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   Chapter 12 THE HARVEST OF SEA POWER

The History of Caliph Vathek By William Beckford Characters: 30731

Updated: 2017-12-04 00:03


The bombardment of Durazzo, mentioned in the last chapter, took place on October 2, 1918, and was the last offensive operation, on a large scale, undertaken by the Allied navies. During the fortnight preceding it, there had fallen to the Entente armies, in every theatre of war, such a series of victories as had never been witnessed in the recorded history of mankind. To the sea-borne and sea-fed armies in the Balkan Peninsula, Bulgaria had been the first of Germany's allies to make unconditional surrender; before the sea-borne and sea-fed armies in Syria-brought thither from Great Britain, from India, from Australia, and New Zealand-the last of Turkey's military power had melted like snow in summer; while, upon the Western Front, from the Flanders coast to the forest of the Woeuvre, the sea-borne and sea-fed British and American armies with their sea-equipped French comrades were surging forward, under Marshal Foch, in an irresistible tide.

The end was now apparent, though, at the last, it was to come with startling suddenness. Little by little, for fifty-two months, scarcely realized by the majority of their peoples, hardly realized even by the outside world, the Central Empires had been dying of sea-hunger. Deprived, like prisoners in a closed chamber, of the oxygen necessary for life-the economic oxygen that could alone be drawn from the free oceans of the world, they had come to a point where the only choice lay between surrender and extinction. Defeated at Jutland so decisively that, as their leaders well knew, those sea-windows could never be opened by the efforts of their surface ships, their campaign under water had failed with equal completeness. Beneath the Dover Barrage, the North Sea minefields, and the Straits of Otranto lay their dead submarines. Trapped by Q ships, rammed by destroyers, sunk by armed merchantmen, they had lost scores of others-more than two hundred in all had been put out of action by the Allied navies-while the spirit of admiralty that they had challenged, and the fringe of whose code they had been unable to grasp, had so ordered the ways of the world's free peoples that, even on land, they were reeling before them.

With that picture we might well close, since our thesis was but to show that, from Alfred the Great to Nelson, our dead admirals lived in their children. But the material harvest was still to be gathered, though the spiritual was already secure; and, in the reception by Vice-Admiral Gough-Calthorpe of the first Turkish Emissaries, in the landing at Ostend of Sir Roger Keyes, and in the figure of the First Sea Lord, Sir Rosslyn Wemyss, standing by Marshal Foch to receive the German delegates, there could be no mistaking, even by the blindest landsman, of all that an inspired sea-power had wrought. "But our navy is undefeated," complained one of the German officers, listening to the terms of the armistice. "It had only to come out, sir," replied Admiral Wemyss; and worse than defeat lay in that reproach.

Fourteen clauses contained the naval conditions to be fulfilled under the terms of the armistice; and the total effect of these was to make it impossible for the war at sea to be renewed. All naval and mercantile marine prisoners were at once to be restored without reciprocity; all submarines in certain specified ports, capable of putting to sea, were to be handed over; six battle-cruisers, ten battleships, eight light cruisers, two mine-layers, and fifty destroyers were to be similarly yielded; and all other surface warships were to be paid off and completely disarmed. All mine-fields laid by Germany outside German territorial waters were to be indicated, and the Allies were to have the right of sweeping them up. Freedom of access to the Baltic, both to the Allied navies and their mercantile marines, was to be granted; but the blockade was to be continued, though the provisioning of Germany, if this should prove necessary, was contemplated. All naval aircraft were to be concentrated and immobilized at certain specified German bases. All merchant ships, tugs, lighters, cranes, and all marine stores in the Belgian ports were to be abandoned. The Black Sea ports were to be evacuated; and all the seized Russian warships were to be handed over to the Allies. All Allied merchant ships in German hands were to be restored in specified ports without reciprocity. There was to be no destruction of ships or material prior to evacuation, surrender, or restoration. The German Government was further to notify all neutral nations that any restrictions imposed by it on their trading vessels, whether in return for concessions made or not, were immediately cancelled; and, after the signature, there were to be no transfers of German merchant shipping to any neutral flag. The naval terms presented to Austria-Hungary had been of a similar nature.

