vieille Chapelle, German cavalry driven back to, 204.

Vieux Berquin, 207.

Villers-Cotterets, rearguard action at, 101;

route suggested from, to Lille for British cavalry, 172.

Villers-sur-Morin-Fontenay line, British forces halted on (Sept. 4-5), 109.

Villers-sur-Morin-Rozoy-La Chapelle d'Iger, French advance via, 115;

British line from, 116.

Villers-St. Ghislain, 2nd Corps near, 60.

Virton-Spincourt line, 4th French Army fallen back to, 72.

Vistula, the, Russian withdrawal over, considered, but not thought probable, 334, 336.

Vitry-le-Fran?ois, Joffre's H.Q., officers met, and topics discussed at, 34-5, 39.

Viviani, René, French Prime Minister (1914), 33;

present at the interview between French and Kitchener, 96.

Vladivostock, remoteness of, 315.

Vlamertinghe, consultation at, with Foch and d'Urbal (Nov. 1), 260.

Volunteers, the, origin and evolution of, 291;

true value slowly realised, 292;

zeal of, 296.

von Hindenburg, see Hindenburg.

von Kluck, see Kluck.

von Moltke, see Moltke.

Wake, Major Sir H., 81.

Wales (South) Borderers, 18, 328.

Wallingcourt, German move on, 77.

Wallon-Cappel, Lahore Division concentrating at (Oct. 21), 228.

Wallon-Cappel and Merville, British cavalry between (Oct. 11),

sweep made from (Oct. 12 sqq.), 264.

Walmer Castle, meeting at, of the War Cabinet, 329 sqq.

War, Science of, instinctive application of, essential, 11.

War, European, French's anticipation of, and advance studies on, 8-9.

War, the Great, First British War Council held, 3 sqq.;

Enormous wastage of, 293;

First period of, most critical stage in, opening of (Oct. 29), 241 sqq.;

Protracted by the British deficiencies in Armament and Ammunition, 163 et alibi.

War of Positions not anticipated by French, 11;

but settled down to, 13.

War Cabinet, Walmer meeting, 329 sqq.;

anxieties, 303 sqq.;

discussions with, on the Eastern front, German reinforcements in the W., &c., 332 sqq.

War Council, view of, on attack on Zeebrugge, 308 sqq.;

Memorandum of (Jan. 9, 1915), on possible use of British Forces in a different theatre to that in which then used, 313-14;

French's views given in reply, 315-17.

Waremme, German advance by, 41.

War Office, the, attitude of, to new and unfamiliar weapons, and H.E. shells, 348, 353;

failure of, to speed up manufacture of Munitions, effect of, 343;

French's correspondence with on need for Heavy Artillery, 163;

French official appeals to, for Munitions, 347, 348-9;

the refusal, low estimate from, of supplies to be expected up to May, 1915, actual supplies less still, effect of this shortage on the Army's morale, 350;

French's yet more vigorous insistence on the matter, and the reply suggesting waste by the Army, 351.

Warfare, Modern, change in, failure to foresee lessons of, 11, 12, 13, 144, 194;

Principles established by, as to Command of Ground, 149;

and as to Trench Defensive, 143.

Warneton, 1st Cavalry Division's advanced detachments at, 205;

Cavalry fighting near, for passage of the Lys (Oct. 16), 220.

Warsaw, second attack on, of Central Powers, failure of, 229;

strategy of the first battle of, 230;

loss of, envisaged, 334.

Warta, the masterly Russian retirement from, 230.

Waterloo Campaign, ranges in, 353.

Waterloo, Field of, author's dreams regarding, 33, 331.

Watkins, General, G.O.C. Lahore Division, at the 1st Battle of Ypres, 196.

Watson, Colonel James, A.D.C. to the Khedive, 1.

Watts, Brigadier-General H. E., G.O.C. 21st Infantry Brigade, 29.

Weapons, Modern, and modified, effect of, on Warfare, 11, 12, 13, 142, 144, 194;

attitude to, of the War Office, 348, 353;

experiments in, made for French in the field, and their manufacture, 353-5.

Wellington, the great Duke of, 326;

and Walmer Castle, 313.

Welsh Regiment,

2nd Batt., 18, 328;

6th Batt. (T.), 27, 295.

Wemyss, Earl of, and the Volunteers, 291.

Werwick, advanced cavalry detachments at, 205.

Western War Front, Home Authorities' anxiety concerning (Dec. 17), 329.

Westoutre, 1st Corps in reserve at, 284.

Westmacott, Lieut.-Colonel, in temporary Command, 5th Infantry Brigade, 19;

later Brigadier-General, G.O.C. 2nd Infantry Brigade, 18.

