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The Story of the Champions of the Round Table By Howard Pyle Characters: 34554

Updated: 2017-12-04 00:02

The General Field. Psychology has now reached that stage in its development where it can be of use to humanity. It can be of use in those fields which demand a knowledge of human nature. As indicated in the first chapter, these fields are education, medicine, law, business, and industry. We may add another which has been called "culture." We cannot say that psychology is able yet to be of very great service except to education, law, and medicine. It has been of less service to the field of business and industry, but in the future, its contribution here will be as great as in the other fields. While the service of psychology in the various fields is not yet great, what it will eventually be able to do is very clear. It is the purpose of this chapter to indicate briefly, the nature and possibilities of this psychological service.

Education. Throughout the preceding chapters, we have emphasized the educational importance of the facts discussed. There is little left to say here except to summarize the main facts. Since education is a matter of making a child over into what he ought to be, the science of education demands a knowledge of the original nature of children. This means that one must know the nature of instincts, their relations to one another, their order of development, and the possibilities of their being changed, modified, developed, suppressed. It means that one must know the nature of the child's mind in all its various functions, the development and significance of these functions,-memory, association, imagination, and attention. The science especially demands that we understand the principles of habit-formation, the laws of economical learning, and the laws of memory.

This psychological knowledge must form the ground-work in the education of teachers for their profession. In addition to this general preparation of the teacher, psychology will render the schools a great service through the psycho-clinicist, who will be a psychological expert working under the superintendents of our school systems. His duty will be to supervise the work of mental testing, the work of diagnosis for feeble-mindedness and selection of the subnormal children, the teaching of such children. He will give advice in all cases which demand expert psychological knowledge.

Medicine. In the first place, there is a department of medicine which deals with nervous diseases, such as insanity, double personality, severe nervous shock, hallucination, etc. This entire aspect of medicine is wholly psychological. But psychology can be of service to the general practitioner both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. A thorough psychological knowledge of human nature will assist a physician in diagnosis. Often the best way to find out what ails a patient's body is through the patient's mind, and the doctor must know how to get the truth from the patient's mind even in those cases in which the patient is actually trying to conceal the truth. A profound practical knowledge of human nature is necessary,-a knowledge which can be obtained only by long and careful technical study as well as practice and experience.

Psychology can be of service in the treatment of disease. The physician must understand the peculiar mental characteristics of his patient in order to know how to deal with him. In some cases, hypnotism is a valuable aid in treatment, and in many cases, ordinary normal suggestion can be of considerable service. The state of mind of a sick person has much to do with his recovery. The physician must know this and must know how to induce the desired state of mind. Indeed, a patient's trouble is often imaginary, exists in the mind only; in such cases, the treatment should be wholly mental, i.e. through suggestion. Of course, the best physicians know these facts and make use of them in their practice, but preparation for this aspect of their work should be a regular part of their medical education. They should not be left to learn these facts from their practice as best they may, any more than they should be expected to learn their physiology and anatomy in this way.

Law. The service of psychology to law can be very great, but owing to the necessary conservatism of the courts, it will be a long time before they will make much use of psychological knowledge. Perhaps the greatest service will be in determining the credibility of evidence. Psychology can now give the general principles in this matter. Witnesses go on the stand and swear to all sorts of things as to what they heard and saw and did, often months and even years previously. The expert clinical psychologist can tell the court the probability of such evidence being true. Experiments have shown that there is a large percentage of error in such evidence. The additional value that comes from the oath has been measured. The oath increases the liability of truth only a small percentage.

Experiments have also shown that one's feeling of certainty is no guarantee of truth. Sometimes the point we feel surest about is the one farthest from the truth. In fact, feeling sure of a thing is no guarantee of truth.

In a particular case in court, the psychologist can determine the reliability of the evidence of a particular witness and enable the judge and the jury to put the proper value on such witness's testimony. For example, a witness may swear to a certain point involving the estimation of time and distance. The psychologist can measure the witness's accuracy in such estimates, often showing that what the witness claims to be able to do is an impossibility. A case may hinge on whether an interval of time was ten minutes or twelve minutes, or whether a distance was three hundred or four hundred feet. A witness may swear positively to one or both of these points. The psychologist can show the court the limitations of the witness in making such estimates.