That was on November 11th, and already, in the east, the last act of the drama had begun. On November 9th, there drew in shore, opposite V beach on the Gallipoli Peninsula, a large transport and an old cruiser laden with British troops. Behind them, in the Straits, there plied industriously a great fleet of drifters and mine-sweepers, no longer under fire, and clearing a way through the minefields for the fleet that was to occupy the Sea of Marmora. Before them, a gray bulk, lay the River Clyde, beached as before and alone with her memories, and, on the hill above, stood a little group of Turkish artillerymen waiting to yield up the guns of Cape Helles. From these two transports, there presently put to shore, one on the Asiatic side, and one on V beach, two flat-bottomed barges each carrying 500 men. Such, without pomp, and almost in silence, was the second landing on Gallipoli Peninsula.

The next day, followed by the French destroyer Mangini, the youngest destroyer in the British navy-le roi est mort, vive le roi, the Shark had been lost at Jutland; this was the new one-anchored, the symbol of victory, off Constantinople; and, on November 13th, the British and French Fleets, led by the flagship Superb, steamed to their anchorage. Superb, Téméraire, Lord Nelson, and Agamemnon-half the world's history lay in their names-they were followed by the cruisers and destroyer-flotillas of the British fleet of occupation. Behind them came a French squadron, followed in its turn by the Italian and Greek warships, the bulk of the fleets remaining in the Sea of Marmora, and only certain units entering the Bosphorus. The Superb and Téméraire anchored near the European shore, facing the Sultan's Palace and the Chamber of Deputies; astern of them lay the French, and, behind these again, the Italian and the Greek men-of-war. Every precaution against treachery had been taken, but this proved to be unnecessary; and, within the next two or three weeks, the whole of the Turkish Fleet and the battle-cruiser Goeben had been formally surrendered. With them, unseen, but none the less present, the German empire of the East had given up its sceptre.

Meanwhile, in the North Sea, two thousand miles away, more than that had laid down its arms; and there had begun off Harwich, on Wednesday, November 20th, the delivery into our hands of the German submarines. Conceived in sin, these had been foul from the beginning-they had never even been built but as instruments of murder-and it was perhaps fitting that they should be the first of the German Fleet to be handed over. Nor had any admiral earned a better right to receive them than Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt. Leaving by moonlight at 5 o'clock in the morning in his flagship the Curacoa, followed by the light cruisers Dragon, Centaur, Coventry, Dan?, and an escort of destroyers, the leading German submarines were encountered at the appointed rendezvous soon after seven. This was at a spot thirty-five miles east of Harwich, all the British crews being at Action Stations, and the German submarines accompanied by two transports that were to take their crews back to Germany.

The first of these to appear through the mist was the ex-hospital ship Sierra Ventana followed by the Titania, succeeded in her turn by the long single file of the first detachment of twenty submarines. While Admiral Tyrwhitt advanced toward the end of the line, the cruiser Dragon was detached to lead the procession inshore, a couple of airships and three sea-planes passing and repassing overhead.

The next rendezvous was to be near Cutler's Buoy, some eight miles out of Harwich, where, from British destroyers, the crews were to be embarked that would take the submarines into harbour. These were met at about half-past ten, and there then ensued a scene of humiliation such as no great Power had ever passed through since men first went down to the sea in ships. Those of the Germans that were necessary to run the engines were to be retained at their posts, but the navigating crews for the twenty submarines were waiting in the Melampus and Firedrake. Strict orders had been issued that there were to be no demonstrations; and indeed it was rather with contempt-perhaps with a sort of amazed half-pity-that the British sailors took up their duties.

In each case the process was the same. The British officer who was to take command saluted as he stepped aboard. The German officer, with his papers ready, met him, and handed these over for inspection. The German crew was then sent forward. The British navigating officer occupied the conning-tower, and the engineer-officer went below to superintend the working of the German engine-room ratings. Leaving the transports behind, and accompanied by destroyers, the twenty U boats, in groups of five, then proceeded up the channel of the Stour, passing between the gate-ships of the buoyed steel nets. As each came to anchorage just off Parkeston Quay, she was met by a motor-launch, into which her crew was disembarked; and these, amidst the silence of thousands of spectators, were conveyed to the destroyers that took them back to the transports. From beginning to end there was no demonstration of any kind; and none was to greet the remainder of the submarines-a hundred and twenty in all-that followed them. From shame to shame, blotting the seas, they passed without comment to their prison.