West Riding (Duke of Wellington's) Regiment, 2nd Batt., 22.

Willcocks, Lieut.-General Sir James, K.C.S.I., G.O.C. Indian Contingent, arrival of, and work done by, 196, 240, 241, 265-6, 328, 340.

William II, German Emperor, War declared by, on Russia, 2;

conversation with, in Aug. 1911, on the German Army, 9-10;

two great opportunities misused by, 105, 107, 176;

at Courtrai during the Battle of Ypres, 257;

orders of, to Prussian Guard to break British line, 277.

Wilson, Major-General (now Sir) H. F. M., G.O.C. 4th Division, B.E.F., 7, 25, 31;

after commanding the 12th Infantry Brigade, 26;

at the First Council of War, 3;

Sub-Chief of Staff, 5, 7;

characteristics of, 107-9;

sent to Joffre, 185;

friendship of, with Foch, 197;

and official visits to him, 221, 226, 324;

Le Gheer retaken by, 233.

Wilson, Lieut.-Colonel Gordon C., O.C. Royal Horse Guards, killed in action, 272.

Wiltshire (Duke of Edinburgh's) Regiment,

1st Batt., 21, 76, 160, 284;

2nd Batt., 29.

Wing, Brigadier-General F. A. N., C.B., C.R.A. 1st Corps, killed in action, an appreciation of, 150.

Wing, Major-General, G.O.C. 3rd Division (temp.), 20.

Wireless Telegraphy, effect of, on Warfare, 12.

Woodhouse, Surgeon-General T. P., P.M.O., H.Q. Staff, B.E.F., 6.

Woolwich, Conneau, once a cadet at, 235.

Worcestershire Regiment,

2nd Batt., 19;

in the Marne Battle, 127;

at Bercelaere, 247;

at Gheluvelt, 250;

Gheluvelt taken by, with the bayonet, 253-4;

the day saved by, 255;

3rd Batt., 21, 75-6, 160, 284.

Wounded, the, arrangements for evacuating, 44, 137-8, 157.

Wulverghem, Lahore Division (part) sent to, 233;

Cavalry retirement to (Nov. 1), 258, 259, 263.

Wytschaete, 246, 297;

chance of strong attack on (Dec. 18), how unavoidably let slip, 325.

Wytschaete-Messines ridge, fighting at (Oct. 31, Nov. 1, 2), 204, 246, 256, 257-9, 262, 264, 275, 277;

Immortal stand on, of the British cavalry, 204, 238, 262;

the crisis of the third phase of the Battle of Ypres, 277.

Yalu, Battle of, 231.

Yeomanry Forces (T.), arrival in France, 294-5;

fine quality of, and high standard of efficiency, speedily employed, 295;

Essex, 294, 295;

Leicestershire, 294, 295;

Northamptonshire, 294, 295;

Northumberland (Hussars), 29, 294, 295;

North Somerset, 29, 294, 295;

Oxfordshire (Hussars), 228, 247, 295;

at the Wytschaete-Messines ridge, 238, 262, 294;

Surrey, 295;

Warwickshire (Horse Artillery), 27, 294, 295.

York and Lancaster Regiment, 2nd Batt., 27, 160.

Yorkshire (East) Regiment, 1st Batt., 28.

Yorkshire Regiment, 2nd Batt., 29.

Yorkshire (West) Regiment, 1st Batt., 28.

Ypres, 242, 243, 260;

Allied forces converging upon, 208;

French's visit to, and conference at, 232-3;

cleared of French troops, 233;

German "frightfulness," at, 248;

attempts to relieve 1st Corps at, 265;

strong French reinforcements at, 270;

Battle of,

First, 16;

value in, of British "moral," 55;

observation points used, 148-9;

casualties at, and resulting from, 151,

table of, 286;

assistance rendered during, by the Indian contingent, 16, 196;

results largely due to Pulteney's initial leading of the 3rd Corps at, 206;

importance throughout, of the capture of the Kemmel Heights (Oct. 14), 208;

experiments in new weapons after, conducted for French, 353-5;

restriction of gun-fire during, due to lack of supplies, 349;

intensity of struggle during, 356;

1st Phase, points at issue immediately before, the British Empire itself at stake, 214-16;

German tactics in, 216;

opening of, 216;

extent covered by, 218, 224;

chief danger in, 225;

Allied and opponent forces engaged in, positions, actions, and movements, 231-2;

summary of results, 233-4, 235-6;

2nd Phase (Oct. 27-31), operations and endurance during,

French's estimate of, 237;

crisis of, 238-9, 277;

Allied and enemy forces engaged, 240;

3rd Phase, 257 sqq.;

crisis of, 277;

4th and Final Phase, 277-85;

Allied dispositions during, 277 sqq.;

crisis of, 277;

part played in, by 1st Corps emphasised, 285-6;

weather during, effect on the men in the trenches, 287-8 sqq.;

Strategic alternatives and problems arising to be dealt with after, 301-18;

Territorial troops taking part in, 297;

Second (1915), 342-3;

German use of poisoned gas at, and fierce attempt to break through, 356.