Psychology can be of service in the examination of the criminal himself. Through association tests and in other ways, the guilt or innocence of the prisoner can often be determined, and his intellectual status can also be determined. The prisoner may be insane, or feeble-minded, or have some other peculiar mental disorder. Such matters fall within the realm of psychology. After a prisoner has been found guilty, the court should have the advice of the clinical psychologist in deciding what should be done with him.

It should be added that the court and not the attorneys should make use of the psychologist. Whenever a psychologist can be of service in a case in court, the judge should summon such assistance, just as he should if expert chemical, physical, physiological, or anatomical knowledge should be desired.

A knowledge of human nature can be of much service to society in the prevention of crime. This will come about from a better knowledge of the psychological principles of habit-formation and moral training, through a better knowledge of how to control human nature. A large percentage of all crime, perhaps as much as forty per cent, is committed by feeble-minded people. Now, if we can detect these people early, and give them the simple manual education which they are capable of receiving, we can keep them out of a life of crime.

Studies of criminals in reform schools show that the history of many cases is as follows: The person, being of low mentality, could not get on well at school and therefore came to dislike school, and consequently became a truant. Truancy led to crime. Crime sent the person to the court, and the court sent the person to the state reformatory.

The great duty of the state is the prevention of crime. Usually little can be done in the way of saving a mature criminal. We must save the children before they become criminals, save them by proper treatment. Society owes it to every child to do the right thing for him, the right thing, whether the child is an idiot or a genius. Merely from the standpoint of economy, it would be an immense saving to the state if it would prevent crime by the proper treatment of every child.

Business. The contribution of psychology in this field, so far, is in the psychology of advertising and salesmanship, both having to do chiefly with the selling of goods. Students of the psychology of advertising have, by experiment, determined many principles that govern people when reading newspapers and magazines, principles having to do with size and kind of type, arrangement and form, the wording of an advertisement, etc. The object of an advertisement is to get the reader interested in the article advertised. The first thing is to get him to read the advertisement. Here, various principles of attention are involved. The next thing is to have the matter of the advertisement of such a nature that it creates interest and remains in memory, so that when the reader buys an article of that type he buys the particular kind mentioned in the advertisement.

In salesmanship, many subtle psychological principles are involved. The problem of the salesman is to get the attention of the customer, and then to make him want to buy his goods. To do this with the greatest success demands a profound knowledge of human nature. Other things being equal, that man can most influence people who has the widest knowledge of the nature of people, and of the factors that affect this nature. The successful salesman must understand human feelings and emotions, especially sympathy; also the laws of attention and memory, and the power of suggestion. A mastery of the important principles requires years of study, and a successful application of them requires just as many years of practice.

The last paragraph leads us to a consideration of the general problem of influencing men. In all occupations and professions, one needs to know how to influence other men. We have already discussed the matter of influencing people to buy goods. People who employ labor need to know how to get laborers to do more and better work, how to make them loyal and happy. The minister needs to know how to induce the members of his congregation to do right. The statesman needs to know how to win his hearers and convince them of the justice and wisdom of his cause. Whatever our calling, there is scarcely a day when we could not do better if we knew more fully how to influence people.

Industry. The service of psychology here is four-fold: (1) Finding what men are fitted for. (2) Finding what kinds of abilities are demanded by the various trades and occupations. (3) Helping the worker to understand the psychological aspects of his work. (4) Getting the best work out of the laborer.

Finding what men are fitted for. In the preceding chapter, we discussed the individual variations of men. Some people are better fitted physically and mentally for certain types of work than they are for other types of work. The determination of what an individual is fitted for and what he is not fitted for is the business of psychology. In some cases, the verdict of psychology can be very specific; in others, it can be only general. Much misery and unhappiness come to people from trying to do what they are not fitted by nature to do. There are many professions and occupations which people should not enter unless they possess high general ability. Now, psychology is able to measure general ability. There are many other occupations and professions which people should not enter unless they possess some special ability. Music, art, and mechanics may be mentioned as examples of occupations and professions demanding specific kinds of ability. In industrial work, many aspects demand very special abilities, as quick reaction, quick perception, fine discrimination, calmness and self-control, ingenuity, quick adaptation to new situations. Psychology can aid in picking out the people who possess the required abilities.

The different abilities demanded. It is the business of psychology to make a careful analysis of the specific abilities required in all the various works of life. There are hundreds of occupations and often much differentiation of work within an occupation. It is for the psychologist of the future to make this analysis and to classify the occupations with reference to the kinds of abilities demanded. Of course, many of them will be found to require the same kind of ability, but just as surely, many will be found to require very special abilities. It is a great social waste to have people trying to fill such positions unless they possess the specific abilities required.