With equal truth that can be said of the procession that the next day was to witness, though here the note struck was one of a tragedy of which the surrendering U boats had been incapable. For, in the mighty ships of the High Seas Fleet-travesties though they had become, as instruments of admiralty-there had been, as the British navy felt, at least the possibilities of an honourable end. Proudly built, they dated from an era in which the U boat horror was still unimagined; and, in the hands of a Drake, could Germany have produced one, they might have postponed surrender and gone down in glory. Materially as they had recovered, however, from their defeat at Jutland, from the moral reverse they had never looked up; and the disintegration had been completed by Germany's own submarine policy. Lacking a soul, the body had died; and, to many who witnessed that procession of corpses, there was a sense of almost personal indecency at presiding over such a ceremony.

It was a quarter to four in the morning of November 21st when the Grand Fleet began to get under way to form the two mighty and moving walls between which the Germans were to approach the Firth of Forth; and the advanced destroyer-flotillas and light cruisers had set out for the rendezvous the night before. For ten days the North Sea had been shrouded in a thick mist, but, as the sun rose, the clouds blew off, and the sea lay clear and white-feathered. Later, and at different places along the hundred miles or so occupied by the parallel lines of the Grand Fleet, the mists were to triumph again, but only half-heartedly, and with the sun soon re-asserting itself.

Six miles separated the two lines, and at half-past eight they went to Action Stations, the leading ships of the High Seas Fleet having been picked up an hour before by the easternmost British units. Directing the whole operation-directing, at that moment, the vastest fleet that this planet had seen-Admiral Beatty, in his flagship the Queen Elizabeth, had taken his position in the northern line, his second-in-command, Admiral Sir Charles Madden, leading the southern-line battleships in the Revenge. Guiding the Germans, in the light cruiser Cardiff, was Rear-Admiral Alexander-Sinclair.

Of the promised total, one light cruiser, the K?ln, had broken down and had had to turn back, and one destroyer had struck a mine, going to the bottom, though her crew had been rescued; but, behind the Cardiff, in a slow series, moved what had been the cream of the world's second navy. Led by the Battle-Cruiser Squadron, the Hindenburg, Derfflinger, Seydlitz, Moltke, and von der Tann, came the battleships Friedrich der Grosse, flying the German Rear-Admiral's flag, the Bayern, Grosser Kürfürst, Kronprinz Wilhelm, Markgraf, Kaiserin, Konig Albreckt, Prinz Regent Luitpold, and Kaiser. Behind these again steamed the six light cruisers, Karlsrühe, Frankfurt, Emden, Nürnberg, Brummer, and Bremen; and, bringing up the rear, steaming in five lines, and sandwiched between British escorts, were the remaining forty-nine destroyers of the fifty that had been demanded under the terms of the armistice.

So they steamed on, docile to every order, and, when the last of them had been deeply contained, Admiral Beatty gave the signal for the right-about-turn of the Grand Fleet. Surrounded on all sides, filthy, as was afterward to be discovered, and with their men abject and undisciplined, before they reached their anchorage near Inchkeith Island, Admiral Beatty had issued the following order: "The German flag is to be hauled down," he said, "at 3.57 to-day, and is not to be hoisted again without permission." That was at sunset; and, a moment after, Germany had ceased, even in name, to be a sea power.

So ends our chronicle, for, though there was still work to be done, the navy's long vigil was at an end. Far to the north, it was true, the converted merchantmen of the unsung Tenth Squadron still held to their task-still patiently examined, as month after month, in all kinds of weather, they had been stopping and examining, such innocent-seeming ships as, to their experienced eyes, might be blockade-runners. But the main task was over-the shouldering of the armies' burdens that had never ceased for one moment, the endless battle, with the world for its theatre, that it had waged for four and a quarter years. From President Wilson to the Sheriff of Mecca, it had been the good servant of all; and now, with its duty well and truly done, a certain quiet satisfaction might be permitted. There was no fear of this being too exuberant-as a corporate body, the navy was not that. It would rather rejoice in the general spirit of Admiral Tyrwhitt's advice to his men on Armistice Day. Exhorting them to be as cool in peace as they had been in war, and to return to their ships in good order, he concluded by informing them that, in the evening, an extra tot of rum would be served.

Let that be the excuse for a last word. We have been tempted to suggest that the war was won by sea power. We were wrong. It was won by sail

ors-equally of the mercantile marine as of the navy. From Coronel to Kiao-Chao, from Archangel to Cocos-Keeling, no less in Lieutenant D'Oyly Hughes, stumbling through a Turkish farmyard, than in Admiral Jellicoe at Whitehall, no less in Lieutenant Brown, trying to salve the Wellington, than in Sir David Beatty directing the Grand Fleet, it was the men that triumphed, by virtue of the spirit in them, and the great traditions that they had inherited-to be handed on in turn, as it had been handed down to themselves by Raleigh and Blake, Collingwood and Nelson.