Ypres Canal, the, the fighting along, 235, 246, 272-3, 279, 280.

Ypres Salient, the, the defence of, 238, 241-2;

honour to forces sharing in, 239, 280;

the great feature of the last phase of the battle, 277 sqq.;

latest and nearly successful enemy attack on, 283;

Evacuation of, by the British, 285.

Ypres-Armentières, Battle of, the more correct name for the 1st Battle of Ypres, 218.

Ypres-Menin road, British forces holding, 242;

driven back, 250.

Ypres-Messines line, question of a stand on, 252.

Ypres-Roulers line, 1st Corps' right directed on (Oct. 19), 226.

Yser Canal, British forces on, 232.

Yser, River, Belgian retreat on, 183, 192, 208, 217, 224, 262;

French forces on, 221, 224;

German menace to, 225;

heavy fighting on, 244;

German attack held, 278;

inundation, possibilities of, 242-3;

improved situation on, 336.

Zandvoorde, German counter-attack from, repulsed by the French, 322.

Zeebrugge, landing facilities at, 180-1;

evacuation of, 183;

how it might have been saved, 184;

proposed advance to, objects of, 303-4 sqq.;

French attitude to, 305, 307;

Grey's telegram on, 305 sqq.;

Kitchener's memorandum on, 308;

the objections to the plan, stated, 311-12;

and met, 312-13;

Joffre's final opinion on, 317-18;

increasing strength at and development as submarine base, as affecting Naval Co-operation, 308, 320 sqq.

Zillebeke, 250.

Zonnebeke, Cavalry Corps hard pressed at, 233;

and La Bassée, ground lost between up to Oct. 26, 233;

but no gap created, 234.

Zonnebeke Station, 242.

Zonnebeke-Langemarck-Bixschoote line reached by 1st Corps, 232.

Zonnebeke-St. Julien-Pilkem line, 3rd Cavalry Division driven back to, 227.

Zonnebeke-Westroosebeke line occupied by 3rd Cavalry Division, 220.(Back to Content)

ERRATA.

Page 20, line 7, Royal Artillery, for "XXIV. Brigade," read "XXXIV. Brigade."

Page 20, line 12, for "R.A.M.C.: 4th & 6th Field Ambulances," read "R.A.M.C.: 4th, 5th & 6th Field Ambulances."

Page 162, line 30, for "Sir Charles Haddon, Master General of the Ordnance," read "Sir Charles Hadden, President of the Ordnance Board, Woolwich Arsenal."

Footnote 1: 2nd Scots Fusiliers, unclassified, 27/10 to 4/11/14.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 2: 1st S. Staffs, unclassified, 20/10 to 7/11.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 3: 2nd S. Lancs, unclassified, 20/10 to 24/10.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 4: 4th Royal Fusiliers, unclassified, 11/11/14.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 5: 1st Scots Fusiliers, unclassified, 10 to 12/11.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 6: The North and South Irish Horse went to France much earlier than these troops but were employed as special escort to G.H.Q.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 7: A short speech which I made on this occasion in the House of Lords expressed my great appreciation of Lord Kitchener's capacity as a leader in the field.

I told the House that, after I received intimation of my appointment to command in France, my first act was to seek out my old South African Chief and suggest to him that we should repair together to the Prime Minister and ask that he might be appointed to command, with me as his Chief of Staff. He could not be persuaded to do this.

He was then on the point of leaving to return to Egypt, and had no idea that he was to be Secretary of State for War.

I do not think Lord Kitchener was always credited by the country with the talent for command in the field which I know he really possessed, whilst, on the other hand, a r?le for which he was not well fitted was thrust upon him. As Commander-in-chief in France it would have helped him very much to have had a Secretary of State other than himself to deal with.(Back to Main Text)

Footnote 8: Round numbers are given. Expansion must be provided for at a similar rate. We need more guns and a correspondingly larger amount of ammunition.(Back to Main Text)

General Map of Northern France and Belgium.

Map to Illustrate the Retreat from Mons and Battles of the Marne and the Aisne.

Map to Illustrate the Campaign in Belgium, 1914.

* * *

Free to Download MoboReader
(← Keyboard shortcut) Previous Contents (Keyboard shortcut →)
 Novels To Read Online Free

Scan the QR code to download MoboReader app.

Back to Top

shares