It should be the work of the high school and college to explain the possibilities, and the demands in the way of ability, of the various occupations of the locality. By possibilities and demands are meant the kinds of abilities required and the rewards that can be expected, the kind of life which the different fields offer. It is the further duty of the high school and college to find out, as far as possible, the specific abilities of the students. With this knowledge before them, the students should choose their careers, and then make specific preparation for them. The schools ought to work in close co?peration with the industries, the student working for a part of the day in school and a part in the industries. This would help much in leading the student to understand the industries and in ascertaining his own abilities and interests.

The psychological aspects of one's work. All occupations have a psychological aspect. They involve some trick of attention, of association, of memory. Certain things must be looked for, certain habits must be formed, certain movements must be automatized. Workmen should be helped to master these psychological problems, to find the most convenient ways of doing their work. Workmen often do their work in the most uneconomical ways, having learned their methods through imitation, and never inquiring whether there is a more economical way.

Securing efficiency. Securing efficiency is a matter of influencing men, a matter which we have already discussed. Securing efficiency is quite a different matter from that treated in the preceding paragraph. A workman may have a complete knowledge of his work and be skilled in its performance, and still be a poor workman, because he does not have the right attitude toward his employer or toward his work. The employer must therefore meet the problem of making his men like their work and be loyal to their employer. The laborer must be happy and contented if he is to do good work. Moreover, there is no use in working, or in living either, if one cannot be happy and contented.

We have briefly indicated the possibilities of psychology in the various occupations and professions. There is a further application that has no reference to the practical needs of life, but to enjoyment. A psychological knowledge of human nature adds a new interest to all our social experience. The ability to understand the actions and feelings of men puts new meaning into the world. The ability to understand oneself, to analyze one's actions, motives, feelings, and thoughts, makes life more worth living. A knowledge of the sensations and sense organs adds much pleasure to life in addition to its having great practical value. Briefly, a psychological knowledge of human nature adds much to the richness of life. It gives one the analytical attitude. Experiences that to others are wholes, to the psychologist fall apart into their elements. Such knowledge leads us to analyze and see clearly what otherwise we do not understand and see only darkly or not at all. Literature and art, and all other creations and products of man take on a wholly new interest to the psychologist.

Summary. Psychology is of service to education in ascertaining the nature of the child and the laws of learning; to law, in determining the reliability of evidence and in the prevention of crime; to medicine, in the work of diagnosis and treatment; to business, in advertising and salesmanship; to the industries, in finding the man for the place and the place for the man; to everybody, in giving a keener insight into, and understanding of, human nature.


Visit a court room when a trial is in progress. Note wherein psychology could be of service to the jury, to the judge, and to the attorneys.

To test the reliability of evidence, proceed as follows: Take a large picture, preferably one in color and having many details; hold it before the class in a good light where all can see it. Let them look at it for ten or fifteen seconds, the time depending on the complexity of the picture. The students should then write down what they saw in the picture, underscoring all the points to which they would be willing to make oath. Then the students should answer a list of questions prepared by the teacher, on various points in the picture. Some of these questions should be suggestive, such as, "What color is the dog?" supposing no dog to be in the picture. The papers giving the first written description should be graded on the number of items reported and on their accuracy. The answers to the questions should be graded on their accuracy. How do girls compare with boys in th

e various aspects of the report? What is the accuracy of the underlined points?

Let the teacher, with the help of two or three students, perform before the class some act or series of acts, with some conversation, and then have the students who have witnessed the performance write an account of it, as in No. 2.

Divide the class into two groups. Select one person from each to look at a picture as in No. 1. These two people are then to write a complete account of the picture. This account is then read to another person in the same group, who then writes from memory his account and reads to another. This is to be continued till all have heard an account and written their own. You will then have two series of accounts of the same picture proceeding from two sources. It will be well for the two who look at the picture to be of very different types, let us say, one imaginative, the other matter-of-fact.

Do all the papers of one series have some characteristics that enable you to determine from which group they come? What conclusions and inferences do you draw from the experiment?

Does the feeling of certainty make a thing true? See how many cases you can find in a week, of persons feeling sure a statement is true, when it is really false.