INDEX

Abdiel, 197 ?gean Sea, 108, 109, 129 Agamemnon, 122, 123, 127, 130, 287 Akaba, 107 Albemarle, 23 Albion, 123, 127, 130, 140, 147 Alcester, 198 Alexander-Sinclair, Commander E. S., 172, 191 Allardyce, Hon. W. L., 60 Allen, Captain, 78, 80, 81 Alleyne, Lieutenant Sir John, 248, 249 Amethyst, 27, 42, 140, 141 Amphion, 85 Andrews, Rear-Admiral Philip, 272 Anzac Cove, 137, 149 Aquitania, 261 Arbuthnot, Rear-Admiral Sir Robert, 186, 196 Arethusa, 22, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 90, 99 Arkansas, 270 Ariadne, 40 Arizona, 256 Askold, 107 Asquith, Right Hon. H. H., 11, 105, 116, 118, 134, 151 Attack, 98, 99 Attentive, 209 Aurora, 90, 91 Aztec, 252

B-11, 107, 152, 153, 154 Bacchante, 42, 137 Bacon, Vice-Admiral Sir R. H., 211, 212, 214, 230 Baden, 48, 64, 67, 83 Balfour, Right Hon., A. J., 19, 119, 202, 226 Bamford, Captain, 243 Bankfield, 49 Barham, 170, 173 Barker, Captain, 278 Bartolomé, Commodore, 115 Bayern, 291 Bayly, Vice-Admiral Sir Lewis, 260, 261 Beatty, Admiral Sir David, 6, 22, 23, 40, 41, 90, 91, 96, 98, 167,

170, 171, 172, 173, 175, 181, 184, 191, 193, 202, 250, 270,

290, 291, 293 Belgian Prince, 89 Bellerophon, 23 Benn, Commander Hamilton, M. P., 230, 245 Benson, Admiral, 258 Berk-i-Satvet, 107 Bethmann-Hollweg, Herr von, 9 Billyard-Leake, Lieutenant B., 227, 230, 238 Bingham, Commander, Hon. E. B. B., 179 Birmingham, 90, 194 Birmingham, U.S.S., 262 Bird, Captain F. G., 212 Birdwood, General, 125, 126, 133, 134 Blücher, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 97, 98 Blunt, Captain W. F, 34, 35 Bonham-Carter, Lieutenant S., 230, 238 Borkum Reef, 98 Boué de Lapéyère, Admiral, 101 Bourke, Lieutenant, 244, 249 Bouvet, 122, 127, 130, 132 Bradford, Lieutenant-Commander, 235 Brandt, Captain, 50 Bremen, 291 Brest, 261, 262 Breslau, 46, 100, 101, 102 Brighton Queen, 212 Brilliant, 227, 244, 247 Bristol, 62, 63, 64, 67, 68, 83 Britannia, 11, 17 Britton, Alfred, 37 Brock, Wing-Commander, 226, 237 Brock, Rear-Admiral, Osmond de B., 98, 170 Broke, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219 Brown, Lieutenant Fletcher W., 200, 269, 292 Bruges, 224 Brummer, 291 Buchanan, Sir George, 108 Burney, Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil, 170, 193 Bury, Engineer Lieutenant-Commander, 244, 248

C-3, 230 Callaghan, Admiral Sir George, 9, 10, 15, 16, 102 Campbell, Captain Gordon, 204, 205, 206 Campbell, Chief Artificer-Engineer, 240, 242 Campbell, Lieutenant Harold, 230, 239 Campbell, Rear-Admiral H. H., 42 Canopus, 50, 51, 53, 57, 61, 63, 65, 66 Carden, Vice-Admiral, 113, 114, 115, 117, 121, 122, 128 Cardiff, 291 Carnarvon, 62, 63, 67, 69, 72, 73, 76 Carpenter, Captain A. F. B., 230, 232, 233, 235, 239, 241, 243 Carroll, Engine-Room Artificer, N., 244 Carson, Right Hon., Sir Edward, 226 Cavanagh, Engine-Room Artificer, H., 244 Centaur, 287 Chanak, Fort, 127, 128, 130 Chappell, Petty-Officer Robert, 211 Charlemagne, 123, 127, 130 Chater, Captain, 232 Chesapeake, 216, 254 Chester, 183 Chichester, Captain, 257 Christian, Rear-Admiral A. H., 42 Churchill, Right Hon. Winston, 4, 8, 22, 105, 106, 108, 113, 114,

115, 116, 118, 119, 124, 125, 127, 128, 133 Cockburn, Acting Lieutenant G. L., 247 Collard, Commander, 143 Collins, Captain R., 230 Constantinople, 102, 106, 110, 111, 112, 116, 120, 120, 155,

150, 286 Corfu, 259, 263, 273 Cordner, Major, 232 Cornwall, 63, 65, 67, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79 Cornwallis, 122, 123, 140, 148 Cornwell, John Travers, 183 Coronel, 44, 50, 292 Coventry, 287 Cradock, Vice-Admiral Sir Christopher, 50, 53, 54, 55, 57, 62 Cressy, 42 Crewe, Marquis of, 105 Cromie, Captain Francis, 152, 162, 164, 165, 166 Crutchley, Lieutenant V. A. C., 248, 249 Curacoa, 287 Curtis, Captain Berwick, 197

D-2, 32 D-8, 32 Daffodil, 227, 230, 233, 235, 236, 239 D'Amade, General, 129 Dan?, 287 Daniels, Mr., 282 Dardanelles, 101, 102, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116, 119,

120, 126, 130, 132, 151, 152, 153, 155 Dardanos, Fort, 111, 126, 130, 131 Dartmouth, Royal Naval College, 11 Dean, Lieutenant Percy, 238, 243 Defender, 196 Defence, 186, 189 Delaware, 270 Derfflinger, 89, 90, 92, 172, 180, 291 De Robeck, Vice-Admiral Sir John M., 128, 132, 133, 134, 135, 167 Dewey, Admiral, 195, 256, 257 Dimmock, A. B. E., 211 Dingle, Stoker Alfred, 240 Dixon, Midshipman Hugh, 131 Dogger Bank, 98, 99 Doughty-Wylie, Lieutenant-Colonel, 148 Douglas, Commander H. P., 231 Dragon, 287 Dreadnought, 20, 21 Dresden, 46, 47, 48, 49, 52, 53, 54, 55 Drewry, Midshipman G. L., 146 Drummond, Lieutenant G. H., 248, 249 Drummuir, 68 Dublin, 140, 141 De Boulay, Sub-Lieutenant, 210 Duff, Rear-Admiral Alexander, 170 Dunraven, 204, 205, 206 Durazzo, 275, 276, 283

E-4, 32, 35 E-5, 32 E-6, E-8, 27, 82, 33 E-7, 32, 33 E-9, 32, 161 E-11, 155, 156, 157, 160 E-14, 157 E-19, 162, 164 Easter Island, 49 Eaton, Ensign, 281 Elliot, Lieutenant-Colonel Bertram, 230, 232 Elsinore, 49 Emden, 49, 90, 291 Engadine, 173 Enver Pasha, 135 Erebus, 231 Esmonde, Midshipman John, 71 Euryalus, 140, 142 Evans, Commander E. R., 216 Evan-Thomas, Rear-Admiral, 170, 180, 185, 188 Excellent, 17

Falcon, 210 Falmouth, 189 Favereau, Admiral, 210 Fearless, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 38, 39, 41, 180 Felton, Mrs. Roy, 67 Finch, Sergeant, 235, 243 Firedrake, 27, 32, 33, 38, 288 Fisher, Lord, of Kilverstone, 17, 19, 61, 99, 104, 106, 114, 115,

116, 119, 124, 132, 134, 202 Florida, 271 Foch, Marshal, 283, 284 Foresight, 209 Frankfurt, 291 Frank, Lieutenant Ivan B., 227 Frauenlob, 198 Friedrich der Grosse, 291

Gaba Tepe,

136, 140, 141 Galatea, 172 Galvayne, Lieutenant, 280, 281 Gartside Tipping, Lieutenant-Commander H. T., 213 Gaulois, 122, 123, 127, 130, 131 Gaunt, Rear-Admiral Ernest, 170 Geddes, Sir Eric, 226 General Crauford, 231 Gibbs, Commander Valentine, 230, 236 Gibraltar, 68, 116, 262, 273 Glasgow, 47, 49, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68,