In the following way, try to find out something which a person is trying to conceal. Prepare a list of words, inserting now and then words which have some reference to the vital point. Read the words one by one to the person and have him speak the first word suggested by those read. Note the time taken for the responses. A longer reaction time usually follows the incriminating words, and the subject is thrown into a visible confusion.

Talk to successful physicians and find out what use they make of suggestion and other psychological principles.

Spend several hours visiting different grades below the high school. In how many ways could the teachers improve their work by following psychological principles?

Could the qualities of a good teacher-native and acquired-be measured by tests and experiments?

Visit factories where men do skillful work and try to learn by observation what types of mind and body are required by the different kinds of work.

Does the occupation which you have chosen for life demand any specific abilities? If so, do you possess them in a high degree?

Could parents better train their children if they made use of psychological principles?

In how many ways will the facts learned in this course be of economic use to you in your life? In what ways will they make life more pleasurable?

Make a complete outline of this chapter.


Münsterberg: Psychology, General and Applied, Chapter XXVII–XXXIII.

Münsterberg: The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency.

* * *


Colvin, S. S., and Bagley, W. C.: Human Behavior. The Macmillan Company, 1913.

Davenport, C. B.: Heredity in Relation to Eugenics. Henry Holt & Company, 1911.

Dewey, J.: How We Think. D. C. Heath & Company, 1910.

Kellicott, W. E.: The Social Direction of Human Evolution. D. Appleton & Company, 1911.

Kirkpatrick, E. A.: The Fundamentals of Child Study. The Macmillan Company, 1912.

Münsterberg, H.: Psychology, General and Applied. D. Appleton & Company, 1914.

Münsterberg, H.: The Psychology of Industrial Efficiency. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1913.

Pillsbury, W. B.: Essentials of Psychology. The Macmillan Company, 1916.

Pyle, W. H.: Outlines of Educational Psychology. Warwick and York, 1912.

Pyle, W. H.: The Examination of School Children. The Macmillan Company, 1913.

Rowe, S. H.: Habit-Formation and the Science of Teaching. Longmans, Green, & Company, 1911.

Titchener, E. B.: A Beginner's Psychology. The Macmillan Company, 1916.

* * *


Most of the terms given below are explained in the text, but it is hoped that this alphabetical list with brief definitions will prove helpful. It is a difficult task to make the definitions scientific and at the same time brief, simple, and clear.


Having mental or physical characteristics widely different from those commonly found in ordinary people.

Acquired nature.

Those aspects of habit, skill, knowledge, ideas, and ideals that come from experience and are due to experience.


Muscular contractions usually producing motion of the body or of some part of the body.


Adjustment to one's surroundings.


Readily changing one's responses and acquiring such new responses as enable one to meet successfully new situations; also having tendencies or characteristics which enable one to be readily adjustable.


Images that follow immediately after stimulation of a sense organ, and resulting from this stimulation.


Binding together ideas through experiencing them together.


Relative clearness of perceptions and ideas.


The tendency toward a particular type of response in action or a particular idea or association in thought.


The connection established in the nervous system which makes a certain response follow a certain stimulus or a certain idea follow another idea or perception.


The possibility of learning, achieving, etc.

Color blindness.

Inability to experience certain colors, usually red and green.

Complementary color.

Complementary colors are those which, mixed in the right proportion, produce gray.




The nerve-path through which a stimulus produces a response or through which one idea produces or evokes another.


Having consciousness, or accompanying consciousness or producing consciousness.


The mental states-perceptions, ideas, feelings-which one has at any moment. Low level of consciousness.

Conscious processes not so clear as others existing at the same time.

High level of consciousness.

Conscious processes that are clear as compared to others existing at the same time.


The enhancing or strengthening of a sensation by another of opposite quality.


The relation that exists between two functions, characteristics, or attributes that enables us, finding one, to predict the presence of the other.


The appearance, or growth, or strengthening of a characteristic.


The pleasure-pain aspect of experience plus sensations from characteristic bodily reactions.


The objects and forces about us which affect us through our senses.

Environmental instincts.

Instincts which have originated, at least in part, from the periodic changes in man's environment.


The science of race improvement through selective breeding or proper marriages or in some cases through the prevention of marriage.


What we learn of the world through sensation and perception.


Inability to work produced by work and which only rest will cure.


Having important mental traits only poorly developed or not at all.


The pleasure-pain aspect of experience or of ideational states.


The use of a thing or process, also any mental process or combination of processes considered as a unit.