69, 70, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79 Gloucester, 101 Gneisenau, 46, 47, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 64, 66, 68, 70, 72, 73, 77, 122 Godsal, Commander, 244, 247, 248 Goeben, 46, 100, 101, 107, 289 Goeben, Fort, 225 Goliath, 140, 141 Goodenough, Commodore, 177 Good Hope, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 78 Goschen, Lord, 3 Goschen, Sir Edward, 9 Gough-Calthorpe, Vice-Admiral, 284 Grant, Captain, 227 Great Heart, 212 Grey, Viscount, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 22, 24, 105, 191 Grosser Kürfürst, 291 Gutrune, 162 Gyles, Midshipman, 218

Halahan, Captain, 232 Hall, Captain Reginald, 41 Hamidieh, 107 Hamilton, General Sir Ian, 127, 128, 132, 134, 149 Hardy, Lieutenant-Commander, 245 Harris, Engine-Room Artificer, H., 244 Harrison, Lieutenant E. C., 245 Haselfoot, Lieutenant-Commander, 231 Hawkins, Lieutenant, 235 Healdton, 252 Hela, 161 Helles, Cape, 111, 122, 136, 142, 154, 286 Henri IV, 132 Hindenburg, 291 Hoare, Lieutenant, 244 Hobson, Lieutenant, 223, 255 Hogue, 42 Holbrook, Lieutenant-Commander Norman, 152, 154, 155 Holmwood, 48 Hood, Rear-Admiral Hon. Horace A. L., 183, 184, 185, 196, 209, 210 Horn Reef, 32, 198 Horton, Commander Max, 152, 161 Humber, 209 Hughes, Lieutenant Guy D'Oyly, 152, 157, 160, 292 Hyades, 48

Imbros, 135, 149, 150, 155 Implacable, 132, 140, 141, 142 Indefatigable, 170, 173, 175, 198 Indomitable, 90, 93, 94, 96, 97, 193 Inflexible, 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 73, 122, 130, 131 Ingelson, Able Seaman, 218 Intrepid, 227, 230, 237, 238 Intrepide, 210 Invincible, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 183, 184 Iphigenia, 227, 230, 238 Iris, 227, 230, 235 Iron Duke, 5, 170, 173, 193, 202 Irresistible, 123, 130, 131

Jackson, Admiral Sir Henry, 115, 120, 134, 202 Jacobs, Able Seaman Levi, 145 Janvein, Lieutenant-Commander Ralph B., 148 Jellicoe, Viscount, of Scapa Flow, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 23, 170, 171,

175, 180, 183, 185, 191, 192, 197, 201, 202, 226, 292 Jerram, Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas, 170 Johnston, Commodore C. D., 212 Jones, Commander Loftus, 190

Kaiser, 291 Kaiserin, 291 Karlsrühe, 49, 84, 291 Kent, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 74, 75, 76, 78, 80, 81, 82 Kephalos Bay, 149 Kephez Point, 111, 114, 130 Keyes, Lieutenant-Commander Adrian St. V., 141 Keyes, Vice-Admiral Sir Roger, 28, 33, 39, 42, 135, 226, 229,

231, 243, 244, 245, 284 Kiao-Chao, 45, 47, 292 Kitchener, Viscount, of Khartoum, 104, 105, 106, 108, 115, 116,

119, 125, 127, 133 Kolberg, 91 K?ln, 40, 41 K?nig Albrecht, 291 K?nigin Luise, 85 K?nigsberg, 84 Kronprinz Wilhelm, 84, 291 Kum Kale, 111, 122, 126, 136, 148

Laconia, 252 Landrail, 175 Laurel, 35, 36, 41, 42 Lawson, Captain R. N., 183 Leckie, Captain, 277, 278 Leipzig, 46, 47, 49, 52, 54, 55, 57, 68, 69, 75, 76, 77, 79 Leir, Commander E. W., 37 Lemnos, 121, 135, 149, 150 Leveson, Rear-Admiral Arthur, 170 Leviathan, 261 Libertad, 122 Liberty, 42 Lion, 6, 22, 33, 40, 41, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 170, 172,