Having reference to origin and development.


Definite responses to definite stimuli depending upon bonds established by use after birth.


Transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring.

Human nature.

The characteristics and tendencies which we have as human beings, with particular reference to mind and action.


Definite tendencies to act in definite ways. Ideas of definite types of action with tendency toward the actions; ideas of definite conditions, forms, and states together with a desire to experience or possess them.


Revived perceptions.


Revived sensations, simpler than ideas.


Acting as we see others act.


Tendency to action.

Individualistic instincts.

Those instincts which more immediately serve individual survival.

Individual differences.

The mental and physical differences between people.

Inherited nature.

Those aspects of one's nature due directly to heredity.


Definite responses produced by definite stimuli through hereditary connections in the nervous system.

Intellectual habits.

Definite fixed connections between ideas; definite ways of meeting typical thought situations.


The amount or strength of a sensation or image, how far it is from nothing.


The aspect given to experience or thinking by attention and pleasure.


Establishing new bonds or connections in the nervous system; acquiring habits; gaining knowledge.


The retention of experience; retained and reproduced experience.

Mental set.

Mental attitude or disposition.


The sum total of one's conscious states from birth to death.


The route traversed by a nerve-stimulus or excitation.

Original nature.

All those aspects of mind and body directly inherited.


To be aware of a thing through sensation.


Awareness of a thing through sensation or a fusion of sensations.


Modifiability, making easy the formation of new bonds or nerve-connections.


A theory or hypothesis on which an argument or a system of arguments or principles is based.


First, original, elementary, perceptive experience as distinguished from ideational experience.


The action immediately following a stimulus and produced by it.


Thinking to a purpose; trying to meet a new situation.


A very simple act brought about by a stimulus through an hereditary nerve-path.


The act following a stimulus and produced by it.


Memory; modification of the nervous system making possible the revival of experience.


Knowledge classified and systematized.


Primary experience; consciousness directly due to the stimulation of a sense organ.


To sense is to have sensation, to perceive. A sense is a sense organ or the ability to have sensation through a sense organ.

Sense organ.

A modified nerve-end with accompanying apparatus or mechanism making possible a certain form of stimulation.


Capable of giving rise to sensation, or transmitting a nerve-current.


Property of, or capacity for being sensitive.


Relating to a sense organ or to sensation.


The total environmental influences of any one moment.

Socialistic instincts.

The instincts related more directly to the survival of a social group.


The setting up of a nerve process in a sense organ or in a nerve tract.


That which produces stimulation.


Having characteristics considerably below the normal.


Probability of a nerve-current taking a certain direction due to nerve-organization.


The passing of images and ideas.


Thinking; an idea or group of ideas.


Establishing nerve connection or bonds.


Clearness of sensations, perceptions, images, and ideas.

* * *




Abilities, specialized, 179

Ability, unusual, 206

Adaptation of vision, 41

After-images, visual, 40

Ancestors, 22 f.

Anger, 58

Appearance of instincts, 54

Applied psychology, 8–9, 210 ff.

Association of ideas, 152

Astigmatism, 44

Attention, 80 ff.; and will, 82.

Attitude, 157

Behavior, 7

Bodily conditions, 76

Brain, 7

Brightness, sensation of, 38

Business, 215

Causality, 18, 21

Centrally initiated action, 51

Child, nature of, 11

Cold, sense of, 42

Collecting instinct, 62

College, function of, 217

Color blindness, 45

Color mixture, 39

Color, sensation of, 38

Completion test, 198

Concentrated practice, 102

Consciousness, 7

Conservatism, 109

Costly Temper test, 186

Cramming, 141

Criminal, the, 213 f.

Curriculum, 145

Darwin, 89

Defects of sense organs, 43

Development, individual, 24 ff.; racial, 18–21;

significance of and causality, 21–24

Direct method, 112

Dizziness, organs that give us sense of, 42

Dramatization, 67

Drill in school subjects, 110–112

Dynamic, world as, 20

Economical practice, 101 ff.

Education, 210; aim of, 10;

preparatory, 167;

science of, 9 ff.

Educational inferences, 143

Educational psychology, 9 ff.

Efficiency, 98, 108

Emotions, 74 ff.

Environment, 31

Environmental instincts, 61

Envy, 58

Evolution, 19 ff.

Exceptions, 101, 114

Excursions, 61

Experience, 8; organization of, 169

Experiment, 13 ff.