177, 180, 193, 196 Littleton, Lieutenant, 237 Lloyd George, Right Hon. David, 105 London, 137 Longmore, Wing-Commander, 212 Lord Clive, 231 Lord Nelson, 127, 130, 140, 145, 148, 287 Lowestoft, 90 Luce, Captain, 70, 74, 75, 78 Lulfa, 162 Lurcher, 27, 32, 33, 38. 42 Lusitania, 89, 251 Lutzow, 172, 180 Lydiard, 175 Lynes, Commodore Hubert, 230, 245

Macedonia, 62, 63, 66, 67, 68, 83 McKenzie, Able Seaman Albert E., 243 MacLachlan, Sub-Lieutenant, 248 Maaden, Vice-Admiral Sir Charles, 290 Mainz, 39, 40 Malleson, Midshipman W. St. A., 147 Mangini, 286 Markgraf, 291 Marlborough, 193, 198 Marmora, Sea of, 109, 112, 114, 128, 151, 155, 157, 286, 287 Marshal Soult, 231 Mauretania, 261 Maxwell, General Sir John, 126 Mayes, Sergeant, 81 Mayo, Admiral, 258 Meade, Captain the Hon. H., 95 Melampus, 288 Mellow, Commander W., 129 Mersey, 209 Messudiyeh, 107, 153 Metcalfe, Captain C. P., 131 Meteor, 95, 96 Meux, Admiral the Hon. Hedworth, 102 Milne, Rear-Admiral Sir Berkeley, 101, 102 Minerva, 107, 140 Moltke, 89, 90, 92, 172, 291 Monmouth, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 57, 58 Moorsom, 176 Moresby, 184 Morris, 176 Morto Bay, 136, 148 Motor-Launch 282, 239 Mudros, 135, 140, 149

Napier, Rear-Admiral, 184, 189 Narborough, 176 Nasmith, Lieutenant-Commander, 152, 155, 156, 157 Nelson, Captain C. P., 275 Nerissa, 176 Nestor, 176, 179, 198 New York, 256, 270 New Zealand, 90, 93, 94, 97, 170, 173, 186, 193 Nevada, 256 Niblack, Rear-Admiral, 263 Nicator, 176, 179 Nicholas, Grand Duke, 119 Nicomedia, 162 Niger, 3, 5 Noel, Quartermaster, 1st class, Robert Emanuel, 269 Nomad, 176, 179 Nürnberg, 46, 47, 49, 50, 52, 57, 64, 68, 69, 75, 76, 78, 79,

81, 82, 291

Obdurate, 176 Ocean, 127, 130, 131 Oklahoma, 256 Oliver, Vice-Admiral Sir Henry, 115 Olympic, 261 Onslow, 184, 196 Orkanieh, Fort, 111,

122 Ortega, 48 Osborne, Commander E. O., B.S., 228 Osborne, Seaman James, 269 Ostend, 201, 207, 211, 215, 222, 223, 224, 225, 231, 243, 246, 247, 250 Otranto, 50, 52, 53, 55 Otranto, Straits of, 101, 273, 284

Pakenham, Rear-Admiral W. C., 170 Papeete, 49 Peck, Commander Ambrose, 216 Pelican, 176 Pennsylvania, 256 Peploe, Lieutenant C. R., 36 Pernambuco, 162 Persius, Captain, 200 Petard, 176, 194 Peterson, Coxswain John A., 269 Peters, Lieutenant Frederick, 95 Phillpotts, Captain, 189 Poland, Lieutenant A. L., 246 Pommern, 198 Port Arthur, 113, 223 Port Stanley, 59, 60, 62, 63, 78, 82 Port William, 60, 61, 62, 63 Prince Eugene, 231 Prince George, 127, 130, 140 Prince of Wales, 137 Princess Royal, 90, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 170, 177, 193 Prinz Eitel Friedrich, 84 Prinz Regent Luitpold, 291 Prize, 204, 206

Queen, 132, 137 Queen Elizabeth, 113, 116, 123, 127, 130, 131, 290 Queen Mary, 42, 170, 177, 178, 179, 198 Queenstown, 259, 200, 262, 273

Ramsgate Boarding Flotilla, 208 Reed, Petty Officer, 249 Reid, Lieutenant Darrel, 246 Revenge, 290 Reventlow, Count, 89 Rigg, Commander W., 212 River Clyde, 144, 145, 146, 147, 286 Robinson, Lieutenant-Commander E. G., 124 Rodman, Rear-Admiral Hugh, 270 Rose, Commander F., 36, 41

S-126, 161 Sacramento, 263 St. George, 23 Samson, G. McK., 147 Sanda, 212 Sanders, Lieutenant-Commander F., 236 Sandford, Lieutenant R. D., 230, 236, 243 Santa Isabel, 48, 64, 67, 83 San Stefano, Peace of, 111 Sapper's Hill, 63, 64, 65, 66 Sapphire, 140, 141 Sappho, 244, 246 Saros, Gulf of, 109, 127 S Beach, 136, 148 Scharnhorst, 46, 47, 50, 52, 53, 55, 57, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 77, 122 Sedd-el-Bahr, 111, 122, 136, 144, 148 Seneca, U.S.S., 266, 268 Severn, 209 Seydlitz, 89, 90, 92, 93, 94, 172, 291 Shannon, 216, 254 Shark, 189, 286 Sirius, 227, 244, 247 Sneyd, Commander Ralph S., 230, 237 Soghandere, Fort, 111, 126, 130 Southampton, 90, 177, 180 Stirling, Captain A. J. B., 195 Stoddart, Rear-Admiral, 62 Sturdee, Vice-Admiral Sir F. Doveton, 61, 62, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73,

74, 82, 91, 167, 170, 183 Suffren, 122, 127, 130 Superb, 287 Sutton, Artificer-Engineer, 240 Suvla Bay, 149 Swift, 215, 216, 217, 219 Swiftsure, 130, 140

Talbot, 140, 141 Tatnall, Lieutenant Josiah, 257 Taylor, Coxswain William James, 269 Tekeh, Cape, 136, 142 Téméraire, 23, 287 Tenedos, 135 Termagant, 176 Terror, 231 Texas, 256, 270 Thetis, 227, 230, 237 Thomas, Engine-Room Artificer A., 244 Thursby, Rear-Admiral C. F., 137 Tiger, 90, 93, 94, 95, 170, 177, 179 Tipperary, 195 Titania, 288 Toey-Wan, 257 Tomkinson, Captain Wilfred, 231 Tonopah, 271 Townsend, Captain, 143 Tovey, Lieutenant-Commander J. C., 196 Trelawney, 63 Triumph, 122, 123, 130, 137 Troubridge, Rear-Admiral E. C. T., 101, 102 Turbulent, 176, 194, 198 Tyne, 167 Tyrwhitt, Vice-Admiral Sir Reginald, 22, 33, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39,

90, 287, 288, 292

Undaunted, 90 Undine, 162, 163 Unwin, Commander Edward, 144, 146, 147

V-187, 37 Valentino, 68 Valiant, 170, 173 V Beach, 136, 141, 143, 148, 286 Venerable, 210 Vengeance, 123, 127, 130, 140 Victoria and Albert, 5, 6 Vigilancia, 252 Vindictive, 228, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 240,

243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249 Vine Branch, 49 Von der Tann, 89, 172, 291 Von Hipper, Admiral, 172, 173, 175, 180, 181 Von Sanders, General Liman, 135 Von Scheer, Admiral, 180, 181, 185 Von Spee, Admiral, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 62, 63,

65, 68, 72, 83, 84, 90

W Beach, 136, 140, 142, 144 Walker, Lieutenant H. T. C., 234 Warrington, 265, 266, 267, 269 Warrior, 187, 188, 189 Warspite, 170, 173, 187, 188, 189, 198 Warwick, 230, 239, 245, 249 Wanton, Lieutenant, 210 Wear, 131 Weller, Major, 234 Wellington, 265, 266, 267, 268, 270, 292 Wellman, Lieutenant A. E. P., 230, 246 Wemyss, Admiral Sir Rosslyn E., 129, 140, 284, 285 Westmacott, Lieutenant, 35 Whittaker, Private, 77 Wiesbaden, 198 Williams, Able Seaman, 147 Williams, Lieutenant-Colonel, 148 Wilson, Admiral Sir A., 104, 115, 116, 117, 124, 132, 134 Wilson, Rear-Admiral H. B., 262 Wilson, President Woodrow, 252, 292 Wintour, Captain, 195 Wise, Lieutenant E. S., 210 Woodfield, Petty-Officer, 218 Wyoming, 270

X Beach, 136, 141, 145

Y Beach, 136, 140, 141 Yarmouth, 189

Zeebrugge, 201, 207, 211, 215, 222, 223, 224, 227, 230, 231, 240,

244, 250

THE COUNTRY LIFE PRESS

GARDEN CITY, N. Y.

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