Eye, the, 37

Eye defects, 43 ff.

Eyestrain, 20

Farsightedness, 44

Fatigue, 101

Fear, 56

Feeble-mindedness, 29

Feeling, 73 ff.

Fighting instincts, 58

Formal drill, III, 112

Free association frequency surface, 178

Free association test, 193

Frequency of experience, 156

Gang instinct, 60

Genetic view of childhood, 24

Genius, 31

Habit, 87 ff.; and nerve path, 91;

how formed, 98 ff.;

importance in life, 107;

intellectual, 89;

moral, 90;

of thought, 169;

results of, 94;

specific, 116

Hearing, 41; defects of, 45

Heredity, 24 ff.

Heredity vs. Environment, 31

Heritage, social, 23

High school and fourth grade abilities compared, 203

High school, function of, 217

Home and moral training, 118

Idea, 52

Ideas, 124

Imitation, 64 ff.

Imitation in ideals, 67

Incidental drill, 111

Individual development, 24 ff.

Individual differences, 176 ff.

Individualistic instincts, 56

Industry, 216

Influencing men, 215

Inheritance, 22

Inherited tendencies, 50 ff.

Initiative, 113

Instincts, 52 ff.; classification of, 55;

significance of, 55

Interest, 84

Intervals between practice, 102

Jealousy, 58

Joints, sense organs in, 42

Jost's law, 142

Language and thinking, 170 ff.

Language study, 144

Latin, 116

Law, service of psychology to, 212

Learning and remembering, 138

Learning by wholes, 141

Life occupations, 205

Logical memory, 184 ff.

Meaning, 163 ff.

Medicine, 211

Memories, kinds of, 132

Memory, 124 ff.; and age and sex, 127;

and habit, 146;

and school standing, 135;

and thinking, 134;

factors of, 128 ff.;

good, dangers resulting from, 137;

kinds of, 132

Mendelian principle, 26

Mental development, 19

Mental differences, 178; detection of, 180;

importance of, 201 ff.

Mental functions developed, 182

Mental set, 157

Mental tests, 183 ff.

Mind and body, 34 ff.

Mood, 78

Moral training, 117 ff.

Motive, 77

Muscular speed, 14

Museum, school, 62 ff.

Musical ability, 179

Nearsightedness, 44

Needs of child, 77

Nerve tendency, 92

Norms in mental tests, 184 ff.

Occupations, 205

Opposites test, 195 ff.

Organization of experience, 163 ff.

Pain sense, 42

Parents, and habit-formation of children, 104 ff., 119

Perception, 124

Physiological basis of memory, 126

Piano playing, 51, 97

Pitch, 41

Plasticity, 93

Play, 68

Pleasure and habit, 101

Pleasure, higher forms of, 80

Practice, 99, 113

Primary experience, 154

Psychology and culture, 218

Psychology defined, 5; method of, 13;

problems of, 8

Race, development of, 18 ff.; improvement of, 30

Ranking students, 15

Reasoning, 159; training in, 168

Recalling forgotten names, 146

Recency of experience, 155

Regeneration, 23

Repetition, 99

Respect for authority, 77

Resemblance, 25

Retina, the, 37 f.

Revived experience, 125

Rigidity, 108

Rote memory, 189

Rules for habit-formation, 113

Salesmanship, 215

School, and habit, 108; and moral training, 119 f.

Schoolhouse, community center, 60 f.

Science, 1

Scientific law, 3

Scientist, 1 ff.

Securing efficiency, 218

Selecting habits, 109

Sense organs, affects of stimulating, 6, 7; knowledge through, 35

Sleight's experiment, 140

Smell, 42

Social life of children, 60

Social tendencies, 59

Stimulation, 6

Stimulus and response, 50

Study, learning how to, 132

Subnormal children, 206

Substitution test, 192

Taste, 42

Teacher, function of in memory work, 142; function of in habit-formation, 103

Teaching too abstract, 129

Temperament, 78

Tendons, sense organs in, 42

Thinking, 152 ff., 159

Touch, 42

Transfer of training, 114 ff., 140

Truancies, 61

Typewriting, 51, 94 ff.

Vision, 37; importance of, 45

Visual contrast, 39

Vividness and intensity of experience, 156

Wandering, 61

Warmth, sense of, 42

Weight, diagram showing frequency surface of, 177

Word-building test, 197

Work and psychology, 218

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